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1

Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum  

PubMed Central

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

2014-01-01

2

Trail marking by larvae of the cactus moth,Cactoblastis cactorum.  

PubMed

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfac- es to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the ma- terial in itself neithxer elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bio- assays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intra- specific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

Fitzgerald, Terrence D; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

2014-01-01

3

Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.  

PubMed

As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations. PMID:24665701

López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

2014-02-01

4

A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

SciTech Connect

The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Service, P.O. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793 (United States)

2007-03-15

5

Volatile organic compounds as signals in a plant-herbivore system: electrophysiological responses in olfactory sensilla of the moth Cactoblastis cactorum.  

PubMed

The morphological sensillum types on the antennae of male and female Cactoblastis cactorum were visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Electrophysiological recordings were performed for the first time on single olfactory sensilla of C. cactorum. The male sensilla trichodea house a receptor cell responding to the putative pheromone component (9Z,12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate. The sensilla trichodea of the females were much shorter than those of the males and contained specialized receptor cells responding to certain terpenoids, the most frequent being the nerolidol-sensitive cell. The sensilla auricillica and sensilla basiconica of both sexes contained cells responding less specifically to terpenoid compounds as well as to green leaf volatiles. Cells of the sensilla coeloconica responded to aliphatic aldehydes and acids. Eight volatile organic compounds emitted by Opuntia stricta, a host plant of C. cactorum, were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, beta-caryophyllene being the major compound. Five compounds identified by gas chromatography in the headspace of O. stricta elicited responses in olfactory receptor cells of C. cactorum, nonanal being the most active compound and therefore a candidate attractant of C. cactorum. PMID:15647464

Pophof, Blanka; Stange, Gert; Abrell, Leif

2005-01-01

6

Waxworm moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waxworm moths emerge from the silk cocoon and are able to mate. The females lay eggs. A female moth can invade a weak honeybee hive and lay her eggs there. After they hatch, the larvae will eat the honey and the hive wax, destroying the hive.

T. W. Davies (California Academy of Sciences;)

2005-01-01

7

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. Müller (None;)

2002-05-18

8

USES OF OPUNTIA SPECIES AND THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) IN MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los cactus del género Opuntia son muy importantes en Méjico especialmente en las areas semi áridas y áridas donde pocos otros cultivos economicos pueden florecer. Historicamente estas plantas han sido utilizadas como alimento, forraje para ganado, en la manufactura de productos medicinales, cosméticos, tintes y como barreras limitrofes naturales. Asimismo, la fruta del cactus (tuna) constituye un importante componente de

A. L. V IGUERAS; L. P ORTILLO

9

Cholla cactus from the Sonora desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cacti have few leaves and waxy skin to reduce water loss, shallow root systems, and the ability to store water. The cholla cactus has thousands of spines for shade and to keep predators from eating it.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

10

Bibliography of the Almond Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bibliographic references to the almond moth (known outside of North America as the cocoa moth or tropical warehouse moth). This moth is a pest of stored foods such as grain, nuts, and dried fruit. Includes references from 1883 (when the moth was described) to 1981. There are 626 references in this bibliography. It is somewhat dated (although a revision through 1995 is being prepared), but is an extremely comprhensive collection of references up to 1981. This resource will probably be of little use to undergraduate students but of significant value to graduate students working in stored product entomology.

0002-11-30

11

Phytochemical and nutritional significance of cactus pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses cactus pear fruit with special emphasis on its functional components. Besides their nutritional importance, their significance in plant physiology is also described. Opuntia sp. is characterized by high levels of amino acids, especially proline and taurine. The latter was recently re-evaluated in nutritional science as a conditional amino acid and was hitherto virtually unknown in plant tissues.

Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; R. Carle

2001-01-01

12

Annealing a magnetic cactus into phyllotaxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone, and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental “magnetic cactus” precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single-spiral) phyllotaxis.

Nisoli, Cristiano; Gabor, Nathaniel M.; Lammert, Paul E.; Maynard, J. D.; Crespi, Vincent H.

2010-04-01

13

Properties and postharvest behavior of the vegetable cactus Nopalea cochenillifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flattened stem segments (cladodes) of certain cactus species are eaten in Mexico as a vegetable, when still at the young tender stage (nopalitos). This study focuses on the properties and response under storage of vegetable cladodes of a spineless cactus species newly introduced to Israel, Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck. Cladodes of N. cochenillifera were found to be suitable for harvest

A. Nerd; M. Dumoutier; Y. Mizrahi

1997-01-01

14

Tiger moth jams bat sonar.  

PubMed

In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

2009-07-17

15

Butterflies and Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn the different steps in the life cycle of a butterfly. Students will understand some of the differences between a moth and a butterfly BUTTERFLIES -Use the website below to find out information about the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterflies -Print off this worksheet and color the pictures of the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterfly Life Cycle Coloring Page -Click the link to the video. -Watch the video of a real butterfly going through the life cycle. Butterfly Life Cycle Video OR -If the video isn't ...

Sessions, Mrs.

2009-04-06

16

Changes in Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) During Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and chemical changes of cactus pear grown wild in the Bozön-Mersin (Turkey) area during the period of ripening were investigated. The cactus pear fruits were collected weekly for 15 weeks starting at the end of June 2000. The cactus pear collected reached full maturity 98 to 112 days after flowering and showed a sigmoidal growth pattern. The pulp

Berat DURU; Nuzhet TURKER

17

Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew.  

PubMed

A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails. PMID:24473133

Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

2014-01-01

18

Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew  

PubMed Central

A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails. PMID:24473133

Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

2014-01-01

19

Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

NONE

1997-02-01

20

Identification, Characterization, and Function Analysis of the Cactus Gene from Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. I?B is the main cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-?B. In this study, we identified the LvCactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the first cloned I?B homologue in subphylum Crustacea. LvCactus contains six predicted ankyrin repeats, which show similarities to those of Cactus proteins from insects. LvCactus localizes in cytoplasm and interacts with LvDorsal, an L. vannamei homologue to Drosophila melanogaster Dorsal belonging to class II NF-?B family, to prevent its nuclear translocation. Contrary to that of LvDorsal, over-expression of LvCactus down-regulates the activities of shrimp antimicrobial peptides promoters, suggesting LvCactus is an inhibitor of LvDorsal. The promoter of LvCactus was predicted to contain five putative NF-?B binding motifs, among which four were proved to be bound by LvDorsal by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Dual-luciferase reporter assays also showed that transcription of LvCactus was promoted by LvDorsal but inhibited by LvCactus itself, indicating a feedback regulatory pathway between LvCactus and LvDorsal. Expression of LvCactus was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus injections, suggesting an activation response of LvCactus to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Differently, the LvCactus expression levels obviously decreased during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, indicating the feedback regulatory pathway of LvCactus/LvDorsal could be modified by WSSV. PMID:23185415

Zhang, Shuang; Lü, Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Chai, Jiaoting; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Yong-Gui; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

2012-01-01

21

THERMOREGULATION BY WINTER-FLYING ENDOTHERMIC MOTHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Noctuid moths of the subfamily Cuculiinae fly in any month of the winter in the north-eastern United States when air temperatures are at least 0°C. At lower temperatures they hide under leaf litter rather than perching on trees like many summer-flying noctuid moths. Like moths of similar mass and wing-loading that fly in the summer or that reside in

BYBERN D HEINRICH

1987-01-01

22

BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG CACTUS WRENS AND CURVE-BILLED THRASHERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

HILE studying the growth of nestling Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) and Curve-billed Thrashers (Toxostoma curvirostre) near Tucson, Arizona, during the late spring and summer of 1964, I made incidental observations on their behavior. A nestling of each species was removed to be raised in an artificial environment. The wren was 12 days old, the thrasher, 9. Both birds, but especially

ROBERT E. RICKLEFS

23

CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.

2008-01-01

24

Extreme variation in floral characters and its consequences for pollinator attraction among populations of an Andean cactus  

PubMed Central

Background and aims A South American cactus species, Echinopsis ancistrophora (Cactaceae), with dramatic among-population variation in floral traits is presented. Methods Eleven populations of E. ancistrophora were studied in their habitats in northern Argentina, and comparisons were made of relevant floral traits such as depth, stigma position, nectar volume and sugar concentration, and anthesis time. Diurnal and nocturnal pollinator assemblages were evaluated for populations with different floral trait combinations. Key Results Remarkable geographical variations in floral traits were recorded among the 11 populations throughout the distribution range of E. ancistrophora, with flower lengths ranging from 4·5 to 24·1 cm. Other floral traits associated with pollinator attraction also varied in a population-specific manner, in concert with floral depth. Populations with the shortest flowers showed morning anthesis and those with the longest flowers opened at dusk, whereas those with flowers of intermediate length opened at unusual times (2300–0600 h). Nectar production varied non-linearly with floral length; it was absent to low (population means up to 15 µL) in short- to intermediate-length flowers, but was high (population means up to 170 µL) in the longest tubed flowers. Evidence from light-trapping of moths, pollen carriage on their bodies and moth scale deposition on stigmas suggests that sphingid pollination is prevalent only in the four populations with the longest flowers, in which floral morphological traits and nectar volumes match the classic expectations for the hawkmoth pollination syndrome. All other populations, with flowers 4·5–15 cm long, were pollinated exclusively by solitary bees. Conclusions The results suggest incipient differentiation at the population level and local adaptation to either bee or hawkmoth (potentially plus bee) pollination. PMID:19342397

Schlumpberger, Boris O.; Cocucci, Andrea A.; More, Marcela; Sersic, Alicia N.; Raguso, Robert A.

2009-01-01

25

Explosives detection with hard-wired moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of insects trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as

Tony L. King; Frank M. Horine; Kevin C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

2004-01-01

26

Automatic Species Identification of Live Moths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by species using the feature vectors. Whereas a previous analysis of this image dataset reported in the literature [1] required that each moth's least worn wing region be highlighted manually for each image, WEKA was able to achieve a greater level of accuracy (85%) using support vector machines without manual specification of a region of interest at all. This paper describes the features that were extracted from the images, and the various experiments using different classifiers and datasets that were performed. The results show that data mining can be usefully applied to the problem of automatic species identification of live specimens in the field.

Mayo, Michael; Watson, Anna T.

27

A plant factory for moth pheromone production  

PubMed Central

Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Lofstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

28

How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?  

PubMed

The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

2011-07-15

29

Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M. [Deptartment of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2006-07-11

30

Extensive Ribosomal DNA Genic Variation in the Columnar Cactus Lophocereus  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Sequence analysis of the hypervariable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is commonly used\\u000a to gain insights into plant and animal population structure and phylogeny. We characterized ITS1, ITS2, and the 5.8S coding\\u000a region of 18 senita (Lophocereus) individuals from 12 different populations in Baja as well as from closely related cactus species. Analyses of multiple

Stefanie Hartmann; John D. Nason; Debashish Bhattacharya

2001-01-01

31

Oil cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds and pulp of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins and ?-carotene. Total lipids (TL) in lyophilised seeds and pulp were 98.8 (dry weight) and 8.70 g\\/kg, respectively. High amounts of neutral lipids were found (87.0% of TL) in seed oil, while glycolipids and phospholipids occurred at high levels

Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Jörg-Thomas Mörsel

2003-01-01

32

Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the Corrective Action Unit No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action. The scope of this investigation will include drilling and collecting subsurface samples from within and below the trenches. Sampling locations will be biased toward the areas most likely to be contaminated. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Site is identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. This test was the first of four storage-transportation tests conducted in 1963 as part of Operation Roller Coaster. The experiment involved the use of live animals to assess the inhalation intake of a plutonium aerosol.

NONE

1997-02-01

33

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought-and  

E-print Network

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods Gary S. Ban~uelos2 distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We

34

Protective effect of cactus ( Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily,

Najla Hfaiedh; Mohamed Salah Allagui; Mbarka Hfaiedh; Abdelfattah El Feki; Lazhar Zourgui; Françoise Croute

2008-01-01

35

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 56 A Magical Cactus Trip  

E-print Network

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 56 A Magical Cactus Trip Michael Cera clutches a San;CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES, UC BERKELEY 57Spring 2014 A Magical Cactus Trip by James Gerardo Lamb by the Center for Latin American Studies and the San Francisco Film Society, where he is currently an Artist

Kammen, Daniel M.

36

Butterflies and moths are known to be valuable indi-  

E-print Network

is urgently required. We hope that making knowledge of species ecol- ogy, survey and monitoring results and Moths The decline in our woodland butterflies and moths very probably indicates a serious threat

37

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

38

Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in the Enewetak Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The survey was strictly a visual survey, backed up by digital photos and a written description of the current condition.

Douglas Miller, Terence Holland

2008-10-31

39

Sex-biased predation on moths by insectivorous bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of insectivorous bats, Lasiurus cinereus and L. borealis, ate significantly more male than female moths in the wild. The observed bias was likely to be a consequence of sexual dimorphism in moth flight activity associated with sexual differences in mate acquiring mechanisms. Female moths flew less than males and their activity peaks occurred at different times. The peak

Lalita Acharya

1995-01-01

40

Testing the Cactus Code on Exact Solutions of the Einstein Field Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents a series of numerical simulations of exact solutions of the Einstein equations performed using the Cactus code, a complete three-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. We describe an application (``thorn'') for the Cactus code that can be used for evolving a variety of exact solutions, with and without matter, including solutions used in modern cosmology for modeling the early stages of the universe. Our main purpose has been to test the Cactus code on these well-known examples, focusing mainly on the stability and convergence of the code.

Vulcanov, Dumitru N.; Alcubierre, Miguel

41

Examination of Gunnison River influences on Cactus Park Lake Beds using Heavy Mineral and Geochemical Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unaweep Canyon is an enigmatic wind gap across the Uncompahgre Plateau in western Colorado. It is widely accepted that the ancestral Gunnison River once flowed through Unaweep Canyon and Cactus Park, a tributary to Unaweep Canyon. Newly discovered lake deposits in Cactus Park raise several important questions regarding the timing of events leading to the abandonment of Unaweep Canyon by the ancestral Gunnison River. Heavy minerals and trace elements of Cactus Park lake beds and ancestral Gunnison River sediments were compared to determine whether or not the ancestral Gunnison River was present at the time the Cactus Park Lake was filling with sediment. It is possible that the formation of this lake facilitated the eventual abandonment of Cactus Park and Unaweep Canyon by the ancestral Gunnison River. Alternatively, abandonment could have preceded the formation of the lake. In the latter scenario, the composition of the lake beds should differ significantly from modern or ancient Gunnison River deposits. Results of the analyses show that the Gunnison River and Cactus Park Lake samples form two distinct groups based on differences in elemental concentrations and heavy mineral percentages. Gunnison River sediments associated with volcanic terrains contain elevated copper and manganese concentrations with 7.5 times more manganese and 4.5 times more copper normalized to aluminum compared to samples of Mancos Shale. Mancos Shale is a likely source for the Cactus Park lake beds . These values would require the Cactus Park lake beds to be composed of 70-92 percent Mancos material,. The Gunnison River heavy mineral percentages are: total weathered grains (16.94-18.75), augite plus hornblende (21.43-32.26%), ZTR (31.45-32.14), hornblende (16.07-17.74%) and tourmaline (26.79-29.84%). Cactus Park lake bed samples have more weathered grains (26.56-46.83%), less augite plus hornblende (5.47-17.50), lower ZTR values (15.63-22.67), less hornblende (1.48-9.33%) and less tourmaline (11.11-16.00%). In conclusion, the results suggest that the provenance of the Cactus Park lake beds was not primarily the Gunnison River, which suggests that the Cactus Park Lake could have formed after the abandonment of Cactus Park and Unaweep Canyon.

Schoepfer, S. D.; Benage, M. C.

2008-12-01

42

An ant (Crematogaster opuntiae) visits an extrafloral nectary of a fishhook barrel cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni).  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An ant (Crematogaster opuntiae) visits an extrafloral nectary of a fishhook barrel cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni). In many mutualistic species interactions, a suite of species in one guild exchanges resources or services with another guild. In this example, at least 14 species of ants feed from extrafloral nectaries of the fishhook barrel cactus and in exchange protect it from herbivores. Ant species compete to dominate individual cactus plants, with one ant species (Crematogaster opuntiae) dominating a higher proportion of the cacti in winter/spring and the other (Solenopsis aurea) dominating more in summer/fall. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (86:12) in December of 2005.

Wilson, William

2010-02-16

43

LYMANTRIA MONACHA (NUN MOTH) AND L. DlSPA R (GYPSY MOTH) SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT ON IMPROVED PINUS RADIATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lymantriid forest defoliators, Lymantria monacha L. (nun moth) and Lymantria dispar L. (gypsy moth) are particularly severe pests in other countries in the world, but the ability of these moths to utilise and complete development on Pinus radiata D. Don had never been established. In laboratory trials, colonies of central European L. monacha and Russian far east (flight capable)

T. M. WITHERS; M. A. KEENA

44

Metabolic rate and endothermy in sphinx moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The rate of increase in thoracic temperature was strongly dependent on ambient temperature during pre-flight -warm-up in the sphinx moths,Hyles euphorbia andDeilephila elpenor (Figs. 1, 2).2.The duration of pre-flight warm-up at 19–21 ° C was not correlated with mean body weight (0.3–3.5 g) in 13 species of sphinx moths (Kg. 3).3.The mean rates of oxygen consumption during uninterrupted free flight

Bernd Heinrich; Timothy M. Casey

1973-01-01

45

Using memory mapping to support cactus stacks in work-stealing runtime systems  

E-print Network

Many multithreaded concurrency platforms that use a work-stealing runtime system incorporate a "cactus stack," wherein a function's accesses to stack variables properly respect the function's calling ancestry, even when ...

Lee, I-Ting Angelina

46

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought-and  

E-print Network

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought winter rainfall, and drought conditions, which reduce leach- ing of salts away from the root zone. Across

47

Phenology of Pilosocereus leucocephalus (Cactaceae, tribe Cereeae): a columnar cactus with asynchronous pulsed flowering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilosocereus leucocephalus produces flowers in discrete pulses, suggesting this cactus might exhibit pulsed flowering—a rare flowering pattern among\\u000a angiosperms. In this study, we (1) describe the phenology of P. leucocephalus, (2) explore the influence of temperature, rainfall, and plant size on the flowering pattern, and (3) assess the effect of\\u000a flowering phenology on the reproductive success of this cactus. Flowering

Miguel A. Munguía-Rosas; Vinicio J. Sosa

2010-01-01

48

The Effect of Variety and Location on Cactus Pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the performance of South African cactus pear varieties in different agro-ecological regions. Effects\\u000a of locality on internal quality parameters of available cactus pear varieties were examined. With only one exception, no significant\\u000a differences among the mean replication values for the different parameters between the different locations were observed.\\u000a The differences between mean values for most individual

Maryna de Wit; Philip Nel; Gernot Osthoff; Maryke T. Labuschagne

2010-01-01

49

Microsporidian Pathogens in European Gypsy Moth Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of microsporidian pathogens as mortality agents of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in Europe frequently is overlooked. Collections of isolates from 10 different countries suggest that three genera and several biotypes are extant. It is important that the taxonomic placement and phylogeny of currently described genera and species be clarified and that regulatory issues be addressed before exotic

Michael L. McManus; Leellen Solter; E. Peabody

50

Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae)  

E-print Network

processionary is often most abundant on urban trees, along forest edges and in amenity woodlands. Oak. This coloration provides an effective camouflage against the bark of oak trees on which the adults often restOak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae) The oak

51

Occupational type I allergy to Christmas cactus (Schlumbergera).  

PubMed

The study aimed to determine whether occupational contact urticaria and symptoms of mucous membranes, reported by five workers in a cactus nursery, were due to IgE-mediated allergy to Schlumbergera cacti. The five persons had positive skin prick tests to the plants as is and positive histamine-release tests, and in three of them specific IgE to the cacti could be demonstrated by Maxisorp RAST and immunoblotting. Four of the patients were atopic, and the fifth had a positive skin prick test to cat dander, indicating latent atopy. Skin prick tests with cacti were negative in most atopic volunteers, and all had negative histamine-release tests. The results suggest a true IgE-mediated allergy to the cacti, and both genetic predisposition and close contact with the plants at work seem to be important factors in the emergence of this new occupational allergy. PMID:9226060

Paulsen, E; Skov, P S; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Voitenko, V; Poulsen, L K

1997-06-01

52

Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

1980-01-01

53

76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...INFORMATION: Title: Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet. OMB Number: 0579-0104. Type of...completes a gypsy moth identification worksheet (PPQ Form 305), which...

2011-04-04

54

North American Eradications of Asian and European Gypsy Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) is established in the northeastern and northern midwestern parts of North America, members of the three subspecies of gypsy\\u000a moth are constantly being introduced into new locations. Between 1980 and 2007, multiple eradication efforts targeting gypsy\\u000a moth populations were conducted in 24 states in the US. In more recent years, eradication efforts have

Ann E. Hajek; Patrick C. Tobin

55

Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Winter moth, Operophtera brumata, originally from Europe, has invaded eastern Massachusetts causing widespread defoliation and damage to many deciduous tree species and a variety of crop plants in the infested area. We identified O. brumata nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpbuNPV) in winter moth larvae collected from field sites in Massachusetts by using PCR to amplify a 482 bp region of the baculovirus polyhedrin gene. Viral sequences were also detected in winter moth pupae that failed to emerge, suggesting that these insects may have died as a result of viral infection. This represents the first report of OpbuNPV in winter moth populations in the US. PMID:21893065

Burand, John P; Kim, Woojin; Welch, Anna; Elkinton, Joseph S

2011-11-01

56

Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

. Capable of feeding on 500 plants, this pest threatens Indiana forests and suburban landscapes. Gypsy moth that is produced in vats like beer in a brewery. With Bt corn, the genetic recipe for making the protein #12;2Q&A's About Using Btk -- GM-4-W Q A Q A Q A Q A crystal is in the seeds. Susceptible insects feeding on Bt

Ginzel, Matthew

57

Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P? and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P? and S, the critical exponents ?k and ?k for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, ?k and ?k are the critical exponents for P? and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are ?2 = 1.79(3), ?2 = 0.88(1), ?3 = 1.35(5) and ?3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (?? = 1 and ?? = 1), we also find ?? < ?3 < ?2 and ?? > ?3 > ?2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

2013-08-01

58

Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

2011-12-01

59

Nun moth Lymantria monacha Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Nun moth Lymantria monacha Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The nun moth is a serious defoliator

60

Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The cabbage moth is a highly

61

Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.  

PubMed Central

The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

1992-01-01

62

Learning, odour preference and flower foraging in moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floral volatiles play a major role in plant-insect communication. We examined the influence of two volatiles, phenylacetaldehyde and ?-pinene, on the innate and learnt foraging behaviour of the moth Helicoverpa armigera. In dual-choice wind tunnel tests, adult moths flew upwind towards both volatiles, with a preference for phenylacetaldehyde. When exposure to either of these volatiles was paired with a feeding

John Paul Cunningham; Chris J. Moore; Myron P. Zalucki; Stuart A. West

2004-01-01

63

Odour-source localization system mimicking behaviour of silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for localizing odour sources by mimicking the behaviour of silkworm moths is proposed. A male silkworm moth is able to localize its female counterpart by tracking airborne sexual pheromone. Through the observation of this behaviour, we have confirmed that wing vibrations are effective in enhancing the directivity of the odour stimulus. An artificial system with this mechanism

H. Ishida; K. Hayashi; M. Takakusaki; T. Nakamoto; T. Moriizumi; R. Kanzaki

1995-01-01

64

Behaviors of Western Spruce Budworm Moths ( Choristoneura occidentalis ) as Defences Against Bat Predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated potential defense behaviors of adult western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis), a non-auditive lepidopteran, against bat predation. Although western spruce budworm moths started to fly before sunset, earlier than many species of moths, temporal isolation of flying moths from foraging bats was incomplete as moths were most active after sunset once bats were foraging. Flying C. occidentalis were most

Natasha Lloyd; Joanna M. Wilson; Robert M. R. Barclay

2006-01-01

65

Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones  

PubMed Central

The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

66

Extensive ribosomal DNA genic variation in the columnar cactus Lophocereus.  

PubMed

Sequence analysis of the hypervariable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is commonly used to gain insights into plant and animal population structure and phylogeny. We characterized ITS1, ITS2, and the 5.8S coding region of 18 senita (Lophocereus) individuals from 12 different populations in Baja as well as from closely related cactus species. Analyses of multiple clones demonstrated extensive paralogy in the senita rDNA gene family. We identified at least two putatively non-recombining rDNA operons in senita as well as multiple paralogous sequences within each operon. Usage of PCR, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, Southern blot, primary sequence analyses of the 18S rDNA gene, and secondary structure analyses of the 5.8S rRNA showed that one of the operons encodes rDNA pseudogenes in a low copy-number (Truncated), whereas the second operon encodes an expressed rRNA (Functional). Surprisingly, we found extensive paralogy not only in the ITS regions but also in the 5.8S coding regions in senita both within and between operons. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the second rDNA operon originated prior to the divergence of Lophocereus. A significant (p < 0.05) divergence-rate acceleration was found in the Lophocereus 5.8S rDNA coding region in the Functional operon in comparison to Pereskiopsis porteri (Cactaceae) and Portulaca molokiniensis (Portulacaceae) with Silene dioica and Spinacia oleracea as the outgroups. PMID:11479683

Hartmann, S; Nason, J D; Bhattacharya, D

2001-08-01

67

Vivipary and offspring survival in the epiphytic cactus Epiphyllum phyllanthus (Cactaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vivipary, the germination of seeds before they are shed from the parent plant, is a rare event in angio- sperms involving complex ecophysiological pro- cesses. Pseudovivipary and cryptovivipary occur in approximately 30 (2%) species of the cactus family. A remarkable case of vivipary in Epiphyllum phyllanthus is described here. Information is provided regarding the biology of viviparous fruits, morphology, mortality,

J. Hugo Cota-Sanchez; Deusa D. Abreu

2007-01-01

68

Plant Science Bulletin 53(2) 2007 The Organ Pipe Cactus. Yetman, David A. 2006.  

E-print Network

Cactus National Monument) grow extensively along the routes that bats take from their roosts (and to a much lesser extent, interactions with the lesser long-nosed bat). Yetman discusses to their feeding sites. The organ pipe cacti effectively map the bat's routes, almost certainly due to the bats

Gorelick, Root

69

ORIGINAL PAPER Fruit abortion in the Chihuahuan-Desert endemic cactus  

E-print Network

are propagules able to root and produce new plants with the same genotype of the mother. Abortion would haveORIGINAL PAPER Fruit abortion in the Chihuahuan-Desert endemic cactus Opuntia microdasys Hugo H to explain fruit abortion. To assess whether abortion in Opuntia microdasys was due to resource and/or pollen

Mandujano, María del Carmen

70

The Brownian cactus II. Upcrossings and local times of super-Brownian motion  

E-print Network

The Brownian cactus II. Upcrossings and local times of super-Brownian motion Jean-François Le Gall on a similar approximation result for local times of super-Brownian motion by upcrossing numbers. Our arguments to an approximation result for local times of super-Brownian motion in terms of upcrossing numbers, which is similar

Le Gall, Jean-François

71

Mating attempts between the Scarlet Tiger Moth, Callimorpha dominula L., and the Cinnabar Moth, Tyria jacobaeae L. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), involve a common sex pheromone composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that a common sex pheromone composition may account for interspecific sexual interactions observed with certain moths in the Arctiidae. In this study, it is demonstrated that the sex pheromones released by females of the Scarlet Tiger Moth,Callimorpha dominula L., and the Cinnabar Moth,Tyria jacobaeae L., have similar activities and elute at the same retention time on

C. A. Clarke; A. Cronin; W. Francke; P. Philipp; J. A. Pickett; L. J. Wadhams; C. M. Woodcock

1996-01-01

72

Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.  

PubMed

Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts. PMID:25232708

El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

2014-01-01

73

The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

Briggs, James

1984-01-01

74

Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths  

PubMed Central

Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

2013-01-01

75

Moth-eye-structured light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InGaAlP/GaAs red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a sub-wavelength moth-eye structure at the output surface were demonstrated. A high-resolution polydimethylsiloxane (h-PDMS) casting material was used for the fabrication of the moth-eye structure from polymer template which was fabricated by hot embossing. The h-PDMS mold was subsequently used to transfer the nanostructure on the output surface of the LED by soft embossing. We succeeded in forming a close packed hexagonal array of hemispheres with 300 nm pitch, and 128 nm depth. With 10 mA driving current, the corresponding efficiency (cd/A) of moth-eye-structured light-emitting diodes was enhanced by 36% compared with those of non-patterned LEDs. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of a theoretical analysis of the effect of the moth-eye structure.

Rao, J.; Winfield, R.; Keeney, L.

2010-06-01

76

78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...announcing the agencies' proposal to add the insecticide tebufenozide (trade name Mimic) to their list of treatments for...of gypsy moth. In addition to the proposal to add tebufenozide, the agencies also proposed developing a...

2013-04-22

77

The neuroethology of sound production in tiger moths (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Certain species of tiger moths emit clicks when stimulated by bat-like sounds. These clicks are generated by modified thoracic episterna (tymbals) (Fig. 1) and constitute a rhythmic behaviour activated by simple sensory input.2.Tymbal periods are indirectly related to stimulus intensity and periods (Fig. 3). Moths initiate sounds with the tymbal opposite to the stimulated ear and once a sequence commences

James H. Fullard

1992-01-01

78

Hybrid Moth-Eye Structures for Enhanced Broadband Antireflection Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid moth-eye structures were proposed to enhance broadband antireflection properties. An ultralow average reflectance down to 0.11% over the solar spectral range has been achieved, which demonstrates a ?50% enhancement in broadband antireflection capability as compared with corresponding uniform moth-eye structures. This is attributed to a smaller refractive index gradient with respect to structure height. These hybrid structures can be applied to solar cells for higher light-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Yang, Lanying; Feng, Qin; Ng, Binghao; Luo, Xiangang; Hong, Minghui

2010-10-01

79

Divergence in Olfactory Host Plant Preference in D. mojavensis in Response to Cactus Host Use  

PubMed Central

Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S.; Rollmann, Stephanie M.

2013-01-01

80

Divergence in olfactory host plant preference in D. mojavensis in response to cactus host use.  

PubMed

Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

Date, Priya; Dweck, Hany K M; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S; Rollmann, Stephanie M

2013-01-01

81

Sex pheromones of rice moth,Corcyra cephalonica Stainton : II. Identification and role of female pheromone.  

PubMed

Laboratory investigations of mating behavior in the rice moth,Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae; Galleriinae) showed that male moths are attracted at short range to live, virgin female moths and to female abdominal-tip extract. Volatiles collected from virgin female moths contained one component eliciting an electroantennographic (EAG) response from the male moth, and the chemical, spectroscopic, and Chromatographic data on this component were consistent with that of synthetic 6,10,14-tri-methyl-2-pentadecanol. This compound caused an EAG response from the male moth and attracted male moths in the bioassay. The pheromone is thought to play a role in courtship, and the synthetic material was shown to cause the male moths to search for a mate and attempt copulation. PMID:24302328

Hall, D R; Cork, A; Lester, R; Nesbitt, B F; Zagatti, P

1987-07-01

82

A 1-mW vibration energy harvesting system for moth flight-control applications  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the approach and methodologies required to build a 1-mW energy-harvesting system for moth flight control applications. The crepuscular hawk moth Manduca sexta is the chosen test subject. This project ...

Chang, Samuel C

2010-01-01

83

Association of pitch moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae and Pyralidae) with rust diseases in a  

E-print Network

Association of pitch moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae and Pyralidae) with rust diseases in a lodgepole moth, and stalactiform blister rust, Cronartium coleosporioides Arth., the most prevalent stem rust: Sesiidae), comandra blister rust, Cronartium comandrae Pk., and western gall rust, Endocronartium

Lindgren, Staffan

84

Endophytic bacteria of Mammillaria fraileana , an endemic rock-colonizing cactus of the southern Sonoran Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small cactus Mammillaria fraileana is a pioneer rock-colonizing plant harboring endophytic bacteria with the potential for nitrogen fixation and rock weathering\\u000a (phosphate solubilization and rock degradation). In seeds, only a combination of culture-independent methods, such as fluorescence\\u000a in situ hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence vital staining, detected significant amounts of non-culturable,\\u000a but living, endophytic bacteria distributed underneath the

Blanca R. Lopez; Yoav Bashan; Macario Bacilio

2011-01-01

85

Producing ice cream with concentrated cactus pear pulp: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) pulp was tested for some technological and chemical characteristics. The pulp was concentrated up to 30°Brix then added at four levels (0, 5, 10 and 15%) to basic ice cream mix. The basic mix contained 0.5% gelatin, 8% fat and 10.5% milk solids non-fat (MSNF), and 16% sucrose. Some of rheological parameters of both mixes

S. K. El-Samahy; K. M. Youssef; T. E. Moussa-Ayoub

2009-01-01

86

RealTime Issues in Cactus \\Lambda Matti A. Hiltunen, Xiaonan Han, and Richard D. Schlichting  

E-print Network

66001­97­C­8518. that use the functionality of an underlying real­time operating system and network, 19]. An implementation of the model is currently underway using the Open Group RI MK 7.2 real­time operating system [16] on a cluster of Pentium PCs. 2 Configurable Real­Time Services The focus of the Cactus

Schlichting, Richard D.

87

Bacteria Associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) Larvae and Their Cactus Host Isolatocereus dumortieri  

PubMed Central

We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity. PMID:22132101

Martinez-Falcon, Ana Paola; Durban, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Anton, Josefa; Marcos-Garcia, Maria de los Angeles

2011-01-01

88

The evolutionary arms race between insectivorous echolocating bats and moths has long fascinated biologists  

E-print Network

and effects of the multiple sensory cues of tiger moths on echolocating bats. We used the northern long-eared4689 The evolutionary arms race between insectivorous echolocating bats and moths has long, 2003). The primary purpose of the moth's simple ear ­ to detect bat echolocation calls ­ has made

Fullard, James H.

89

Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)  

E-print Network

1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

90

Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.)  

E-print Network

across the invasion front of the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States in dataLETTER Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) E a mechanistic model developed for the gypsy moth system. We believe this study to be the first empirical

91

Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1  

E-print Network

gypsy moth strain (Trouvelot is thought to have released a European strain in which femalesSlow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1 , Alexei A. Sharov2 , and Patrick C. Tobin1 Introduction The gypsy moth in North America (Elkinton and Liebhold 1990

Liebhold, Andrew

92

COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH URBAN GYPSY MOTH CONTROL BY ARBORISTS: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European gypsy moth, (Lymantria dispart.) is an introduced forest pest that has significantly impacted hardwood forests and urban environments in the northeastern United States. In urban settings, homeowners allocate significant financial resources to mitigate gypsy moth damage. The objective of this study was to assess the costs of gypsy moth control-related services provided by arborists to homeowners. At present,

Christopher D. Vaughn; Thomas J. Straka; Donald L. Ham; Roy L. Hedden

1997-01-01

93

Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks  

E-print Network

(MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (LymantriaAssessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth Accepted 18 September 2010 Keywords: MODIS NDVI time series data Gypsy moth Regional forest defoliation

Hargrove, William W.

94

POPULATION ECOLOGY Parasitism of Native Luna Moths, Actias luna (L.) (Lepidoptera  

E-print Network

Virginia, where both C. concinnata and the gypsy moth, its biocontrol target, have become established in the past few decades. In a forest that has not yet had gypsy moth damage, we placed cohorts of second against the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (L.)) and other lepidopteran pests (Sanchez 1995, USDA 2002

Fink, Linda S.

95

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

96

The population ecology of the Cinnabar Moth, Tyria jacobaeae L. (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a study of the factors determining the abundance and distribution of the Cinnabar Moth in Britain. The main part of the study was on a population of the moth at Weeting Heath in Norfolk. This is an area of sandy heath which is heavily overgrazed by rabbits. Here the moth fluctuates violently in number

J. P. Dempster

1971-01-01

97

Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?  

PubMed

Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

2013-02-01

98

Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone.  

PubMed

We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 microM) in the sensillar lymph is approximately 20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths. PMID:16172410

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

2005-09-27

99

RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS  

SciTech Connect

HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-09-01

100

The evolutionary ecology of cheating: does superfi cial oviposition facilitate the evolution of a cheater yucca moth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major question in the study of mutualism is to understand how mutualists may revert to antagonists that exploit the mutualism (i.e. switch to cheating ). In the classic pollination mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths, the cheater moth Tegeticula intermedia is sister to the pollinator moth T. cassandra . These moth species have similar ovipositor morphology, but T. intermedia

KARI A. SEGRA V ES; DA V ID; M. AL; T HOFF

101

First-Order, Networked Control Models of Swarming Silkworm Moths Musad A. Haque, Magnus Egerstedt, and Clyde F. Martin  

E-print Network

First-Order, Networked Control Models of Swarming Silkworm Moths Musad A. Haque, Magnus Egerstedt to predict observed, biological behaviors. In particular, we study the silkworm moth, the Bombyx Mori, and we by the female moths, as is the case in actual silkworm moths as well. I. INTRODUCTION The research on multi

Egerstedt, Magnus

102

Moth's eye anti-reflection gratings on germanium freeform surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germanium is commonly used for optical components in the infrared, but the high refractive index of germanium causes significant losses due to Fresnel reflections. Anti-reflection (AR) surfaces based on subwavelength "moth's eye" gratings provide one means to significantly increase optical transmission. As found in nature, these gratings are conformal to the curved surfaces of lenslets in the eye of the moth. Engineered optical systems inspired by biological examples offer possibilities for increased performance and system miniaturization, but also introduce significant challenges to both design and fabrication. In this paper, we consider the design and fabrication of conformal moth's eye AR structures on germanium freeform optical surfaces, including lens arrays and Alvarez lenses. Fabrication approaches and limitations based on both lithography and multi-axis diamond machining are considered. Rigorous simulations of grating performance and approaches for simulation of conformal, multi-scale optical systems are discussed.

Liu, Meng; Shultz, Jason A.; Owen, Joseph D.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

2014-09-01

103

Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

1984-01-01

104

The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

2013-10-01

105

Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?  

PubMed

Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth. PMID:22691198

Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

2012-06-01

106

Biocontrol Characteristics of Bacillus Species in Suppressing Stem Rot of Grafted Cactus Caused by Bipolaris cactivora  

PubMed Central

One of the most important limiting factors for the production of the grafted cactus in Korea is the qualitative and quantitative yield loss derived from stem rots especially caused by Bipolaris cactivora. This study is aimed to develop microbial control agents useful for the control of the bipolaris stem rot. Two bacteria (GA1-23 and GA4-4) selected out of 943 microbial isolates because of their strong antibiotic activity against B. cactivora were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, respectively, by the cultural characteristics, Biolog program and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. Both bacterial isolates significantly inhibited the conidial germination and mycelial growth of the pathogen with no significant difference between the two, of which the inhibitory efficacies varied depending on the cultural conditions such as temperature, nutritional compositions and concentrations. Light and electron microscopy of the pathogen treated with the bacterial isolates showed the inhibition of spore germination with initial malformation of germ tubes and later formation of circle-like vesicles with no hyphal growth and hyphal disruption sometimes accompanied by hyphal swellings and shrinkages adjacent to the bacteria, suggesting their antibiotic mode of antagonistic activity. Control efficacy of B. subtilis GA1-23 and B. amyloliquefaciens GA4-4 on the cactus stem rot were not as high as but comparable to that of fungicide difenoconazole when they were treated simultaneously at the time of pathogen inoculation. All of these results suggest the two bacterial isolates have a good potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for the bipolaris stem rot of the grafted cactus.

Bae, Sooil; Kim, Sang Gyu; Kim, Young Ho

2013-01-01

107

Biological control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most destructive cosmopolitan insect pests of brassicaceous crops. It was the first crop insect reported to be resistant to DDT and now, in many crucifer producing regions, it has shown significant resistance to almost every synthetic insecticide applied in the field. In certain parts of the world,

Muhammad Sarfraz; Andrew B Keddie; Lloyd M Dosdall

2005-01-01

108

Moth Sounds and the Insect-Catching Behavior of Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Captive bats trained to catch mealworms tossed in midair turned away from most of these targets when simultaneously confronted with a recorded train of the ultrasonic pulses generated by an Arctiid moth. When similarly exposed to the recorded echolocation pulses of another bat, presented at the same intensity as the \\

Dorothy C. Dunning; Kenneth D. Roeder

1965-01-01

109

Modeled global invasive potential of Asian gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian populations of gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), remain poorly characterized - indeed, they are not presently accorded any formal taxonomic status within the broader species. Their ecology is similarly largely uncharacterized in the literature, except by assumption that it will resemble that of European populations. We developed ecological niche models specific to Asian populations of the species,

A. Townsend Peterson; Richard Williams; Guojun Chen

2007-01-01

110

ASIAN VERSUS EUROPEAN ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA\\/GYPSY MOTH RELATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives for our studies were (1) to determine whether non-North American gypsy moth strains are susceptible to North American strains of E. maimaiga; (2) to compare the genetic diversity of North American and Asian populations of E. maimaiga; and (3) to determine the origin of the North American E. maimaiga population.

Charlotte Nielsen; Melody Keena; Michael G. Milgroom; Ann E. Hajek

111

Trans-2-hexenal: mating stimulant for polyphemus moths.  

PubMed

The volatile compound from oak leaves which stimulates the female polyphemus moth to release her sex pheromone has been isolated and identified as trans-2-hexenal. Although leaves of other food plants contain trans-2-hexenal, they also release masking odors which block the activity of the hexenal. PMID:6054815

Riddiford, L M

1967-10-01

112

Adult motor patterns produced by moth pupae during development.  

PubMed

Muscle potentials were recorded extracellularly from developing pupae and adults of the saturniid moths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi and the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. During the week prior to the terminal ecdysis, developing moths still enclosed within the pupal cuticle produced motor patterns similar to those recorded from adults during flight and shivering. The pupal patterns had a longer cycle time and were more variable than the adult motor patterns. Characteristic inter-family differences in adult motor patterns were apparent in pupal motor patterns. Development of motor patterns was followed over several days by observing individuals with chronically implanted leads. Early in the pupal period potentials were small and infrequent. The amount of activity gradually increased and became more patterned. As development proceeded adult patterns were produced for increasing lengths of time, although the patterns changed quickly and spontaneously. Restricting the wing movements of A. polyphemus adults increased the cycle time, increased the number of spikes per burst in muscles opposing the restraint, and did not alter the interspike interval within a burst. The flight patterns produced by pharate moths, in which the wings are also immobile, also have a longer cycle time than that of adult flight, but the number of spikes per burst the same and the interspike interval is longer than in adult flight. These observations suggest that the differences between pupal and adult patterns are not necessarily due to the confinement of the wings by the pupal cuticle. PMID:993706

Kammer, A E; Rheuben, M B

1976-08-01

113

Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).  

PubMed Central

We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times. PMID:10787157

Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

2000-01-01

114

Mosquito Feeding Affects Larval Behaviour and Development in a Moth  

E-print Network

Mosquito Feeding Affects Larval Behaviour and Development in a Moth Ve´ronique Martel1 *¤ , Fredrik investigated the impact of a terrestrial micropredator, the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, on its unusual of mosquitoes showed a slower development and reached a smaller pupal weight when compared to a control without

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Mechanics of a 'simple' ear: tympanal vibrations in noctuid moths.  

PubMed

Anatomically, the ears of moths are considered to be among the simplest ears found in animals. Microscanning laser vibrometry was used to examine the surface vibrations of the entire tympanal region of the ears of the noctuid moths Agrotis exclamationis, Noctua pronuba, Xestia c-nigrum and Xestia triangulum. During stimulation with ultrasound at intensities known to activate receptor neurones, the tympanum vibrates with maximum deflection amplitudes at the location where the receptor cells attach. In the reportedly heterogeneous tympana of noctuid moths, this attachment site is an opaque zone that is surrounded by a transparent, thinner cuticular region. In response to sound pressure, this region moves relatively little compared with the opaque zone. Thus, the deflections of the moth tympanic membrane are not those of a simple circular drum. The acoustic sensitivity of the ear of N. pronuba, as measured on the attachment site, is 100+/-14 nm Pa(-1) (N=10), corresponding to tympanal motion of a mere 200 pm at sound pressure levels near the neural threshold. PMID:17644678

Windmill, J F C; Fullard, J H; Robert, D

2007-08-01

116

Light extraction process in moth-eye structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically calculated the light extraction efficiency of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a moth-eye structure by rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA). The dependences of light extraction efficiency on aspect ratio and period were measured. Light extraction efficiency was almost constant until the period of 170 nm and then gradually decreased with increasing of period.

Kasugai, H.; Nagamatsu, K.; Miyake, Y.; Honshio, A.; Kawashima, T.; Iida, K.; Iwaya, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Kinoshita, H.; Shiomi, H.

2006-06-01

117

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

2010-12-01

118

Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

2002-08-01

119

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving...to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within...Agriculture for experimental or scientific purposes; (2) Pursuant...prevent the spread of the South American cactus moth; and...

2013-01-01

120

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1...regulated article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved...identified on the document is for scientific or experimental purposes... The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

2014-01-01

121

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving...to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within...Agriculture for experimental or scientific purposes; (2) Pursuant...prevent the spread of the South American cactus moth; and...

2010-01-01

122

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1...regulated article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved...identified on the document is for scientific or experimental purposes... The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

2012-01-01

123

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1...regulated article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved...identified on the document is for scientific or experimental purposes... The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

2010-01-01

124

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving...to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within...Agriculture for experimental or scientific purposes; (2) Pursuant...prevent the spread of the South American cactus moth; and...

2012-01-01

125

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1...regulated article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved...identified on the document is for scientific or experimental purposes... The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

2011-01-01

126

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

...to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving...to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within...Agriculture for experimental or scientific purposes; (2) Pursuant...prevent the spread of the South American cactus moth; and...

2014-01-01

127

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving...to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within...Agriculture for experimental or scientific purposes; (2) Pursuant...prevent the spread of the South American cactus moth; and...

2011-01-01

128

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1...regulated article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved...identified on the document is for scientific or experimental purposes... The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

2013-01-01

129

Persistence of invading gypsy moth populations in the United States.  

PubMed

Exotic invasive species are a mounting threat to native biodiversity, and their effects are gaining more public attention as each new species is detected. Equally important are the dynamics of exotic invasives that are previously well established. While the literature reports many examples of the ability of a newly arrived exotic invader to persist prior to detection and population growth, we focused on the persistence dynamics of an established invader, the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States. The spread of gypsy moth is largely thought to be the result of the growth and coalescence of isolated colonies in a transition zone ahead of the generally infested area. One important question is thus the ability of these isolated colonies to persist when subject to Allee effects and inimical stochastic events. We analyzed the US gypsy moth survey data and identified isolated colonies of gypsy moth using the local indicator of spatial autocorrelation. We then determined region-specific probabilities of colony persistence given the population abundance in the previous year and its relationship to a suite of ecological factors. We observed that colonies in Wisconsin, US, were significantly more likely to persist in the following year than in other geographic regions of the transition zone, and in all regions, the abundance of preferred host tree species and land use category did not appear to influence persistence. We propose that differences in region-specific rates of persistence may be attributed to Allee effects that are differentially expressed in space, and that the inclusion of geographically varying Allee effects into colony-invasion models may provide an improved paradigm for addressing the establishment and spread of gypsy moth and other invasive exotic species. PMID:16341893

Whitmire, Stefanie L; Tobin, Patrick C

2006-03-01

130

Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

2008-01-01

131

Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense  

SciTech Connect

Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

2006-11-20

132

Asexual reproduction and genetic determination of growth form in the coral Pavona cactus : biochemical genetic and immunogenic evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue grafting and electrophoresis were used to study the genotypic structure of a population of the scleractinian coral, Pavona cactus. Three growth forms were distinguished within one continuous population of this morphologically variable species. Both techniques provided evidence of localized asexual reproduction within each growth form, a result consistent with numerous field observations of naturally occurring fragments. A perfect association

Bette L. Willis; David J. Ayre

1985-01-01

133

Evaluation of the conservation status of a rare cactus ( Mammillaria crucigera) through the analysis of its population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used population projection matrices to analyse the demography of Mammillaria crucigera, a rare cactus endemic to a small region in Central Mexico. Matrices were based on a 2-year period of observations on survival, growth and reproduction. No seed germination or seedling survival were observed; thus, these matrix entries were experimentally estimated. Population growth rate (?) was lower than unity

Cinthya Contreras; Teresa Valverde

2002-01-01

134

Factors affecting the distribution, abundance and seedling survival of Mammillaria gaumeri , an endemic cactus of coastal Yucatán, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population status of an endemic cactus (Mammillaria gaumeri) was assessed in coastal Yucatán, México. Similar numbers of mature plants were found in open and full sun microhabitats. Plants in full sun had more ramets and were of larger diameter. There was a correlation between M. gaumeri abundance and the biomass of a disturbance indicator, Myrmecophila tibicinis (Orchidacea). Higher seedling

Jorge Leirana-Alcocer; V??ctor Parra-Tabla

1999-01-01

135

Effect of gibberellic acid and (2-chloroethane) phosphonic acid on glochid abscission in cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia amyclaea Tenore)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glochids (small spines) of cactus pear negatively affect harvest operations, and the quality and acceptance of this fruit. Different treatments for pre-harvest removal of glochids were evaluated. Gibberellic acid (GA3, 100 ppm) was sprayed over flower buds in six consecutive applications (every 7 days) during their development. Also, solutions of (2-chloroethane) phosphonic acid or ethephon (‘Ethrel’®) at 500, 600, 700,

Joel Corrales-Garc??a; Pablo González-Mart??nez

2001-01-01

136

Development of a process for the production of a betalain-based colouring foodstuff from cactus pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since no process has yet been established for the production of cactus pear juice, the present work aimed at the development of a betalain-based colouring foodstuff from Opuntia ficus-indica cv. ‘Gialla’ and cv. ‘Rossa’ of two seasons applying unit operations typical for fruit juice production. Complete separation of the peels from the pulp and removal of seeds were achieved by

Markus R. Moßhammer; Florian C. Stintzing; Reinhold Carle

2005-01-01

137

Are cactus growth forms related to germination responses to light? A test using Echinopsis species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the effect of light regimen (white light vs. darkness) on the germination of 12 species of the Echinopsis genus (tribe Trichocereeae, Cactaceae). This genus presents a variety of growth forms and relatively small and uniform seed size. These traits allowed us to test, within the same linage and removing seed mass effect, the hypothesis that the germination response to light (indifferent to light or positive photoblastic) is related to growth form. Our results reject this hypothesis since no seeds germinated in darkness, so all of the species can be classified as being positively photoblastic. The proportion of seed germination with white light was significantly different among cactus growth forms. Columnar cacti (arborescent, creeping and short) showed a greater proportion of seed germination than barrel and globose cacti. The germination rate differed among growth forms and species. At constant temperatures, creeping columnar cacti presented a significantly higher germination rate than the other growth forms. With alternating temperatures, columnar cacti showed higher germination rates than the other growth forms. The low proportion of seeds that germinated for some species indicates that they show seed dormancy. Our results suggest that germination responses to light in the cactus family could be related to seed mass and phylogenetic constraints.

Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Aparicio-González, Mónica; Galíndez, Guadalupe; del Fueyo, Patricia; Sühring, Silvia; Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana

2010-05-01

138

Influence of abscisic acid and sucrose on somatic embryogenesis in Cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma mostruosa.  

PubMed

Having produced the embryos of cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma monstruosa at the globular stage and callus, we investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100? ? M on successive stages of direct (DSE) and indirect somatic embryogenesis (ISE). In the indirect somatic embryogenesis process we also investigated a combined effect of ABA (0, 0.1, 1? ? M) and sucrose (1, 3, 5%). The results showed that a low concentration of ABA (0-1? ? M) stimulates the elongation of embryos at the globular stage and the number of correct embryos in direct somatic embryogenesis, while a high ABA concentration (10-100? ? M) results in growth inhibition and turgor pressure loss of somatic embryos. The indirect somatic embryogenesis study in this cactus suggests that lower ABA concentrations enhance the increase in calli fresh weight, while a high concentration of 10? ? M ABA or more changes calli color and decreases its proliferation rate. However, in the case of indirect somatic embryogenesis, ABA had no effect on the number of somatic embryos and their maturation. Nevertheless, we found a positive effect of sucrose concentration for both the number of somatic embryos and the increase in calli fresh weight. PMID:23843737

Lema-Rumi?ska, J; Goncerzewicz, K; Gabriel, M

2013-01-01

139

Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids  

PubMed Central

With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations. PMID:23720524

Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K.; Spalding, Adrian; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

2013-01-01

140

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein–bombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moth’s antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

141

Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  

PubMed

We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species. PMID:21510197

Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

2011-04-01

142

Fabrication of high-efficiency LED using moth-eye structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To realize high-efficiency light-emitting diodes (LEDs), it is essential to increase light extraction efficiency. The moth-eye structure, consisting of periodic cones with a submicron-scale pitch on a surface/interface, is known to enhance the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes. Previously, nitride-based flip-chip blue LEDs with the moth-eye structure on the backside of the substrate were demonstrated to exhibit high light extraction efficiency. In this report, face-up blue LEDs with a double moth-eye structure are described. One moth-eye structure was formed on the sapphire substrate and the other structure was formed on the ITO contact, where the pitch of the cones in both structures was 500 nm. The patterning of cones with such a small pitch was carried out by a low-energy electron-beam lithography technique. The output powers of mounted LEDs without resin encapsulation were measured using an integrated sphere. For reference, face-up LEDs without a moth-eye structure and with a single moth-eye structure on an ITO contact were also examined. The single moth-eye and double moth-eye LEDs have 1.2 and 1.4 times higher output power than the non-moth-eye LED, receptively.

Sakurai, H.; Kondo, T.; Suzuki, A.; Kitano, T.; Mori, M.; Iwaya, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Kamiyama, S.; Akasaki, I.

2011-02-01

143

Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America  

E-print Network

effect) Common causes: inbreeding depression, absence of cooperative feeding, failure to satiate natural" dynamics Gypsy moth is univoltine (produces one generation per year) Females flightless whilst males

144

Predator mimicry: metalmark moths mimic their jumping spider predators.  

PubMed

Cases of mimicry provide many of the nature's most convincing examples of natural selection. Here we report evidence for a case of predator mimicry in which metalmark moths in the genus Brenthia mimic jumping spiders, one of their predators. In controlled trials, Brenthia had higher survival rates than other similarly sized moths in the presence of jumping spiders and jumping spiders responded to Brenthia with territorial displays, indicating that Brenthia were sometimes mistaken for jumping spiders, and not recognized as prey. Our experimental results and a review of wing patterns of other insects indicate that jumping spider mimicry is more widespread than heretofore appreciated, and that jumping spiders are probably an important selective pressure shaping the evolution of diurnal insects that perch on vegetation. PMID:17183674

Rota, Jadranka; Wagner, David L

2006-01-01

145

Antennal carboxylesterases in a moth, structural and functional diversity  

PubMed Central

Pheromone-degrading enzymes (PDEs) are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly degrading pheromone molecules. Because esters are widespread insect pheromone components, PDEs belonging to the carboxylesterase (CCE) family have been the most studied. However, only two CCEs were both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized as PDEs until recently. In the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis, we have identified an unsuspected diversity of antennal CCEs, with a total number of 30 genes. Two CCEs, enriched in antennae and belonging to distinct clades, were shown to present different substrate specificities toward pheromone and plant compounds. A same CCE was also shown to efficiently degrade both pheromone and plant components. Our results suggest that the structural evolution of antennal CCEs reflects their functional diversity and that a complex set of CCE-mediated reactions take place is the olfactory organs of moths. PMID:22896794

Durand, Nicolas; Chertemps, Thomas; Maibeche-Coisne, Martine

2012-01-01

146

Quantifying an anti-bat flight response by eared moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using near-infrared videotaping we measured the nocturnal flight times of six species of eared moths (Amphipyra pyramidoidesGuenée, Caenurgina erechtea (Cramer), Feltia jaculifera (Guenée), Phlogophora periculosa Guenée, Lymantria dispar (Linné), and Ennomos magnaria Guenée) in cages in which they flew, under randomized conditions, fo r3hi n theabsence an d3hi n thepresence of simulated bat-attack sounds. When exposed to the ultra- sound,

J. H. Fullard; K. E. Muma; J. W. Dawson

2003-01-01

147

Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential\\u000a for our understanding of plant–insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects.\\u000a Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine\\u000a moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a

Marco Tasin; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Marie Bengtsson; Claudio Ioriatti; Peter Witzgall

2006-01-01

148

A new pheromone of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The female silkmoth Bombyx mori L. emits a second pheromone component bombykal (E-10, Z-12-hexade-cadien-1-al) in addition to the well-known sexual attractant bombykol (E-10, Z-12-hexadecadien-1-ol). Bombykal stimulates its own specialized and highly sensitive olfactory cells of the male moth. Surprisingly, the aldehyde inhibits the release of the male's wing-fluttering response to bombykol.

K. E. Kaissling; G. Kasang; H. J. Bestmann; W. Stransky; O. Vostrowsky

1978-01-01

149

PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

E-print Network

. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ef�cacy of a Bt-cry5 transgene to control the potato tuber moth of Bt-cry5 Transgenic Potato Lines AHMED MOHAMMED,1 D. S. DOUCHES,2 W. PETT,3 E. GRAFIUS,3 J. COOMBS,2 in tuber tissues. Tuber bioassays using stored (11-12 mo old) and newly harvested tubers of Bt-cry5-Lemhi

Douches, David S.

150

Visual feedback influences antennal positioning in flying hawk moths.  

PubMed

Insect antennae serve a variety of sensory functions including tactile sensing, olfaction and flight control. For all of these functions, the precise positioning of the antenna is essential to ensure the proper acquisition of sensory feedback. Although antennal movements in diverse insects may be elicited or influenced by multimodal sensory stimuli, the relative effects of these cues and their integration in the context of antennal positioning responses are not well understood. In previous studies, we have shown that fields of Böhm's bristles located at the base of the antennae provide crucial mechanosensory input for antennal positioning in flying hawk moths. Here, we present electrophysiological and behavioral evidence to show that, in addition to the Böhm's bristles, antennal muscles of hawk moths also respond to bilateral visual input. Moreover, in contrast to the mechanosensory-motor circuit, which is entirely contained within the ipsilateral side, visual feedback influences antennal positioning on both contralateral and ipsilateral sides. Electromyograms recorded from antennal muscles show that the latency of muscle responses to visual stimulation ranged from 35 to 60 ms, considerably slower than their responses to mechanosensory stimuli (<10 ms). Additionally, the visual inputs received by antennal muscles are both motion-sensitive and direction-selective. We characterized the influence of visual feedback on antennal positioning by presenting open-loop translational and rotational visual stimuli to tethered flying moths. During rotational stimuli, we observed that the antenna contralateral to the direction of the turn moved forward through larger angles than the ipsilateral antenna. These observations suggest that whereas input from the Böhm's bristles mediates rapid corrections of antennal position, visual feedback may be involved in slower, bilaterally coordinated movements of the antenna during visually guided flight maneuvers. Thus, visual feedback can modulate the set point at which the antenna is held during flight in hawk moths. PMID:24265427

Krishnan, Anand; Sane, Sanjay P

2014-03-15

151

Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.  

PubMed

Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

2014-08-22

152

Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth  

PubMed Central

Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

2013-01-01

153

Corrective action plan for CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) verbally requested approval for the schedule to be accelerated from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1997. Currently, field closure activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963.

NONE

1997-09-01

154

Forensic identification of CITES protected slimming cactus (Hoodia) using DNA barcoding.  

PubMed

Slimming cactus (Hoodia), found only in southwestern Africa, is a well-known herbal product for losing weight. Consequently, Hoodia extracts are sought-after worldwide despite a CITES Appendix II status. The failure to eradicate illegal trade is due to problems with detecting and identifying Hoodia using morphological and chemical characters. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of molecular identification of Hoodia based on DNA barcoding. Screening of nrITS1 and psbA-trnH DNA sequences from 26 accessions of Ceropegieae resulted in successful identification, while conventional chemical profiling using DLI-MS led to inaccurate detection and identification of Hoodia. The presence of Hoodia in herbal products was also successfully established using DNA sequences. A validation procedure of our DNA barcoding protocol demonstrated its robustness to changes in PCR conditions. We conclude that DNA barcoding is an effective tool for Hoodia detection and identification which can contribute to preventing illegal trade. PMID:23865560

Gathier, Gerard; van der Niet, Timotheus; Peelen, Tamara; van Vugt, Rogier R; Eurlings, Marcel C M; Gravendeel, Barbara

2013-11-01

155

Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols  

SciTech Connect

This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

2002-05-07

156

Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures.  

PubMed

Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae), were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone were attractive to P. orphisalis, whereas benzyl acetate, eugenol, cis-jasmone, limonene, linalool, methyl-2-methoxybenzoate, methyl salicylate, beta-myrcene, and 2-phenylethanol were not. When used in combination with phenylacetaldehyde, 4-oxoisophorone and methyl-2-methoxybenzoate increased catches of P. orphisalis in traps by -50%, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. A second crambid species, the false celery leaftier moth, Udea profundalis Packard, was also attracted to phenylacetaldehyde, but was not attracted to any other single-chemical lure. Cis-jasmone, limonene, and 4-oxoisophorone increased catches of U. profundalis by -50% when presented in traps with phenylacetaldehyde, while linalool increased the catch 2.5-fold, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. Both sexes of each species were similarly attracted to most of these lures. These findings provide chemical lures for trapping males and females of both P. orphisalis and U. profundalis. PMID:24772546

Landolt, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S

2014-04-01

157

Cryptically Patterned Moths Perceive Bark Structure When Choosing Body Orientations That Match Wing Color Pattern to the Bark Pattern  

PubMed Central

Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths’ behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

Kang, Chang-ku; Moon, Jong-yeol; Lee, Sang-im; Jablonski, Piotr G.

2013-01-01

158

Abstract Chronic herbivory by the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella) alters the sexual expression of a  

E-print Network

selection theory suggests that the negative effects on female function could be over- come with greater all female function. Moth herbivory has little effect on male function in young trees, but has an important effect on older trees, where moth-susceptible trees produced 1.5 times more pollen than moth

Gehring, Catherine "Kitty"

159

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The islands of Hawaii o¡er a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving

James H. Fullard

2001-01-01

160

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2010-07-01

161

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2013-07-01

162

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2011-07-01

163

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2012-07-01

164

Water availability and the competitive effect of a columnar cactus on its nurse plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field study was conducted in a semi-arid tropical ecosystem in Mexico to test whether competition for soil water is the causal mechanism underlying the negative effect of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia tetetzo on its nurse plant Mimosa luisana and to examine how this relationship varies over time. The effect of irrigation was evaluated by recording the production of leaves, modules (i.e. internodes with an axillary bud), inflorescences and fruits in shrubs growing either isolated or associated with juvenile or adult columnar cacti. 4 001 of water, in five doses of 801 each every 15 d, were added to the treatment plants; no water other than rainfall was added to control plants. Additionally, to evaluate how the effect of the columnar cacti on the shrubs may vary among years we made a comparison of the production of plant structures between 2 years of contrasting rainfall. The irrigation treatment increased the production of modules, inflorescences and fruits, but not of leaves. Shrub response to watering was also dependent on class of association: those associated with juvenile cacti showed a higher response to irrigation than any other treatment. Our results show that water addition increases the production of structures and partially reduces the negative effect of the cactus on nurse shrub, thus supporting the hypothesis of competition for water. The negative effect of the cacti on their nurse plants was present during both years of observations, but the intensity of the negative effect varies from relatively wet to dry years. The results are discussed in relation to how temporal changes in resource availability affect the results of competitive interactions and the importance of this mechanism in the structure and dynamics of this dryland community.

Flores-Martínez, Arturo; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador

1998-02-01

165

Sex pheromones of rice moth,Corcyra cephalonica Stainton : I. Identification of male pheromone.  

PubMed

Behavioral observations of the rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica, Pyralidae, Galleriinae) in the laboratory have shown that a male wing-gland pheromone induces attraction of female moths. This pheromone was identified as a blend of (E,E) and (Z,E)-farnesal. Wing-gland extracts or synthetic compounds were shown to be attractive to females by inducing walking. PMID:24302327

Zagatti, P; Kunesch, G; Ramiandrasoa, F; Malosse, C; Hall, D R; Lester, R; Nesbitt, B F

1987-07-01

166

Plum fruit moth Cydia funebrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Plum fruit moth Cydia funebrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The plum fruit moth is a pest

167

Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The light brown apple moth

168

Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The Silver Y moth is a highly

169

Balanced Olfactory Antagonism as a Concept for Understanding Evolutionary Shifts in Moth Sex  

E-print Network

/Published online: 2 May 2008 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract In the sex pheromoneBalanced Olfactory Antagonism as a Concept for Understanding Evolutionary Shifts in Moth Sex communication systems of moths, both heterospecific sex pheromone components and individual conspecific

170

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth  

E-print Network

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth Stephen B. Heard,1 Graham H. Cox--Larvae of the gall-inducing moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attack ramets of Solidago altissima L. and S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), initiating stem galls early in ramet growth. We

Heard, Stephen B.

171

Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation detection products and methods that could be applied in near real time

Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; Kenton Ross; Donald Prados; Jeffrey Russell; Gerald Gasser; Rodney McKellip; William Hargrove

2011-01-01

172

Apparent long-term bodily contamination by disparlure, the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) Attractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive attraction of male gypsy moths to the body of the author, now four years after his last known direct contact with disparlure, the synthetic pheromone, is documented. A designed test showed that moths responded to him in highly significantly greater numbers than to others who had had less or no previous exposure to the insect and \\/ or disparlure.

E. Alan Cameron

1983-01-01

173

Mutualism between senita cacti and senita moths: Benefits, costs, and population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I report the discovery of a pollinating seed-eater mutualism between senita cacti and senita moths, then use it as a model system to investigate the impact of benefits and costs on demography, population dynamics, and evolution of mutualistic populations. I examined the benefits (pollination) and costs (fruit consumption) of senita moths on reproduction of senita cacti, along with other factors

Julian Nathaniel Holland

2001-01-01

174

A DIRECTIONALLY SENSITIVE MOTION DETECTING NEURONE IN THE BRAIN OF A MOTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. In the moth, Manduca sexta, a pair of neurones, one on each side of the brain, were characterized morphologically and physiologically as descending interneurones, selective for horizontal motion over a large area of the moth's visual field. 2. Their cell bodies and dendritic processes are located in the protocerebrum of the brain. Their axons, 12-15 (im in diameter,

F. CLAIRE RIND

1983-01-01

175

GRIZZLY BEAR USE OF ARMY CUTWORM MOTHS IN THE YELLOWSTONE ECOSYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they

STEVEN P. FRENCH; MARILYNN G. FRENCH; RICHARD R. KNIGHT

176

Notodonta dedmazai sp. nov., a new notodontid moth from Bhutan (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae).  

PubMed

Recently, a small series of an unidentified notodontid moth from Bhutan was presented to me by Pavel Morozov (Moscow). The moth is described below, and represents a hitherto unknown species of the holarctic genus Notodonta Ochsenheimer, 1810 and the first record for the genus in the Himalayas. PMID:24614472

Schintlmeister, Alexander

2013-01-01

177

Is the insect or the plant the driving force in the cinnabar moth — Tansy ragwort system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae L. and its food plant, tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. were studied for 4 to 6 years at 9 sites in North America to assess if the herbivore drove the dynamics of the plants or if the plants determined the dynamics of the insects. Cinnabar moth larval density is not closely related to

Judith H. Myers

1980-01-01

178

Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids as Oviposition Stimulants for the Cinnabar Moth, Tyria jacobaeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In choice experiments with artificial leaves, we tested related pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) for their stimulatory effects on the oviposition of the cinnabar moth, a specialist on the PA-containing plant Senecio jacobaea. The PAs from S. jacobaea that we tested stimulated oviposition. Monocrotaline also stimulated oviposition although this PA is not found in plants of the genus Senecio. The moths preferred

Mirka Macel; Klaas Vrieling

2003-01-01

179

Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats  

E-print Network

,*, James H. Fullard2,, Benjamin J. Arthur3 and Ronald R. Hoy3 1 Center for Sound Communication, Institute; neuroethology 1. INTRODUCTION The primary function of a moth's ear is to detect bat bio- sonar [1,2], and moth's ears have almost certainly evolved through and are maintained by selective pressures from sympatric

Hoy, Ronald R.

180

"Lagring av Solenergi" Kasper Moth-Poulsen, PhD, FoAss  

E-print Network

-Poulsen, K., oso, D., Börjesson, K., Vinokurov, N., Meier, S., Majumdar, A., Vollhardt, K.P.C., Segalman, R.5) Liquid Collection Outlet Inlet Syrringe pump Microfluidic Solar Collector Device Moth-Poulsen, K., oso, D. Sci. 5, 8534-8537, 2012. #12;Irradiated area 6.51 cm2 Moth-Poulsen, K., oso, D., Börjesson, K

Lemurell, Stefan

181

Attractiveness of binary blends of floral odorant compounds to moths in Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several compounds that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to the key floral odorant PAA. The floral odorants cis -jasmone, linalool, benzyl acetate, limonene, ? -myrcene, methyl salicylate, and methyl 2- methoxybenzoate all increased captures

Robert L. Meagher; Peter J. Landolt

2008-01-01

182

Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

Gottschalk, K.W.

1993-02-02

183

Receptor Neuron Discrimination of the Germacrene D Enantiomers in the Moth Helicoverpa armigera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants release complex mixtures of volatiles, including chiral constituents. In the search for the biologically relevant plant odorants, gas chromatography linked to electrophysiological recordings from single receptor neurons has been employed. In heliothine moths, including the females of the Eurasian cotton bollworm moth Helicoverpa armigera, a major type of receptor neurons is identified, showing high sensitivity and selectivity for the

M. Stranden; A.-K. Borg-Karlson; H. Mustaparta

2002-01-01

184

Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls  

PubMed Central

Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%. PMID:22096534

Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

2011-01-01

185

Variation in Courtship Ultrasounds of Three Ostrinia Moths with Different Sex Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication

Takuma Takanashi; Ryo Nakano; Annemarie Surlykke; Haruki Tatsuta; Jun Tabata; Yukio Ishikawa; Niels Skals

2010-01-01

186

NOTE / NOTE A potential cost of responding to bats for moths  

E-print Network

NOTE / NOTE A potential cost of responding to bats for moths flying over water Cassandra Guignion the surface of a lake in eastern Ontario, Canada, 61% were eaten, on average, by fish in 31.3 s with no effect of wing surface area on escape success. These results suggest that nocturnal predation on moths by fish

Fullard, James H.

187

The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern  

PubMed Central

The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

2012-01-01

188

Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

Xu, Jia; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Dapeng; Weng, Zhankun

2014-05-01

189

Development of high-throughput silicon lens and grism with moth-eye antireflection structure for mid-infrared astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been developing high-throughput optical elements with the moth-eye structures for mid-infrared optical systems. The moth-eye structures are optimized for the wavelength of 25-45?m. It consists of cones with a height of 15-20?m arranged at an interval of 5?m. They are formed on silicon substrate by electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. As a verification of the usefulness of moth-eye, a double-sided moth-eye silicon plane was fabricated. It shows a transmittance increase of 60% compared with the unprocessed silicon plane. As the first trial of the moth-eye optical element, two silicon lenses with single-sided moth-eye were fabricated. One is a plane-convex lens with the moth-eye on the convex surface. The size of the moth-eye formed region is 30 mm x 30 mm. Its focal length is 186 mm. The other one is a biconvex lens with moth-eye formed region of ? 33 mm and a focal length of 94 mm. Uniform moth-eye pattern was fabricated especially for the second lens sample. Imaging test with the first sample showed that neither image degradation nor focal length variation was induced by the moth-eye fabrication. As a step to grism with moth-eye, a moth-eye grating sample was fabricated. The grating pattern (Grating constant: 124.9?m, Blaze angle: 4 deg) was successfully fabricated with anisotropic etching. Moth-eye patterns were fabricated on the grating surface. Although the resulted moth-eye was successfully fabricated in the most regions, some non-uniformity was found. It can be attributed to unevenness of resist coating, and improvement of coating method is needed.

Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Imada, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Okada, Kazushi; Wada, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki

2012-09-01

190

MICROPROPAGATION OF CACTUS (Opuntia ficus-indica) AS STRATEGIC TOOL TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION IN ARID AND SEMI ARID REGIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khalafalla, M. M., Abdellatef, E., Mohameed Ahmed, M. M. and Osman, M. G. 2007. Micropropagation of Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as Strategic Tool to Combat Desertification in Arid and Semi Arid Regions. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 2(4):1-8 With aim of large production of plant material, a protocol for micropropagation of Opuntia ficus-indica was developed at the laboratory of plant tissue

M. M. KHALAFALLA; E. ABDELLATEF; M. M. MOHAMEED AHMED; M. G. OSMAN

191

Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84 days in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P?cactus-Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P?cactus could be used to improve poor quality roughage intakes in goats, and therefore, there is need to promote its use in periods of feed deficit especially in smallholder sector. PMID:25023231

Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

2014-10-01

192

Cactus Wheel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners explore the concept of population density. Using a simple hunt-and-walk technique, learners will count several kinds of desert plants and compare their population densities. This activity is designed for desert areas but can be adapted to other ecosystems. Also, check your local botanical gardens, they may have a desert plant section.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

193

Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.  

PubMed

The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-?-ocimene and (E)-?-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-?-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of ?-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the ?-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control. PMID:24508043

Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

2014-04-01

194

Chlorantraniliprole resistance in the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

The wide application of chlorantraniliprole, which selectively targets insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has led to increasingly prominent development of resistance to this insecticide. Although much work has been carried out on the structure and function of RyR, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to chlorantraniliprole in diamondback moth still needs further investigation. P. xylostella strains with medium and high resistance to chlorantraniliprole were obtained by laboratory selection and field collection. The biological activity of chlorantraniliprole against the third-instar larvae of susceptible and resistant strains was tested, and resistance development and biological fitness were investigated. The realized heritability (h2) of resistance showed the diamondback moth has a high risk of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. RyR transcript levels were lower in resistant strains than in susceptible strains, indicating that decreased expression of PxRyR may be associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. A 4,400 bp fragment of the RyR cDNA, which encodes most of the functional domains of RyR, was cloned and characterized from four strains (S, F18, BY, and ZC). A 14 amino acid (Q4546-S4559) deletion was found in three resistant strains (F18, BY, and ZC). A point mutation resulting in a glycine to glutamate substitution, as reported in a previously published article, was also found in the carboxyl-terminal region of two resistant strains (BY and ZC). These results indicated that decreased transcriptional level of RyR mRNA and combined with the site mutation might be related to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:24772564

Gong, Wei; Yan, Hui-Hui; Gao, Li; Guo, Yun-Yun; Xue, Chao-Bin

2014-04-01

195

Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

196

Detection of Gypsy Moth Defoliation--Remote Sensing Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module uses satellite remote sensing images to identify the forest defoliation caused by Gypsy Moth Larva. The continued annual defoliation causes the trees to die and results in a significant loss in the value of the forests. The project study area covers the highland mountain areas of Virginia and West Virginia in the 2001 growing season, as both satellite images and other proof of defoliation are available for that year. The educational materials are available for download in PDF, ZIP and RAR format.

2012-03-09

197

The biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst)  

E-print Network

, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) were studied in the laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity on artificial media. Detailed life cycle data were taken which showed the dura- tion of the egg, larval, prepupal, pupal, and adult stages to average 2... to that of the sunflower moth reared on artifi- cial diet under controlled temperature and humidity. The duration of the egg, larva, pupa, and adult reared under field conditions ranged from 2 to 4, 19 to 28, 7 to 14 and 8 to 13 days, respectively. The growth ratios...

Baxter, Michael Celus

2012-06-07

198

Naïve bats discriminate arctiid moth warning sounds but generalize their aposematic meaning.  

PubMed

Naïve red (Lasiurus borealis Müller) and big brown (Eptesicus fuscus Beauvois) bats quickly learn to avoid noxious sound-producing tiger moths. After this experience with a model tiger moth, bats generalize the meaning of these prey-generated sounds to a second tiger moth species producing a different call. Here we describe the three-dimensional kinematic and bioacoustic details of this behaviour, first, as naïve bats learn to deal with an unpalatable model tiger moth and subsequently, as they avoid acoustic mimics. The tiger moths' first clicks influenced the bats' echolocation behaviour and the percentage of interactions that included terminal buzzes was associated with capture and investigatory behaviour. When the mimic was introduced, the bats decreased both their minimum distance to the tiger moth and the time at which they broke off their attack compared with their exposure to the model on the night before. These kinematic signatures closely match the bats' behaviour on their first night of experience with the model. Minimum distances and time of pursuit cessation increased again by the last night of the mimic's presentation. These kinematic and bioacoustic results show that although naïve bats generalize the meaning of aposematic tiger moth calls, they discriminate the prey-generated signals as different and investigate. Extrapolating to experienced bats, these results suggest that acoustic predators probably exert potent and fine-scaled selective forces on acoustic mimicry complexes. PMID:19561203

Barber, Jesse R; Chadwell, Brad A; Garrett, Nick; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Conner, William E

2009-07-01

199

Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naïve big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

Hristov, Nickolay I.; Conner, William E.

2005-04-01

200

Regulation of the seasonal population patterns of Helicoverpa armigera moths by Bt cotton planting.  

PubMed

Transgenic cotton expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac toxin has been commercially cultivated in China since 1997, and by 2000 Bt cotton had almost completely replaced non-transgenic cotton cultivars. To evaluate the impact of Bt cotton planting on the seasonal population patterns of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, the dynamics of H. armigera moths were monitored with light traps from four locations (Xiajin, Linqing and Dingtao of Shandong Province; Guantao of Hebei Province) in high Bt density region and five locations (Anci and Xinji of Hebei Province; Dancheng and Fengqiu of Henan Province; Gaomi of Shandong Province) in low Bt density region from 1996 to 2008. A negative correlation was found between moth densities of H. armigera and the planting years of Bt cotton in both high and low Bt density areas. These data indicate that the moth population density of H. armigera was reduced with the introduction of Bt cotton in northern China. Three generations of moths occurred between early June and late September in the cotton regions. Interestingly, second-generation moths decreased and seemed to vanish in recent years in high Bt density region, but this tendency was not found in low Bt density region. The data suggest that the planting of Bt cotton in high Bt density region was effective in controlling the population density of second-generation moths. Furthermore, the seasonal change of moth patterns associated with Bt cotton planting may regulate the regional occurrence and population development of this migratory insect. PMID:19847665

Gao, Yu-Lin; Feng, Hong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming

2010-08-01

201

Nanoscale of biomimetic moth eye structures exhibiting inverse polarization phenomena at the Brewster angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique functionalities of nanoscale structures in the natural world are an inspiration to the development of new nano-manufacturing techniques. For example, the cornea of the moth's eye features a sub-wavelength natural antireflective architecture. To date, almost all optical research into moth eye structures has been focused on their antireflective properties. No studies of inverse polarization phenomena at the Brewster angle have been reported, especially in biomimetic structures. For the first time, we discovered a unique inverse polarization phenomenon on moth eye structures that arises from TM-polarized light having a higher reflectance than TE-polarized light on moth eye structures at angles of incidence near the Brewster angle, unlike the behavior of polarized light on flat interfaces. Herein, we report a one-step colloidal lithography process that allows the fabrication of several kinds of moth eye structures. We characterized these moth eye structures experimentally and through rigorous coupled-wave analysis to understand the mechanism underlying this inverse polarization phenomenon in both visible and near infrared ray (NIR) regimes. Controlling the structural height and degree of non-close-packing of the moth eye structures had a dramatic effect on the extent of inverse polarization. This study is potentially important for various polarization-dependent devices and measurements.

Chuang, Shang-Yu; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Shieh, Jiann; Lin, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Chao-Chia; Liu, Hao-Wei; Yu, Chen-Chieh

2010-05-01

202

The echolocation calls of the spotted bat Euderma maculatum are relatively inaudible to moths  

PubMed

Previous studies of the spotted bat Euderma maculatum have demonstrated that this bat emits echolocation calls that are lower in frequency, shorter in duration and fainter in intensity compared with those of most other insectivorous bats, acoustic characteristics which should render it less conspicuous to eared moths. We tested this prediction by monitoring electrophysiologically the ears of sympatric noctuoid (noctuid, arctiid and notodontid) moths in a site in western Canada. Auditory threshold curves demonstrate that most of the moths tested are less responsive to the calls of Eu. maculatum than to those of another sympatric bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Playbacks to moth ears of pre-recorded search- and approach-phase echolocation calls of Eu. maculatum and Ep. fuscus further demonstrate that the calls of Eu. maculatum are poorly detectable to moths and, in some cases, completely inaudible. We estimate that, in the wild, an average noctuoid moth would detect the calls of Eu. maculatum at distances of less than 1 m as opposed to the calls of Ep. fuscus which should be first heard at distances of 20­25 m. Although most moths are unable to adequately hear Eu. maculatum, the observation that two individuals possessed ears sensitive to this bat's calls suggests the existence of auditory pre-adaptation to this type of echolocation. PMID:9317482

Fullard; Dawson

1997-01-01

203

Flight energetics of sphinx moths: power input during hovering flight.  

PubMed

The energetic cost of hovering flight was measured in sphinx moths from five species. Mean power input per unit mass (Pi/M) varied from 237-2 W kg-1 in Manduca sexta (Subfamily:Sphinginae), mean body mass 1-2 X 10(-3) kg, to 327-9 W kg-1 in Deilephila elpenor (Subfamily: Macroglossinae) mean body mass 7-3 X 10(-4) kg. Mean Pi/M for the five species was inversely proportional to mean body mass and directly proportional to mean wing loading. For any given body mass, Pi/M was greater in Hyles lineata than in M. sexta. This difference is correlated with higher wing loading at any given mass in H. lineata. Energy expenditure per unit mass of thorax was 1018 W kg-1 in H. lineata and 694 W kg-1 in M. sexta. Within each of these species, Pi per unit mass of thorax does not vary with body mass. Power input data are compared with calculated power requirements based on momentum theory and blade-element theory of helicopter aerodynamics. Absolute efficiency, the ratio between calculated power requirements and measured energy expenditure, appears to vary directly with body mass. These data provide an energetic basis for observed correlates between thoracic temperature and flight effort in flying sphinx moths. PMID:932631

Casey, T M

1976-06-01

204

Peripheral and Central Olfactory Tuning in a Moth  

PubMed Central

Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

Ong, Rose C.

2012-01-01

205

Extracellular transduction events under pulsed stimulation in moth olfactory sensilla.  

PubMed

In natural conditions, pheromones released continuously by female moths are broken in discontinuous clumps and filaments. These discontinuities are perceived by flying male moths as periodic variations in the concentration of the stimulus, which have been shown to be essential for location of females. We study analytically and numerically the evolution in time of the activated pheromone-receptor (signaling) complex in response to periodic pulses of pheromone. The 13-reaction model considered takes into account the transport of pheromone molecules by pheromone binding proteins (PBP), their enzymatic deactivation in the perireceptor space and their interaction with receptors at the dendritic membrane of neurons in Antheraea polyphemus sensitive to the main pheromone component. The time-averaged and periodic properties of the temporal evolution of the signaling complex are presented, in both transient and steady states. The same time-averaged response is shown to result from many different pulse trains and to depend hyperbolically on the time-averaged pheromone concentration in air. The dependency of the amplitude of the oscillations of the signaling complex on pulse characteristics, especially frequency, suggests that the model can account for the ability of the studied type of neuron to resolve repetitive pulses up to 2 Hz, as experimentally observed. Modifications of the model for resolving pulses up to 10 Hz, as found in other neuron types sensitive to the minor pheromone components, are discussed. PMID:12907588

Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lánský, Petr; Krivan, Vlastimil

2003-07-01

206

DBM-DB: the diamondback moth genome database  

PubMed Central

The diamondback moth Genome Database (DBM-DB) is a central online repository for storing and integrating genomic data of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.). It provides comprehensive search tools and downloadable datasets for scientists to study comparative genomics, biological interpretation and gene annotation of this insect pest. DBM-DB contains assembled transcriptome datasets from multiple DBM strains and developmental stages, and the annotated genome of P. xylostella (version 2). We have also integrated publically available ESTs from NCBI and a putative gene set from a second DBM genome (KONAGbase) to enable users to compare different gene models. DBM-DB was developed with the capacity to incorporate future data resources, and will serve as a long-term and open-access database that can be conveniently used for research on the biology, distribution and evolution of DBM. This resource aims to help reduce the impact DBM has on agriculture using genomic and molecular tools. Database URL: http://iae.fafu.edu.cn/DBM/ PMID:24434032

Tang, Weiqi; Yu, Liying; He, Weiyi; Yang, Guang; Ke, Fushi; Baxter, Simon W.; You, Shijun; Douglas, Carl J.; You, Minsheng

2014-01-01

207

DBM-DB: the diamondback moth genome database.  

PubMed

The diamondback moth Genome Database (DBM-DB) is a central online repository for storing and integrating genomic data of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.). It provides comprehensive search tools and downloadable datasets for scientists to study comparative genomics, biological interpretation and gene annotation of this insect pest. DBM-DB contains assembled transcriptome datasets from multiple DBM strains and developmental stages, and the annotated genome of P. xylostella (version 2). We have also integrated publically available ESTs from NCBI and a putative gene set from a second DBM genome (KONAGbase) to enable users to compare different gene models. DBM-DB was developed with the capacity to incorporate future data resources, and will serve as a long-term and open-access database that can be conveniently used for research on the biology, distribution and evolution of DBM. This resource aims to help reduce the impact DBM has on agriculture using genomic and molecular tools. Database URL: http://iae.fafu.edu.cn/DBM/ PMID:24434032

Tang, Weiqi; Yu, Liying; He, Weiyi; Yang, Guang; Ke, Fushi; Baxter, Simon W; You, Shijun; Douglas, Carl J; You, Minsheng

2014-01-01

208

Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

Carde, R T

1976-01-01

209

High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with Moth-Eye Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a moth-eye structure on the back of a 6H-SiC substrate have been developed. The moth-eye LED has a roughness less than the optical wavelength at the back surface of the SiC substrate fabricated by reactive ion etching (RIE) with CF4 gas. The light extraction efficiency and corresponding output power have been increased to 3.8 times those of a LED with a conventional structure. The experimental findings agree with the results of a theoretical analysis of the effect of the moth-eye structure.

Kasugai, Hideki; Miyake, Yasuto; Honshio, Akira; Mishima, Shunsuke; Kawashima, Takeshi; Iida, Kazuyoshi; Iwaya, Motoaki; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Shiomi, Hiromu

2005-10-01

210

Effect of bunch sanitation on spatial distributions of abscised fruit and phycitine moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California date gardens.  

PubMed

Phycitine moths are an economic impediment to California date, Phoenix dactylifera L., production. Summer populations build to damaging levels on abscised dates that get trapped in fruit bunches. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between abscised fruit and moth infestation, and to evaluate changes in the spatial distribution of abscised fruit and moth-infested fruit after a bunch-sanitation treatment. Over the 9 wk of this study, there was a 69.9% reduction in the number of moth-infested fruit after a single sanitation treatment. Linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between abscised fruit and phycitine moth-infested fruit; 42 and 76.6% of the variation in the number of infested fruit was explained by the number of abscised fruit in noncleaned and cleaned plots, respectively. The pattern of reinfestation by moths over the 9 wk posttreatment period was analyzed with spatial analysis with distance indices. Significant spatial associations were found between abscised fruit and moth-infested fruit, supporting the regression analysis. The sanitation treatments caused significant gaps in both abscised fruit and moth-infested fruit. Over time, gap sizes became smaller, indicating a nonrandom pattern of reinfestation that likely was caused by the movement of moths from nontreated areas into treated areas. This study, the first spatial analysis conducted in dates, suggests that in-season bunch sanitation could be effective at reducing summer moth densities if applied on a large regional scale. PMID:18232393

Nay, Justin E; Park, Yong-Lak; Perring, Thomas M

2007-12-01

211

Insectivorous bat pollinates columnar cactus more effectively per visit than specialized nectar bat.  

PubMed

Plant-pollinator interactions are great model systems to investigate mutualistic relationships. We compared pollinator effectiveness between facultative and obligate nectar-feeding bats to determine how foraging specialization influences mutualistic interactions in a bat-adapted cactus. We predicted that a specialized nectarivorous bat would deliver more pollen than an opportunistic nectar-feeding bat because of specialized adaptations to nectar feeding that indicate close association with their food plants. Counter to our predictions, the opportunistic Antrozous pallidus delivered significantly more pollen grains per visit than the specialized Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. Higher pollinator effectiveness, based on visitation rates and pollen deposition levels, varied between species by site, and although A. pallidus visits flowers much less frequently than L. yerbabuenae over all sites, it is likely an effective and reliable pollinator of Pachycereus pringlei in Baja, Mexico. Our results suggest that morphological adaptations and dietary specialization on nectar do not necessarily confer advantages for pollination over less specialized plant visitors and highlight the reciprocally exploitative nature of mutualisms. PMID:23234851

Frick, Winifred F; Price, Ryan D; Heady, Paul A; Kay, Kathleen M

2013-01-01

212

Type 3 functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing?  

E-print Network

(Peromyscus leucopus) to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) pupae is decelerating (e.g. type 2) or accelerating (e. In eastern North America, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus; hereafter referred to as mice) are major

213

Moth eye antireflection coated GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell incorporating AlInP moth eye antireflection coating is reported and compared with the performance of a similar cell comprising TiO2/SiO2 antireflection coating. The moth eye coating exhibits an average reflectance of only 2% within the spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm. EQE measurements revealed absorption-related losses in the AlInP moth eye coating at wavelengths below 510 nm. Short wavelength absorption decreases the current generation in the top GaInP junction by 10%. Despite the absorption losses, the moth eye patterned GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell exhibited higher current generation under AM1.5G real sun illumination.

Aho, Arto; Tommila, Juha; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Niemi, Tapio; Guina, Mircea

2014-09-01

214

78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...137, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851-2184. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), is a destructive pest of forest, shade, and commercial trees such as nursery stock and Christmas trees. The gypsy...

2013-10-24

215

76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...137, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 734-5332. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), is a destructive pest of forest, shade, and commercial trees such as nursery stock and Christmas trees. The gypsy...

2011-09-29

216

Field and Laboratory Responses of Male Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to a Pheromone-Based  

E-print Network

that combines the primary component of codling moth sex pheromone with the insecticide permethrin. Studies- with the insecticide permethrin has been developed. ment strategy, the behaviors in question should be This technology

Ginzel, Matthew

217

POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera  

E-print Network

by a type II functional response (Holling 1959), rather than a type III response that would be necessary for population regulation. Changes in the density of innocous gypsy moth populations have been found

Liebhold, Andrew

218

Cherry ermine moth Yponomeuta padella Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

with a sticky secretion. After egg hatch, the first-instar larvae remain aggregated and overwinter under). Skeletonized leaves by larval feeding. Management notes For monitoring cherry ermine moths, inspect leaves

219

Prospects of monosodium glutamate use for enhancement of spinosad toxicity against codling moth neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was demonstrated that neonates of the codling moth,Cydia pomonella (L.), feed on ‘Red Delicious’ apple leaves and successfully molt to the second instar. Next, using a non-choice bioassay,\\u000a we targeted codling moth neonates feeding on apple leaves, with standard concentrations of a culinary taste enhancer, monosodium\\u000a glutamate (MSG), and Success®, which contains 22.8% spinosad as its active ingredient. The

Maciej A. Pszczolkowski; John J. Brown

2002-01-01

220

Climate suitability and management of the gypsy moth invasion into Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth has become established throughout southern Canada east of Lake Superior where the climate is suitable for the\\u000a completion of its univoltine life cycle. The spread of the gypsy moth to the north and west in Canada has so far been prevented\\u000a by climatic barriers and host plant availability as well as by aggressive eradication of incipient populations.

Jacques Régnière; Vince Nealis; Kevin Porter

2009-01-01

221

Climate suitability and management of the gypsy moth invasion into Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth has become established throughout southern Canada east of Lake Superior where the climate is suitable for the\\u000a completion of its univoltine life cycle. The spread of the gypsy moth to the north and west in Canada has so far been prevented\\u000a by climatic barriers and host plant availability as well as by aggressive eradication of incipient populations.

Jacques Régnière; Vince Nealis; Kevin Porter

222

Genetic consequences of specialization: yucca moth behavior and self-pollination in yuccas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reciprocal specialization in interspecific interactions, such as plant-pollinator mutualisms, increases the probability that\\u000a either party can have detrimental effects on the other without the interaction being dissolved. This should be particularly\\u000a apparent in obligate mutualisms, such as those that exist between yucca and yucca moths. Female moths collect pollen from\\u000a yucca flowers, oviposit into floral ovaries, and then pollinate those

Olle Pellmyr; Lisa K. Massey; J. L. Hamrick; Mary Ann Feist

1997-01-01

223

Surviving cave bats: auditory and behavioural defences in the Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans.  

PubMed

The Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans shares its subterranean day roosts (caves and abandoned mines) with insectivorous bats, some of which prey upon it. The capacity of this moth to survive is assumed to arise from its ability to listen for the bats' echolocation calls and take evasive action; however, the auditory characteristics of this moth or any tropically distributed Australian moth have never been examined. We investigated the ears of S. spectans and determined that they are among the most sensitive ever described for a noctuid moth. Using playbacks of cave-recorded bats, we determined that S. spectans is able to detect most of the calls of two co-habiting bats, Rhinolophus megaphyllus and Miniopterus australis, whose echolocation calls are dominated by frequencies ranging from 60 to 79 kHz. Video-recorded observations of this roost site show that S. spectans adjusts its flight activity to avoid bats but this defence may delay the normal emergence of the moths and leave some 'pinned down' in the roosts for the entire night. At a different day roost, we observed the auditory responses of one moth to the exceptionally high echolocation frequencies (150-160 kHz) of the bat Hipposideros ater and determined that S. spectans is unable to detect most of its calls. We suggest that this auditory constraint, in addition to the greater flight manoeuvrability of H. ater, renders S. spectans vulnerable to predation by this bat to the point of excluding the moth from day roosts where the bat occurs. PMID:19043053

Fullard, James H; Jackson, Matt E; Jacobs, David S; Pavey, Chris R; Burwell, Chris J

2008-12-01

224

Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of grape berry moth (Lep., Tortricidae) to selected plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four non-host plant extracts from Bifora radians, Arctium lappa, Humulus lupulus and Xanthium strumarium, were tested against adult grape berry moths, Paralobesia viteana, for their potential as repellents or oviposition deterrents. Responses were compared with those elicited by the major component of the P. viteana sex pheromone. Moths of both sexes exhibited varying electroantennogram (EAG) responses from 1.7 to 2.4

A. Gökçe; L. L. Stelinski; R. Isaacs; M. E. Whalon

2006-01-01

225

Phylogeny and life history evolution of Prodoxus yucca moths (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yucca moths (Lep., Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate pollination mutualism with yuccas. In addition to the pollinators, yuccas also host many non-pollinating yucca moths. Here the genus Prodoxus, the non- pollinating sister group of the pollinators, is revised using morphological and molecular data, their phylogenetic relationships are analysed, and the evolution of host tissue specialization explored. Twenty-two species are

OLLE P ELLMYR; M ANUEL; B ALCAZAR-LARA; J AMES L EEBENS-MACK

226

Isolation of N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet) from Female Pink Bollworm Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical search for a natural activator of propylure, the sex pheromone of the pink bollworm moth, revealed that the female moths produce N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, an outstanding insect repellent synthesized commercially and never before reported from natural sources. The compound occurs in fairly large amount in female adults and in much lesser amount in female pupae, but it is completely absent

William A. Jones; Martin Jacobson

1968-01-01

227

q-deformations and the dynamics of the larch bud-moth population cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of q-deformation of numbers is applied here to improve and modify a tritrophic population dynamics model to understand defoliation of the coniferous larch trees due to outbreaks of the larch bud-moth insect population. The results are in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, with the larch needle lengths, bud-moth population and parasitoid populations all showing 9-period cycles which are mutually synchronized.

Iyengar, Sudharsana V.; Balakrishnan, J.

2014-07-01

228

Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., with piggyBac EGFP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was accomplished through embryo microinjection with a plasmid-based piggyBac vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Sequencing of the flanking regions around the inserted\\u000a construct resulted in identification of insect genomic sequences, not plasmid sequences, thus providing evidence that the\\u000a piggyBac EGFP cassette had integrated into the codling moth genome.

Holly J. FergusonLisa; Lisa G. Neven; Stephen T. Thibault; Ahmed Mohammed; Malcolm Fraser

2011-01-01

229

THE USE OF MODIFIED ATMOSPHERES FOR CONTROLLING ALMOND MOTH, EPHESTIA CAUTELLA (WALKER) (LEPIDOPTERA : PYRALIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs 1-3 days-old, young - mature larvae, 1-3 day-old pupae and 1 day-old adults of the almond moth, Ephestia cautella were exposed to 90% and 96% CO 2 (balance normal air) at 20, 27.5 and 32.5 o C temperatures, and at 65%±5 r.h. for different exposure periods to test the effectiveness of high CO 2 levels on almond moth mortality.

S. TÜTÜNCÜ; M. EMEKCI; S. NAVARRO

230

Gypsy moth in the United States: An atlas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

This atlas includes 52 maps that doucment the historical spread of gypsy moth from 1900 to the present, historical forest defoliation in the Northeast from 1984 to the present, and the distribution of susceptible forests in the conterminous United States. These maps should be useful for planning activities to limit the spread of gypsy moth and mitigate the effects of this forest insect pest in areas that have not yet been invaded.

Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Luzader, E.R.; Mason, D.A.; Bush, R.

1997-02-01

231

Sodium: a male moth's gift to its offspring.  

PubMed Central

Males of the moth Gluphisia septentrionis acquire sodium by drinking from mud puddles. Analyses of male and female bodies indicate that such "puddling" behavior enables the male to provide his mate with a nuptial gift of sodium, presumably via the spermatophore. This gift (about 10 microg), amounting to more than half of a puddler male's total body sodium, is in large measure apportioned by the female to her eggs. Puddler-sired eggs contain 2 to 4 times more sodium than those control-sired; this difference is already apparent in eggs laid the night after mating. Paternal endowment of offspring with sodium had not previously been demonstrated for an insect to our knowledge. The potential adaptive significance of such chemical bestowal is evident, given that the foliar diet of G. septentrionis larvae is extremely low in sodium content. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:11607627

Smedley, S R; Eisner, T

1996-01-01

232

Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

1988-07-01

233

"This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.  

PubMed

The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control. PMID:22797850

Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

2012-08-01

234

Chromosomal Evolution in Tortricid Moths: Conserved Karyotypes with Diverged Features  

PubMed Central

Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n?=?31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n?=?30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n?=?28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the understanding of chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera in general. PMID:23717623

Šíchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

2013-01-01

235

Electroantennogram responses of Hyles lineata (Sphingidae: Lepidoptera) to volatile compounds from Clarkia breweri (Onagraceae) and other moth-pollinated flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroantennograms (EAGs) from field-collectedHyles lineata moths were recorded in response to 10 individual floral volatiles identified fromClarkia breweri (Onagraceae), to 22 scent compounds produced by other moth-pollinated flowers and to eight ubiquitous “green leaf volatiles.” Females' EAGs were generally 1.5- to 2-fold greater than those observed for male moths. Female:male EAG rank orders were significantly correlated, but marked differences in

Robert A. Raguso; Douglas M. Light; Eran Pickersky

1996-01-01

236

European field collections and Canadian releases of Ceranthia samarensis (Dipt.: Tachinidae) , a parasitoid of the gypsy moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programme to collect, import and release into Canada the gypsy moth parasitoid,Ceranthia samarensis (Diptera: Tachinidae) is described. The parasitoid's potential for biological control in Canada is also discussed.\\u000a \\u000a The parasitoid was collected in Europe by exposing experimental gypsy moth larvae in areas where local gypsy moth populations\\u000a were at low densities. Following field exposure, the host larvae were returned

N. J. Mills; V. G. Nealis

1992-01-01

237

Beware of bats, beware of birds: the auditory responses of eared moths to bat and bird predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH) proposes that the preponderance of moths in the diets of some bats (e.g., Rhinolophidae) is the result of these bats echolocating at allotonic frequencies, that is, outside of the typical hearing range of most moths (ca., 20--60 kHz). The broader hearing range of African moths (5--110 kHz) suggests that their ears may function at frequencies

David S. Jacobs; John M. Ratcliffe; James H. Fullard

2008-01-01

238

Fabrication of silica moth-eye structures by photo-nanoimprinting using ordered anodic porous alumina molds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moth-eye structures composed of an ordered array of tapered SiO2 pillars were fabricated by photo-nanoimprinting using anodic porous alumina as a mold. The formation of SiO2 moth-eye structures was carried out using a photosensitive polysilane solution as a precursor of silica. The SiO2 moth-eye structures formed on the surface of a glass plate effectively suppressed the reflection of incident light.

Yanagishita, Takashi; Endo, Takahide; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Hideki

2014-01-01

239

Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

1993-03-01

240

The gleaning attacks of the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, are relatively inaudible to moths.  

PubMed

This study empirically tests the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaning insectivorous bats (short duration, high frequency, low intensity) are acoustically mismatched to the ears of noctuid moths and are less detectable than those of aerially hawking bats. We recorded auditory receptor cell action potentials elicited in underwing moths (Catocala spp.) by echolocation calls emitted during gleaning attacks by Myotis septentrionalis (the northern long-eared bat) and during flights by the aerial hawker Myotis lucifugus (the little brown bat). The moth ear responds inconsistently and with fewer action potentials to the echolocation calls emitted by the gleaner, a situation that worsened when the moth's ear was covered by its wing (mimicking a moth resting on a surface). Calls emitted by the aerial-hawking bat elicited a significantly stronger spiking response from the moth ear. Moths with their ears covered by their wings maintained their relative hearing sensitivity at their best frequency range, the range used by most aerial insectivorous bats, but showed a pronounced deafness in the frequency range typically employed by gleaning bats. Our results (1) support the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaners are acoustically inconspicuous to the ears of moths (and presumably other nocturnal tympanate insects), leaving the moths particularly vulnerable to predation, and (2) suggest that gleaners gain a foraging advantage against eared prey. PMID:8315370

Faure, P A; Fullard, J H; Dawson, J W

1993-05-01

241

Entropy crisis, ideal glass transition, and polymer melting: exact solution on a Husimi cactus.  

PubMed

We investigate an extension of the lattice model of melting of semiflexible polymers originally proposed by Flory. Along with a bending penalty epsilon, present in the original model and involving three sites of the lattice, we introduce an interaction energy epsilon (p), corresponding to the presence of a pair of parallel bonds and an interaction energy epsilon (h), associated with a hairpin turn. Both these new terms represent four-site interactions. The model is solved exactly on a Husimi cactus, which approximates a square lattice. We study the phase diagram of the system as a function of the energies. For a proper choice of the interaction energies, the model exhibits a first-order melting transition between a liquid and a crystalline phase at a temperature T(M). The continuation of the liquid phase below T(M) gives rise to a supercooled liquid, which turns continuously into a new low-temperature phase, called metastable liquid, at T(MC)

Corsi, Andrea; Gujrati, P D

2003-09-01

242

Entropy crisis, ideal glass transition, and polymer melting: Exact solution on a Husimi cactus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate an extension of the lattice model of melting of semiflexible polymers originally proposed by Flory. Along with a bending penalty ?, present in the original model and involving three sites of the lattice, we introduce an interaction energy ?p, corresponding to the presence of a pair of parallel bonds and an interaction energy ?h, associated with a hairpin turn. Both these new terms represent four-site interactions. The model is solved exactly on a Husimi cactus, which approximates a square lattice. We study the phase diagram of the system as a function of the energies. For a proper choice of the interaction energies, the model exhibits a first-order melting transition between a liquid and a crystalline phase at a temperature TM. The continuation of the liquid phase below TM gives rise to a supercooled liquid, which turns continuously into a new low-temperature phase, called metastable liquid, at TMC

Corsi, Andrea; Gujrati, P. D.

2003-09-01

243

Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-?-farnesene, and (E,E)-?-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-?-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend should be helpful for monitoring female codling moth, and may provide the basis for further improvement of codling moth kairomone. PMID:23564293

El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

2013-05-01

244

Antioxidative effect of cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) extract on lipid peroxidation inhibition in oils and emulsion model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects of cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts (CPFE) on fish oil, fish oil-in-water emulsion and linoleic acid were studied using conjugated diene hydroperoxides (CDH), weight gaining, peroxide value (PV), and thiobabituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. A modified DPPH assay was used in the characterization of CPFE antioxidants for their thermal stability. CPFE successfully

Nalin Siriwardhana; You-Jin Jeon

2004-01-01

245

Cactus-like and honeycomb-like zinc selenide microspheres on graphene oxide sheets with excellent optical properties.  

PubMed

Novel cactus-like and honeycomb-like ZnSe microspheres have been successfully grown on graphene oxide sheets by hydrothermal method at 190°C for 24h. The morphologies, structures, chemical compositions and optical properties of the as-grown ZnSe microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Raman spectra. It was found that the concentration of EDTA was important for the formation of morphologies of ZnSe microspheres. The cactus-like ZnSe microspheres were formed when the concentration of EDTA was 0.3M. With increasing the concentration of EDTA to 0.45M, honeycomb-like ZnSe microspheres were formed. The results of XRD revealed that the as-grown ZnSe microspheres have cubic zinc blende structure. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) showed that the samples emit blue-green light under ultraviolet light. The results of Raman spectra, XRD and SEM showed that the ZnSe microspheres were grown on graphene oxide sheets. The formation mechanism of ZnSe microspheres grown on graphene oxide sheets was also discussed. PMID:24998063

Han, Junwei; Xue, Shaolin; Zhou, Weikang; Wu, Shuxian; Xie, Pei; Zou, Rujia

2014-09-15

246

A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory  

E-print Network

An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers $60\\%$ of 2$\\pi$. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ${\\Delta}E-E$ silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and $\\gamma$ decay as a function of excitation energy.

Tamás Gábor Tornyi; Andreas Görgen; Magne Guttormsen; Ann-Cecilie Larsen; Sunniva Siem; Attila Krasznahorkay; Lóránt Csige

2013-12-02

247

Cactus juice as bioflocculant in the coagulation-flocculation process for industrial wastewater treatment: a comparative study with polyacrylamide.  

PubMed

Most industries in the world treat their wastewaters with a conventional coagulation-flocculation process using alum as coagulant, polyacrylamide (PAM) as flocculant and lime as coagulant aid. To reduce the use of chemical products in the process, experiments were conducted to substitute the PAM with cactus juice (CJ) as flocculant. From the obtained data, it was concluded that the substitution of PAM with CJ in the coagulation-flocculation process was very effective, compared with PAM. Depending on the wastewater's origin, the bioflocculant showed removal efficiencies of 83.3-88.7% for suspended solids (SS) and 59.1-69.1% for chemical oxygen demand (COD). Lime addition enhanced the coagulation-flocculation process in the presence of CJ similarly to the PAM with efficiencies greater than 90% for both SS and COD. The CJ powder's infrared (IR) spectrum showed the main functional groups present in PAM. It was concluded that CJ as a flocculant fits well with the definition of sustainability and it is appropriate for countries that have regions where cactuses grow naturally. PMID:25325541

Sellami, Mohamed; Zarai, Zied; Khadhraoui, Moncef; Jdidi, Nidal; Leduc, Roland; Ben Rebah, Faouzi

2014-01-01

248

Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed. Additional pens and sheds were built to house and manage livestock involved with the Operation Roofer Coaster activities in 1963.

NONE

1998-07-01

249

The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach.  

PubMed

We studied the efficiency and effects of the multiple sensory cues of tiger moths on echolocating bats. We used the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, a purported moth specialist that takes surface-bound prey (gleaning) and airborne prey (aerial hawking), and the dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, an eared species unpalatable to bats that possesses conspicuous colouration and sound-producing organs (tymbals). This is the first study to investigate the interaction of tiger moths and wild-caught bats under conditions mimicking those found in nature and to demand the use of both aerial hawking and gleaning strategies by bats. Further, it is the first to report spectrograms of the sounds produced by tiger moths while under aerial attack by echolocating bats. During both aerial hawking and gleaning trials, all muted C. tenera and perched intact C. tenera were attacked by M. septentrionalis, indicating that M. septentrionalis did not discriminate C. tenera from palatable moths based on potential echoic and/or non-auditory cues. Intact C. tenera were attacked significantly less often than muted C. tenera during aerial hawking attacks: tymbal clicks were therefore an effective deterrent in an aerial hawking context. During gleaning attacks, intact and muted C. tenera were always attacked and suffered similar mortality rates, suggesting that while handling prey this bat uses primarily chemical signals. Our results also show that C. tenera temporally matches the onset of click production to the ;approach phase' echolocation calls produced by aerial hawking attacking bats and that clicks themselves influence the echolocation behaviour of attacking bats. In the context of past research, these findings support the hypotheses that the clicks of arctiid moths are both an active defence (through echolocation disruption) and a reliable indicator of chemical defence against aerial-hawking bats. We suggest these signals are specialized for an aerial context. PMID:16326950

Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

2005-12-01

250

Species-specific effects of herbivory on the oviposition behavior of the moth Manduca sexta.  

PubMed

In Southwestern USA, the jimsonweed Datura wrightii and the nocturnal sphinx moth Manduca sexta form a pollinator-plant and herbivore-plant association. While certain plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) attract moths for oviposition, it is likely that other host-derived olfactory cues, such as herbivore-induced VOCs, repel moths for oviposition. Here, we studied the oviposition preference of female M. sexta towards intact and damaged host plants of three species: D. wrightii, D. discolor (a less preferred feeding resource but also used by females for oviposition), and Solanum lycopersicum-tomato-(used by moths as an oviposition resource only). Damage was inflicted to the plants either by larval feeding or artificial damage. Mated females were exposed to an intact plant and a damaged plant and allowed to lay eggs for 10 min. Oviposition preferences of females were highly heterogeneous in all cases, but a larger proportion of moths laid significantly fewer eggs on feeding-damaged and artificially damaged plants of S. lycopersicum. Many females also avoided feeding-damaged D. discolor and D. wrightii plants induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate. Chemical analyses showed a significant increase in the total amount of VOCs released by vegetative tissues of feeding-damaged plants, as well as species-specific increases in emission of certain VOCs. In particular, feeding-damaged S. lycopersicum plants emitted (-)-linalool, an odorant that repels moths for oviposition. Finally, the emission of D. wrightii floral VOCs, which are important in mediating feeding by adult moths (and hence pollination), did not change in plants damaged by larval feeding. We propose that the observed differential effects of herbivory on oviposition choice are due to different characteristics (i.e., mutually beneficial or parasitic) of the insect-plant interaction. PMID:23274850

Reisenman, Carolina E; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Duffy, Kristin; Pesque, Adrien; Mikles, David; Goodwin, Brenna

2013-01-01

251

A moth pheromone brewery: production of (Z)-11-hexadecenol by heterologous co-expression of two biosynthetic genes from a noctuid moth in a yeast cell factory  

PubMed Central

Background Moths (Lepidoptera) are highly dependent on chemical communication to find a mate. Compared to conventional unselective insecticides, synthetic pheromones have successfully served to lure male moths as a specific and environmentally friendly way to control important pest species. However, the chemical synthesis and purification of the sex pheromone components in large amounts is a difficult and costly task. The repertoire of enzymes involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis in insecta can be seen as a library of specific catalysts that can be used to facilitate the synthesis of a particular chemical component. In this study, we present a novel approach to effectively aid in the preparation of semi-synthetic pheromone components using an engineered vector co-expressing two key biosynthetic enzymes in a simple yeast cell factory. Results We first identified and functionally characterized a ?11 Fatty-Acyl Desaturase and a Fatty-Acyl Reductase from the Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. The ?11-desaturase produced predominantly Z11-16:acyl, a common pheromone component precursor, from the abundant yeast palmitic acid and the FAR transformed a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding alcohols which may serve as pheromone components in many moth species. Secondly, when we co-expressed the genes in the Brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a set of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols that are not naturally occurring in yeast were produced from inherent yeast fatty acids, and the presence of (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), demonstrated that both heterologous enzymes were active in concert. A 100 ml batch yeast culture produced on average 19.5 ?g Z11-16:OH. Finally, we demonstrated that oxidized extracts from the yeast cells containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal and other aldehyde pheromone compounds elicited specific electrophysiological activity from male antennae of the Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, supporting the idea that genes from different species can be used as a molecular toolbox to produce pheromone components or pheromone component precursors of potential use for control of a variety of moths. Conclusions This study is a first proof-of-principle that it is possible to “brew” biologically active moth pheromone components through in vitro co-expression of pheromone biosynthetic enzymes, without having to provide supplementary precursors. Substrates present in the yeast alone appear to be sufficient. PMID:24330839

2013-01-01

252

Oviposition and pollination behavior of the yucca moth, Tegeticula maculata (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae), and its relation to the reproductive biology of Yucca whipplei (Agavaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult behavior of the yucca moth, Tegeticula maculata Riley, is finely tuned to the reproductive biology of its specific host plant, Yucca whipplei Torr. The female moths oviposit in the ovaries of the yucca flowers and actively pollinate the same flowers with pollen which they have collected previously. The selective pressures imposed on the moths by 1) the plant's

C. L. Aker; D. Udovic

1981-01-01

253

Snmp-1, a Novel Membrane Protein of Olfactory Neurons of the Silk Moth Antheraea polyphemus with Homology to the CD36 Family of  

E-print Network

Snmp-1, a Novel Membrane Protein of Olfactory Neurons of the Silk Moth Antheraea polyphemus of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. We have purified and cloned a prominent 67-kDa protein which we of olfactory neuron receptor membranes of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. The morphology of the A

Vogt, Richard G.

254

Noctuid moths show neural and behavioural responses to sounds made by some bat-marking rings.  

PubMed

Coloured rings are often used for marking bats so that specific individuals can be recognized. We noticed that the rings of mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis and Myotis blythii, in a combination of one plastic-split and one metallic ring on the same forearm, emitted sounds that were largely ultrasonic each time the rings met in flight. We recorded the ring sounds and the echolocation calls produced by the bats, and played them back to neural preparations of lesser yellow underwing moths, Noctua comes, while making extracellular recordings from the moths' A1 auditory receptors. The peak energy of the ring sounds occurred much closer in frequency to the moth's best auditory frequency (the frequency at which the moth has the lowest auditory threshold) than the peak energy of the calls, for both bat species, and the ring sounds were detected at a threshold 5-6 dB peSPL lower than the calls. Moths performed evasive manoeuvres to playbacks of ring sounds more frequently than they did to control (tape noise) sequences. These neural and behavioural responses imply that certain bats should not be marked with two rings on one wing, as this may make the bat more apparent to tympanate insects, and may therefore reduce its foraging success. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10202090

Norman; Jones; Arlettaz

1999-04-01

255

THE GLEANING ATTACKS OF THE NORTHERN LONG-EARED BAT, MYOTIS SEPTENTRIONALIS, ARE RELATIVELY INAUDIBLE TO MOTHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study empirically tests the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaning insectivorous bats (short duration, high frequency, low intensity) are acoustically mismatched to the ears of noctuid moths and are less detectable than those of aerially hawking bats. We recorded auditory receptor cell action potentials elicited in underwing moths (Catocala spp.) by echolocation calls emitted during gleaning attacks

PAUL A. FAURE; JAMES H. FULLARD; W. DAWSON

1993-01-01

256

Effects of winter temperatures on gypsy moth egg masses in the Great Lakes region of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of winter survival of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) eggs and phenology of egg hatch in spring are strongly dependent on temperature and are critical aspects of gypsy moth management programs. We monitored internal temperatures of egg masses at three heights aboveground level and at the four cardinal aspects on oak tree stems at two different locations in

J. A. Andresen; D. G. McCullough; B. E. Potter; C. N. Koller; L. S. Bauer; D. P. Lusch; C. W. Rammd

2001-01-01

257

Tree Mortality in Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands Defoliated by the European Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defoliation by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and subsequent tree mortality have been well documented in the northeastern United States. In this study we evaluate tree mortality after initial defoliation in mixed pine- hardwood stands in the southeastern United States as the range of European gypsy moth expands. In 1993, 46 mature pine- oak and pine-sweetgum stands were

Mark H. Eisenbies; Christopher Davidson; James Johnson; Ralph Amateis; Kurt Gottschalk

2007-01-01

258

Host-plant green-leaf volatiles synergize the synthetic sex pheromones of the corn earworm and codling moth (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The capture of adult male moths in female sex pheromone traps of two key agricultural pests, the corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) and the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), is enhanced or synergized by a certain group of host-plant volatiles, the “green-leaf volatiles” (GLVs). Since female adults of both species call and release their sex pheromones while perched upon the leaves

Douglas M. Light; Robert A. Flath; Ronald G. Buttery; Frank G. Zalom; Richard E. Rice; Joseph C. Dickens; Eric B. Jang

1993-01-01

259

Plant nitrogen and fluctuations of insect populations: A test with the cinnabar moth—tansy ragwort system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine populations of cinnabar moth, introduced to North America as biological control agents of tansy ragwort, were studied for 4 to 6 years. We tested the hypothesis that good quality of the food plant, measured as percent protein, would destabilize the moth populations. A positive correlation occurred between the percent nitrogen in the plants and the coefficient of variation of

Judith H. Myers; Ben J. Post

1981-01-01

260

Some chemical bases for gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar , larval rejection of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica , foliage as food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash is one of the few tree species rejected as food by larvae of the generalist gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Such rejection is based especially on chemicals present in green ash foliage. The gypsy moth larval feeding-inhibitory activity is contained in the ethyl acetate extractables of green ash foliage. Three representative columnchromatographed fractions of the extractables contained

Ingrid Markovic; Dale M. Norris; Miodrag Cekic

1996-01-01

261

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 53, NO. 4, AUGUST 2004 1113 Explosives Detection With Hard-Wired Moths  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 53, NO. 4, AUGUST 2004 1113 Explosives. Smith Abstract--Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled

Daly, Kevin Charles

262

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Rice Moth, Corcyra cephalonica  

PubMed Central

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined as a circular molecular of 15,273 bp in size. The mitogenome composition (37 genes) and gene order are the same as the other lepidopterans. Nucleotide composition of the C. cephalonica mitogenome is highly A+T biased (80.43%) like other insects. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of coxl gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine protein-coding genes have the common stop codon TAA, and the nad2, cox1, cox2, and nad4 have single T as the incomplete stop codon. 22 tRNA genes demonstrated cloverleaf secondary structure. The mitogenome has several large intergenic spacer regions, the spacer1 between trnQ gene and nad2 gene, which is common in Lepidoptera. The spacer 3 between trnE and trnF includes microsatellite-like repeat regions (AT)18 and (TTAT)3. The spacer 4 (16 bp) between trnS2 gene and nad1 gene has a motif ATACTAT; another species, Sesamia inferens encodes ATCATAT at the same position, while other lepidopteran insects encode a similar ATACTAA motif. The spacer 6 is A+T rich region, include motif ATAGA and a 20-bp poly(T) stretch and two microsatellite (AT)9, (AT)8 elements. PMID:23413968

Wu, Yu-Peng; Li, Jie; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

2012-01-01

263

The complete mitochondrial genome of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica.  

PubMed

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined as a circular molecular of 15,273 bp in size. The mitogenome composition (37 genes) and gene order are the same as the other lepidopterans. Nucleotide composition of the C. cephalonica mitogenome is highly A+T biased (80.43%) like other insects. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of coxl gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine protein-coding genes have the common stop codon TAA, and the nad2, cox1, cox2, and nad4 have single T as the incomplete stop codon. 22 tRNA genes demonstrated cloverleaf secondary structure. The mitogenome has several large intergenic spacer regions, the spacer1 between trnQ gene and nad2 gene, which is common in Lepidoptera. The spacer 3 between trnE and trnF includes microsatellite-like repeat regions (AT)18 and (TTAT)(3). The spacer 4 (16 bp) between trnS2 gene and nad1 gene has a motif ATACTAT; another species, Sesamia inferens encodes ATCATAT at the same position, while other lepidopteran insects encode a similar ATACTAA motif. The spacer 6 is A+T rich region, include motif ATAGA and a 20-bp poly(T) stretch and two microsatellite (AT)(9), (AT)(8) elements. PMID:23413968

Wu, Yu-Peng; Li, Jie; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

2012-01-01

264

Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference  

PubMed Central

Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores. PMID:22319127

Saveer, Ahmed M.; Kromann, Sophie H.; Birgersson, Goran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S.; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G.; Ignell, Rickard

2012-01-01

265

Olfactory perireceptor and receptor events in moths: a kinetic model.  

PubMed

A mathematical model of perireceptor and receptor events has been developed for olfactory sensilla on the antennae of the moth Antheraea polyphemus. The model includes the adsorptive uptake of pheromone molecules by the olfactory hair, their transport on and within the hair by diffusion, the formation of a complex of pheromone and the extracellular pheromone-binding protein (PBP), the interaction of the complex pheromone-PBP with the hypothetical receptor molecule on the plasma membrane of the olfactory cell, the deactivation of the pheromone and, finally, its enzymatic degradation. In the model the PBP with its reduced form (with one or two intramolecular disulfide bonds) first acts as a carrier of the odorant. Later, while the pheromone is bound, it changes to an oxidized form (three disulfide bonds) with a scavenger function (carrier-to-scavenger model). This process of pheromone deactivation rather than the enzymatic pheromone degradation is responsible for the fall of the receptor potential after stimulus offset. The model is based on morphometrical, radiometrical, electrophysiological and biochemical data reported by several authors. The study supports the idea that peripheral events rather than intracellular signalling processes govern the kinetics of the receptor potential in the unadapted receptor cell. PMID:11238244

Kaissling, K E

2001-02-01

266

POLARIZED INTERCELLULAR BRIDGES IN OVARIAN FOLLICLES OF THE CECROPIA MOTH  

PubMed Central

Fluorescein-labeled rabbit serum globulin was injected into vitellogenic oocytes of the cecropia moth. Though the label spread throughout the ooplasm in less than 30 min, it was unable even after 2 h to cross the complex of intercellular bridges connecting the oocyte to its seven nurse cells. After injection into a single nurse cell, fluorescence was detected in the oocyte adjacent to the bridge complex within 3 min and had spread throughout the ooplasm in 30 min. Here also, the cell bodies of the six uninjected nurse cells remained nonfluorescent. Four of the nurse cells are not bridged directly to the oocyte but only through the apical ends of their siblings. Unidirectional movement must therefore occur in the apical cytoplasm of the nurse cells, as well as in the intercellular bridges. The nurse cells of healthy follicles had an intracellular electrical potential -40 mV relative to blood or dissecting solution, while oocytes measured -30 mV. A mV difference was also detected by direct comparison between a ground electrode in one cell and a recording electrode in the other. Three conditions were found in which the 10 mV difference was reduced or reversed in polarity. In all three cases fluorescent globulin was able in some degree to cross the bridges from the oocyte to the nurse cells. PMID:4125369

Woodruff, Richard I.; Telfer, William H.

1973-01-01

267

Climatic warming increases voltinism in European butterflies and moths  

PubMed Central

Climate change is altering geographical ranges, population dynamics and phenologies of many organisms. For ectotherms, increased ambient temperatures frequently have direct consequences for metabolic rates, activity patterns and developmental rates. Consequently, in many insect species both an earlier beginning and prolongation of seasonal duration occurred in parallel with recent global warming. However, from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, the number of generations (voltinism) and investment into each generation may be even more important than seasonality, since an additional generation per unit time may accelerate population growth or adaptation. Using a dataset extending back to the mid-nineteenth century, I report changes in the voltinism of butterfly and moth species of Central Europe. A significant proportion of 263 multi-voltine species showed augmented frequency of second and subsequent generations relative to the first generation in a warm period since 1980, and 44 species even increased the number of generations after 1980. Expected ecological consequences are diverse. Since multi-voltinism has been linked to insect outbreaks they include an increase in the abundance of herbivorous pests of agriculture and forestry. However, disruption of the developmental synchrony associated with multi-voltinism and host plant phenology may also reduce fitness, potentially having unexpected consequences for species of conservation concern. The ability of species to adapt evolutionarily to a changing environment may be facilitated by increased voltinism. PMID:20031988

Altermatt, Florian

2010-01-01

268

Sex or Food? Appetetive Learning of Sex Odors in a Male Moth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moths learn to associate a flower odor with a food reward after a few learning trials. Can a hungry, male moth learn to associate a sex attractant with food instead of with sex? We provided a hungry male with odors of single female sex pheromone components, of the full sex pheromone blend or of a flower odor component as cues in an appetitive learning assay. The male learned the single pheromone components just as well as the flower odor. Learning was, however, severely impaired when the full sex pheromone blend was used as conditioning stimulus. The "hard-wiring" between pheromone odor and sex thus seems to be restricted to those circumstances when the male moth experiences the full blend.

Hartlieb, Elke; Hansson, Bill S.; Anderson, Peter

269

Indian meal moth (plodia interpunctella)-resistant food packaging film development using microencapsulated cinnamon oil.  

PubMed

Insect-resistant laminate films containing microencapsulated cinnamon oil (CO) were developed to protect food products from the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). CO microencapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol was incorporated with a printing ink and the ink mixture was applied to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film as an ink coating. The coated LDPE surface was laminated with a polypropylene film. The laminate film impeded the invasion of moth larvae and repelled the larvae. The periods of time during which cinnamaldehyde level in the film remained above a minimum repelling concentration, predicted from the concentration profile, were 21, 21, and 10 d for cookies, chocolate, and caramel, respectively. Coating with microencapsulated ink did not alter the tensile or barrier properties of the laminate film. Microencapsulation effectively prevented volatilization of CO. The laminate film can be produced by modern film manufacturing lines and applied to protect food from Indian meal moth damage. PMID:25250888

Kim, In-Hah; Song, Ah Young; Han, Jaejoon; Park, Ki Hwan; Min, Sea C

2014-10-01

270

Evaluation of acetylated moth bean starch as a carrier for controlled drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The present investigation concerns with the development of controlled release tablets of lamivudine using acetylated moth bean starch. The acetylated starch was synthesized with acetic anhydride in pyridine medium. The acetylated moth bean starch was tested for acute toxicity and drug–excipient compatibility study. The formulations were evaluated for physical characteristics like hardness, friability, % drug content and weight variations. The in vitro release study showed that the optimized formulation exhibited highest correlation (R) value in case of Higuchi kinetic model and the release mechanism study proved that the formulation showed a combination of diffusion and erosion process. There was a significant difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax, Cmax, AUC, Vd, T1/2 and MDT) of the optimized formulation as compared to the marketed conventional tablet Lamivir®, which proved controlled release potential of acetylated moth bean starch. PMID:22210486

Singh, Akhilesh V.; Nath, Lila K.

2012-01-01

271

Coevolution and divergence in the Joshua tree/yucca moth mutualism.  

PubMed

Theory suggests that coevolution drives diversification in obligate pollination mutualism, but it has been difficult to disentangle the effects of coevolution from other factors. We test the hypothesis that differential selection by two sister species of pollinating yucca moths (Tegeticula spp.) drove divergence between two varieties of the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) by comparing measures of differentiation in floral and vegetative features. We show that floral features associated with pollination evolved more rapidly than vegetative features extrinsic to the interaction and that a key floral feature involved in the mutualism is more differentiated than any other and matches equivalent differences in the morphology of the pollinating moths. A phylogenetically based, ancestral states reconstruction shows that differences in moth morphology arose in the time since they first became associated with Joshua trees. These results suggest that coevolution, rather than extrinsic environmental factors, has driven divergence in this obligate pollination mutualism. PMID:18462130

Godsoe, William; Yoder, Jeremy B; Smith, Christopher Irwin; Pellmyr, Olle

2008-06-01

272

Effect of cold treatment on survival and development of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in cherry.  

PubMed

'Bing' cherries, Prunus avium L., were obtained from an organic orchard and a conventional commercial orchard. The two groups were examined separately in replicated tests infested with each fruit initially infested with a first-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). To simulate commercial postharvest holding conditions, the treatments were 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 d cold storage at 3.3 degrees C. The fruits were examined three or more times to determine larval survival, life stage, fruit condition, and fungal disease. Survival of first instars was affected only by cold storage durations of > or = 7 d. When infested with codling moth larvae, both organic and conventionally grown cherries quickly deteriorated from fungal diseases. The rate of moth development was estimated from the surviving larvae and was significantly different between organic and conventionally grown cherries for all instars except the second. PMID:11942758

Hansen, James D

2002-02-01

273

Metabolic differentiation of diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella (L.)) resistance in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata).  

PubMed

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest responsible for destroying cabbage and other Brassica vegetable crops. A diamondback moth-resistant cabbage line was studied by comparing its metabolite profiles with those of a susceptible cabbage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, and amides were the major factors that distinguished the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiled 46 metabolites, including 19 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 8 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine in two genotypes and F1 hybrid cabbages. The levels of glycolic acid, quinic acid, inositol, fumaric acid, glyceric acid, trehalose, shikimic acid, and aspartic acid were found to be very significantly different between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with a P value of <0.0001. These results will provide a foundation for further studies on diamondback moth resistance in cabbage breeding and for the development of other herbivore-resistant crops. PMID:24144435

Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Su Ryun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Soo-Yun; Song, Seung Yeub; Na, Jonghyun; Kim, Suk Weon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Nou, Ill-Sup; Lee, Yong Han; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Hyeran

2013-11-20

274

Fabrication of Moth-Eye Structure on Glass by Ultraviolet Imprinting Process with Polymer Template  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An antireflection moth-eye structure was fabricated on a glass substrate by ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). A Ni template with an artificial conical structure was fabricated by laser interference lithography an used as a stamp for embossing. A transparent PVC template was fabricated by hot embossing. The embossed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) film was then used as an imprint template after depositing SiO2 and a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Using the embossed PVC film as a UV-NIL stamp, a polymer based moth-eye structure was formed on the glass template and its transmittance, parallel to surface normal, was increased to 93% for a single side patterned and 97% for a double side patterned. However, at wavelengths shorter than 430 nm, the transmittance of 30°-rotated glass substrate with a moth-eye structure became lower than that of the bare glass substrate, while the transmittance was not changed for longer wavelength regions.

Bae, Byeong-Ju; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Eun-Ju; Lee, Heon; Jung, Gun-young

2009-01-01

275

Impact of ant predation and heat on carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) mortality in California date gardens.  

PubMed

Dates, Phoenix dactylifera L., undergo a natural fruit abscission during the summer in California date gardens. Many of the abscised dates become lodged in the date bunch, and we demonstrated that carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), prefer to use these dates as a reproduction host compared with dates that fall to the ground. We also found that abscised fruit shaken onto the ground had significantly fewer live carob moth larvae than fruit that remained in bunches in the tree. Mortality in the dropped fruit was attributed to predation by two native ant species, the fire ant Solenopsis aurea Wheeler, and the California harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus (Buckley), in concert with extreme summer ground temperatures. Dates that fell in the full sunlight rapidly increased in temperature, which resulted in larvae either exiting the fruit (exposing them to ants) or dying in the fruit. Removal of abscised dates from bunches may provide a possible management strategy for carob moths in California date gardens. PMID:16022299

Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

2005-06-01

276

Toxicity of different diets contaminated with various fungi to rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica st).  

PubMed

Growth studies of rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica st) have been carried out in groundnut meal and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus, A. oryzae, P. purpurogenus and P. rubrum. It was observed that the diets contaminated with A. flavus only are toxic to these larvae. Wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus is more toxic than contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran contaminated diet has been discussed. Aflatoxins produced in different substrata are shown to differ when analysed chromatographically. Growth studies of rice moth larvae have also been carried out with aflatoxin and the susceptibility of these larvae has been established. PMID:4227044

Hegde, U C; Chandra, T; Shanmugasundaram, E R

1967-06-01

277

Toxicity of Different Diets Contaminated with Various Fungi to Rice Moth Larvae (Corcyra Cephalonica St.)  

PubMed Central

Growth studies of rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica st) have been carried out in groundnut meal and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus, A. oryzae, P. purpurogenus and P. rubrum. It was observed that the diets contaminated with A. flavus only are toxic to these larvae. Wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus is more toxic than contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran contaminated diet has been discussed. Aflatoxins produced in different substrata are shown to differ when analysed chromatographically. Growth studies of rice moth larvae have also been carried out with aflatoxin and the susceptibility of these larvae has been established. PMID:4227044

Hegde, Umashashi C.; Chandra, T.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

1967-01-01

278

Volatile principle from oak leaves: role in sex life of the polyphemus moth.  

PubMed

An emanation from oak leaves is necessary for the mating of polyphemus moths under laboratory conditions. This requirement can be satisfied by placing the moths in the presence of oak leaves or aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from oak leaves. The active principle is a vola- tile, heat-stable, polar material which has been partially purified. The oak emanation acts on the female and not on the male, and the sensory receptors are located on the female antennae. The reception of the oak emanation is prerequisite for the female's release of her sex pheromone, which in turn, is necessary for the sexual activation of the male. PMID:17737409

Riddiford, L M; Williams, C M

1967-02-01

279

Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces pollinator visitation and seed set in the coast barrel cactus, Ferocactus viridescens.  

PubMed

Mounting evidence indicates that trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction arise not only from resource allocation but also from interactions among mutualists. Indirect costs of plant defense by ants, for example, can outweigh benefits if ants deter pollinators. Plants can dissuade ants from occupying flowers, but such arrangements may break down when novel ant partners infiltrate mutualisms. Here, we examine how floral visitation by ants affects pollination services when the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) replaces a native ant species in a food-for-protection mutualism with the coast barrel cactus (Ferocactus viridescens), which, like certain other barrel cacti, produces extrafloral nectar. We compared the effects of floral visitation by the Argentine ant with those of the most prevalent native ant species (Crematogaster californica). Compared to C. californica, the Argentine ant was present in higher numbers in flowers. Cactus bees (Diadasia spp.), the key pollinators in this system, spent less time in flowers when cacti were occupied by the Argentine ant compared to when cacti were occupied by C. californica. Presumably as a consequence of decreased duration of floral visits by Diadasia, cacti occupied by L. humile set fewer seeds per fruit and produced fewer seeds overall compared to cacti occupied by C. californica. These data illustrate the importance of mutualist identity in cases where plants balance multiple mutualisms. Moreover, as habitats become increasingly infiltrated by introduced species, the loss of native mutualists and their replacement by non-native species may alter the shape of trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction. PMID:23892582

LeVan, Katherine E; Hung, Keng-Lou James; McCann, Kyle R; Ludka, John T; Holway, David A

2014-01-01

280

Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it. PMID:15384349

Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

2004-08-01

281

Trifluoromethyl ketones as inhibitors of the processionary moth sex pheromone.  

PubMed

Aliphatic and aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones have been evaluated in the laboratory and in the field as inhibitors of the pheromone response of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa males. Among them, two compounds, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one and (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one, are closely related analogs of the natural pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate. In the laboratory experiments, carried out by pre-exposure of males to vapors of the chemicals, alpha-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, beta-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one and (Z)-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one displayed notable blockage of the pheromone detection on EAG. The activity of 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one is postulated to be due to the inhibition of the pheromone-degrading esterase. In general, the compounds have shown low specificity for the substrate and exhibited only a modest or null EAG intrinsic activity. In the field, benzyl trifluoromethyl ketone, trifluoroacetophenone, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one and beta-naphthyl trifluoroacetate showed a remarkable disruptant effect when mixed with the pheromone in 1:0.1, 1:1 and 1:10 ratio. (Z)-16-Nonadecen-14-yn-2-one has been found to be a modest agonist of the natural pheromone, exhibiting an attractant activity threefold lower than the parent molecule. PMID:8055254

Parrilla, A; Guerrero, A

1994-02-01

282

Mating of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths and their host plant origins as larvae within Australian cotton farming systems.  

PubMed

Transgenic (Bt) cotton dominates Australian cotton production systems. It is grown to control feeding damage by lepidopteran pests such as Helicoverpa armigera. The possibility that these moths might become resistant to Bt remains a threat. Consequently, refuge crops (with no Bt) must be grown with Bt cotton to produce large numbers of Bt-susceptible moths to reduce the risk of resistance developing. A key assumption of the refuge strategy, that moths from different host plant origins mate at random, remains untested. During the period of the study reported here, refuge crops included pigeon pea, conventional cotton (C3 plants), sorghum or maize (C4 plants). To identify the relative contributions made by these (and perhaps other) C3 and C4 plants to populations of H. armigera in cotton landscapes, we measured stable carbon isotopes (?(13)C) within individual moths captured in the field. Overall, 53% of the moths were of C4 origin. In addition, we demonstrated, by comparing the stable isotope signatures of mating pairs of moths, that mating is indeed random amongst moths of different plant origins (i.e. C3 and C4). Stable nitrogen isotope signatures (?(15)N) were recorded to further discriminate amongst host plant origins (e.g. legumes from non-legumes), but such measurements proved generally unsuitable. Since 2010, maize and sorghum are no longer used as dedicated refuges in Australia. However, these plants remain very common crops in cotton production regions, so their roles as 'unstructured' refuges seem likely to be significant. PMID:22999440

Baker, G H; Tann, C R

2013-04-01

283

Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth  

PubMed Central

Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history. PMID:25360250

van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

2014-01-01

284

Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r?=?0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r?=?0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r?=?0.701), Blattella germanica (r?=?0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r?=?0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens. PMID:24787549

Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

2014-01-01

285

Epicuticular changes and storage potential of cactus pear [ Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] fruit following gibberellic acid preharvest sprays and postharvest heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (L.) cv. Gialla] fruit were treated 10 weeks after the second induced-bloom flush with 10 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) or were heated at 37°C for 30 h under saturated humidity after harvest. The two treatments were also combined before storage at 6°C for 45 days plus 4 additional days at 20°C to simulate a marketing

M. Schirra; G. D’hallewin; P. Inglese; T. La Mantia

1999-01-01

286

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought and SaltTolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused x-ray fluorescence elemental and chemical mapping (μXRF), Se K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). μXRF showed Se concentrated inside small conic, vestigial

Gary S. Banuelos; Sirine C. Fakra; Spencer S. Walse; Matthew A. Marcus; Soo In Yang; Ingrid J. Pickering; Elizabeth A. H. Pilon-Smits; John L. Freeman

2011-01-01

287

Host Odor Mediated Response of Female Navel Orangeworm Moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to  

E-print Network

Materials and Methods Mark-Release-Recapture Experiment. In 1987, a mark-release-recapture experiment (Walker),female moths that were attracted to and caught in black versus white sticky traps. In a mark-release- recapture experiment, 982% of the recaptured females were recovered in black traps after 7 d Black traps

288

Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures.  

PubMed

We present the effect of broadband antireflective coverglasses (BARCs) with moth eye structures on the power generation capability of a sub-receiver module for concentrated photovoltaics. The period and height of the moth eye structures were designed by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in order to cover the full solar spectral ranges without transmission band shrinkage. The BARCs with moth eye structures were prepared by the dry etching of silver (Ag) nanomasks, and the fabricated moth eye structures on coverglass showed strongly enhanced transmittance compared to the bare glass with a flat surface, at wavelengths of 300 - 1800 nm. The BARCs were mounted on InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the power conversion efficiency of this sub-receiver module reached 42.16% for 196 suns, which is a 7.41% boosted value compared to that of a module with bare coverglass, without any detrimental changes of the open circuit voltages (Voc) and fill factor (FF). PMID:23187668

Song, Young Min; Jeong, Yonkil; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

2012-11-01

289

Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures.  

PubMed

We present the effect of broadband antireflective coverglasses (BARCs) with moth eye structures on the power generation capability of a sub-receiver module for concentrated photovoltaics. The period and height of the moth eye structures were designed by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in order to cover the full solar spectral ranges without transmission band shrinkage. The BARCs with moth eye structures were prepared by the dry etching of silver (Ag) nanomasks, and the fabricated moth eye structures on coverglass showed strongly enhanced transmittance compared to the bare glass with a flat surface, at wavelengths of 300 - 1800 nm. The BARCs were mounted on InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the power conversion efficiency of this sub-receiver module reached 42.16% for 196 suns, which is a 7.41% boosted value compared to that of a module with bare coverglass, without any detrimental changes of the open circuit voltages (V(oc)) and fill factor (FF). PMID:23326839

Song, Young Min; Jeong, Yonkil; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

2012-11-01

290

VIRUS TRANSMISSION IN GYPSY MOTHS IS NOT A SIMPLE MASS ACTION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

We used the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), to test one of the basic assumptions of most models of disease dynamics, that the rate of horizontal transmission is directly proportional to the product of the densiti...

291

From forest to farmland: diversity of geometrid moths along two habitat gradients on Borneo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometrid moths were collected on Mt. Kinabalu (Sabah, Malaysia) along two habitat gradients, ranging from primary rain forest to cultivated areas. During 135 nights' trapping in 1997, 4585 individuals representing 500 species were attracted by light. Primary forest samples and those from old-grown regener- ated forest exhibited high diversity (Fisher's ?= 75-128), while agricultural areas as well as most secondary

JAN BECK; CHRISTIAN H. SCHULZE; K. EDUARD LINSENMAIR; KONRAD FIEDLER

2002-01-01

292

European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. This insect is a pest of grapes

293

Variation in moth occurrence and implications for foraging habitat of Ozark big-eared bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated patterns of moth occurrence among habitats in two different landscapes surrounding roosts of the endangered Ozark big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii ingens) from May to August 2005, and compared these data with published results on the diet of this subspecies. Landscapes were situated in the Ozark Mountains, USA, and consisted of a fragmented, agricultural landscape and a contiguous national

Luke E. Dodd; Michael J. Lacki; Lynne K. Rieske

2008-01-01

294

Melanic Moth Frequencies in Yorkshire, an Old English Industrial Hot Spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey has been carried out in Leeds, England, in the west Yorkshire industrial heartland, and in neighboring York, surrounded by agriculture, of melanic frequency in the moth species Biston betularia, Odontoptera bidentata, and Apamea crenata. All show a decline in melanics in the postindustrial environment, the first over almost the full range from nearly 100% to less that 10%,

L. M. Cook; S. L. SUTTON; T. J. CRAWFORD

2005-01-01

295

(-)-Germacrene D Increases Attraction and Oviposition by the Tobacco Budworm Moth Heliothis virescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sesquiterpene germacrene D (GD) activates a major type of olfactory receptor neuron on the antennae of the heliothine moths. In Heliothis virescens females, 80% of the recordings have shown activity of one neuron type responding with high sensitivity and selectivity to GD. With the aim of determining the behavioural significance of this sesquiterpene, we have used a two-choice wind-tunnel

R. Mozuraitis; M. Stranden; M. I. Ramirez; A.-K. Borg-Karlson; H. Mustaparta

2002-01-01

296

A predictive model for gypsy moth population dynamics with model validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model for gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), population dynamics is presented. Comparison with data from the Melrose Highlands study shows the model to exhibit the same qualitative and quantitative behavior as the data. Predictions are made about future outbreaks using only a portion of the field data to fit the model parameters. Comparison of these predictions with

J. W Wilder

1999-01-01

297

HOST-ASSOCIATED GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION IN THE GOLDENROD ELLIPTICAL-GALL MOTH, GNORIMOSCHEMA GALLAESOLIDAGINIS (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Careful study of apparently generalist phytophagous insects often reveals that they instead represent com- plexes of genetically differentiated host races or cryptic species. The goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, attacks two goldenrods in the Solidago canadensiscomplex: S. altissima and S. gigantea (Asteraceae). We tested for host-associated genetic differentiation in G. gallaesolidaginis via analysis of variation at 12 allozyme loci among

John D. Nason; Stephen B. Heard; Frederick R. Williams

2002-01-01

298

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the gall-inducing moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attack ramets of Solidago altissima L. and S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), initiating stem galls early in ramet growth. We examined the relationship between ramet size (as an indicator of plant vigour) and galling rate over 3 years at a field site in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We marked Solidago ramets along

Stephen B. Heard; Graham H. Cox

2009-01-01

299

Ecology of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus in Western Siberian Populations of the Gypsy Moth ( Lymantria dispar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus on the population dynamics of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. has been studied. The results have shown that polyhedrosis morbidity in the western Siberian population of the insect is relatively low, compared to that reported for North American and European populations. A possible cause of this situation is found in the high

A. V. Il’inykh

2005-01-01

300

Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): Field studies in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of sympatric non-target Lepidoptera to two species of

Leellen F. Solter; Daniela K. Pilarska; Michael L. McManus; Milan Zúbrik; Jan Pato?ka; Wei-Fone Huang; Julius Novotný

2010-01-01

301

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid composition influences cinnabar moth oviposition preferences in Jacobaea hybrids.  

PubMed

Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites (PSMs) that may be selective against herbivores. Yet, specialist herbivores may use PSMs as cues for host recognition, oviposition, and feeding stimulation, or for their own defense against parasites and predators. This summarizes a dual role of PSMs: deter generalists but attract specialists. It is not clear yet whether specialist herbivores are a selective force in the evolution of PSM diversity. A prerequisite for such a selective force would be that the preference and/or performance of specialists is influenced by PSMs. To investigate these questions, we conducted an oviposition experiment with cinnabar moths (Tyria jacobaeae) and plants from an artificial hybrid family of Jacobaea vulgaris and Jacobaea aquatica. The cinnabar moth is a specialist herbivore of J. vulgaris and is adapted to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), defensive PSMs of these plants. The number of eggs and egg batches oviposited by the moths were dependent on plant genotype and positively correlated to concentrations of tertiary amines of jacobine-like PAs and some otosenine-like PAs. The other PAs did not correlate with oviposition preference. Results suggest that host plant PAs influence cinnabar moth oviposition preference, and that this insect is a potential selective factor against a high concentration of some individual PAs, especially those that are also involved in resistance against generalist herbivores. PMID:23435642

Cheng, Dandan; van der Meijden, Eddy; Mulder, Patrick P J; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

2013-03-01

302

How to become a yucca moth: Minimal trait evolution needed to establish the obligate pollination mutualism  

PubMed Central

The origins of obligate pollination mutualisms, such as the classic yucca-yucca moth association, appear to require extensive trait evolution and specialization. To understand the extent to which traits truly evolved as part of establishing the mutualistic relationship, rather than being preadaptations, we used an expanded phylogenetic estimate with improved sampling of deeply-diverged groups to perform the first formal reconstruction of trait evolution in pollinating yucca moths and their non-pollinating relatives. Our analysis demonstrates that key life history traits of yucca moths, including larval feeding in the floral ovary and the associated specialized cutting ovipositor, as well as colonization of woody monocots in xeric habitats, may have been established before the obligate mutualism with yuccas. Given these preexisting traits, novel traits in the mutualist moths are limited to the active pollination behaviors and the tentacular appendages that facilitate pollen collection and deposition. These results suggest that a highly specialized obligate mutualism was built on the foundation of preexisting interactions between early Prodoxidae and their host plants, and arose with minimal trait evolution. PMID:20730026

Yoder, Jeremy B.; Smith, Christopher Irwin; Pellmyr, Olle

2010-01-01

303

Mass trapping or matting disruption: are they alternative tactics for the management of citrus flower moth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus flower moth (CFM), Prays citri, is a key-pest of lemon orchards in the Oeste region of Portugal. The management of CFM is actually dependent on chemical control. Up to 12 insecticide treatments may be carried out against CFM each year. Phosphamidon is the only active ingredient registered in Portugal to control this pest and it shall be withdrawn

Silva EB; Franco JC

304

Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat–tiger moth arms race  

Microsoft Academic Search

The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger

Nickolay I. Hristov; William E. Conner

2005-01-01

305

Communication Ecology of Webbing Clothes Moth: 1. Semiochemical-Mediated Location and Suitability of Larval Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested two hypotheses: 1) that there is semiochemical-mediated attraction of male and female webbing clothes moth (WCM), Tineola bisselliella (Hum.) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) to suitable larval habitat; and 2) that selection of optimal larval habitat has fitness consequences. In binary or ternary choice arena bioassay experiments that prevented WCM from contacting test stimuli, males and females were attracted to dried

Stephen Takács; Gerhard Gries; Regine Gries

2001-01-01

306

HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Using Yellow Rocket as a Trap Crop for Diamondback Moth  

E-print Network

J. Econ. Entomol. 98(3): 884Ð890 (2005) ABSTRACT Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety, and this possibilityisdiscussedinthecontextofgeneralcropandinsectpestmanagementpracticesincrucifers. KEY WORDS Plutella xylostella, Barbarea vulgaris, trap crop, management THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH). Another trap crop suggested for P. xylostella control is yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety

Nault, Brian

307

Extracellular Transduction Events Under Pulsed Stimulation in Moth Olfactory Jean-Pierre Rospars1,2  

E-print Network

and their interaction with receptors at the dendritic membrane of neurons in Antheraea polyphemus sensitive to the main of reactions taking place up to receptor activation, in the case of the receptor neuron of the moth Antheraea polyphemus sensitive to the main component of the sexual pheromone. Significant improvements have been

Krivan, Vlastimil

308

Nosema tyriae n.sp. and Nosema sp., Microsporidian Parasites of Cinnabar Moth Tyria jacobaeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nosema tyriae n.sp. was found in 63% of a population of Cinnabar moth larvae (Tyria jacobaeae). The infection was found in the gut wall, silk glands, and fat body and was probably generalized but appeared to be of low pathogenicity. Merogony and sporogony were by binary fission of diplokaryotic stages. Fresh spores were elongate, slightly pointed at the anterior end,

Elizabeth U Canning; Alan Curry; Sarah A Cheney; Nathalie J Lafranchi-Tristem; Yuji Kawakami; Yoshinori Hatakeyama; Hidetoshi Iwano; Ren Ishihara

1999-01-01

309

Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus--a novel method for codling moth control.  

PubMed

The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally efficient in enhancing the activity of CpGV. The addition of brown cane sugar to yeast further increased larval mortality and the protection of fruit against larvae. In comparison, without yeast, the addition of sugar to CpGV did not produce a significant effect. A field trial confirmed that fruit injury and larval survival were significantly reduced when apple trees were sprayed with CpGV, M. pulcherrima, and sugar. We have shown earlier that mutualistic yeasts are an essential part of codling moth larval diet. The finding that yeast also enhances larval ingestion of an insect-pathogenic virus is an opportunity for the development of a novel plant protection technique. We expect the combination of yeasts and insect pathogens to essentially contribute to future insect management. PMID:23881444

Knight, Alan L; Witzgall, Peter

2013-07-01

310

Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basic biology and physiology of this temperate pest, little is known on its potential to develop and establish in tropical environments with short photoperiods and few to no days below 10 degrees C. Apples were harvested over three field seasons (2007-2009) from unmanaged orchards in central Washington State and subjected to simulated commercial cold storage at 1.1 +/- 2 degrees C for up to 119 d. After cold storage, infested fruits were held at 20 degrees C under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod for up to 6 mo. Over the entire experiment only 27% of the larvae collected exited the fruit and cocooned. Of those 27%, only 1.06% of larvae held under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod successfully emerged as moths. No moths emerged when host fruit would be available in a representative importing country in the tropics over the 3 yr of testing. These results indicate that codling moth in apples from the Pacific Northwest pose little threat of surviving and establishing in tropical regions where daylength is insufficient to break diapause and the chilling requirement is not met. PMID:22606796

Neven, Lisa G

2012-04-01

311

Application of sex attractants for monitoring the pea moth, Cydia nigricana (F.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of sex attractants to monitor the pea moth,Cydia nigricana (F.) in the United Kingdom is decribed. Two systems are currently available: one for use in combining (dry-harvested) peas for human consumption or seed, and one for use in vining peas for freezing or canning. The development and details of both systems are reviewed and their commercial application discussed.

C. Wall

1988-01-01

312

Report on survey for Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera  

E-print Network

................................................................................................ 11 Figure 3. Small Fastigiate Oaks at an infestation site in 2007. Tree centre right with feeding-mature trees, in both cases a form of Pedunculate Oak known as Cypress Oak (Quercus robur f. fastigiataReport on survey for Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera

313

Tree inspection and control of infestations of Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Linnaeus)  

E-print Network

Tree inspection and control of infestations of Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea ..................................................................................... 4 2.1 Designation of the core and buffer zones 2.2 Tree inspection 2.3 Use of the Plant Health affecting timely management of OPM 4.7 Inspection of other imported trees 5. Conclusions

314

The oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), a native of mainland Europe, is  

E-print Network

on oak trees in Brent, Ealing, Hounslow and Richmond boroughs. Its caterpillars feed on oak leaves after their habit of forming `nose-to-tail' processions. A silken nest on the trunk of an oak tree PestThe oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), a native of mainland Europe, is breeding

315

BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI AFFECTS A BENEFICIAL INSECT, THE CINNABAR MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE)  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. iological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (L), is susceptible ...

316

THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).  

EPA Science Inventory

Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

317

Optical diffraction by the microstructure of the wing of a moth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the wing of the moth Trichoplusia orichalcea a prominent, apparently highly reflective, golden spot can be seen. Scales from this area of the wing exhibit a regular microstructure resembling a submicrometer herringbone pattern. We show that a diffraction process from this structure is responsible for the observed optical properties, such as directionality, brightness variations, polarization, and color.

Brink, D. J.; Smit, J. E.; Lee, M. E.; Möller, A.

1995-09-01

318

Using thinning as a management tool for gypsy moth: the influence on small mammal abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural manipulations may be used to reduce forest susceptibility or vulnerability to defoliation by the gypsy moth. The effects of this management strategy on small mammal abundance were determined by pitfall trapping small mammals 1 year before silvicultural thinnings and for 3 years following thinning in a deciduous montane forest. Sorex cinereus (masked shrew) was the most frequently captured small

R. M. Muzika; S. T. Grushecky; A. M. Liebhold; R. L. Smith

2004-01-01

319

Disulfide structure of the pheromone binding protein from the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disulfide bond formation is the only known posttranslational modification of insect pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). In the PBPs from moths (Lepidoptera), six cysteine residues are highly conserved at positions 19, 50, 54, 97, 108 and 117, but to date nothing is known about their respective linkage or redox status. We used a multiple approach of enzymatic digestion, chemical cleavage, partial

Walter S Leal; Larisa Nikonova; Guihong Peng

1999-01-01

320

NOTES ON THE LIFE CYCLES OF THREE PARASITES OF THE PITCH TWIG MOTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of larval instars was not determined, but two general types of larvae were recognized: polypodeiform and fusiform. Polypodeiform (first in- star) larvae were commonly found within young pitch twig moth caterpillars during the summer after July 1. Parasite larvae collected in July and August measured approximately 0.8 mm. in length. (Hosts had been killed in Peterson's K. A.

WILLIAM E. MILLER

321

Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of blue-light-emitting diodes by moth-eye structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the high light extraction efficiency obtained by surface texturing is currently indispensable. We have developed a new method of moth-eye structure fabrication based on low-energy electron-beam projection lithography (LEEPL). The moth-eye structure comprises periodic corns with a pitch of optical wavelength scale, and is known to have a very low optical reflectivity. Since the LEEPL technique has very high throughput ability for carrying out such submicron patterning, it is applicable to the mass production of highperformance LEDs. In this study, we aim to increase the light extraction efficiency of various nitride-based LEDs, including those fabrication on sapphire and SiC substrates. The influence of the pitch of the moth-eye structure on the light extraction is also clarified. The light extraction efficiencies of flip-chip blue LEDs fabricated on SiC and sapphire substrates are increased by factors of 3.7 and 3.2, respectively, when the moth-eye structure is applied on the back of the substrate.

Kondo, T.; Suzuki, A.; Teramae, F.; Kitano, T.; Kaneko, Y.; Kawai, R.; Teshima, K.; Maeda, S.; Kamiyama, S.; Iwaya, M.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

2010-03-01

322

Development of adult thoracic leg muscles during metamorphosis of the hawk moth Manduca sexta  

Microsoft Academic Search

During metamorphosis, the larval thoracic legs of the hawk moth Manduca sexta are replaced by a new set of adult legs. The larval leg motoneurons persist to innervate new adult muscles, and the motor terminals remain within the developing adult legs. Here we describe the fate of the larval leg muscles and the origin of new muscles within the adult

C. Consoulas; M. Anezaki; R. B. Levine

1997-01-01

323

(–)-Germacrene D receptor neurones in three species of heliothine moths: structure-activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specificity of olfactory receptor neurones plays an important role in food and host preferences of a species, and may have become conserved or changed in the evolution of polyphagy and oligophagy. We have identified a major type of plant odour receptor neurones responding to the sesquiterpene germacrene D in three species of heliothine moths, the polyphagous Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa

M. Stranden; I. Liblikas; W. A. König; T. J. Almaas; A.-K. Borg-Karlson; H. Mustaparta

2003-01-01

324

Plant Essential Oils as Arrestants and Repellents for Neonate Larvae of the Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonhost chemicals may be useful for controlling insect pests of crop plants by interfering with orientation to, and selection of, host plants. Essential oils of 27 plant species were tested in 2 different laboratory assays for evidence of arrest and repellency of neonate larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. In an olfactometer in which larval upwind movement toward

PETER J. LANDOLT; RICHARD W. HOFSTETTER; LISA L. BIDDICK

325

Interactions between Two Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Pathogens: Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Entomophaga maimaiga  

E-print Network

at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794; and USDA Forest Services, 51 Mill Pond Road, Hamden those in unwatered plots (66%). The levels of LdMNPV mortality were similar in both watered; popu- lation dynamics. INTRODUCTION Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is the most damaging defoliator

Elkinton, Joseph

326

Suppression of diamondback moth using Bt-transgenic plants as a trap crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of trap crops have been recommended for managing the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, including collards (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). However, results have been variable perhaps because populations of P. xylostella develop on these trap crops and spill over to the cash crop. To overcome this problem, we sought to develop “dead-end” trap

A. M. Shelton; S. L. Hatch; J. Z. Zhao; M. Chen; E. D. Earle; J. Cao

2008-01-01

327

Appetitive flight patterns of male Agrotis segetum moths over landscape scales.  

PubMed

An analysis is presented of the first harmonic radar studies of pheromone-plume locating flights of male Agrotis segetum moths over distances of up to 500 m. Upon release most moths flew in a direction having a downwind component. The first significant changes in flight orientations occur in the immediate vicinity of a pheromone source. Moths that were initially flying downwind change course and start flying crosswind whilst those that initially flew crosswind change course and start flying upwind. It is shown that such behaviour is consistent with the adoption of an effective plume-location strategy, and conditions are identified when downwind flights would be more advantageous than crosswind ones. Additionally, some of the complex flight patterns that can arise at later times are shown to be compatible with the adoption of an optimal biased scale-free (Lévy-flight) searching strategy. It is found that disruptive doses of sex pheromone can have a marked influence upon male moth flight patterns. PMID:17109897

Reynolds, A M; Reynolds, D R; Smith, A D; Svensson, G P; Löfstedt, C

2007-03-01

328

Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate mountain landscape  

E-print Network

Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate mountain landscape: vegetation mountain landscape: vegetation, topography, and seasonality. Ecosphere 4(10):129. http://dx.doi.org/10 and structural descriptions of vegetation communities, but not related to known host-plant diversity. High

329

Adaptation of antennal neurons in moths is associated with cessation of pheromone-mediated upwind flight.  

PubMed Central

A wind-borne plume of sex pheromone from a female moth or a synthetic source has a fine, filamentous structure that creates steep and rapid fluctuations in concentration for a male moth flying up the plume's axis. The firing rates from single antennal neurons on Agrotis segetum antennae decreased to nearly zero within seconds after the antennae were placed in a pheromone plume 70 cm downwind of a high-concentration source known from previous studies to cause in-flight arrestment of upwind progress. In a separate experiment, the fluctuating output from chilled neurons on Grapholita molesta antennae became attenuated in response to repetitive, experimentally delivered pheromone pulses. The attenuation was correlated with a previously reported higher percentage of in-flight arrestment exhibited by moths flying at cooler compared to warmer temperatures. These results indicate that two peripheral processes related to excessive concentration, complete adaptation of antennal neurons, or merely the attenuation of fluctuations in burst frequency, are important determinants of when upwind progress by a moth flying in a pheromone plume stops and changes to station keeping. Also, adaptation and attenuation may affect the sensation of blend quality by preferentially affecting cells sensitive to the most abundant components in airborne pheromone blends. PMID:3200859

Baker, T C; Hansson, B S; Lofstedt, C; Lofqvist, J

1988-01-01

330

Sound-sensitive neurons innervate the ventro-lateral protocerebrum of the heliothine moth brain.  

PubMed

Many noctuid moth species perceive ultrasound via tympanic ears that are located at the metathorax. Whereas the neural processing of auditory information is well studied at the peripheral and first synaptic level, little is known about the features characterizing higher order sound-sensitive neurons in the moth brain. During intracellular recordings from the lateral protocerebrum in the brain of three noctuid moth species, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta, we found an assembly of neurons responding to transient sound pulses of broad bandwidth. The majority of the auditory neurons ascended from the ventral cord and ramified densely within the anterior region of the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. The physiological and morphological characteristics of these auditory neurons were similar. We detected one additional sound-sensitive neuron, a brain interneuron with its soma positioned near the calyces of mushroom bodies and with numerous neuronal processes in the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. Mass-staining of ventral-cord neurons supported the assumption that the ventro-lateral region of the moth brain was the main target for the auditory projections ascending from the ventral cord. PMID:24322390

Pfuhl, Gerit; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Ian, Elena; Surlykke, Annemarie; Berg, Bente G

2014-02-01

331

Convergent patterns of long-distance nocturnal migration in noctuid moths and passerine birds  

PubMed Central

Vast numbers of insects and passerines achieve long-distance migrations between summer and winter locations by undertaking high-altitude nocturnal flights. Insects such as noctuid moths fly relatively slowly in relation to the surrounding air, with airspeeds approximately one-third of that of passerines. Thus, it has been widely assumed that windborne insect migrants will have comparatively little control over their migration speed and direction compared with migrant birds. We used radar to carry out the first comparative analyses of the flight behaviour and migratory strategies of insects and birds under nearly equivalent natural conditions. Contrary to expectations, noctuid moths attained almost identical ground speeds and travel directions compared with passerines, despite their very different flight powers and sensory capacities. Moths achieved fast travel speeds in seasonally appropriate migration directions by exploiting favourably directed winds and selecting flight altitudes that coincided with the fastest air streams. By contrast, passerines were less selective of wind conditions, relying on self-powered flight in their seasonally preferred direction, often with little or no tailwind assistance. Our results demonstrate that noctuid moths and passerines show contrasting risk-prone and risk-averse migratory strategies in relation to wind. Comparative studies of the flight behaviours of distantly related taxa are critically important for understanding the evolution of animal migration strategies. PMID:21389024

Alerstam, Thomas; Chapman, Jason W.; Backman, Johan; Smith, Alan D.; Karlsson, Hakan; Nilsson, Cecilia; Reynolds, Don R.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Hill, Jane K.

2011-01-01

332

Separating the attractant from the toxicant improves attract-and-kill of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The behavior of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), responding to three attract-and-kill devices was compared in flight tunnel experiments measuring attraction and duration of target contact. Placing a 7.6 by 12.6 cm card immediately upwind of a rubber septum releasing pheromone, dramatically increased the duration on the target to > 60 s. In this setting, nearly all the males flew upwind, landed on the card first, and spent the majority of time searching the card. In contrast, male codling moths spent < 15 s at the source if given the lure only. In a forced contact bioassay, knockdown rate or mortality of male codling moths increased in direct proportion to duration of contact on a lambda-cyhalothrin-loaded filter paper. When this insecticide-treated paper was placed immediately upwind of the lure in the flight tunnel, > 90% of males contacting the paper were knocked down 2 h after voluntary exposure. These findings suggest that past attempts to combine insecticide directly with sex pheromones into a small paste, gel, or other forms of dollops are ill-advised because moths are likely over-exposed to pheromone and vacate the target before obtaining a lethal dose of insecticide. It is better to minimize direct contact with the concentrated pheromone while enticing males to extensively search insecticide-treated surface nearby the lure. PMID:24224258

Huang, Juan; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

2013-10-01

333

An unusual case of ingestion of a moth cocoon in a 14-month-old girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case report of a 14-month-old girl who ingested a moth cocoon, which resulted in dramatic symptoms of irritability, drooling, and anorexia. Direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and esophagoscopy under general anesthesia revealed copious, tenaciously adherent, barbed hairs embedded in her tongue and buccal mucosa. Removal of the hairs with irrigation, suction, and brushing was unsuccessful and was eventually abandoned.

Paul A. Tripi; Richard Lee; Joe B. Keiper; Andrew W. Jones; James E. Arnold

2010-01-01

334

Climate and the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) at Mountain Birch (Betula pubecens ssp. czerepanovii) Treelines in northern Sweden.  

E-print Network

moth starts in the fall when the adult moths fly and mate. The female lays up to 240 eggs in cracks and lichens on the stems of mountain birch (Bylund 1997; Ruohom?ki et al. 1997; Tenow 1972). The eggs hatch in the spring at bud break (Tenow 1972... 1972). Females prefer to lay their eggs on lichens and in cracks that are present on older stems (Bylund 1997). Apical buds may be more easily disturbed by the autumnal moth on older trees inducing new leaves to develop that are more nutritious...

Young, Amanda B.

2010-01-16

335

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the vampire moths and their fruit-piercing relatives (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Calpinae).  

PubMed

Within butterflies and moths, adult hematophagy is limited to species within the vampire moth genus Calyptra. These moths are placed within the subfamily Calpinae, whose other members are known to exhibit a broad range of feeding behaviors including those that can be considered 'piercers' of fruits or other hosts and 'tear feeders'. Here, we reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis of Calpinae using molecular data to test whether hematophagy in Calyptra arose from plant or animal-related behaviors. We use a Bayesian method of ancestral state reconstruction to determine the most likely feeding behaviors for the subtribes and genera within this lineage. PMID:22796530

Zaspel, J M; Zahiri, R; Hoy, M A; Janzen, D; Weller, S J; Wahlberg, N

2012-11-01

336

Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185?±?13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P?cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets. PMID:24839899

de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

2014-10-01

337

Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere. PMID:21735898

Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

2011-06-01

338

Outbreaks by canopy-feeding geometrid moth cause state-dependent shifts in understorey plant communities.  

PubMed

The increased spread of insect outbreaks is among the most severe impacts of climate warming predicted for northern boreal forest ecosystems. Compound disturbances by insect herbivores can cause sharp transitions between vegetation states with implications for ecosystem productivity and climate feedbacks. By analysing vegetation plots prior to and immediately after a severe and widespread outbreak by geometrid moths in the birch forest-tundra ecotone, we document a shift in forest understorey community composition in response to the moth outbreak. Prior to the moth outbreak, the plots divided into two oligotrophic and one eutrophic plant community. The moth outbreak caused a vegetation state shift in the two oligotrophic communities, but only minor changes in the eutrophic community. In the spatially most widespread communities, oligotrophic dwarf shrub birch forest, dominance by the allelopathic dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, was effectively broken and replaced by a community dominated by the graminoid Avenella flexuosa, in a manner qualitatively similar to the effect of wild fires in E. nigrum communities in coniferous boreal forest further south. As dominance by E. nigrum is associated with retrogressive succession the observed vegetation state shift has widespread implications for ecosystem productivity on a regional scale. Our findings reveal that the impact of moth outbreaks on the northern boreal birch forest system is highly initial-state dependent, and that the widespread oligotrophic communities have a low resistance to such disturbances. This provides a case for the notion that climate impacts on arctic and northern boreal vegetation may take place most abruptly when conveyed by changed dynamics of irruptive herbivores. PMID:23568711

Karlsen, Stein Rune; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Odland, Arvid; Ims, Rolf Anker; Elvebakk, Arve

2013-11-01

339

Interactions among moths, crossbills, squirrels, and lodgepole pine in a geographic selection mosaic.  

PubMed

Repeated patterns among biological communities suggest similar evolutionary and ecological forces are acting on the communities. Conversely, the lack of such patterns suggests that similar forces are absent or additional ones are present. Coevolution between a seed predator, the red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) exemplifies the ecological and evolutionary predictions for coevolving systems. In the absence of another seed predator and preemptive competitor (pine squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), natural selection by crossbills results in the evolution of larger cones with thicker distal scales, while relaxation of selection by squirrels results in the evolution of cones with more seeds and a greater ratio of seed mass to cone mass. However, in one range, the Little Rocky Mountains, distal scale thickness has diverged as expected but cone size has not. In these mountains seed predation by lodgepole pine cone borer moths (Eucosma recissoriana) was about 10 times greater than in other ranges lacking squirrels. We quantified moth predation and cone traits and found that moths select for smaller cones with fewer seeds. Thus, selection by moths in the Little Rocky Mountains counters both selection by crossbills for large cone size and relaxation of selection by squirrels favoring more seeds per cone and accounts for the relatively small and few-seeded cones in these mountains. It is also apparent that selection by crossbills changes seed defenses in a manner that favors seed predation by moths, whereas selection by squirrels likely reduces such predation. These results demonstrate the importance of considering the evolutionary consequences of community context in locally evolved (coevolved) traits and interactions. PMID:15058722

Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

2004-01-01

340

Thioredoxin from the Indianmeal Moth Plodia interpunctella: Cloning and Test of the Allergenic Potential in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective The Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella is a highly prevalent food pest in human dwellings, and has been shown to contain a number of allergens. So far, only one of these, the arginine kinase (Plo i 1) has been identified. Objective The aim of this study was to identify further allergens and characterise these in comparison to Plo i 1. Method A cDNA library from whole adult P. interpunctella was screened with the serum of a patient with indoor allergy and IgE to moths, and thioredoxin was identified as an IgE-binding protein. Recombinant thioredoxin was generated in E. coli, and tested together with Plo i 1 and whole moth extracts in IgE immunoblots against a large panel of indoor allergic patients' sera. BALB/c mice were immunised with recombinant thioredoxin and Plo i 1, and antibody production, mediator release from RBL cells, T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were measured. Result For the first time a thioredoxin from an animal species was identified as allergen. About 8% of the sera from patients with IgE against moth extracts reacted with recombinant P. interpunctella thioredoxin, compared to 25% reacting with recombinant Plo i 1. In immunised BALB/c mice, the recombinant allergens both induced classical Th2-biased immune responses such as induction IgE and IgG1 antibodies, upregulation of IL-5 and IL-4 and basophil degranulation. Conclusion Thioredoxin from moths like Plo i 1 acts like a classical Type I allergen as do the thioredoxins from wheat or corn. This clearly supports the pan-allergen nature of thioredoxin. The designation Plo i 2 is suggested for the new P. interpunctella allergen. PMID:22844539

Hemmer, Wolfgang; Mahler, Vera; Panzani, Raphael C.; Jarisch, Reinhart; Wiedermann, Ursula; Duchene, Michael

2012-01-01

341

Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.  

PubMed

The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives. PMID:21061961

Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

2010-10-01

342

Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.  

PubMed Central

We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing their frequency, and measured the auditory thresholds from the A1 cells of the moths. Knowing the auditory responses of the moth we tested three predictions. (i) The ranking of the audibility of unmanipulated calls to the moths should be predictable from their temporal and/or frequency structure. This was supported. (ii) Doubling the duration of the calls should increase their audibility by ca. 3 dB for all species. Their audibility did indeed increase by 2.1-3.5 dB. (iii) Reducing the frequency of the calls would increase their audibility for all species. Reducing the frequency had small effects for the two bat species which used short duration (2.7-3.6 ms) calls. However, the relatively long-duration (50 ms), largely constant-frequency calls of R. hipposideros increased in audibility by 21.6 dB when their frequency was halved. Time and frequency changes influence the audibility of calls to tympanate moths in different ways according to call design. Large changes in frequency and time had relatively small changes on the audibility of calls for short, largely broadband calls. Channelling energy into the second harmonic of the call substantially decreased the audibility of calls for bats which use long-duration, constant-frequency components in echolocation calls. We discuss our findings in the contexts of the evolution of both bat echolocation call design and the potential responses of insects which hear ultrasound. PMID:11467425

Jones, G; Waters, D A

2000-01-01

343

Effect of field margins on moths depends on species mobility: Field-based evidence for landscape-scale conservation  

E-print Network

for bats, birds, small mammals and invertebrates (e.g. Vaughan, 1997; Wilson et al., 1999). Rapid, 2004; Thomas, 2005). Findings from a study of macro-moths are thus likely to be representative of other

Merckx, Thomas

344

Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.  

PubMed

Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of moth, the light drawing them in from the surrounding landscape into sub-optimal urban habitats. PMID:24475197

Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

2014-01-01

345

Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity  

PubMed Central

Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of moth, the light drawing them in from the surrounding landscape into sub-optimal urban habitats. PMID:24475197

Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

2014-01-01

346

Development of high-throughput silicon lens and grism with moth-eye anti-reflection structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anti-reflection (AR) is very important for high-throughput optical elements. The durability against cooling is required for the AR structure in the cryogenic optics used for mid-infrared astronomical instruments. Moth-eye structure is a promising AR technique strong against cooling. The silicon lens and grism with the moth-eye structure are being developed to make high-throughput elements for long-wavelength mid-infrared instruments. A double-sided moth-eye plano-convex lens (Effective diameter: 33 mm, Focal length: 188 mm) was fabricated. By the transmittance measurement, it was confirmed that its total throughput is 1.7+/- 0.1 times higher than bare silicon lenses in a wide wavelength range of 20{45 ?m. It suggests that the lens can achieve 83+/-5% throughput in the cryogenic temperature. It was also confirmed that the moth-eye processing on the lens does not modify the focal length. As for the grism, the homogeneous moth-eye processing on blaze pattern was realized by employing spray coating for the resist coating in EB lithography. The silicon grism with good surface roughness was also developed. The required techniques for completing moth-eye grisms have been established.

Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Imada, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Okada, Kazushi; Uchiyama, Masahito; Wada, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi

2014-07-01

347

Negative per capita effects of two invasive plants, Lythrum salicaria and Phalaris arundinacea, on the moth diversity of wetland communities.  

PubMed

Invasive plants have been shown to negatively affect the diversity of plant communities. However, little is known about the effect of invasive plants on the diversity at other trophic levels. In this study, we examine the per capita effects of two invasive plants, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), on moth diversity in wetland communities at 20 sites in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Prior studies document that increasing abundance of these two plant species decreases the diversity of plant communities. We predicted that this reduction in plant diversity would result in reduced herbivore diversity. Four measurements were used to quantify diversity: species richness (S), community evenness (J), Brillouin's index (H) and Simpson's index (D). We identified 162 plant species and 156 moth species across the 20 wetland sites. The number of moth species was positively correlated with the number of plant species. In addition, invasive plant abundance was negatively correlated with species richness of the moth community (linear relationship), and the effect was similar for both invasive plant species. However, no relationship was found between invasive plant abundance and the three other measures of moth diversity (J, H, D) which included moth abundance in their calculation. We conclude that species richness within, and among, trophic levels is adversely affected by these two invasive wetland plant species. PMID:18947450

Schooler, S S; McEvoy, P B; Hammond, P; Coombs, E M

2009-06-01

348

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus).  

PubMed

The islands of Hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of Kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid Haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar-sized endemic (e.g. Agrotis diplosticta) and adventive (Agrotis ipsilon and Pseudaletia unipuncta) species. Electrophysiological examinations indicated that, compared with species less preyed upon, H. euclidias has lower auditory sensitivities to the bat's social and echolocation calls, which will result in shorter detection distances of the bat. The poor ears of H. euclidias suggest that this moth coevolved with the bat using non-auditory defences that resulted in auditory degeneration. This moth now suffers higher predation because it is drawn away from its normal habitat by the man-made lights that are exploited by the bat. PMID:11429137

Fullard, J H

2001-07-01

349

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus).  

PubMed Central

The islands of Hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of Kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid Haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar-sized endemic (e.g. Agrotis diplosticta) and adventive (Agrotis ipsilon and Pseudaletia unipuncta) species. Electrophysiological examinations indicated that, compared with species less preyed upon, H. euclidias has lower auditory sensitivities to the bat's social and echolocation calls, which will result in shorter detection distances of the bat. The poor ears of H. euclidias suggest that this moth coevolved with the bat using non-auditory defences that resulted in auditory degeneration. This moth now suffers higher predation because it is drawn away from its normal habitat by the man-made lights that are exploited by the bat. PMID:11429137

Fullard, J. H.

2001-01-01

350

Development of a binomial sampling plan for the carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California dates.  

PubMed

The seasonal density fluctuations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were determined in a commercial date, Phoenix dactylifera L. garden. Four fruit categories (axil, ground, abscised green, and abscised brown) were sampled, and two carob moth life stages, eggs and immatures (larvae and pupae combined), were evaluated on these fruits. Based on the relative consistency of these eight sampling units (four fruit categories and two carob moth stages), four were used for the development of a binomial sampling plan. The average number of carob moth eggs and immatures on ground and abscised brown fruit was estimated from the proportion of infested fruit, and these binomial models were evaluated for model fitness and precision. These analyses suggested that the best sampling plan should consist of abscised brown dates and carob moth immatures by using a sample size of 100 dates. The performance of this binomial plan was evaluated further using a resampling protocol with 25 independent data sets at action thresholds of 7, 10, and 15% to represent light, medium and severe infestations, respectively. Results from the resampling program suggested that increasing sample size from 100 to 150 dates improved the precision of the binomial sampling plan. Use of this sampling plan will be the cornerstone of an integrated pest management program for carob moth in dates. PMID:20857763

Park, Jung-Joon; Perring, Thomas M

2010-08-01

351

Activated biochar derived from cactus fibres--preparation, characterization and application on Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The adsorption efficiency of activated biochar prepared from cactus fibres regarding the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time). Activation of the biochar took place using nitric acid oxidation and characterisation was performed by SEM analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption and acid-base titrations. The results show that laminar structures constitute the material and carboxylic moieties are the predominant binding sites. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 3.5 mol kg(-1). The effect of ionic strength and temperature on the adsorption efficiency indicates that at low pH outer-sphere and at near neutral pH inner-sphere complexes are the predominant surface species and the kinetic data obtained were fitted very well by the Lagergren rate expression. PMID:24718356

Hadjittofi, Loukia; Prodromou, Melpomeni; Pashalidis, Ioannis

2014-05-01

352

The cuticle of the cactus Cereus peruvianus as a source of a homo-{alpha}-D-galacturonan  

SciTech Connect

The waxy pecto-cellulosic cuticle of cladodes of the columnar cactus Cereus peruvianus (19% of the whole phytobiomass; dry wt) is a source of an {alpha}-D-polygalacturonic or pectic acid (35-40% yield, on a dry wt based on the wax-free pectocellulose layer). Warm EDTA/oxalate or room temperature strong acid/alkali cycles are efficient for pectic acid extraction, since divalent cation (mainly Ca{sup 2+}) is a barrier to be removed within the native and compact architecture of the cuticle. Despite some molecular dispersion arising from the application of strong mineral acid in the first extraction step, the pectic material appears to be quite homogeneous and, on acid or enzymatic analyses, was shown to contain only D-galacturonic acid as its monomer. Cereus cuticle pectate (sodium salt) tends to gel above a concentration of 1%, a useful property that can be more easily obtained by the inclusion of sucrose, light addition of calcium salt, and/or mild acidification.

Alvarez, M.; Costa, S.C. [Univ. of Maringa-PR (Brazil); Huber, A. [Franzens Universitaet, Graz (Australia)] [and others

1995-12-31

353

Interglacial microrefugia and diversification of a cactus species complex: phylogeography and palaeodistributional reconstructions for Pilosocereus aurisetus and allies.  

PubMed

The role of Pleistocene climate changes in promoting evolutionary diversification in global biota is well documented, but the great majority of data regarding this subject come from North America and Europe, which were greatly affected by glaciation. The effects of Pleistocene changes on cold- and/or dry-adapted species in tropical areas where glaciers were not present remain sparsely investigated. Many such species are restricted to small areas surrounded by unfavourable habitats, which may represent potential interglacial microrefugia. Here, we analysed the phylogeographic structure and diversification history of seven cactus species in the Pilosocereus aurisetus complex that are restricted to rocky areas with high diversity and endemism within the Neotropical savannas of eastern South America. We combined palaeodistributional estimates with standard phylogeographic approaches based on two chloroplast DNA regions (trnT-trnL and trnS-trnG), exon 1 of the nuclear gene PhyC and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. Our analyses revealed a phylogeographic history marked by multiple levels of distributional fragmentation, isolation leading to allopatric differentiation and secondary contact among divergent lineages within the complex. Diversification and demographic events appear to have been affected by the Quaternary climatic cycles as a result of isolation in multiple patches of xerophytic vegetation. These small patches presently harbouring P. aurisetus populations seem to operate as microrefugia, both at present and during Pleistocene interglacial periods; the role of such microrefugia should be explored and analysed in greater detail. PMID:24803224

Bonatelli, Isabel A S; Perez, Manolo F; Peterson, A Townsend; Taylor, Nigel P; Zappi, Daniela C; Machado, Marlon C; Koch, Ingrid; Pires, Adriana H C; Moraes, Evandro M

2014-06-01

354

Recovery of fertility by Mediterranean flour moths transferred from continuous light to light:dark  

SciTech Connect

Male Mediterranean flour moths, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller), placed in continuous light (LL) from the early pupal stage on were partially sterile as adults. When old adult moths were transferred to alternating light and dark (LD), fertility was not recovered, but fertility was recovered when fairly young males were similarly transferred. Multiple matings of males indicated that recovery was correlated with sperm in the testes at the LL to LD transfer becoming available for ejaculations. Few morphological abnormalities were found in the sperm of LL males, but there was less activity than in the sperm of LD males. At 1 week after eclosion, the testes of LL males contained more sperm bundles than did the testes of LD males, but the LL males had somewhat fewer bundles overall in their reproductive tracts. Disruption of the circadian rhythm regulating movement of sperm from the testes was suggested as the most probable cause of the sterility of LL males.

Riemann, J.G.; Johnson, M.; Thorson, B.

1981-05-01

355

Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.).  

PubMed

Allee effects are important dynamical mechanisms in small-density populations in which per capita population growth rate increases with density. When positive density dependence is sufficiently severe (a 'strong' Allee effect), a critical density arises below which populations do not persist. For spatially distributed populations subject to dispersal, theory predicts that the occupied area also exhibits a critical threshold for population persistence, but this result has not been confirmed in nature. We tested this prediction in patterns of population persistence across the invasion front of the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States in data collected between 1996 and 2008. Our analysis consistently provided evidence for effects of both population area and density on persistence, as predicted by the general theory, and confirmed here using a mechanistic model developed for the gypsy moth system. We believe this study to be the first empirical documentation of critical patch size induced by an Allee effect. PMID:21138513

Vercken, E; Kramer, A M; Tobin, P C; Drake, J M

2011-02-01

356

Competition between BCS-pairing and “moth-eaten effect” in BEC-BCS crossover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the change in condensation energy from a single pair of fermionic atoms to a large number of pairs interacting via the reduced BCS potential. We find that the energy-saving due to correlations decreases when the pair number increases because the number of empty states available for pairing gets smaller ("moth-eaten effect"). However, this decrease dominates the 3D kinetic energy increase of the same amount of noninteracting atoms only when the pair number is a sizable fraction of the number of states available for pairing. As a result, in BEC-BCS crossover of 3D systems, the condensation energy per pair first increases and then decreases with pair number while in 2D, it always is controlled by the "moth-eaten effect" and thus simply decreases.

Zhu, Guojun; Combescot, Monique

2012-01-01

357

Moth-eye structures for reduction of Fresnel losses at THz components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applicability of moth-eye structures to THz components is investigated. With the help of RCWA and effective medium theory, optimal structural parameters for one-dimensional and two-dimensional periodical surface-relief gratings are deduced. The required structural parameters are in such order of magnitude that they can be manufactured by ultra-precision machining directly into the surface of the substrate material. Benefiting is that plastic materials, which are preferred materials in THz spectral region, can be accurately manufactured by ultra-precision machining. The application of the moth-eye structures follows directly the primary shaping of the components by conventional manufacturing methods like turning and milling so that no additional materials are necessary. A comparison between several structures fabricated on planar plastic probes is given.

Brückner, Claudia; Pradarutti, Boris; Riehemann, Stefan; Stenzel, Olaf; Steinkopf, Ralf; Gebhardt, Andreas; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

2006-04-01

358

Sex pheromone of the citrus flower moth Prays nephelomima: pheromone identification, field trapping trials, and phenology.  

PubMed

Analysis of sex pheromone gland extract of the citrus flower moth, Prays nephelomima (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection, revealed one electrophysiologically active compound. Structural analysis using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and dimethyldisulfide derivatization identified this as the monounsaturated aldehyde (Z)-7-tetradecenal. Field trials in commercial citrus orchards on the North Island of New Zealand showed that (Z)-7-tetradecenal was highly attractive to male P. nephelomima. Phenology data, collected over 19 months in three commercial orchards, from traps baited with the sex pheromone at a lure loading of 300 microg on a red rubber septum, indicated that male moths may be present throughout the year, with numbers peaking in late summer and autumn. PMID:16222798

Gibb, A R; Jamieson, L E; Suckling, D M; Ramankutty, P; Stevens, P S

2005-07-01

359

Masting of rowan Sorbus aucuparia L. and consequences for the apple fruit moth Argyresthia conjugella Zeller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Masting of rowan Sorbus aucuparia L. has been studied in 45 sites in southern Norway for 22 years. We present data on the year-to-year variation in fruit setting\\u000a of rowan, and show that masting is spatially synchronous in Norway and probably all over Fennoscandia. The apple fruit moth\\u000a Argyresthia conjugella Zeller is an important seed predator on rowan. We present

Sverre Kobro; Linda Søreide; Endre Djønne; Trond Rafoss; Gunnhild Jaastad; Peter Witzgall

2003-01-01

360

Effectiveness of twelve insecticides applied topically to diapausing larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.  

PubMed

Dose-mortality curves were established for 12 insecticides administered by topical application to diapausing larvae from a susceptible codling moth strain. Toxicity varied greatly among the insecticides tested. LC50 values ranged from 0.1 mg kg(-1) for fenoxycarb to over 2800 mg kg(-1) for diflubenzuron and indoxacarb. Discriminating dose levels were determined from dose-mortality reference curves for the detection of resistance in field-collected diapausing larvae. PMID:15025243

Pasquier, Denis; Charmillot, Pierre-Joseph

2004-03-01

361

Probing the W chromosome of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella , with sequences from microdissected sex chromatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The W chromosome of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, like that of most Lepidoptera species, is heterochromatic and forms a female-specific sex chromatin body in somatic cells.\\u000a We collected chromatin samples by laser microdissection from euchromatin and W-chromatin bodies. DNA from the samples was\\u000a amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and used to prepare painting probes and\\u000a start

Iva Fuková; Walther Traut; Magda Vítková; Petr Nguyen; Svatava Kubí?ková; František Marec

2007-01-01

362

Fluorescent brightener inhibits apoptosis in baculovirus-infected gypsy moth larval midgut cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent brighteners significantly lower the LC50 and LT50 in a variety of nucleopolyhedrovirus–insect host systems. In larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), a European NPV strain of virus (LdMNPV) does not normally replicate in the midgut, but addition of a fluorescent brightener (Calcofluor M2R) to the virus suspension results in productive infections. In the current study, we show

Edward M. Dougherty; Neelam Narang; Marcia Loeb; Dwight E. Lynn; Martin Shapiro

2006-01-01

363

Analysis of the causes of declines in Western Siberian outbreaks of the nun moth Lymantria monacha  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of an investigation into the causal factors of precipitous population declines after five\\u000a mass outbreaks of nun moths (Lymantria monacha) in territories of Western Siberian (Novosibirsk and Tyumen oblasts, Russia). Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) and parasitoids\\u000a represented by the families Tachinidae and Sarcophagidae (Diptera) were found to be major contributors to the degradation\\u000a of these outbreaks. Viable

Alexandr Ilyinykh

2011-01-01

364

Freeze tolerance and cryoprotection in caterpillars of the giant leopard moth ( Ecpantheria scribonia Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The giant leopard moth (Ecpantheria scribonia) caterpillars were collected during October in Pennsylvania (USA) in order to measure indicators of cold hardiness.2. The supercooling point rose 2–4°C with cold acclimation (3°C) but this change missed statistical significance (P=0.0653). Hemolymph osmolality and glycerol also rose over 50% and 4.5×, respectively.3. All caterpillars initially survived freezing at ?3°C for 5 days

Jack R. Layne

2005-01-01

365

Preference and performance linkage of a leaf-mining moth on different Salicaceae species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between oviposition prefer-ence and offspring performance of a leaf-mining moth (Paraleucoptera sinuella) on four Salicaceae species was investigated in 1997 and 1998. We observed the egg distribution pattern on different plant\\u000a species in the field and carried out oviposition experiments in the laboratory to determine the preference of ovipositing\\u000a females. We also examined larval survival, pupal mass, and

Hideki Kagata; Takayuki Ohgushi

2001-01-01

366

Physiology and morphology of projection neurons in the antennal lobe of the male moth Manduca sexta  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We have used intracellular recording and staining, followed by reconstruction from serial sections, to characterize the responses and structure of projection neurons (PNs) that link the antennal lobe (AL) to other regions of the brain of the male sphinx mothManduca sexta.2.Dendritic arborizations of the AL PNs were usually restricted either to ordinary glomeruli or to the male-specific macroglomerular complex (MGC)

Ryohei Kanzaki; Edmund A. Arbas; Nicholas J. Strausfeld; John G. Hildebrand

1989-01-01

367

A Saponin Correlated with Variable Resistance of Barbarea vulgaris to the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata, the G-type and the P-type, differed in resistance to larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella. Rosette plants of the G-type were fully resistant to the DBM when grown in a greenhouse or collected in the summer season, but leaves collected during the late fall were less resistant, as previously found for

Niels Agerbirk; Carl E. Olsen; Bo M. Bibby; Hanne O. Frandsen; Lea D. Brown; Jens K. Nielsen; J. Alan A. Renwick

2003-01-01

368

Using Yellow Rocket as a Trap Crop for Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata, was evaluated as a trap crop for diamondback moth,Plutellaxylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in cabbage,Brassicaoleracea L. variety capitata, in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae found in Þeld plots of cabbage alone were 5.2Ð11.3 times higher than those on cabbage plants in plots that included cabbage and several

Francisco R. Badenes-perez; Anthony M. Shelton; Brian A. Nault

2005-01-01

369

Discrimination of pheromone enantiomers by two pheromone binding proteins from the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar.  

PubMed

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, uses (7R, 8S)-cis-2-methyl-7, 8-epoxyoctadecane, (+)-disparlure, as a sex pheromone. The (-) enantiomer of the pheromone is a strong behavioral antagonist. Specialized sensory hairs, sensillae, on the antennae of male moths detect the pheromone. Once the pheromone enters a sensillum, the very abundant pheromone binding protein (PBP) transports the odorant to the sensory neuron. We have expressed the two PBPs found in gypsy moth antennae, PBP1 and PBP2, and we have studied the affinity of these recombinant PBPs for the enantiomers of disparlure. To study pheromone binding under equilibrium conditions, we developed and validated a binding assay. We have addressed the two major problems with hydrophobic ligands in aqueous solution: (1) concentration-dependent adsorption of the ligand on vial surfaces and (2) separation of the protein-bound ligand from the material remaining free in solution. We used this assay to demonstrate for the first time that pheromone binding to PBP is reversible and that the two PBPs from L. dispar differ in their enantiomer binding preference. PBP1 has a higher affinity for the (-) enantiomer, while PBP2 has a higher affinity for the (+) enantiomer. The PBP from the wild silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Apol-3) bound the disparlure enantiomers more weakly than either of the L. dispar PBPs, but Apol-3 was also able to discriminate the enantiomers. We have observed extensive aggregation of both L. dispar PBPs and an increase in pheromone binding at high (>2 microM) PBP concentrations. We present a model of disparlure binding to the two PBPs. PMID:10913308

Plettner, E; Lazar, J; Prestwich, E G; Prestwich, G D

2000-08-01

370

Chemical ecology of the cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae ) on a newly recorded host Senecio adonidifolius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae, Arctiidae) normally feeds on Senecio jacobaea in the field. For the first time, naturally occurring populations of T. jacobaeae have been found thriving on Senecio adonidifolius, even though the moth's preferred host, S. jacobaea, is available within 50-400 m. In the laboratory, the cinnabar moth has been shown to feed on and develop on S. adonidifolius despite its different leaf morphology, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) profile and a large taxonomic distance to S. jacobaea. Here I examined whether T. jacobaeae has adapted to this new host in the field using adult oviposition behavior and plant acquired defense chemistry in pupae as criteria. Choice tests indicated local adaptation to this newly recorded host. T. jacobaeae reared on S. adonidifolius hosts laid more egg batches and total eggs on it than T. jacobaeae from S. jacobaea. The egg batches were smaller on S. adonidifolius possibly due to highly pinnate thread-like structure of its leaves. The bouquet of plant acquired PAs and the insect metabolized callimorphine in pupae differed widely between pupae collected from the two hosts. T. jacobaeae pupae taken from S. adonidifolius hosts contained more of the insect metabolized callimorphine than pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts, but they did not differ in total PA concentration. Pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts contained more unmetabolized plant PA's than pupae from S. adonidifolius hosts. Additionally, 10% of T. jacobaeae larvae taken from S. adonidifolius in Biausse were infested with Carcelia dubia, a parasitic and rare tachinid fly that typically attacks arctiid moths.

Vrieling, Klaas

2006-09-01

371

Faunistic groups of carpenter-moths (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) in the fauna of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arealogical review of carpenter-moths of the fauna of Russia is presented. Southern steppe western Palaearctic species\\u000a (10); steppe, southern steppe, and Central Asian semidesert species (7); and nemoral eastern Palaearctic species (6) predominate.\\u000a Endemics of the Russian fauna are 6 species: Acossus victor (Yakovlev, 2004) (southern Tuva); Cossus shmakovi Yakovlev, 2004 (Tuva, Khakassia); Deserticossus volgensis (Christoph, 1893) and D.

R. V. Yakovlev

2008-01-01

372

Is biofix necessary for predicting codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) emergence in Washington State apple orchards?  

PubMed

The heat-driven phenology model used for initiating codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), management in Washington state was examined to determine the need for using the capture of the first moth as a method of synchronizing the model and phenology of field populations (= biofix). We examined trap catch data taken at 1-2-d intervals from two research orchards; one data set encompassed a 28-yr period and the other data set a 4-yr period. We also examined consultant-collected data taken at 7-10-d intervals from 15 sites (N = 81), mostly between 2001 and 2005. At the two research sites, we found the mean biofix occurred at 96 degree-days (DD) (DD Celsius by using 10 degrees C lower threshold and 31.1 degrees C horizontal upper threshold) after 1 January (SD = 14.4; min. = 68, max = 122). After correcting for longer sampling intervals in the consultant data set, the biofix at the nonresearch sites occurred at 97 DD (N = 50, SD = 14.4; min. = 74, max = 120), nearly identical to that at the research sites. We also examined the performance of the codling moth model at predicting moth flight and egg hatch using a biofix and by just accumulating heat units from 1 January. The model performance was similar in both generations regardless of whether a biofix was used. The elimination of biofix simplifies management and eliminates mistakes associated with poor trap catch, particularly in low-pressure situations where mating disruption reduces trap efficiency. PMID:18950048

Jones, Vincent P; Doerr, Michael; Brunner, Jay F

2008-10-01

373

Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors. PMID:22732619

Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

2012-06-01

374

Does Athetis lepigone moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) take a long-distance migration?  

PubMed

Athetis lepigone (Möschler), a new lepidopteran pest in China, has spread quickly to seven provinces since it was first reported causing damage on summer maize in Hebei province in 2005, Whether this species is a migrant or not remains unknown. The past 3 yr searchlight trapping on an island in the center of Bohai Gulf provided direct evidence that both male and female A. lepigone moths migrate across the Bohai Gulf waters in northern China because no host crops or A. lepigone larvae were found on this island. The four migration waves observed in this study represent high-altitude movements of the overwintering, first, second, and third generations of A. lepigone moths, respectively. Carbon isotope analysis showed that 1.76-5.44% of the tested A. lepigone moths originated from C4 plants, which provides additional evidence that this species is a migrant because there are no C4 plants on this small island. The 89.24-96.89% of tested A. lepigone moths originated from C3 plants were significantly higher than that from C4 plants in all generations, suggesting that maize fields are not the main host sites for A. lepigone. Few females were trapped in spring and early summer with relatively high mating frequency and more advanced ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species is not completely bound by the "oogenesis-flight syndrome." These findings reveal a new route for A. lepigone migrating to and from the northeastern agricultural region of China, and improve our knowledge of the migration ecology of A. lepigone. Further studies are needed to clarify the migration trajectories that will help in developing sound forecasting systems for this pest species. PMID:25026658

Fu, Xiaowei; Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Yunhe; Ali, Abid; Wu, Kongming

2014-06-01

375

Innervation regulates the metamorphic fates of larval abdominal muscles in the moth, Manduca sexta  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the onset of metamorphosis, the abdominal muscles of the moth, Manduca sexta, follow one of three developmental fates: maintenance, respecification, or death. The maintained muscles retain their larval\\u000a size and morphology throughout adult development. The respecified and dying muscles dedifferentiate, which involves regression,\\u000a nuclear degeneration, and myofibril breakdown. Nuclei in both dying and respecified muscles also proliferate. The amount

R. J. Bayline; Adrian B. Khoo; Ronald Booker

1998-01-01

376

Do anthropogenic transports facilitate stored-product pest moth dispersal? A molecular approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stored-product moths cause large economic damage in food processing industries and storage facilities. Control of indoor pests is currently dealt with locally, and control strategies seldom include different mills or cooperative industries in joint efforts to reduce infestations. In colder climates where conditions hinder flight dispersal of stored-product moths, we hypothesize that human transport between mills will facilitate dispersal. Albeit considered intuitive, this hypothesis has so far never been tested. Male moths from three mills (populations) in southern Sweden and Denmark were collected and by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) pair-wise F st values were calculated. Cluster (population) origins of the genotypes were computed by using a model-based method, structure. The results suggest that known transportation of flour between two mills generate genetically more similar populations of the economically important stored-product moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zell.) (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae), compared to the third mill, with another distribution area, but situated geographically in between the other mills. The structure model placed the sampled genotypes to belong to either two or five original populations, with a higher probability of two original populations. The third mill was consistently different from the other two mills independent of the models’ calculated number of populations. Although the study was restricted to three mills and one transportation route, it highlights the possibility that transportation of food products promotes genetic mixing (i.e. dispersal) of insect pest populations. Including cooperating mills in control (or monitor) strategy schemes against stored-product pest insects would therefore be a more effective action, rather than to treat each mill separately.

Ryne, Camilla; Bensch, Staffan

2008-02-01

377

The Divergence of Echolocation Frequency in Horseshoe Bats: Moth Hearing, Body Size or Habitat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phylogenetic approach was used to test three hypotheses regarding the evolution of diversity in the echolocation frequencies\\u000a used by horseshoe bats (family Rhinolophidae, genus Rhinolophus): 1) Allotonic Frequency Hypothesis (high frequency echolocation in the Rhinolophidae resulted from coevolution with moth\\u000a hearing); 2) Allometry Hypothesis (echolocation frequency is negatively scaled with body size and evolutionary changes in\\u000a echolocation frequencies are

Samantha Stoffberg; David S. Jacobs; Conrad A. Matthee

2011-01-01

378

Performance improvement of organic solar cells with moth eye anti-reflection coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of highly efficient organic solar cells requires the understanding of all optical losses in the solar cell. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of a nano-replicated moth eye anti-reflection coating which functions as an effective medium at the air-substrate interface. We show that the reflection losses of the substrate are compensated, yielding an increase of the peak

Karen Forberich; Gilles Dennler; Markus C. Scharber; Kurt Hingerl; Thomas Fromherz; Christoph J. Brabec

2008-01-01

379

Predicting extinction risk of butterflies and moths (Macrolepidoptera) from distribution patterns and species characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive follow-up study of day- and night-active Macrolepidoptera was performed during 2004 at the Kullaberg Nature Reserve\\u000a located in the south-western part of Sweden. Butterflies were surveyed in an area of 100 km2 and night-active moths were trapped in the core area of the reserve. Macrolepidopteran species resident in the area in the\\u000a 1950s were compared with species resident in

Markus Franzén; Mikael Johannesson

2007-01-01

380

The response of tympanate moths to the echolocation calls of a substrate gleaning bat, Myotis evotis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Most studies examining interactions between insectivorous bats and tympanate prey use the echolocation calls of aerially-feeding bats in their analyses. We examined the auditory responses of noctuid (Eurois astricta) and notodontid (Pheosia rimosa) moth to the echolocation call characteristics of a gleaning insectivorous bat, Myotis evotis.2.While gleaning, M. Evotis used short duration (mean ± SD = 0.66 ± 0.28 ms,

Paul A. Faure; James H. Fullard; Robert M. R. Barclay

1990-01-01

381

Influence of host plant stages on carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) development and fitness.  

PubMed

Different generations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), use different date, Phoenix dactylifera L., fruit stages as they become available during the summer months in southern California. These are the kimri, khalal, and tamar fruit stages. This study was conducted to determine whether carob moth development and fitness were affected by these different fruit stages. Developmental time from neonate larvae to adult, when reared at 31.9 degrees C and 82.1% RH, ranged from 30.5 to 32.3 d for females and 27.1 to 29.5 d for males on the different field-collected fruit stages. Males and females had the highest emergent weight when reared as larvae on kimri fruit and the lowest on tamar fruit. Females laid the most eggs when reared on kimri fruit and the least when reared on tamar fruit. Estimates of population doubling times ranged from 5.4 d on artificial diet (included as a control) to 7.5 d on tamar fruit. This short doubling time shows the ability of carob moth to develop rapidly under optimal conditions. Degree-day (DD) estimates for carob moth development ranged from 636 DD on kimri fruit to 658 DD on tamar fruit, which translate to 32-50 d under field temperatures in the area where dates are grown. Potential implications for field management of E. ceratoniae include improved timing of insecticide treatments to limit population growth early in the season rather than the conventional late season approach. PMID:18419930

Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

2008-04-01

382

Multiple Origins of the Sodium Channel kdr Mutations in Codling Moth Populations  

PubMed Central

Resistance to insecticides is one interesting example of a rapid current evolutionary change. DNA variability in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (trans-membrane segments 5 and 6 in domain II) was investigated in order to estimate resistance evolution to pyrethroid in codling moth populations at the World level. DNA variation among 38 sequences revealed a unique kdr mutation (L1014F) involved in pyrethroid resistance in this gene region, which likely resulted from several convergent substitutions. The analysis of codling moth samples from 52 apple orchards in 19 countries using a simple PCR-RFLP confirmed that this kdr mutation is almost worldwide distributed. The proportions of kdr mutation were negatively correlated with the annual temperatures in the sampled regions. Homozygous kdr genotypes in the French apple orchards showed lower P450 cytochrome oxidase activities than other genotypes. The most plausible interpretation of the geographic distribution of kdr in codling moth populations is that it has both multiple independent origins and a spreading limited by low temperature and negative interaction with the presence of alternative resistance mechanisms to pyrethroid in the populations. PMID:22912889

Franck, Pierre; Siegwart, Myriam; Olivares, Jerome; Toubon, Jean-Francois; Lavigne, Claire

2012-01-01

383

Multiple origins of the sodium channel kdr mutations in codling moth populations.  

PubMed

Resistance to insecticides is one interesting example of a rapid current evolutionary change. DNA variability in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (trans-membrane segments 5 and 6 in domain II) was investigated in order to estimate resistance evolution to pyrethroid in codling moth populations at the World level. DNA variation among 38 sequences revealed a unique kdr mutation (L1014F) involved in pyrethroid resistance in this gene region, which likely resulted from several convergent substitutions. The analysis of codling moth samples from 52 apple orchards in 19 countries using a simple PCR-RFLP confirmed that this kdr mutation is almost worldwide distributed. The proportions of kdr mutation were negatively correlated with the annual temperatures in the sampled regions. Homozygous kdr genotypes in the French apple orchards showed lower P450 cytochrome oxidase activities than other genotypes. The most plausible interpretation of the geographic distribution of kdr in codling moth populations is that it has both multiple independent origins and a spreading limited by low temperature and negative interaction with the presence of alternative resistance mechanisms to pyrethroid in the populations. PMID:22912889

Franck, Pierre; Siegwart, Myriam; Olivares, Jerome; Toubon, Jean-François; Lavigne, Claire

2012-01-01

384

Pheromone production, male abundance, body size, and the evolution of elaborate antennae in moths  

PubMed Central

The males of some species of moths possess elaborate feathery antennae. It is widely assumed that these striking morphological features have evolved through selection for males with greater sensitivity to the female sex pheromone, which is typically released in minute quantities. Accordingly, females of species in which males have elaborate (i.e., pectinate, bipectinate, or quadripectinate) antennae should produce the smallest quantities of pheromone. Alternatively, antennal morphology may be associated with the chemical properties of the pheromone components, with elaborate antennae being associated with pheromones that diffuse more quickly (i.e., have lower molecular weights). Finally, antennal morphology may reflect population structure, with low population abundance selecting for higher sensitivity and hence more elaborate antennae. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis to test these explanations using pheromone chemical data and trapping data for 152 moth species. Elaborate antennae are associated with larger body size (longer forewing length), which suggests a biological cost that smaller moth species cannot bear. Body size is also positively correlated with pheromone titre and negatively correlated with population abundance (estimated by male abundance). Removing the effects of body size revealed no association between the shape of antennae and either pheromone titre, male abundance, or mean molecular weight of the pheromone components. However, among species with elaborate antennae, longer antennae were typically associated with lower male abundances and pheromone compounds with lower molecular weight, suggesting that male distribution and a more rapidly diffusing female sex pheromone may influence the size but not the general shape of male antennae. PMID:22408739

Symonds, Matthew RE; Johnson, Tamara L; Elgar, Mark A

2012-01-01

385

Antennal regulation of migratory flight in the neotropical moth Urania fulgens  

PubMed Central

Migrating insects use their sensory systems to acquire local and global cues about their surroundings. Previous research on tethered insects suggests that, in addition to vision and cephalic bristles, insects use antennal mechanosensory feedback to maintain their airspeeds. Owing to the large displacements of migratory insects and difficulties inherent in tracking single individuals, the roles of these sensory inputs have never been tested in freely migrating insects. We tracked individual uraniid moths (Urania fulgens) as they migrated diurnally over the Panama Canal, and measured airspeeds and orientation for individuals with either intact or amputated flagella. Consistent with prior observations that antennal input is necessary for flight control, 59 per cent of the experimental moths could not fly after flagella amputation. The remaining fraction (41%) was flight-capable and maintained its prior airspeeds despite severe reduction in antennal input. Thus, maintenance of airspeeds may not involve antennal input alone, and is probably mediated by other modalities. Moths with amputated flagella could not recover their proper migratory orientations, suggesting that antennal integrity is necessary for long-distance navigation. PMID:20181558

Sane, Sanjay P.; Srygley, Robert B.; Dudley, Robert

2010-01-01

386

Disulfide connectivity and reduction in pheromone-binding proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Males of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, are attracted by a pheromone released by females. Pheromones are detected by olfactory neurons housed in specialized sensory hairs located on the antennae of the male moth. Once pheromone molecules enter the sensilla lymph, a highly abundant pheromone-binding protein (PBP) transports the molecule to the sensory neuron. The PBPs are members of the insect odorant-binding protein family, with six conserved cysteine residues. In this study, the disulfide bond connectivities of the pheromone-binding proteins PBP1 and PBP2 from the gypsy moth were found to be cysteines 19-54, 50-109, and 97-118 for PBP1, and cysteines 19-54, 50-110, and 97-119 for PBP2, as determined by cyanylation reactions and cyanogen bromide chemical cleavage. We have discovered that the second disulfide linkage is the most easily reduced of the three, and this same linkage is missing among four cysteine-containing insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). We are the first to identify the unique steric and electronic properties of this second disulfide linkage.

Honson, Nicolette S.; Plettner, Erika

2006-06-01

387

Surveying Moths Using Light Traps: Effects of Weather and Time of Year  

PubMed Central

Light trapping is an ideal method for surveying nocturnal moths, but in the absence of standardised survey methods effects of confounding factors may impede interpretation of the acquired data. We explored the influence of weather, time of year, and light source on nightly catches of macro moths in light traps, and compared four strategies for sampling by estimating observed species richness using rarefaction. We operated two traps with different light sources for 225 consecutive nights from mid-March to the end of October in eastern Germany in 2011. In total, 49 472 individuals of 372 species were recorded. Species richness and abundance per night were mainly influenced by night temperature, humidity and lamp type. With a limited sample size (<10 nights) it was slightly better to concentrate sampling on the warmest summer nights, but with more sampling nights it was slightly better to sample during the warmest nights in each month (March to October). By exploiting the higher moth activity during warm nights and an understanding of the species' phenology, it is possible to increase the number of species caught and reduce effects of confounding abiotic factors. PMID:24637926

Jonason, Dennis; Franzen, Markus; Ranius, Thomas

2014-01-01

388

Antennal-specific pheromone-degrading aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating behaviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concentration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone concentration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori that are capable of catabolizing long chain, unsaturated aldehydes such as their aldehyde pheromones. These soluble enzymes are associated uniquely with male and female antennae and have molecular masses of 175 and 130 kDa, respectively. The A. polyphemus aldehyde oxidase has been localized to the olfactory sensilla which contain the pheromone receptor cell dendrites. These same sensilla contain a previously described sensilla-specific esterase that degrades the acetate ester component of A. polyphemus pheromone. We propose that sensillar pheromone-degrading enzymes modulate pheromone concentration in the receptor space and hence play a dynamic role in the pheromone-mediated reproductive behaviors of these animals. PMID:2246254

Rybczynski, R; Vogt, R G; Lerner, M R

1990-11-15

389

Temperature-dependent development and temperature thresholds of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Iran.  

PubMed

Developmental rate models and biological parameters estimated from them, especially lower and upper temperature thresholds and optimal temperature, can help to forecast phenological events of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple orchards. We studied the developmental time of immature stages of codling moth at eight constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C and modeled their developmental rate as a function of temperature using 13 published nonlinear and 2 linear models. Data were fitted to developmental rate models and temperature thresholds and the optimal temperatures were estimated. The models were evaluated based on adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)(adj)) and Akaike information criterion (AIC), in addition to coefficient of determination (R(2)) and residual sum of squares (RSS). The thermal constants were 79.80, 312.60, 232.03, and 615.32 DD for egg, larva, pupa, and overall immature stages of codling moth, respectively, using the Ikemoto and Takai linear model. The Ikemoto and Takai linear model estimated lower temperature thresholds as 9.97, 8.94, 10.04, and 9.63 degrees C for egg, larva, pupa, and overall immature stages, respectively. Among the nonlinear models, the third-order polynomial fit the data well. This model estimates optimal temperature accurately. Brière-1 and Brière-2 accurately estimated the lower and upper temperature thresholds considering model evaluation criteria and accuracy of estimations. PMID:19508800

Aghdam, Hossein Ranjbar; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Radjabi, Gholamreza; Rezapanah, Mohammadreza

2009-06-01

390

Suppression of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) with an entomopathogenic nematode (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner.  

PubMed

We tested the efficacy of the All strain of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) against larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). In laboratory bioassays we found that (1) commercially formulated nematodes produced in vitro were as effective as nematodes produced in vivo, (2) resistance of P. xylostella to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subsp. kurstaki did not confer cross-resistance to nematodes, (3) mortality caused by nematodes was higher for early than late 3rd-instar P. xylostella larvae, and (4) no interaction occurred when B. thuringiensis and nematodes were combined against a susceptible strain of P. xylostella, but an antagonistic interaction occurred between the 2 pathogens against a strain of P. xylostella resistant to B. thuringiensis. In field trials conducted on 2 watercress [Rorippa Nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek] farms in Hawaii, nematodes provided 41% control, B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai gave 44% control, and the combined treatment (B. thuringiensis plus nematodes both at half rate) resulted in 58% control. Using nemodes to control diamondback moth can theoretically reduce resistance development in diamondback moth populations to B. thuringiensis products, but repeated applications of nematodes will probably be ineffective in attaining control (suggested in simulation model). The results of this study demonstrate that nematodes may be a useful component of integrated pest management programs if efficacy can be increased, especially for populations of P. xylostella that are resistant to B. thuringiensis. PMID:9805498

Baur, M E; Kaya, H K; Tabashnik, B E; Chilcutt, C F

1998-10-01

391

Needle asymmetry, pine vigour and pine selection by the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental stability reflects the ability of a genotype to control stable development of a specific phenotype under a wide range of environmental conditions. Developmentally unstable phenotypes can be recognised by deviations from bilateral symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits and, because asymmetry might reflect nutritional quality of leaves for phytophagous insects, they therefore may base plant selection depending on leaf asymmetry. In this article we study such hypothetical relationships occurring between Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis) and pine-host selection by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Needle length of Aleppo pines indicated directional asymmetry and, as the hypothesis of developmental stability predicts, relative asymmetry was negatively related to needle length and positively to pine growth in height. Moreover, relative asymmetry proved to be negatively related to concentration of limonene, a defensive monoterpene that affects pine selection by adult female moths. In terms of growth, pine variation in needle length can be explained by the increase in volume of the pines from one to the next year, with smaller needles appearing in the pines that most increased their volume and those that least increased their height. Finally, as expected from a phytophagous insect that selects plants in relation to nutritional characteristics and level of chemical defence against herbivorous, the pine processionary moths selectively oviposited in the trees with the largest and most asymmetric needles. With these results, two of the main hypotheses that explain plant selection, plant-stress and plant-vigour hypotheses are discussed.

Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José; Soler, Manuel

2008-03-01

392

Surveying moths using light traps: effects of weather and time of year.  

PubMed

Light trapping is an ideal method for surveying nocturnal moths, but in the absence of standardised survey methods effects of confounding factors may impede interpretation of the acquired data. We explored the influence of weather, time of year, and light source on nightly catches of macro moths in light traps, and compared four strategies for sampling by estimating observed species richness using rarefaction. We operated two traps with different light sources for 225 consecutive nights from mid-March to the end of October in eastern Germany in 2011. In total, 49 472 individuals of 372 species were recorded. Species richness and abundance per night were mainly influenced by night temperature, humidity and lamp type. With a limited sample size (<10 nights) it was slightly better to concentrate sampling on the warmest summer nights, but with more sampling nights it was slightly better to sample during the warmest nights in each month (March to October). By exploiting the higher moth activity during warm nights and an understanding of the species' phenology, it is possible to increase the number of species caught and reduce effects of confounding abiotic factors. PMID:24637926

Jonason, Dennis; Franzén, Markus; Ranius, Thomas

2014-01-01

393

Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.  

PubMed

How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes. PMID:23951712

Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

2013-07-01

394

Efficacy of the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in simulated storage conditions.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples (Malus spp.) because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. The need for alternatives to fumigants such as methyl bromide for quarantine security of exported fruit has encouraged the development of effective fumigants with reduced side effects. The endophytic fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel and Hess (Ascomycota: Xylariales) produces volatile compounds that are biocidal for several pest organisms, including plant pathogens and insect pests. The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of M. albus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on codling moth adults, neonate larvae, larvae in infested apples, and diapausing cocooned larvae in simulated storage conditions. Fumigation of adult codling moth with VOCs produced by M. albus for 3 d and incubating in fresh air for 24 h at 25 degrees C resulted in 81% corrected mortality. Four- and 5-d exposures resulted in higher mortality (84 and 100%, respectively), but control mortality was also high due to the short life span of the moths. Exposure of neonate larvae to VOCs for 3 d on apples and incubating for 7 d resulted in 86% corrected mortality. Treated larvae were predominantly first instars, whereas 85% of control larvae developed to second and third instars. Exposure of apples that had been infested for 5 d, fumigated with M. albus VOCs for 3 d, and incubated as described above resulted in 71% corrected larval mortality. Exposure of diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae to VOCs for 7 or 14 d resulted in 31 and 100% mortality, respectively, with negligible control mortality. Our data on treatment of several stages of codling moth with M. albus VOCs indicate that the fungus could provide an alternative to broad spectrum chemical fumigants for codling moth control in storage and contribute to the systems approach to achieve quarantine security of exported apples. PMID:19253616

Lacey, L A; Horton, D R; Jones, D C; Headrick, H L; Neven, L G

2009-02-01

395

Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies  

PubMed Central

The outer surface of the facet lenses in the compound eyes of moths consists of an array of excessive cuticular protuberances, termed corneal nipples. We have investigated the moth-eye corneal nipple array of the facet lenses of 19 diurnal butterfly species by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscope, as well as by optical modelling. The nipples appeared to be arranged in domains with almost crystalline, hexagonal packing. The nipple distances were found to vary only slightly, ranging from about 180 to 240?nm, but the nipple heights varied between 0 (papilionids) and 230?nm (a nymphalid), in good agreement with previous work. The nipples create an interface with a gradient refractive index between that of air and the facet lens material, because their distance is distinctly smaller than the wavelength of light. The gradient in the refractive index was deduced from effective medium theory. By dividing the height of the nipple layer into 100 thin slices, an optical multilayer model could be applied to calculate the reflectance of the facet lenses as a function of height, polarization and angle of incidence. The reflectance progressively diminished with increased nipple height. Nipples with a paraboloid shape and height 250?nm, touching each other at the base, virtually completely reduced the reflectance for normally incident light. The calculated dependence of the reflectance on polarization and angle of incidence agreed well with experimental data, underscoring the validity of the modelling. The corneal nipples presumably mainly function to reduce the eye glare of moths that are inactive during the day, so to make them less visible for predators. Moths are probably ancestral to the diurnal butterflies, suggesting that the reduced size of the nipples of most butterfly species indicates a vanishing trait. This effect is extreme in papilionids, which have virtually absent nipples, in line with their highly developed status. A similar evolutionary development can be noticed for the tapetum of the ommatidia of lepidopteran eyes. It is most elaborate in moth-eyes, but strongly reduced in most diurnal butterflies and absent in papilionids. PMID:16608684

Stavenga, D.G; Foletti, S; Palasantzas, G; Arikawa, K

2005-01-01

396

Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth-E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr, concurrently measuring rainfall, soil moisture, humidity, and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both field-collected larvae and laboratory-reared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisture-related variables (rainfall, soil moisture, and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets, and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of field-collected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time, and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas, or new weather conditions occur due to climate change. PMID:24805137

Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth

2014-06-01

397

Ignoring the irrelevant: auditory tolerance of audible but innocuous sounds in the bat-detecting ears of moths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noctuid moths listen for the echolocation calls of hunting bats and respond to these predator cues with evasive flight. The African bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera, feeds at flowers near intensely singing cicadas, Platypleura capensis, yet does not avoid them. We determined that the moth can hear the cicada by observing that both of its auditory receptors (A1 and A2 cells) respond to the cicada’s song. The firing response of the A1 cell rapidly adapts to the song and develops spike periods in less than a second that are in excess of those reported to elicit avoidance flight to bats in earlier studies. The possibility also exists that for at least part of the day, sensory input in the form of olfaction or vision overrides the moth’s auditory responses. While auditory tolerance appears to allow H. armigera to exploit a food resource in close proximity to acoustic interference, it may render their hearing defence ineffective and make them vulnerable to predation by bats during the evening when cicadas continue to sing. Our study describes the first field observation of an eared insect ignoring audible but innocuous sounds.

Fullard, James H.; Ratcliffe, John M.; Jacobs, David S.

2008-03-01

398

Large Area Fabrication of Moth-Eye Antireflection Structures Using Self-Assembled Nanoparticles in Combination with Nanoimprinting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A moth-eye structure, which suppresses the reflection on a surface, was fabricated on the entire surface of a large silicon wafer by the formation of a self-assembled particle monolayer as a dry-etch mask formed by our embedded particle monolayer (EPM) method. We optimized the shape of moth-eye structures by optical calculation and improved the fabrication procedure to allow formation over a large area. As a result, we succeeded in fabricating a moth-eye structure on the entire surface of a 12-in. silicon wafer and the surface reflectance was reduced to less than 0.8% in the visible light range. A large nickel mold, which is able to transfer the pattern to an 8-in. display, could be formed using the 12-in. silicon substrate as a master. A moth-eye film was fabricated by UV nanoimprinting using the nickel mold and the high antireflection performance was confirmed. The fabrication cost of the moth-eye structure over a large area would be markedly reduced by the use of the self-assembly technique in combination with nanoimprinting.

Tsutomu Nakanishi,; Toshiro Hiraoka,; Akira Fujimoto,; Takeshi Okino,; Shinobu Sugimura,; Takuya Shimada,; Koji Asakawa,

2010-07-01

399

Articles with "Pitch Pine" in the summary Hall, R.C. 1935. Cape Cod pitch pine: Its resistance to gypsy moth  

E-print Network

to gypsy moth and its advantages as a forest tree. J. For. 33:169-172. Observations were made of pitch pine, is rarely attacked by gypsy moth, is resistant to fire and salt spray, and reproduces prolifically:70-81. The forest history of Concord is traced from pre-European settlement, relying heavily on Thoreau's recorded

Schweik, Charles M.

400

The peppered moth: a black and white story after all Preprint from Genetics Society News 50: 34-38, January 2004  

E-print Network

onwards, biologists argued that the moths, which rest with their wings open on tree bark, are adapted in wing colour to the prevailing background. This is a form of camouflage, because bird predators would have been placed on tree trunks to demonstrate the camouflage effect. It is now known that the moths

Mallet, James

401

Modified summer programme using border sprays for managing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) and apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in Ontario apple orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of two insecticide control programmes for managing codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, were compared in commercial apple orchards in Norfolk County, Ontario, Canada, during the 1993 and 1994 growing seasons. In the cover spray programme, sprays of organophosphorous (OP) insecticide for codling moth and apple maggot control were applied to the entire orchard following

R. M. Trimble; B. Solymar

1997-01-01

402

Effects of Plant Size and Weather on the Flowering Phenology of the Organ Pipe Cactus (Stenocereus thurberi)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Flowering phenology is a critical life-history trait that influences reproductive success. It has been shown that genetic, climatic and other factors such as plant size affect the timing of flowering and its duration. The spatial and temporal variation in the reproductive phenology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus thurberi and its association with plant size and environmental cues was studied. Methods Flowering was monitored during 3 years in three populations of S. thurberi along a latitudinal gradient. Plant size was related to phenological parameters. The actual and past weather were used for each site and year to investigate the environmental correlates of flowering. Key Results There was significant variation in the timing of flowering within and among populations. Flowering lasted 4 months in the southern population and only 2 months in the northern population. A single flowering peak was evident in each population, but ocurred at different times. Large plants produced more flowers, and bloomed earlier and for a longer period than small plants. Population synchrony increased as the mean duration of flowering per individual decreased. The onset of flowering is primarily related to the variance in winter minimum temperatures and the duration to the autumn–winter mean maximum temperature, whereas spring mean maximum temperature is best correlated with synchrony. Conclusions Plant size affects individual plant fecundity as well as flowering time. Thus the population structure strongly affects flowering phenology. Indications of clinal variation in the timing of flowering and reproductive effort suggest selection pressures related to the arrival of migrating pollinators, climate and resource economy in a desert environment. These pressures are likely to be relaxed in populations where individual plants can attain large sizes. PMID:18854374

Bustamante, Enriquena; Burquez, Alberto

2008-01-01

403

Differential Response to Soil Salinity in Endangered Key Tree Cactus: Implications for Survival in a Changing Climate  

PubMed Central

Understanding reasons for biodiversity loss is essential for developing conservation and management strategies and is becoming increasingly urgent with climate change. Growing at elevations <1.4 m in the Florida Keys, USA, the endangered Key tree cactus (Pilosocereus robinii) experienced 84 percent loss of total stems from 1994 to 2007. The most severe losses of 99 and 88 percent stems occurred in the largest populations in the Lower Keys, where nine storms with high wind velocities and storm surges, occurred during this period. In contrast, three populations had substantial stem proliferation. To evaluate possible mortality factors related to changes in climate or forest structure, we examined habitat variables: soil salinity, elevation, canopy cover, and habitat structure near 16 dying or dead and 18 living plants growing in the Lower Keys. Soil salinity and elevation were the preliminary factors that discriminated live and dead plants. Soil salinity was 1.5 times greater, but elevation was 12 cm higher near dead plants than near live plants. However, distribution-wide stem loss was not significantly related to salinity or elevation. Controlled salinity trials indicated that salt tolerance to levels above 40 mM NaCl was related to maternal origin. Salt sensitive plants from the Lower Keys had less stem growth, lower root:shoot ratios, lower potassium: sodium ratios and lower recovery rate, but higher ? 13C than a salt tolerant lineage of unknown origin. Unraveling the genetic structure of salt tolerant and salt sensitive lineages in the Florida Keys will require further genetic tests. Worldwide rare species restricted to fragmented, low-elevation island habitats, with little or no connection to higher ground will face challenges from climate change-related factors. These great conservation challenges will require traditional conservation actions and possibly managed relocation that must be informed by studies such as these. PMID:22403670

Goodman, Joie; Maschinski, Joyce; Hughes, Phillip; McAuliffe, Joe; Roncal, Julissa; Powell, Devon; Sternberg, Leonel O'reilly

2012-01-01

404

Quaternary origin and genetic divergence of the endemic cactus Mammillaria pectinifera in a changing landscape in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico.  

PubMed

The endemic Mexican cactus, Mammillaria pectinifera, shows low dispersal capabilities and isolated populations within the highly dissected landscape of Tehuacán Valley. These characteristics can restrict gene flow and act upon the genetic divergence and speciation in arid plants. We conducted a phylogeographic study to determine if the origin, current distribution, and genetic structure of M. pectinifera were driven by Quaternary geomorphic processes. Sequences of the plastids psbA-trnH and trnT-trnL obtained from 66 individuals from seven populations were used to estimate genetic diversity. Population differentiation was assessed by an analysis of molecular variance. We applied a stepwise phylogenetic calibration test to determine whether species origin and genetic divergence among haplotypes were temporally concordant with recognizable episodes of geomorphic evolution. The combination of plastid markers yielded six haplotypes, with high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.622) and low nucleotide diversity (? = 0.00085). The populations were found to be genetically structured (F(ST) = 0.682; P < 0.00001), indicating that geographic isolation and limited dispersal were the primary causes of genetic population differentiation. The estimated origin and divergence time among haplotypes were 0.017-2.39 and 0.019-1.237 mya, respectively, which correlates with Pleistocene tectonics and erosion events, supporting a hypothesis of geomorphically-driven geographical isolation. Based on a Bayesian skyline plot, these populations showed long term demographic stability, indicating that persistence in confined habitats has been the main response of this species to landscape changes. We conclude that the origin and haplotype divergence of M. pectinifera were a response to local Quaternary geomorphic evolution. PMID:24446289

Cornejo-Romero, A; Medina-Sánchez, J; Hernández-Hernández, T; Rendón-Aguilar, B; Valverde, P L; Zavala-Hurtado, A; Rivas-Arancibia, S P; Pérez-Hernández, M A; López-Ortega, G; Jiménez-Sierra, C; Vargas-Mendoza, C F

2014-01-01

405

Effect of habitat disturbance on pollination biology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus quevedonis at landscape-level in central Mexico.  

PubMed

Stenocereus quevedonis ('pitire') is a columnar cactus endemic to central Mexico, grown for its edible fruit. Phenology, pollination biology and behaviour of flower visitors of this species were compared in six conserved and disturbed sites, hypothesising that: (i) pitire pollination is self-incompatible, requiring animal vectors; (ii) higher incidence of radiation on plants in cleared forest may lead to a higher number of flowers per pitire plant and longer blooming season, and disturbing and differential spatial availability of flower resources may determine differential attraction of pollinators to conserved and disturbed areas; (iii) if pitire pollination system is specialised, reproductive success would decrease with pollinator scarcity, or other species may substitute for main pollinators. In all sites, pitire reproduction started in January, flowering peak occurring in April, anthesis duration was 15?h and predominantly nocturnal (9?h), pollen was released at 23:00?h, nectar was produced throughout anthesis, and breeding system was self-incompatible. Flower production per plant was similar in disturbed and conserved sites, but flower availability was higher (because of higher tree density) and longer in disturbed sites. Pollination is nocturnal, the most frequent legitimate pollinator being the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae; diurnal pollination is rare but possible, carried out by bee species. Fruit and seed set in control and nocturnal pollination treatments at disturbed sites were higher than in conserved sites. Frequency of L. yerbabuenae visits was similar among site types, but more visits of complementary nocturnal and diurnal pollinators were recorded in disturbed sites, which could explain differences in reproductive success. PMID:23016649

Rodríguez-Oseguera, A G; Casas, A; Herrerías-Diego, Y; Pérez-Negrón, E

2013-05-01

406

Valorisation d'un nouveau bio floculant (extrait de cactus) dans le traitement physico-chimique des rejets liquides chargés en cuivre, en zinc et en matière en suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cactus tree is native of the arid and semi-arid areas in Mexico. It belongs to the genus Opuntia, a succulent plant xérophytique which can store a large amount of water and doesn't affect the human health (1). Furthermore, it presents considerable values in different domaines such as cosmetics, medecine and food (2, 3). The main aim of this study

A. Abid; A. Zouhri; A. Ider; S. Kholtei

2009-01-01

407

Efecto de Cubiertas Comestibles en la Calidad de Nopal Verdura (Opuntia sp) Durante el Almacenamiento Refrigerado? Effect of Edible Coatings on the Quality of Cactus Stems (Opuntia sp) During Cold Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of tender cactus stems (Opuntia ficus-indica) during cold storage is affected by weight loss and chilling injury. These disorders have been reduced in several fruits and vegetables by covering the product with edible coatings. The effect of application of two edible coatings (Semperfresh® and another formulation based on carboxymethylcellulose, CMC, named Wax 1) on the quality of tender

Armida Rodríguez-Félix

408

Nurse Plants vs. Nurse Objects: Effects of Woody Plants and Rocky Cavities on the Recruitment of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus Columnar Cactus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Most studies on cactus recruitment have focused on the role of woody plants as seedling facilitators. Although the spatial association of cacti with objects had been described, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unknown. The aims of this study were to identify which mechanisms facilitate the establishment of a columnar cactus under the shade and protection of objects and to compare these mechanisms with those involved in plant–plant facilitation. Methods Three split-split-plot field experiments were conducted to compare the effects of two microhabitats (inside rocky cavities and beneath plant canopies) on seed removal, germination, seedling survivorship and dry weight. Flat, open spaces were used as the control. For each microhabitat, the effect of seed or seedling protection and substrate limitation were explored; aboveground microclimate and some soil properties were also characterized. Key Results The permanence of superficial seeds was greater inside rocky cavities than beneath woody plant canopies or on flat, open areas. Germination was similar in cavities and beneath plant canopies, but significantly higher than on flat, open areas. Seedling survivorship was greater beneath plant canopies than inside cavities or on flat, open spaces. Conclusions The mechanisms of plant facilitation are different from those of object facilitation. There are seed–seedling conflicts involved in the recruitment of P. leucocephalus: nurse plants favour mainly seedling survivorship by providing a suitable microenvironment, while nurse objects mainly favour seed permanence, by protecting them from predators. PMID:18056054

Munguia-Rosas, Miguel Angel; Sosa, Vinicio J.

2008-01-01

409

Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 426]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--226. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

K. B. Campbell

2001-06-01

410

Measured behavioural latency in response to sex-pheromone loss in the large silk moth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Males of the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) were video-recorded in a sustained-flight wind tunnel in a constant plume of sex pheromone. The plume was experimentally truncated, and the moths, on losing pheromone stimulus, rapidly changed their behaviour from up-tunnel zig-zag flight to lateral casting flight. The latency of this change was in the range 300-500 ms. Video and computer analysis of flight tracks indicates that these moths effect this switch by increasing their course angle to the wind while decreasing their air speed. Combined with previous physiological and biochemical data concerning pheromone processing within this species, this behavioural study supports the argument that the temporal limit for this behavioural response latency is determined at the level of genetically coded kinetic processes located within the peripheral sensory hairs. PMID:3209970

Baker, T C; Vogt, R G

1988-07-01

411

Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar-O2) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (? = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar-O2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°.

Liu, Chia-Hsing; Niu, Pei-Lun; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

2014-01-01

412

Listening in Pheromone Plumes: Disruption of Olfactory-Guided Mate Attraction in a Moth by a Bat-Like Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal moths often use sex pheromones to find mates and ultrasonic hearing to evade echolocating bat predators. Male moths, when confronted with both pheromones and sound, thus have to trade off reproduction and predator avoidance depending on the relative strengths of the perceived conflicting stimuli. The ultrasonic hearing of Plodia interpunctella was investigated. A threshold curve for evasive reaction to ultrasound of tethered moths was established, and the frequency of best hearing was found to be between 40 and 70 kHz. Flight tunnel experiments were performed where males orienting in a sex pheromone plume were stimulated with 50 kHz pulses of different intensities. Pheromone-stimulated males showed increased defensive response with increased intensity of the sound stimulus, and the acoustic cue had long-lasting effects on their pheromone-mediated flight, revealing a cost associated with vital evasive behaviours. PMID:20331396

Svenssona, Glenn P.; Lofstedt, Christer; Skals, Niels

2007-01-01

413

Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.

Gansner, D.A.; Quimby, J.W.; King, S.L.; Arner, S.L.; Drake, D.A.

1994-08-01

414

Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm.  

PubMed

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions. PMID:22842865

Frank, K L; Tobin, P C; Thistle, H W; Kalkstein, Laurence S

2013-05-01

415

Variation in Courtship Ultrasounds of Three Ostrinia Moths with Different Sex Pheromones  

PubMed Central

Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication in O. furnacalis; however, variations in ultrasounds in the three congeners have not been addressed to date. Here we investigated features of ultrasound production and hearing in O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, and compared them with those of O. furnacalis. As in O. furnacalis, males of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis produced ultrasounds during courtship by rubbing specialized scales on the wings against scales on the thorax. The covering of these scales with nail polish muffled the sounds and significantly reduced mating success in O. nubilalis, showing the importance of ultrasound signaling in mating. The ultrasounds produced by O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis were similar, consisting of long trains of pairs of pulses with a main energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among the geographic populations of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, which differed in pheromone type. In contrast, no significant difference in hearing was found among the three species with regard to the most sensitive frequencies and hearing threshold levels. The patterns of variations in the songs and pheromones well reflected those of the phylogenetic relationships, implying that ultrasound and pheromone communications have diverged concordantly. Our results suggest that concordant evolution in sexual signals such as courtship ultrasounds and sex pheromones occurs in moths. PMID:20957230

Surlykke, Annemarie; Tatsuta, Haruki; Tabata, Jun; Ishikawa, Yukio; Skals, Niels

2010-01-01

416

Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

Frank, K. L.; Tobin, P. C.; Thistle, H. W.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.

2013-05-01

417

Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four receptor genes  

PubMed Central

Long distance sexual communication in moths has fascinated biologists because of the complex, precise female pheromone signals and the extreme sensitivity of males to specific pheromone molecules. Progress has been made in identifying some genes involved in female pheromone production and in male response. However, we have lacked information on the genetic changes involved in evolutionary diversification of these mate-finding mechanisms that is critical to understanding speciation in moths and other taxa. We used a combined quantitative trait locus (QTL) and candidate gene approach to determine the genetic architecture of sexual isolation in males of two congeneric moths, Heliothis subflexa and Heliothis virescens. We report behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that differential male responses to three female-produced chemicals (Z9-14:Ald, Z9-16:Ald, Z11-16:OAc) that maintain sexual isolation of these species are all controlled by a single QTL containing at least four odorant receptor genes. It is not surprising that pheromone receptor differences could control H. subflexa and H. virescens responses to Z9-16:Ald and Z9-14:Ald, respectively. However, central rather than peripheral level control over the positive and negative responses of H. subflexa and H. virescens to Z11-16:OAc had been expected. Tight linkage of these receptor genes indicates that mutations altering male response to complex blends could be maintained in linkage disequilibrium and could affect the speciation process. Other candidate genes such as those coding for pheromone binding proteins did not map to this QTL, but there was some genetic evidence of a QTL for response to Z11-16:OH associated with a sensory neuron membrane protein gene. PMID:20404144

Gould, Fred; Estock, Marie; Hillier, N. Kirk; Powell, Bekah; Groot, Astrid T.; Ward, Catherine M.; Emerson, Jennifer L.; Schal, Coby; Vickers, Neil J.

2010-01-01

418

Host and Phenology Shifts in the Evolution of the Social Moth Genus Thaumetopoea  

PubMed Central

The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths), and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths). Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the evolution of the group. PMID:23460830

Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Kerdelhue, Carole; Burban, Christian; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Pivotto, Isabelle; Salvato, Paola; Negrisolo, Enrico

2013-01-01

419

Variation in courtship ultrasounds of three Ostrinia moths with different sex pheromones.  

PubMed

Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication in O. furnacalis; however, variations in ultrasounds in the three congeners have not been addressed to date. Here we investigated features of ultrasound production and hearing in O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, and compared them with those of O. furnacalis. As in O. furnacalis, males of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis produced ultrasounds during courtship by rubbing specialized scales on the wings against scales on the thorax. The covering of these scales with nail polish muffled the sounds and significantly reduced mating success in O. nubilalis, showing the importance of ultrasound signaling in mating. The ultrasounds produced by O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis were similar, consisting of long trains of pairs of pulses with a main energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among the geographic populations of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, which differed in pheromone type. In contrast, no significant difference in hearing was found among the three species with regard to the most sensitive frequencies and hearing threshold levels. The patterns of variations in the songs and pheromones well reflected those of the phylogenetic relationships, implying that ultrasound and pheromone communications have diverged concordantly. Our results suggest that concordant evolution in sexual signals such as courtship ultrasounds and sex pheromones occurs in moths. PMID:20957230

Takanashi, Takuma; Nakano, Ryo; Surlykke, Annemarie; Tatsuta, Haruki; Tabata, Jun; Ishikawa, Yukio; Skals, Niels

2010-01-01

420

Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)  

PubMed Central

Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately ?15.3°C during summer to ?26.3°C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to ?15°C, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer). PMID:23613923

Rozsypal, Jan; Kostal, Vladimir; Zahradnickova, Helena; Simek, Petr

2013-01-01

421

Fluorescent SiC with pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) consisting of a nitride-based blue LED chip and phosphor are very promising candidates for the general lighting applications as energy-saving sources. Recently, donor-acceptor doped fluorescent SiC has been proven as a highly efficient wavelength converter material much superior to the phosphors in terms of high color rendering index value and long lifetime. The light extraction efficiency of the fluorescent SiC based all semiconductor LED light sources is usually low due to the large refractive index difference between the semiconductor and air. In order to enhance the extraction efficiency, we present a simple method to fabricate the pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures on the surface of the fluorescent SiC. A thin gold layer is deposited on the fluorescent SiC first. Then the thin gold layer is treated by rapid thermal processing. After annealing, the thin gold layer turns into discontinuous nano-islands. The average size of the islands is dependent on the annealing condition which could be well controlled. By using the reactive-ion etching, pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures would be obtained using the gold nano-islands as a mask layer. Reactive-ion etching conditions are carefully optimized to obtain the lowest surface reflection performance of the fabricated structures. Significant omnidirectional luminescence enhancement (226.0 %) was achieved from the angle-resolved photoluminescence measurement, which proves the pseudo-periodic moth-eye structure as an effective and simple method to enhance the extraction efficiency of fluorescent SiC based white LEDs.

Ou, Yiyu; Aijaz, Imran; Ou, Haiyan

2012-10-01

422

High Genetic Diversity and Structured Populations of the Oriental Fruit Moth in Its Range of Origin  

PubMed Central

The oriental fruit moth Grapholita (?=?Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies. PMID:24265692

Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua

2013-01-01

423

High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.  

PubMed

The oriental fruit moth Grapholita (?=?Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies. PMID:24265692

Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua

2013-01-01

424

A Study of Free Amino Acids in Rice Moth Larvae During Mycotoxicosis  

PubMed Central

Free amino acid pattern has been studied in rice moth larvae during aflatoxicosis and compared with normal in ground nut meal and wheat bran. It was observed that there is an increase in free amino acids in intoxicated larvae and this was directly proportional to the degree of toxicity as indicated by decrease in growth of these larvae. The study of excretary pattern of amino acids shows that intoxicated larvae excrete less amino acids than the normal larvae. The results have been discussed. PMID:4230279

Hedge, Umashashi C.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

1968-01-01

425

Mapping Historic Gypsy Moth Defoliation with MODIS Satellite Data: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews a project, the goal of which is to study the potential of MODIS data for monitoring historic gypsy moth defoliation. A NASA/USDA Forest Service (USFS) partnership was formed to perform the study. NASA is helping USFS to implement satellite data products into its emerging Forest Threat Early Warning System. The latter system is being developed by the USFS Eastern and Western Forest Threat Assessment Centers. The USFS Forest Threat Centers want to use MODIS time series data for regional monitoring of forest damage (e.g., defoliation) preferably in near real time. The study's methodology is described, and the results of the study are shown.

Spurce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Ryan, Robert E.; Smooth, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

2008-01-01

426

Toxin-binding proteins isolated from yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor and wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 67-kDa protein that can specifically bind the activated Cry9A endotoxin under ligand-blotting conditions was purified from\\u000a midgut epithelium apical membranes of wax moth Galleria mellonella by affinity chromatography. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of this protein as aminopeptidase N.\\u000a In similar experiments, 66- and 58-kDa proteins specific to endotoxin Cry3A were isolated from the midgut epithelium apical\\u000a membranes

N. V. Bulushova; D. P. Zhuzhikov; L. I. Lyutikova; N. E. Kirillova; I. A. Zalunin; G. G. Chestukhina

2011-01-01

427

Toxin-binding proteins isolated from yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor and wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

A 67-kDa protein that can specifically bind the activated Cry9A endotoxin under ligand-blotting conditions was purified from midgut epithelium apical membranes of wax moth Galleria mellonella by affinity chromatography. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of this protein as aminopeptidase N. In similar experiments, 66- and 58-kDa proteins specific to endotoxin Cry3A were isolated from the midgut epithelium apical membranes of Tenebrio molitor larvae. Mass spectrometry showed close similarity of the 58-kDa protein to the Tenebrio molitor ?-amylase. PMID:21568853

Bulushova, N V; Zhuzhikov, D P; Lyutikova, L I; Kirillova, N E; Zalunin, I A; Chestukhina, G G

2011-02-01

428

Gypsy moths: Pest control research. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning control and research regarding gypsy moths or lymantria dispar. Both natural and synthetic controls are discussed, including parasites, viral diseases, fungal diseases, bird predation, bacterial diseases, pheromone trapping, insecticides, and physical and chemical localized protection. Laboratory and field studies on sex pheromones, environmental effects on life cycles, effects of feeding behavior, plant-insect interactions, and other research relating to the control of this forest pest are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

429

Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Plutonium (Pu) and Depleted Uranium (DU) Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Cactus Spring Ranch on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, CAU 485 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-39-001-TAGR. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 485. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the preliminary assessment investigation (PAI) performed in January and February 1998 showed no evidence of contamination at the site. In the past, this CAU included holding pens which housed sheep and burros used to test inhalation uptake from atmospheric releases of Pu and DU, and the animals were sacrificed after the tests. Specifically, the investigation focused on data to determine: if surface activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were present; if potential contaminants of concern (COCs) such as Pu and DU were present; and if plutonium was present in the soil and dung at levels significantly above background levels. Investigation results concluded that surface radiological activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were within range of typical background levels. Evaluation of process knowledge determined plutonium to be the only potential COC, but soil and dung samples tested were not positive for plutonium-238 and only two samples had positive concentrations of plutonium 239/240 (subsequent plutonium alpha spectroscopy results demonstrated that there was no plutonium contamination in the Cactus Spring surface soil or dung). Therefore, the DOE/NV recommended that no corrective action was required at CAU 485; further, no Corrective Action Plan was required. No use restrictions were required to be placed on this CAU because the investigation showed no evidence of contamination at the site.

US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

1998-09-18

430

[Diversity of geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats at different altitudes of Bashang Plateau, Hebei Province of China].  

PubMed

In order to understand the effects of landscape heterogeneity induced by habitat restoration and landform change on the biodiversity in degraded landscapes, an investigation by using light trap was conducted on the geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) diversity in the cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats in three villages at different altitudes of Bashang Plateau in 2006 and 2007. There existed significant differences in the species richness and individual number of geometrid moth between cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats and in the species richness of geometrid moth between the villages at different altitudes, but no significant differences in the individual number of geometrid moth between the villages at different altitudes and in the standardized sparseness index and Fisher' s alpha index between the villages and between the cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats within each village. The non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) indicated that the community structure of geometrid moth in different habitats and at different altitudes differed significantly. This study indicated that the landscape heterogeneity induced by land-form change had significant effects on the community structure and diversity of geometrid moth on Bashang Plateau, and, both cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats were the important habits for geometrid moth. It was suggested that to protect the landscape mosaics containing cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats across the varied landform of Bashang Plateau would have significances in the conservation of high gamma-diversity of geometrid moth, but whether the reforestation and creation of semi-natural habitats could improve the biodiversity of geometrid moth should be monitored in long term. PMID:22720626

Duan, Mei-Chun; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Chang-Liu; Axmacher, Jan C; Li, Liang-Tao; Yu, Zhen-Rong

2012-03-01

431

Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians  

PubMed Central

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2012-01-01

432

Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats  

PubMed Central

Moths and butterflies flying in search of mates risk detection by numerous aerial predators; under the cover of night, the greatest threat will often be from insectivorous bats. During such encounters, the toxic dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera uses the received intensity, duration and emission pattern of the bat's echolocation calls to determine when, and how many, defensive ultrasonic clicks to produce in return. These clicks, which constitute an acoustic startle response, act as warning signals against bats in flight. Using an integrated test of stimulus generalization and dishabituation, here we show that C. tenera is able to discriminate between the echolocation calls characteristic of a bat that has only just detected it versus those of a bat actively in pursuit of it. We also show that C. tenera habituates more profoundly to the former stimulus train (‘early attack’) than to the latter (‘late attack’), even though it was initially equally responsive to both stimuli. Matched sensory and behavioural data indicate that reduced responsiveness reflects habituation and is not merely attributable to sensory adaptation or motor fatigue. In search of mates in the face of bats, C. tenera's ability to discriminate between attacking bats representing different levels of risk, and to habituate less so to those most dangerous, should function as an adaptive cost–benefit trade-off mechanism in nature. PMID:20719772

Ratcliffe, John M.; Fullard, James H.; Arthur, Benjamin J.; Hoy, Ronald R.

2011-01-01

433

Molecular Evolution of Lepidopteran Silk Proteins: Insights from the Ghost Moth, Hepialus californicus  

E-print Network

Ó The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Silk production has independently evolved in numerous arthropod lineages, such as Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies. Lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars) synthesize silk proteins in modified salivary glands and spin silk fibers into protective tunnels, escape lines, and pupation cocoons. Molecular sequence data for these proteins are necessary to determine critical features of their function and evolution. To this end, we constructed an expression library from the silk glands of the ghost moth, Hepialus californicus, and characterized light chain fibroin and heavy chain fibroin gene transcripts. The predicted H. californicus silk fibroins share many elements with other lepidopteran and trichopteran fibroins, such as conserved placements of cysteine, aromatic, and polar amino acid residues. Further comparative analyses were performed to determine site-specific signatures of selection and to assess whether fibroin genes are informative as phylogenetic markers. We found that purifying selection has constrained mutation within the fibroins and that light chain fibroin is a promising molecular marker. Thus, by characterizing the H. californicus fibroins, we identified key functional amino acids and gained insight into the evolutionary processes that have shaped these adaptive molecules.

Matthew A. Collin; Kazuei Mita; Frantisek Sehnal; Cheryl Y. Hayashi; M. A. Collin; C. Y. Hayashi; K. Mita; F. Sehnal; Lepidoptera Trichoptera Silk Fibroin

434

Elevation increases in moth assemblages over 42 years on a tropical mountain  

PubMed Central

Physiological research suggests that tropical insects are particularly sensitive to temperature, but information on their responses to climate change has been lacking—even though the majority of all terrestrial species are insects and their diversity is concentrated in the tropics. Here, we provide evidence that tropical insect species have already undertaken altitude increases, confirming the global reach of climate change impacts on biodiversity. In 2007, we repeated a historical altitudinal transect, originally carried out in 1965 on Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, sampling 6 moth assemblages between 1,885 and 3,675 m elevation. We estimate that the average altitudes of individuals of 102 montane moth species, in the family Geometridae, increased by a mean of 67 m over the 42 years. Our findings indicate that tropical species are likely to be as sensitive as temperate species to climate warming, and we urge ecologists to seek other historic tropical samples to carry out similar repeat surveys. These observed changes, in combination with the high diversity and thermal sensitivity of insects, suggest that large numbers of tropical insect species could be affected by climate warming. As the highest mountain in one of the most biodiverse regions of the world, Mount Kinabalu is a globally important refuge for terrestrial species that become restricted to high altitudes by climate warming. PMID:19164573

Chen, I-Ching; Shiu, Hau-Jie; Benedick, Suzan; Holloway, Jeremy D.; Chey, Vun Khen; Barlow, Henry S.; Hill, Jane K.; Thomas, Chris D.

2009-01-01

435

Elevation increases in moth assemblages over 42 years on a tropical mountain.  

PubMed

Physiological research suggests that tropical insects are particularly sensitive to temperature, but information on their responses to climate change has been lacking-even though the majority of all terrestrial species are insects and their diversity is concentrated in the tropics. Here, we provide evidence that tropical insect species have already undertaken altitude increases, confirming the global reach of climate change impacts on biodiversity. In 2007, we repeated a historical altitudinal transect, originally carried out in 1965 on Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, sampling 6 moth assemblages between 1,885 and 3,675 m elevation. We estimate that the average altitudes of individuals of 102 montane moth species, in the family Geometridae, increased by a mean of 67 m over the 42 years. Our findings indicate that tropical species are likely to be as sensitive as temperate species to climate warming, and we urge ecologists to seek other historic tropical samples to carry out similar repeat surveys. These observed changes, in combination with the high diversity and thermal sensitivity of insects, suggest that large numbers of tropical insect species could be affected by climate warming. As the highest mountain in one of the most biodiverse regions of the world, Mount Kinabalu is a globally important refuge for terrestrial species that become restricted to high altitudes by climate warming. PMID:19164573

Chen, I-Ching; Shiu, Hau-Jie; Benedick, Suzan; Holloway, Jeremy D; Chey, Vun Khen; Barlow, Henry S; Hill, Jane K; Thomas, Chris D

2009-02-01

436

Sex pheromone desaturase functioning in a primitive Ostrinia moth is cryptically conserved in congeners' genomes.  

PubMed

(E)-11- and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate are the most common female sex pheromone components in Ostrinia moths. The ?11-desaturase expressed in the pheromone gland (PG) of female moths is a key enzyme that introduces a double bond into pheromone molecules. A single ?11-desaturase of Ostrinia nubilalis, OnubZ/E11, has been shown to produce an ?7:3 mixture of (E)-11- and (Z)-11-tetradecenoate from the substrate tetradecanoate. In contrast, the sex pheromone of Ostrinia latipennis, a primitive species of Ostrinia, is (E)-11-tetradecenol. This pheromone is unique in that it is not acetylated, and includes no Z isomer. In the present study, through the cloning and functional analysis of a PG-specific ?11-desaturase in O. latipennis, we showed that the absence of the Z isomer in the pheromone is attributable to the strict product specificity of the ?11-desaturase in this species, LATPG1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that LATPG1 was not closely related to OnubZ/E11. Rather, it was closely related to retroposon-linked cryptic ?11-desaturases (ezi-?11) found in the genomes of O. nubilalis and Ostrinia furnacalis. Taken together, the results showed that an unusual ?11-desaturase is functionally expressed in O. latipennis, although the genes encoding this enzyme appear to be cryptic in congeners. PMID:21444802

Fujii, Takeshi; Ito, Katsuhiko; Tatematsu, Mitsuko; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yukio

2011-04-26

437

Relative performance of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) on grapes and other hosts.  

PubMed

The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana is a major grapevine pest, but despite the abundance of vineyards it is a generalist and uses either grapes or alternative species. Given the abundance and predictability of grape, L. botrana could be expected to have evolved towards monophagy. In order to understand why this species remains polyphagous, we hypothesized that larvae reared on rare wild host plants should have higher fitness than those reared on the more abundant grape host. For this, we compared larval performance and several life history traits on three alternative host plants (Daphne gnidium, Olea europaea, Tanacetum vulgare) and three Vitaceae (Vitis vinifera), two cultivars and one wild species (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata), and two control groups raised on either a low or a high nutritive value medium. Alternative hosts are more suitable than Vitaceae for the reproductive performance of L. botrana: larval mortality and development time was reduced, while pupal weight, growth rate, female longevity, female fecundity, duration of laying and mating success were increased. High quality food ingested by larvae promotes higher adult body weight and enhances female reproductive output. This suggests that alternative hosts provide greater nutritional value for L. botrana than Vitaceae. The use of alternative host plants could thus be maintained in the host range because they offer L. botrana a better fitness than on the Vitaceae. This could typically represent an advantage for moths behaving in plant diversity grape landscapes. PMID:15791428

Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

2005-05-01

438

1/f oscillations in a model of moth populations oriented by diffusive pheromones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An individual-based model for the population dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda in a homogeneous environment is proposed. The model involves moths feeding plants, mating through an anemotaxis search (i.e., oriented by odor dispersed in a current of air), and dying due to resource competition or at a maximum age. As observed in the laboratory, the females release pheromones at exponentially distributed time intervals, and it is assumed that the ranges of the male flights follow a power-law distribution. Computer simulations of the model reveal the central role of anemotaxis search for the persistence of moth population. Such stationary populations are exponentially distributed in age, exhibit random temporal fluctuations with 1/f spectrum, and self-organize in disordered spatial patterns with long-range correlations. In addition, the model results demonstrate that pest control through pheromone mass trapping is effective only if the amounts of pheromone released by the traps decay much slower than the exponential distribution for calling female.

Barbosa, L. A.; Martins, M. L.; Lima, E. R.

2005-01-01

439

Abundance, age structure, and voltinism of light brown apple moth populations in California.  

PubMed

The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is native to Australia and first was detected in California in 2006. In this study, we regularly sampled populations on Leptospermum laevigatum (Gaertn.) F.Muell. at two sites in San Francisco and on Arctostaphylos densiflora M.S. Baker at two sites in Santa Cruz over a 2-yr period to monitor the abundance, age structure, and voltinism of this potential pest in relation to degree-days. Our results showed that larval abundance declined at two sites, cycled with peaks in midsummer at one site, and remained steady at one site. Generations overlapped at all four sites with the full range of larval instars being present for most of the year, although populations during the winter were predominantly mid to late instars. Accumulated degree-days predict an average of 3.27 and 4.58 generations per year in San Francisco and Santa Cruz, respectively, which matched our observed peaks of late-instar larvae in the field remarkably well. This new information on light brown apple moth phenology in coastal California will be invaluable for the development of effective monitoring and management strategies for this new invader in the studied region. PMID:22217751

Buergi, L P; Roltsch, W J; Mills, N J

2011-12-01

440

Influence of weather on the synchrony of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) outbreaks in New England  

SciTech Connect

Outbreaks of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), were partially synchronous across New England states (Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont) from 1938 to 1992. To explain this synchrony, we investigated the Moran effect, a hypothesis that local population oscillations, which result form similar density-dependent mechanisms operating at time lags, may be synchronized over wide areas by exposure to common weather patterns. We also investigated the theory of climatic release, which ostulates that outbreaks are triggered by climatic factors favorable for population growth. Time series analysis revealed defoliation series in 2 states as 1st-order autoregressive processes and the other 2 as periodic 2nd-order autoregressive processes. Defoliation residuals series computed using the autoregressive models for each state were cross correlated with series of weather variables recorded in the respective states. The weather variables significantly correlated with defoliation residuals in all 4 states were minimum temperature and precipitation in mid-December in the same gypsy moth generation and minimum temperature in mid- to late July of the previous generation. These weather variables also were correlated strongly among the 4 states. The analyses supported the predictions of the Moran effect and suggest the common weather may synchronize local populations so as to produce pest outbreaks over wide areas. We did not find convincing evidence to support the theory of climatic release. 41 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Williams, D.W.; Liebhold, A.M. [Forest Service, Radnor, PA (United States)

1995-10-01

441

Immunolocalization of general odorant-binding protein in antennal sensilla of moth caterpillars.  

PubMed

Antennae of Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera larvae were immunolabelled with antisera raised against the pheromone-binding protein or the general odorant-binding protein 2 of Antheraea polyphemus to assign the expression of these proteins to individual sensilla and to compare the localization pattern with that in sensilla of adult moths. Specific labelling of antennal sensilla was only obtained with the antiserum against general odorant-binding protein 2. Among the few sensilla present on the antenna the three large sensilla basiconica, which are suspected to be olfactory in function, were labelled. These sensilla are compound sensilla consisting of several sensillum units which form a common sensory hair. The hair is single-walled and pierced by many pores. Labelling of sensillum compartments was the same as in sensilla of adults. Prominent labelling of the sensillum lymph is accompanied by labelling of secretory organelles in the two outermost auxiliary cells and of endocytotic pathways in all sensillum cells. The results suggest that general odorant-binding protein is expressed in single-walled multiporous sensilla of presumed olfactory function on the antenna of moth larvae. The overall identity of the localization pattern for general odorant-binding protein between larval and adult sensilla implies a similar role of these proteins in olfactory stimulus transduction. PMID:18088914

Laue, M

2000-01-01

442

Decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone, a competitive inhibitor of moth pheromone receptors.  

PubMed

An earlier study (Pophof 1998) showed that the esterase inhibitor decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone inhibited the responses of two receptor neurons of the moth Antheraea tuned to straight-chain pheromone components, an acetate and an aldehyde, respectively. Here we report that decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone also inhibited the responses of two pheromone receptor neurons of Bombyx mori to bombykol and bombykal. In contrast, decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone activated receptor neurons of the moth Imbrasia cyrtherea tuned to the pheromone component (Z)-5-decenyl 3-methyl-butanoate. However, decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone did not affect the responses of two receptor neurons of B. mori females specialized to the plant volatiles benzoic acid and linalool, respectively. These results indicate that decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone, besides inhibiting the sensillar esterase, interferes with proteins involved specifically in the excitation of pheromone receptor neurons. In binding studies with radiolabelled decyl-thio-trifuoroproparopnone, the inhibitor was bound by the pheromone-binding protein of A. polyphemus. However, the amount of decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone causing response inhibition was 300 times lower than the amount of pheromone-binding protein present in the sensilla. Since the amount of decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone adsorbed corresponded to about the maximum number of receptor molecules calculated per sensillum, we expect that decyl-thio-trifluoropropanone, probably in complex with pheromone-binding protein, competitively inhibits the pheromone receptor molecules. PMID:10757247

Pophof, B; Gebauer, T; Ziegelberger, G

2000-03-01

443

Functional morphology of the ommatidia in the compound eye of the moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Insecta, Saturniidae).  

PubMed

The fine structure of the superposition eye of the Saturniid moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer was investigated by electron microscopy. Each of the approximately 10,000 ommatidia consists of the same structural components, but regarding the arrangement of the ommatidia and the rhabdom structure therein, two regions of the eye have to be distinguished. In a small dorsal rim area, the ommatidia are characterized by rectangularly shaped rhabdoms containing parallel microvilli arranged in groups that are oriented perpendicular to each other. In all other ommatidia, the proximal parts of the rhabdoms show radially arranged microvilli, whereas the distal parts may reveal different patterns, frequently with microvilli in two directions or sometimes even in one direction. Moreover, the microvilli of all distal cells are arranged in parallel to meridians of the eyes. By virtue of these structural features the eyes should enable this moth not only discrimination of the plane of polarized light but also skylight-orientation via the polarization pattern, depending on moon position. The receptor cells exhibit only small alterations during daylight within the natural diurnal cycle. However, under illumination with different monochromatic lights of physiological intensity, receptor cells can be unbalanced: Changes in ultrastructure of the rhabdomeres and the cytoplasm of such cells are evident. The effects are different in the daytime and at night. These findings are discussed in relation to the breakdown and regeneration of microvilli and the influence of the diurnal cycle. They are compared with results on photoreceptor membrane turnover in eyes of other arthropod species. PMID:3383218

Anton-Erxleben, F; Langer, H

1988-05-01

444

Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana  

PubMed Central

Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana.

Saour, George

2014-01-01

445

Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts. PMID:17461067

Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

2007-04-01

446

Multiphasic On/Off Pheromone Signalling in Moths as Neural Correlates of a Search Strategy  

PubMed Central

Insects and robots searching for odour sources in turbulent plumes face the same problem: the random nature of mixing causes fluctuations and intermittency in perception. Pheromone-tracking male moths appear to deal with discontinuous flows of information by surging upwind, upon sensing a pheromone patch, and casting crosswind, upon losing the plume. Using a combination of neurophysiological recordings, computational modelling and experiments with a cyborg, we propose a neuronal mechanism that promotes a behavioural switch between surge and casting. We show how multiphasic On/Off pheromone-sensitive neurons may guide action selection based on signalling presence or loss of the pheromone. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model with a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel reproduces physiological On/Off responses. Using this model as a command neuron and the antennae of tethered moths as pheromone sensors, we demonstrate the efficiency of multiphasic patterning in driving a robotic searcher toward the source. Taken together, our results suggest that multiphasic On/Off responses may mediate olfactory navigation and that SK channels may account for these responses. PMID:23613816

Martinez, Dominique; Chaffiol, Antoine; Voges, Nicole; Gu, Yuqiao; Anton, Sylvia; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lucas, Philippe

2013-01-01

447

A multifunctional desaturase involved in the biosynthesis of the processionary moth sex pheromone  

PubMed Central

The sex pheromone of the female processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, is a unique C16 enyne acetate that is biosynthesized from palmitic acid. Three consecutive desaturation reactions transform this saturated precursor into the triunsaturated fatty acyl intermediate: formation of (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, acetylenation to 11-hexadecynoic acid, and final ?13 desaturation to (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynoic acid. By using degenerate primers common to all reported insect desaturases, a single cDNA sequence was isolated from total RNA of T. pityocampa female pheromone glands. The full-length transcript of this putative desaturase was expressed in elo1?/ole1? yeast mutants (both elongase 1 and ?9 desaturase-deficient) for functional assays. The construct fully rescued the ?ole1 yeast phenotype, confirming its desaturase activity. Analysis of the unsaturated products from transformed yeast extracts demonstrated that the cloned enzyme showed ?11 desaturase, ?11 acetylenase, and ?13 desaturase activities. Therefore, this single desaturase may account for the three desaturation steps involved in the sex pheromone biosynthetic pathway of the processionary moth. PMID:17921252

Serra, Montserrat; Pina, Benjamin; Abad, Jose Luis; Camps, Francisco; Fabrias, Gemma

2007-01-01

448

Deep sympatric mtDNA divergence in the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata)  

PubMed Central

Deep sympatric intraspecific divergence in mtDNA may reflect cryptic species or formerly distinct lineages in the process of remerging. Preliminary results from DNA barcoding of Scandinavian butterflies and moths showed high int