Sample records for cactus moth cactoblastis

  1. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  2. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. G. Marti; R. E. Myers; J. E. Carpenter; E. L. Styer

    2007-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to

  3. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  4. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  5. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the number of times that males of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) mate under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were provided to each male at 24 h intervals until male death. Females removed from the containers were dissected to ascertain their mating ...

  6. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of three constant temperatures (20°, 25° and 30°C) on the rate of development and life history of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). Results from these laboratory experiments were used to predict C. cactorum rate of development in the field during...

  7. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  8. An international cooperative effort to protect Opuntia cactus resources in the American Southwest and Mexico from the South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American Cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was intentionally introduced to an island in the Caribbean in the 1950’s and eventually made its way to the Florida peninsula by 1989. In 2004, the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APH...

  9. The renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: its natural history and threat to native Opuntia floras in Mexico and the United States of America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Zimmermann; V. C. Moran; J. H. Hoffmann

    2000-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Phycitidae) is native to South America. It was released as a biological control agent against alien Opuntia -cacti in Australia in the 1920s, then in southern Africa, and latterly on several islands, including those in the Caribbean. In 1989, the cactus moth was discovered in Florida, in the United States of America, where it

  10. THE RENOWNED CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE): ITS NATURAL HISTORY AND THREAT TO NATIVE OPUNTIA FLORAS IN MEXICO AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Z IMMERMANN; V. C. M ORAN; J. H. H OFFMANN

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Phycitidae) is native to South America. It was released as a biological control agent against alien Opuntia- cacti in Australia in the 1920s, then in southern Africa, and latterly on several islands, including those in the Carib- bean. In 1989, the cactus moth was discovered in Florida, in the United States of America, where

  11. COMPARATIVE PHENOLOGY OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM AND MELITARA PRODENIALIS (LEPIDOPTERA): PESTS OF CACTUS IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta) at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL from September 2006 – September 2007 for the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum and the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis. Every week, we visually counted the numbers and reco...

  12. Extended geographical distribution and host range of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera Pyralidae)in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field exploration was conducted to confirm the southernmost distribution of Cactoblastis cactorum in Argentina. The distribution of the moth was extended to the south (40° 10´S) and west (66° 56´W). The native Opuntia penicilligera was recorded as a host for the first time. These findings should ...

  13. DON'T LET CACTO BLAST US: DEVELOPMENT OF A BINATIONAL PLAN TO STOP THE SPREAD OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its detection in south Florida in 1989, the cactus moth has expanded its range north along the Atlantic Coast as far as Bull Island near Charleston, South Carolina, and west along the Gulf Coast as far as Dauphin Island, Alabama. Although prickly pear cactus has minor value as a food crop in ...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  15. The Multiple 'Personalities' of Cactoblastis cactorum: A Multi-Disciplinary Response to the Biological Impacts of the Moth's Geographical Wanderings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus feeding pyralid Cactoblastis cactorum is perhaps the most well know successful classical biological control agent against weeds when attacking non-native prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.). However, the moth has become a pest in North America where it attacks native Opuntia spp.; threat...

  16. CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE VALIDATION STUDY RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, in 1989 this moth was detected in the Florida Keys and has now become an invasive pest in the southea...

  17. The importance of Opuntia in Mexico and routes of invasion and impact of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    E-print Network

    Soberó n, Jorge; Golubov, J.; Sarukhá n, J.

    2001-12-01

    The appearance of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum in Florida has roused concern over its possible effects on the Opuntia-rich areas of Mexico and the southwestern United States. In this paper we discuss the economic importance of Opuntia...

  18. SURVEY FOR EGG PARASITOIDS ATTACKING CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NORTH FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the natural enemies of Cactoblastis cactorum, a cactus moth native from Argentina, has increased since its accidental introduction to Bahia Honda Key, Florida, in October 1989. In 1957, C. cactorum was introduced onto the Caribbean islands of the Greater Antilles to manage the invasive p...

  19. Life table analysis for Cactoblastis cactorum immatures and female adults under five constant temperatures:Implications for pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported in Florida in 1989, and is expanding its geographical range in the United States to threaten Opuntia cactus in the southwestern states and Mexico where it is an important economic crop. Laboratory life history studie...

  20. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations. PMID:24665701

  1. LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS FOR CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IMMATURES AND ADULTS UNDER FIVE DIFFERENT CONSTANT TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory life history studies of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, were conducted at 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34 ºC. Duration of immature stages was generally longest at 18, declining significantly at 22 and shortest at 26, 30 and 34 ºC. Total immature development time from eggs to pupae was about...

  2. Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for the Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A CLIMEX was developed for the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records, and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX “growth indices” against field measur...

  3. Artificial diets for classical weed biocontrol agents-it's been done. The Cactoblastis cactorum story in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp., but its unintentional arrival in North America represents an economic and ecological threat to native Opuntia spp. in the U. S. and ...

  4. Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Grasela, James J; McIntosh, Arthur H; Ringbauer, Joseph; Goodman, Cynthia L; Carpenter, James E; Popham, Holly J R

    2012-05-01

    The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) in Australia, Hawaii, South Africa, and various Caribbean islands, has posed great concern as to the possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern USA as well as with the potential to cause a major infestation of commercial and agricultural cactus crops in Mexico. A number of control measures have been investigated with varying degrees of success including, field exploration for cactus moth-specific parasitoids, insecticides, fungal, bacterial, and nematode agents. Current tactics used by the USA-Mexico binational program to eradicate cactus moth from Mexico and mitigate its westward movement in the USA include host plant removal, the manual removal and destruction of egg sticks and infected cacti stems, and the Sterile Insect Technique. One other approach not taken until now is the development of a cactus moth cell line as a tool to facilitate the investigation of baculoviruses as an alternative biocontrol method for the cactus moth. Consequently, we established C. cactorum cell lines derived from adult ovarian tissue designated as BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG. The mean cell population doubling time was 204.3 and 112 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with weekly medium change, while the doubling time was 176.6 and 192.6 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with a daily change of medium. In addition, the daily versus weekly change in medium was reflected in the percentage viability with both cell lines showing higher levels with a daily medium change. Of the three baculoviruses tested, only the recombinant AcMNPV-hsp70Red and GmMNPV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0 were able to demonstrate significant production of extracellular virus (ECV) in each of the cell lines, whereas both cell lines were refractive to an HzSNPV challenge at an MOI of 10. In this study, we have demonstrated both the successful development of a C. cactorum cell line and its ability to support a complete baculovirus infection. The potential is also there to pursue further investigations to determine the susceptibility of the cactus moth cell line to other viruses. Additionally, the availability of a cactus moth cell line will facilitate the analysis of viruses prior to using the more expensive bioassay test. Finally, it is hoped with the knowledge presented here that baculoviruses may also be considered as an alternative biocontrol method for the cactus moth. PMID:22580906

  5. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  6. Effects of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide on the location of hosts by the moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Stange

    1997-01-01

    Sensory organs that detect CO2 are common in herbivorous moths and butterflies, but their function has been unclear until now. As the CO2 gradients in the vicinity of a host plant depend on its physiological condition, CO2 could provide a sensory cue for the suitability of the plant as a larval food source. This study investigated whether changing\\u000a the atmospheric

  7. Cholla Cactus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Cholla cactus growing in Pine Creek Canyon. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of the Mojave Desert....

  8. cactus (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    on the dominant cacti and herbaceous plant species in this semi-arid ecosystem. Results from this study demonstrate that the combination of fire and wildlife herbivory significantly reduces Opuntia cactus cover. I was able to empirically demonstrate...

  9. Cactus: a medicinal food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anoop A. Shetty; M. K. Rana; S. P. Preetham

    With excellent quality and flavour of fresh fruits, young leaves of cactus serve as nutritious vegetable and salad dish and\\u000a the immature fruits for making mock-gherkins. Cactus, with high water use efficiency produce forage for animals, vegetables,\\u000a and fruits with 14% glucose. Traditionally cactus used as a valuable health supporting nutrient and it also has applications\\u000a in pharmaceutical industries. Cactus

  10. Bird's Nest in Cactus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A bird's nest in a cholla cactus in Pine Creek Canyon. The bird is likely a cactus wren, a species that nests specifically in cacti. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Can...

  11. The Brownian Cactus I. Scaling limits of discrete cactuses

    E-print Network

    Curien, Nicolas; Miermont, Grégory

    2011-01-01

    The cactus of a pointed graph is a discrete tree associated with this graph. Similarly, with every pointed geodesic metric space $E$, one can associate an $\\R$-tree called the continuous cactus of $E$. We prove under general assumptions that the cactus of random planar maps distributed according to Boltzmann weights and conditioned to have a fixed large number of vertices converges in distribution to a limiting space called the Brownian cactus, in the Gromov-Hausdorff sense. Moreover, the Brownian cactus can be interpreted as the continuous cactus of the so-called Brownian map.

  12. Cactus spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, D; Lindsey, W E

    1988-07-01

    Cactus spines produce injuries whose clinical significance is loosely in inverse proportion to the dimensions of the spine. Long and medium spines of saguaro and barrel cacti seldom result in embedded fragments, but when they do they are difficult to locate and remove. Other medium spines, those of prickly pear and cholla, are a nuisance but they can be removed readily by traction, as can the smaller spines (glochids) of the prickly pear. The very small spines (also glochids) of the polka dot or bunny's ear cactus (Opuntia microdasys) and the beavertail cactus (Opuntia basilaris) offer the most frustrating problem of all, but can be peeled off with a dried film of a professional facial gel. PMID:3390256

  13. Waxworm moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    T. W. Davies (California Academy of Sciences; )

    2005-01-01

    Waxworm moths emerge from the silk cocoon and are able to mate. The females lay eggs. A female moth can invade a weak honeybee hive and lay her eggs there. After they hatch, the larvae will eat the honey and the hive wax, destroying the hive.

  14. UK Moths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ian Kimber

    Comprehensive guide to the moths of Great Britain and Ireland, with photographs of live specimens, common and scientific names, and notes on biology. The aim of the site is to illustrate as many species of British moths as possible and to provide this information in an accessible format.

  15. Luna moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shawn Hanrahan (None; )

    2004-01-01

    One reason why the luna moth is considered to be an insect is because its body is divided into three parts-the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Luna moths undergo complete metamorphosis, meaning that their offspring look very different from the adults until they actually reach adulthood.

  16. Silkworm moths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gerd A.T. Müller (None; )

    2002-05-18

    Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

  17. Peppered Moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryland Virtual High School

    The purpose of the peppered moth activity is to model the effects of natural selection on the appearance and genetic make-up of a natural population. By adjusting the amount of pollution in the environment, the student is able to see the differences in the frequencies of light and dark moths in the population. The student may also investigate the survival differences between dominant and recessive genes when one phenotype has a selective advantage over the other.

  18. Component Specification in the Cactus Framework: The Cactus Configuration Language

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle; Löffler, Frank; Rideout, David; Schnetter, Erik; Seidel, Eric L

    2010-01-01

    Component frameworks are complex systems that rely on many layers of abstraction to function properly. One essential requirement is a consistent means of describing each individual component and how it relates to both other components and the whole framework. As component frameworks are designed to be flexible by nature, the description method should be simultaneously powerful, lead to efficient code, and be easy to use, so that new users can quickly adapt their own code to work with the framework. In this paper, we discuss the Cactus Configuration Language (CCL) which is used to describe components ("thorns'') in the Cactus Framework. The CCL provides a description language for the variables, parameters, functions, scheduling and compilation of a component and includes concepts such as interface and implementation which allow thorns providing the same capabilities to be easily interchanged. We include several application examples which illustrate how community toolkits use the CCL and Cactus and identify nee...

  19. Tissue Cultures of a Cactus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Steinhart

    1962-01-01

    Tissue cultures have been established from stems of Trichocereus spachianus (Riccob.) for the purpose of studying alkaloid biosynthesis in cactus tissue. On a basal inorganic medium supplemented with glucose, coconut milk, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, three distinct types of callus are initiated. One is greenish, compact, and slow-growing; another is firm and yellowish, with a moderate growth rate; the third is

  20. Demographic Monitoring of Wright Fishhook Cactus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RONALD J. KASS

    Wright fishhook cactus (Sclerocactus wrightiae Benson) is a small barrel cactus endem- ic to the San Rafael Swell in south-central Utah. It was listed as an endangered species in 1979 due to its small population size, threats of over-collecting, and development associated with oil and gas. Demographic monitoring was initiated in 1993 with the following objectives: to establish permanent plots

  1. Tissue Cultures of a Cactus.

    PubMed

    Steinhart, C E

    1962-08-17

    Tissue cultures have been established from stems of Trichocereus spachianus (Riccob.) for the purpose of studying alkaloid biosynthesis in cactus tissue. On a basal inorganic medium supplemented with glucose, coconut milk, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, three distinct types of callus are initiated. One is greenish, compact, and slow-growing; another is firm and yellowish, with a moderate growth rate; the third is very friable and rapid-growing. The growth habit remains constant for a given clone in successive subcultures. PMID:17749633

  2. "Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  3. Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  4. A cactus theorem for end cuts

    E-print Network

    Evangelidou, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Dinits-Karzanov-Lomonosov showed that it is possible to encode all minimal edge cuts of a graph by a tree-like structure called a cactus. We show here that minimal edge cuts separating ends of the graph rather than vertices can be `encoded' also by a cactus. We apply our methods to finite graphs as well and we show that several types of cuts can be encoded by cacti.

  5. A preliminary study on cactus as coagulant in water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingdong Zhang; Fang Zhang; Yuhong Luo; Hong Yang

    2006-01-01

    The coagulation performance of cactus to act as natural macromolecular coagulant was studied by the jar test. The cactus coagulation attained comparatively high turbidity removal efficiency, and water with turbidity less than 5NTU could be obtained with initial turbidities from 20 to 200. When used to treat the same water sample, the optimum dosage of cactus coagulant was found similar

  6. Thermal Process Time and Sensory Evaluation for Canned Cactus Pear Nectar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. El-Samahy; H. A. El-Mans; H. E. Bahlol; A. I. El-Desouky; A. E. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Cactus pear fruits have high nutritional value due to their high amounts of sugar and minerals. Cactus pear fruits were peeled and pulped in a pulping machine. The strained pulp was used to prepare cactus pear pulp and nectar. The obtained cactus pear pulp was used to produce canned cactus pear nectar, which was used to determine the heat resistance

  7. Geographic and population variation in pollinating seed-consuming interactions between senita cacti ( Lophocereus schottii ) and senita moths ( Upiga virescens )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nathaniel Holland; Theodore H. Fleming

    1999-01-01

    Interspecific interactions can vary within and among populations and geographic locations. This variation can subsequently\\u000a influence the evolution and coevolution of species interactions. We investigated population and geographic variation in traits\\u000a important to pollinating seed-consuming interactions between the senita cactus (Lophocereus schottii) and its obligate pollinating moth (Upiga virescens), both of which are geographically restricted to the Sonoran Desert. Female

  8. An action of the cactus group

    E-print Network

    Henriques, Andre

    2007-01-01

    We construct an action of the big cactus group (the fundamental group of the Deligne-Mumford compactification of the moduli space of real curves of genus zero with n undistinguished marked points) on Fock-Goncharov's SL_m analog of the decorated Teichmuller space of ideal n-gons.

  9. Annealing a Magnetic Cactus into Phyllotaxis

    E-print Network

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Lammert, Paul E; Maynard, J D; Crespi, Vincent H

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by 2-D Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental "magnetic cactus" precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single spiral) phyllotaxis.

  10. Doing numerical cosmology with the Cactus code

    E-print Network

    Vulcanov, D N

    2002-01-01

    The article presents some aspects concerning the construction of a new thorn for the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. This thorn is completely dedicated to numerical simulations in cosmology, that means it can provide evolutions of different cosmological models, mainly based on Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric. Some numerical results are presented, testing the convergence, stability and the applicability of the code.

  11. Life of a Gypsy Moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

  12. Gypsy Moth in North America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by Sandy Liebhold at the USDA's Forest Service Northeastern Research Station (Forestry Sciences Laboratory), this Gypsy Moth site provides background information on Gypsy Moths, from their introduction to North America in the 1800s through current management efforts to control them. Ecological information on the moths' life cycle, forest relationships, and natural enemies is provided, in addition to several useful and informative maps on distribution. A selection of Gypsy Moth links are also included.

  13. Managing Insect Pests of Cacti and Other Succulents in Water-Efficient Landscapes 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2008-11-06

    insects or if the plants look unsightly, there is a good chance that the pests will move to similar plants planted nearby. Even if the plants are pest free, new pests can arrive over time. One exotic pest, the cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorium...-efficient ornamental plants native to Texas WaterWise plants 1 Red yucca (Hesperaloe parviflora) Adam?s needle yucca (Yucca filamentosa) Soft-tip yucca (Yucca gloriosa) Pendula yucca (Yucca recurviflora) Texas sage (Leucophylum frutescens) Cactus varieties 2 Prickly...

  14. Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of the sunflower heads. Larvae feed and develop within the heads from mid-July to mid-September feeding initially on the bracts, pollen and the disk flowers and finally the immature and ma...

  15. Gypsy Moth Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Dennis R.

    The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

  16. Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

  17. Data Acquisition System and Trigger Electronics for Cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarazo, J.; Afonso, P.; Chertok, M.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M.

    2006-04-01

    CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope located at the Solar 2 facility in California, and operated by UC, Davis. It uses an array of 168 heliostats and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes to detect Cherenkov radiation produced by air showers. CACTUS incorporates novel techniques of time projection imaging and pattern triggering, implemented in FPGAs, thus improving upon the first generation sampling ACTs. Here we describe the telescope and its readout and triggering electronics.

  18. Red clover with moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sage Ross (None; )

    2007-09-23

    Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHEROMONE-BASED SYNTHETIC ATTRACTANT FOR THE CACTUS MOTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical components of the female-produced pheromone were determined by extracting abdominal glands and by collecting volatile chemicals from calling females. Laboratory bioassays using olfactometers and flight tunnels determined that a three component blend was effective in producing a response in...

  20. 76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...emergency forage for cattle grazing during periods of drought...the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...in length from the soil line to the farthest...the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has...Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  1. Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Standard: Adaptation and natural selection.

    E-print Network

    Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Grade: 4th Standard: Adaptation and natural selection. Supplements: Peppered Moth introduction slides http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf Materials

  2. Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    the air. Gypsy moths like to hide their eggs in cracks and crevices. Look for gypsy moth on anything://www.ces.purdue.edu/marketing Gypsy moth detections­2003 Red = areas where gypsy moth was detected Yellow = surveyed areas White = uninfested areas (not surveyed) #12;3 2 Eggs July-May Caterpillars May-June Pupae June-July Adults July

  3. Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    GM-2-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q A GYPSY MOTH Q get your crop inspected and certified as being free of all viable gypsy moth life stages from either. Passing that in- spection certifies your crop as free of gypsy moth. WHAT CAN I DO TO BE SURE THAT MY

  4. Tiger moth jams bat sonar.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

    2009-07-17

    In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

  5. Duponchelia fovealisDuponchelia fovealis (Zeller)(Zeller) European Pepper MothEuropean Pepper Moth

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Duponchelia fovealisDuponchelia fovealis (Zeller)(Zeller) European Pepper MothEuropean Pepper Moth Agriculture Pest Survey program). The photographs of the European pepper moth were used with permission from

  6. Butterflies and Moths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Sessions

    2009-04-06

    Students will learn the different steps in the life cycle of a butterfly. Students will understand some of the differences between a moth and a butterfly BUTTERFLIES -Use the website below to find out information about the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterflies -Print off this worksheet and color the pictures of the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterfly Life Cycle Coloring Page -Click the link to the video. -Watch the video of a real butterfly going through the life cycle. Butterfly Life Cycle Video OR -If the video isn't ...

  7. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals. PMID:25261361

  8. Cactus pear: a natural product in cancer chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Da-ming; Brewer, Molly; Garcia, Francisco; Feugang, Jean M; Wang, Jian; Zang, Roungyu; Liu, Huaguang; Zou, Changping

    2005-01-01

    Background Cancer chemoprevention is a new approach in cancer prevention, in which chemical agents are used to prevent cancer in normal and/or high-risk populations. Although chemoprevention has shown promise in some epithelial cancers, currently available preventive agents are limited and the agents are costly, generally with side effects. Natural products, such as grape seed, green tea, and certain herbs have demonstrated anti-cancer effects. To find a natural product that can be used in chemoprevention of cancer, we tested Arizona cactus fruit solution, the aqueous extracts of cactus pear, for its anti-cancer effects in cultured cells and in an animal model. Method Aqueous extracts of cactus pear were used to treat immortalized ovarian and cervical epithelial cells, as well as ovarian, cervical, and bladder cancer cells. Aqueous extracts of cactus pear were used at six concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 or 25%) to treat cells for 1, 3, or 5 days. Growth inhibition, apoptosis induction, and cell cycle changes were analyzed in the cultured cells; the suppression of tumor growth in nude mice was evaluated and compared with the effect of a synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphernyl) retinamide (4-HPR), which is currently used as a chemoprevention agent. Immunohistochemistry staining of tissue samples from animal tumors was performed to examine the gene expression. Results Cells exposed to cactus pear extracts had a significant increase in apoptosis and growth inhibition in both immortalized epithelial cells and cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also affected cell cycle of cancer cells by increasing G1 and decreasing G2 and S phases. Both 4-HPR and cactus pear extracts significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice, increased annexin IV expression, and decreased VEGF expression. Conclusion Arizona cactus pear extracts effectively inhibited cell growth in several different immortalized and cancer cell cultures, suppressed tumor growth in nude mice, and modulated expression of tumor-related genes. These effects were comparable with those caused by a synthetic retinoid currently used in chemoprevention trials. The mechanism of the anti-cancer effects of cactus pear extracts needs to be further studied. PMID:16150152

  9. Identification, Characterization, and Function Analysis of the Cactus Gene from Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Lü, Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Chai, Jiaoting; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Yong-Gui; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. I?B is the main cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-?B. In this study, we identified the LvCactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the first cloned I?B homologue in subphylum Crustacea. LvCactus contains six predicted ankyrin repeats, which show similarities to those of Cactus proteins from insects. LvCactus localizes in cytoplasm and interacts with LvDorsal, an L. vannamei homologue to Drosophila melanogaster Dorsal belonging to class II NF-?B family, to prevent its nuclear translocation. Contrary to that of LvDorsal, over-expression of LvCactus down-regulates the activities of shrimp antimicrobial peptides promoters, suggesting LvCactus is an inhibitor of LvDorsal. The promoter of LvCactus was predicted to contain five putative NF-?B binding motifs, among which four were proved to be bound by LvDorsal by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Dual-luciferase reporter assays also showed that transcription of LvCactus was promoted by LvDorsal but inhibited by LvCactus itself, indicating a feedback regulatory pathway between LvCactus and LvDorsal. Expression of LvCactus was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus injections, suggesting an activation response of LvCactus to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Differently, the LvCactus expression levels obviously decreased during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, indicating the feedback regulatory pathway of LvCactus/LvDorsal could be modified by WSSV. PMID:23185415

  10. Moth Repellent Chemicals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The featured molecules this month come from the paper The chemistry of moth repellents by Gabriel Pinto. Several of the molecules exhibit interesting structural features that students should explore. Hexachloroethane, not surprisingly, has energy minima in the staggered form that is shown. Students could be asked to look at the models for empenthrin and permethrin to see if they can see similar staggered arrangements in these more complex molecules. Camphor is a good way to introduce strained structures, and students can use the Jmol version of the model to measure bond angles to see if they can identify some of the consequences of this strain. The carbonyl moiety in camphor is interesting as it is non-planar.

  11. Cactus pear cauterizer increases shelf life without cooling processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Hahn

    2009-01-01

    Mexico is the world's largest cactus pear producer and aspires to be the world's largest exporter. Export pear quality depends significantly on good cuts during harvest, so a cauterizer was developed to cut and seal 600 fruits per hour. Shelf life of pears (variety Opuntia spp.) increased without storage room ventilation or cooling. The cauterizer uses a battery recharged from

  12. Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Prickly Pear Cactus Stems ( Opuntia spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Guevara; E. M. Yahia; E. Brito de la Fuente

    2001-01-01

    The young, rapidly growing flattened stems or cladodes of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.), known in Spanish as ‘nopalitos’, are commonly consumed in Mexico as a vegetable, and are shown to reduce blood glucose levels. Nopalitos are very perishable with a storage life of 1 day at room temperature and 6 days when packaged in polyethylene bags and stored

  13. Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    GM-4-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q&A'S ABOUT USING BTK TO CONTROL GYPSY MOTH Cliff Sadof & Adam Witte, Department of Entomology, Purdue University Jodie Ellis, Executive Director at Idaho Board of Veterinary Medicine WHAT IS THE GYPSY MOTH, AND WHY IS IT A PROB- LEM

  14. Extreme variation in floral characters and its consequences for pollinator attraction among populations of an Andean cactus

    PubMed Central

    Schlumpberger, Boris O.; Cocucci, Andrea A.; Moré, Marcela; Sérsic, Alicia N.; Raguso, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims A South American cactus species, Echinopsis ancistrophora (Cactaceae), with dramatic among-population variation in floral traits is presented. Methods Eleven populations of E. ancistrophora were studied in their habitats in northern Argentina, and comparisons were made of relevant floral traits such as depth, stigma position, nectar volume and sugar concentration, and anthesis time. Diurnal and nocturnal pollinator assemblages were evaluated for populations with different floral trait combinations. Key Results Remarkable geographical variations in floral traits were recorded among the 11 populations throughout the distribution range of E. ancistrophora, with flower lengths ranging from 4·5 to 24·1 cm. Other floral traits associated with pollinator attraction also varied in a population-specific manner, in concert with floral depth. Populations with the shortest flowers showed morning anthesis and those with the longest flowers opened at dusk, whereas those with flowers of intermediate length opened at unusual times (2300–0600 h). Nectar production varied non-linearly with floral length; it was absent to low (population means up to 15 µL) in short- to intermediate-length flowers, but was high (population means up to 170 µL) in the longest tubed flowers. Evidence from light-trapping of moths, pollen carriage on their bodies and moth scale deposition on stigmas suggests that sphingid pollination is prevalent only in the four populations with the longest flowers, in which floral morphological traits and nectar volumes match the classic expectations for the hawkmoth pollination syndrome. All other populations, with flowers 4·5–15 cm long, were pollinated exclusively by solitary bees. Conclusions The results suggest incipient differentiation at the population level and local adaptation to either bee or hawkmoth (potentially plus bee) pollination. PMID:19342397

  15. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M.

    2006-07-01

    CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

  16. Extensive Ribosomal DNA Genic Variation in the Columnar Cactus Lophocereus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Hartmann; John D. Nason; Debashish Bhattacharya

    2001-01-01

    .   Sequence analysis of the hypervariable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is commonly used\\u000a to gain insights into plant and animal population structure and phylogeny. We characterized ITS1, ITS2, and the 5.8S coding\\u000a region of 18 senita (Lophocereus) individuals from 12 different populations in Baja as well as from closely related cactus species. Analyses of multiple

  17. Oil cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Jörg-Thomas Mörsel

    2003-01-01

    Seeds and pulp of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins and ?-carotene. Total lipids (TL) in lyophilised seeds and pulp were 98.8 (dry weight) and 8.70 g\\/kg, respectively. High amounts of neutral lipids were found (87.0% of TL) in seed oil, while glycolipids and phospholipids occurred at high levels

  18. Storage response of cactus pear fruit following hot water brushing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydakis Dimitris; N. Pompodakis; E. Markellou; S. M. Lionakis

    2005-01-01

    The storage response of cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] following hot water brushing was investigated. Fruit were simultaneously brushed for spine removal and sprayed with water. Ranges of temperature (60–70°C) and treatment time intervals (10–30s) were evaluated. All tested treatments were found not to significantly affect respiration rate, total soluble solids or acid concentrations. Treatments at 60 and 65°C

  19. HISTORICAL GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION FREQUENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These da...

  20. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0113] Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY...environmental impact statement for the Gypsy Moth Program. DATES: Effective Date...of treatments for the control of gypsy moth. In addition to the proposal...

  1. Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant–bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock. This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic bacteria, the seedlings grow in pulverized rock for at least a

  2. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in the Clover Improved Lattice Formulation of QCD

    E-print Network

    Panagopoulos, H

    1999-01-01

    We extend to the clover improved lattice formulation of QCD the resummation of cactus diagrams, i.e. a certain class of tadpole-like gauge invariant diagrams. Cactus resummation yields an improved perturbative expansion. We apply it to the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators improving their one-loop perturbative estimates.

  3. Phylogeographic Structure in the Bogus Yucca Moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): Comparisons with Coexisting Pollinator Yucca Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Althoff; Joshua D. Groman; Kari A. Segraves; Olle Pellmyr

    2001-01-01

    The pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas highlights the potential importance of host plant specificity in insect diversification. Historically, one pollinator moth species, Tegeticula yuccasella, was believed to pollinate most yuccas. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that it is a complex of at least 13 distinct species, eight of which are specific to one yucca species. Moths in the

  4. cactus, a maternal gene required for proper formation of the dorsoventral morphogen gradient in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Roth, S; Hiromi, Y; Godt, D; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1991-06-01

    The dorsoventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by a gradient of nuclear localization of the dorsal protein which acts as a morphogen. Establishment of the nuclear concentration gradient of dorsal protein requires the activities of the 10 maternal 'dorsal group' genes whose function results in the positive regulation of the nuclear uptake of the dorsal protein. Here we show that in contrast to the dorsal group genes, the maternal gene cactus acts as a negative regulator of the nuclear localization of the dorsal protein. While loss of function mutations of any of the dorsal group genes lead to dorsalized embryos, loss of cactus function results in a ventralization of the body pattern. Progressive loss of maternal cactus activity causes progressive loss of dorsal pattern elements accompanied by the expansion of ventrolateral and ventral anlagen. However, embryos still retain dorsoventral polarity, even if derived from germline clones using the strongest available, zygotic lethal cactus alleles. In contrast to the loss-of-function alleles, gain-of-function alleles of cactus cause a dorsalization of the embryonic pattern. Genetic studies indicate that they are not overproducers of normal activity, but rather synthesize products with altered function. Epistatic relationships of cactus with dorsal group genes were investigated by double mutant analysis. The dorsalized phenotype of the dorsal mutation is unchanged upon loss of cactus activity. This result implies that cactus acts via dorsal and has no independent morphogen function. In all other dorsal group mutant backgrounds, reduction of cactus function leads to embryos that express ventrolateral pattern elements and have increased nuclear uptake of the dorsal protein at all positions along the dorsoventral axis. Thus, the cactus gene product can prevent nuclear transport of dorsal protein in the absence of function of the dorsal group genes. Genetic and cytoplasmic transplantation studies suggest that the cactus product is evenly distributed along the dorsoventral axis. Thus the inhibitory function that cactus product exerts on the nuclear transport of the dorsal protein appears to be antagonized on the ventral side. We discuss models of how the action of the dorsal group genes might counteract the cactus function ventrally. PMID:1794309

  5. Explosives detection with hard-wired moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony L. King; Frank M. Horine; Kevin C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Abstract—Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of insects trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as

  6. Gypsy moth mating disruption: Dosage effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P. Schwalbe; Victor C. Mastro

    1988-01-01

    Small (1-hectare) plots in a dense gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) infestation were treated with 5, 50, or 500 g racemic disparlure, and effects on male trap catch and mating behavior were studied. Capture of males in traps baited with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 µg (+)-disparlure declined as disruptant dosages increased. Traps with high levels of attractant caught moths when

  7. Automatic Species Identification of Live Moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Michael; Watson, Anna T.

    A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by species using the feature vectors. Whereas a previous analysis of this image dataset reported in the literature [1] required that each moth's least worn wing region be highlighted manually for each image, WEKA was able to achieve a greater level of accuracy (85%) using support vector machines without manual specification of a region of interest at all. This paper describes the features that were extracted from the images, and the various experiments using different classifiers and datasets that were performed. The results show that data mining can be usefully applied to the problem of automatic species identification of live specimens in the field.

  8. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  9. Cactus alkaloids. XXXVI. Mescaline and related compounds from Trichocereus peruvianus.

    PubMed

    Pardanani, J H; McLaughlin, J L; Kondrat, R W; Cooks, R G

    1977-01-01

    Agurell has previously detected (tlc, glc-ms) tyramine, 3-methoxytyramine, and two unknown alkaloids in the Peruvian cactus, Trichocereus peruvianus Br. and R. The presence of mescaline in other similar Trichocereus species prompted us to reinvestigate this species, which is commercially available in the United States. The nonphenolic alkaloid extracts yielded an abundance of crystalline mescaline hydrochloride (0.82% yield) and a trace of 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine (tlc-ms). Crystalline tyramine hydrochloride, 3-methoxytyramine hydrochloride, and 3,5 dimethoxy-4-hydroxphenethylamine hydrochloride were isolated from the phenolic alkaloid extracts; the last compound has not been previously crystallized from nature, although it is the immediate biosynthetic precursor of mescaline. Crystalline 2-chloromescaline hydrochloride was isolated drom the nonphenolic extracts; but, as determined by mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry, this new compound is an extraction artifact. Both 2-chloromescaline and 2.6-dichloromescaline hydrochlorides were prepared synthetically from mescaline. This cactus species has a mescaline content equal or superior to peyote and should be legally controlled as an item of drug abuse. PMID:600028

  10. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

  11. Testing The Cactus code on exact solutions of the Einstein field equations

    E-print Network

    Vulcanov, D N; Vulcanov, Dumitru N.; Alcubierre, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a series of numerical simulations of exact solutions of the Einstein equations performed using the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. We describe an application (``thorn'') for the Cactus code that can be used for evolving a variety of exact solutions, with and without matter, including solutions used in modern cosmology for modelling the early stages of the universe. Our main purpose has been to test the Cactus code on these well-known examples, focusing mainly on the stability and convergence of the code.

  12. COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory

    E-print Network

    Rieske-Kinney, Lynne K.

    COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory and nutrient uptake, and the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), to measure herbivore suitability. Gypsy moth exactacostinplantgrowthandproductivityforthischestnuthybrid,andmayenhanceplantsuitability for a generalist herbivore. Additionally, enhanced gypsy moth

  13. Effect of iron concentration on growth and phylloclade edge yellowing of holiday cactus 

    E-print Network

    Ramirez, Dario

    1996-01-01

    Production of holiday cactus has been limited by the common occurrence of marginal chlorosis of the phyllociade, which can lead to losses in crop quality. This work was conducted to determine if poor growth and phylloclade yellowing were correlated...

  14. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. PMID:26041209

  15. Cactus Framework: Black Holes to Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Schnetter, Erik; Allen, Gabrielle; Diener, Peter; Goodale, Tom; Radke, Thomas; Seidel, Edward; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are intense narrowly-beamed flashes of gamma-rays of cosmological origin. They are among the most scientifically interesting astrophysical systems, and the riddle concerning their central engines and emission mechanisms is one of the most complex and challenging problems of astrophysics today. In this article we outline our petascale approach to the GRB problem and discuss the computational toolkits and numerical codes that are currently in use and that will be scaled up to run on emerging petaflop scale computing platforms in the near future. Petascale computing will require additional ingredients over conventional parallelism. We consider some of the challenges which will be caused by future petascale architectures, and discuss our plans for the future development of the Cactus framework and its applications to meet these challenges in order to profit from these new architectures.

  16. FUTURE RISK OF GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the suitable habitit combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation....

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport

    E-print Network

    Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport Endophytic Fungi Abstract Claviceps paspali, a common fungal pathogen of Paspalum grasses, attracts moth vectors asymptomatic plant tissue and may influence host susceptibility to pathogens. We quantified infections by C

  18. ADULT MOTOR PATTERNS PRODUCED BY MOTH PUPAE DURING DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANN E. KAMMER; MARY B. RHEUBEN

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY Muscle potentials were recorded extracellularly from developing pupae and adults of the saturniid moths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi and the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. During the week prior to the terminal ecdysis, developing moths still enclosed within the pupal cuticle produced motor patterns similar to those recorded from adults during flight and shivering. The pupal patterns had a

  19. Echolocation assemblagesand their effects on moth auditory systems JAMESH. FULLARD

    E-print Network

    Fullard, James H.

    Echolocation assemblagesand their effects on moth auditory systems JAMESH. FULLARD Department, 1982 FULLARD,J. H. 1982. Echolocation assemblages and their effects on moth auditory systems. Can. J representing low and high levels of bat (= echolocation signal) diversity. Moths sampled in two African (high

  20. Evidence for short-range sonic communication in lymantriine moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rowland; P. W. Schaefer; P. Belton; G. Gries

    2011-01-01

    Sexual communication of nun moth, Lymantria monacha (L.), pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura Moore, and fumida tussock moth, Lymantria fumida Butler (all Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Lymantriinae), is known to be mediated by pheromones. We now show that males are attracted by the sounds of conspecific females over short distances and that wing fanning male and female L. monacha, L. mathura and

  1. Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey K. Waage; G. Gene Montgomery

    1976-01-01

    The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth. Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth.

  2. Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth.

    PubMed

    Waage, J K; Montgomery, G G

    1976-07-01

    The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth. PMID:17759254

  3. MANAGING THE ZIMMERMAN PINE MOTH Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    MANAGING THE ZIMMERMAN PINE MOTH Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologist Department of Entomology Landscape & Ornamentals E-40-W PURDUE EXTENSION The Zimmerman pine moth is the most important eco- nomic attacks spruce. DISTRIBUTION The Zimmerman pine moth was first found in the U.S. in 1879. Since then

  4. INTRODUCTION Since the gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    267 INTRODUCTION Since the gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston in 1868 or 1869, it has and result in severe ecological and economic effects. It is inevitable that the gypsy moth will continue. 750 km from the expanding front of gypsy moth defoliation. Based on an historical rate of spread of ca

  5. Evidence for Histamine in the Urticating Hairs of Hylesia Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott M. Dinehart; Joseph L. Jorizzo; Nicholas A. Soter; Nopadon Noppakun; William R. Voss; James A. Hokanson; Edgar B. Smith

    1987-01-01

    An urticarial dermatosis after contact with the urticating hairs of the adult female Hylesia moth may occur by several mechanisms including the intradermal injection of inflammatory mediators through the urticating hairs. Extracts were prepared from whole moths, urticating hairs, and other moth parts. Each of these extracts was subjected to a radioenzyme assay for histamine. Histamine was present in extracts

  6. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. PMID:23545106

  7. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Víctor Sarto i Monteys; Patricia Acín; Glòria Rosell; Carmen Quero; Miquel A. Jiménez; Angel Guerrero

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands

  8. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure-function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies. PMID:23212376

  9. Extensive ribosomal DNA genic variation in the columnar cactus Lophocereus.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, S; Nason, J D; Bhattacharya, D

    2001-08-01

    Sequence analysis of the hypervariable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is commonly used to gain insights into plant and animal population structure and phylogeny. We characterized ITS1, ITS2, and the 5.8S coding region of 18 senita (Lophocereus) individuals from 12 different populations in Baja as well as from closely related cactus species. Analyses of multiple clones demonstrated extensive paralogy in the senita rDNA gene family. We identified at least two putatively non-recombining rDNA operons in senita as well as multiple paralogous sequences within each operon. Usage of PCR, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, Southern blot, primary sequence analyses of the 18S rDNA gene, and secondary structure analyses of the 5.8S rRNA showed that one of the operons encodes rDNA pseudogenes in a low copy-number (Truncated), whereas the second operon encodes an expressed rRNA (Functional). Surprisingly, we found extensive paralogy not only in the ITS regions but also in the 5.8S coding regions in senita both within and between operons. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the second rDNA operon originated prior to the divergence of Lophocereus. A significant (p < 0.05) divergence-rate acceleration was found in the Lophocereus 5.8S rDNA coding region in the Functional operon in comparison to Pereskiopsis porteri (Cactaceae) and Portulaca molokiniensis (Portulacaceae) with Silene dioica and Spinacia oleracea as the outgroups. PMID:11479683

  10. PARASITES AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PSYCHID MOTHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomi Kumpulainen; Alessandro Grapputo; Johanna Mappes

    2004-01-01

    Persistence of sexual reproduction among coexisting asexual competitors has been a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The number of empirical studies is still very limited, as few systems with coexisting sexual and strictly asexual lineages have been found. We studied the ecological mechanisms behind the simultaneous coexistence of a sexually and an asexually reproducing closely related species of psychid moth

  11. Codling Moth Granulovirus: A Comprehensive Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is regarded as the most injurious insect pest of apple in most countries where apple is grown. It is key pest of apple in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In conventional orchards, CM is usually controlled with broad-spectrum insecticides. A variety of problems associate...

  12. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  13. Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

  14. Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity 4th Grade Life Sciences 2.3

    E-print Network

    Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Standard 4th Grade Life Sciences 2.3 Evidence Outcomes: Use: Peppered Moth introduction slides http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf Materials Several

  15. 76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet AGENCY...information collection associated with the gypsy moth program. DATES: We will consider...CONTACT: For information on the gypsy moth program, contact Mr. Paul...

  16. Evaluation of colour properties and chemical quality parameters of cactus juices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; Reinhold Carle

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition and visual appearance of cactus fruits from the genera Opuntia and Hylocereus were investigated. Colour properties were assessed in solutions with pH ranging from 1 to 8 and expressed as chroma, hue and colour shade. Between pH 3 and 7, all samples were stable as indicated by hue and chroma values. The colour shade of the red

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Fruit abortion in the Chihuahuan-Desert endemic cactus

    E-print Network

    Mandujano, María del Carmen

    ORIGINAL PAPER Fruit abortion in the Chihuahuan-Desert endemic cactus Opuntia microdasys Hugo H to explain fruit abortion. To assess whether abortion in Opuntia microdasys was due to resource and/or pollen treatments. On the other hand, to test whether fruit abortion was irreversible, due to pollen

  18. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber. PMID:22899620

  19. North American Eradications of Asian and European Gypsy Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann E. Hajek; Patrick C. Tobin

    Although European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) is established in the northeastern and northern midwestern parts of North America, members of the three subspecies of gypsy\\u000a moth are constantly being introduced into new locations. Between 1980 and 2007, multiple eradication efforts targeting gypsy\\u000a moth populations were conducted in 24 states in the US. In more recent years, eradication efforts have

  20. The biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) 

    E-print Network

    Baxter, Michael Celus

    1976-01-01

    THE BIOLOGY OF THE SUNFLOWER MOTH, HOMOEOSOMA ELECTELLUM (HULST) A Thesis by MICHAEL CELUS BAXTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENT...) December 1976 ABSTRACT The Biology of the Sunflower Moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) . (December 1976) Michael Celus Baxter, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Mr. N. M. Randolph Three generations of the sunflower moth...

  1. Effects of Bermudagrass hay and soybean hulls inclusion on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. A. Santos; Ângela M. V. Batista; Arif Mustafa; G. L. Amorim; A. Guim; A. C. Moraes; R. B. de Lucena; R. de Andrade

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing corn with soybean hulls (SH) or Bermudagrass tifton\\u000a hay (TH) on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets. Three ruminally fistulated sheep were used in a 3?×?3 Latin square\\u000a experiment with 21-day periods. All diets contained 75% spineless cactus (dry matter basis, DM) and formulated to be isonitrogenous.\\u000a Fiber

  2. Jumping mechanisms and strategies in moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Dorosenko, Marina

    2015-06-01

    To test whether jumping launches moths into the air, take-off by 58 species, ranging in mass from 0.1 to 220?mg, was captured in videos at 1000 frames s(-1). Three strategies for jumping were identified. First, rapid movements of both middle and hind legs provided propulsion while the wings remained closed. Second, middle and hind legs again provided propulsion but the wings now opened and flapped after take-off. Third, wing and leg movements both began before take-off and led to an earlier transition to powered flight. The middle and hind legs were of similar lengths and were between 10 and 130% longer than the front legs. The rapid depression of the trochantera and extension of the middle tibiae began some 3?ms before similar movements of the hind legs, but their tarsi lost contact with the ground before take-off. Acceleration times ranged from 10?ms in the lightest moths to 25?ms in the heaviest ones. Peak take-off velocities varied from 0.6 to 0.9?m?s(-1) in all moths, with the fastest jump achieving a velocity of 1.2?m?s(-1). The energy required to generate the fastest jumps was 1.1?µJ in lighter moths but rose to 62.1?µJ in heavier ones. Mean accelerations ranged from 26 to 90?m?s(-2) and a maximum force of 9 G: was experienced. The highest power output was within the capability of normal muscle so that jumps were powered by direct contractions of muscles without catapult mechanisms or energy storage. PMID:25883381

  3. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2015-06-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ?10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  4. Pheromone binding and inactivation by moth antennae.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M

    The antennae of male silk moths are extremely sensitive to the female sex pheromone such that a male moth can find a female up to 4.5 km away. This remarkable sensitivity is due to both the morphological and biochemical design of these antennae. Along the branches of the plumose antennae are the sensilla trichodea, each consisting of a hollow cuticular hair containing two unbranched dendrites bathed in a fluid, the receptor lymph ,3. The dendrites and receptor lymph are isolated from the haemolymph by a barrier of epidermal cells which secreted the cuticular hair. Pheromone molecules are thought to diffuse down 100 A-wide pore tubules through the cuticular wall and across the receptor lymph space to receptors located in the dendritic membrane. To prevent the accumulation of residual stimulant and hence sensory adaptation, the pheromone molecules are subsequently inactivated in an apparent two-step process of rapid 'early inactivation' followed by much slower enzymatic degradation. The biochemistry involved in this sequence of events is largely unknown. We report here the identification of three proteins which interact with the pheromone of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus: a pheromone-binding protein and a pheromone-degrading esterase, both uniquely located in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla; and a second esterase common to all cuticular tissues except the sensilla. PMID:18074618

  5. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

  6. Divergence in Olfactory Host Plant Preference in D. mojavensis in Response to Cactus Host Use

    PubMed Central

    Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S.; Rollmann, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

  7. First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

  8. Determining Host-Plant Resistance Mechanisms for Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth is a key pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Female moths deposit eggs on the outer surface of the bracts of the sunflower head. Larval feeding in the heads causes seed loss and lower oil content resulting in reduced yield. Upon reaching maturity larvae drop to the gr...

  9. CAPTURE OF NOCTUID AND PYRALID MOTHS USING FEEDING ATTRACTANT LURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests of floral chemicals dispensed in two-component lures were used to capture noctuid and pyralid moths in north-central Florida. Blends of phenylacetaldehyde plus '-myrcene, cis jasmone, linalool, and methyl-2-methoxy benzoate were successful in capturing large numbers of several moth spec...

  10. Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

    1992-01-01

    The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

  11. Silvicultural Guidelines for Forest Stands Threatened by the Gypsy Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    Abstract Silvicultural treatments that may minimize gypsy moth impacts on host hardwood stands are recommended,based on ecological and silvicultural information. Decision charts are presented that match the proper prescription to existing stand and insect population conditions. Preoutbreak prescriptions focus on reducing stand susceptibility and vulnerability by increasing stand vigor, removing trees most likely to die, reducing gypsy moth habitat, reducing

  12. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  13. Mercury vapour lamps interfere with the bat defence of tympanate moths ( Operophtera spp.; Geometridae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M SVENSSON; J RYDELL

    1998-01-01

    Bats often forage near streetlamps, where they catch moths in particular. At least two hypotheses may explain the apparent increase in the availability of moths to bats feeding around streetlamps: (1) the moths become concentrated near the light and therefore more profitable to exploit; and (2) the light interferes with the moths' evasive flight behaviour. We tested the second of

  14. 1 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18/05/11 Pine-tree Lappet Moth

    E-print Network

    1 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18/05/11 Pine-tree Lappet Moth Pine-tree Lappet Moth Outbreak S attending in place of David Jardine. A 2 A A #12;Pine-tree Lappet Moth 2 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18. Action: Tom to organise trapping at Tentsmuir. #12;Pine-tree Lappet Moth 3 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine

  15. Microencapsulation by spray drying of bioactive compounds from cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Saénz; Sandra Tapia; Jorge Chávez; Paz Robert

    2009-01-01

    Bioactive compounds of pulp (CP) and ethanolic (CE) extracts of the cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) were encapsulated with maltodextrin (MD) or inulin (I). A 22 statistical factorial design was then used to study the stability of the powders obtained at the optimal conditions for each system (CP–MD, CP–I, CE–MD and CE–I) at 60°C in the dark. The 3:1 ratio of

  16. Chemical Interactions in the Cactus-Microorganism-Drosophila Model System of the Sonoran Desert

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Fogleman; Phillip B. Danielson

    2001-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. The Cactus-Microorganism-Drosophila Model System of the Sonoran De- sert represents an excellent paradigm of the role of chemistry in plant-animal inter- actions. In this system, four species of endemic Drosophila feed and reproduce in necrotic tissue of five species of columnar cacti. Studies over the past 35 yr have characterized a myriad of interactions between the three major components

  17. Impact of Kairomones on Moth Pest Management: Pear Ester and the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is the major pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Our focus is to develop novel, species-specific monitoring and control systems based on host-plant odors, kairomones. In 1998 ‘pear ester’ (PE), ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, was identified as a powerful kairomonal attra...

  18. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combination of sex pheromones, host plant volatiles, and food baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  19. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae) were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone are attractive to P. orphisalis, ...

  20. CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN APPLES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are serious pests of apples grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where they do not appear, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the accidental introduction of these insects. The treatment consists of hot forced mo...

  1. Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

  2. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2013-02-01

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold storage conditions and held under short day lengths could not break diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to establish a minimum viable population. This study expands the in-fruit work by examining the ability of codling moth to establish a laboratory population under a short photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, as compared with a long photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Codling moth larvae were collected from field infested fruits in 2010 and 2011. Moths were collected from the infested fruits and separated into two groups representing the two daylength conditions. In total, 1,004 larvae were monitored for adult emergence and ability to generate a subsequent population. Larvae held under the photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h generated only one moth in the 2 yr period, whereas larvae held under the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h generated 186 females and 179 males, that sustained subsequent generations on artificial diet under laboratory conditions. These results indicate that under controlled environmental conditions, codling moth cannot complete diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to sustain a viable population when held under a short photoperiod. PMID:23448069

  3. 'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

    PubMed

    Conner

    1999-07-01

    Tympanal sound receptors in moths evolved in response to selective pressures provided by echolocating insectivorous bats. The presence of these ultrasound detectors also set the stage for the later evolution of ultrasonic courtship signals in the tympanate moth families. Male moths have repeatedly exploited the bat-detection mechanisms in females for the purpose of finding, identifying and obtaining mates. Ultrasonic courtship has been described in several members of the moth families Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae, and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths including the Sphingidae, Lymantriidae, Notodontidae and Geometridae. Ultrasonic signals are involved in species recognition, in male-male competition for mates and in female mate-choice systems. Pre-existing motor systems, including those involved in bat defence, have also been exploited for the purpose of generating high-frequency courtship signals. Sound production mechanisms in moths include thoracic tymbals, tegular tymbals, alar castanets and genital stridulatory organs. Thus, in both their sensory and motor aspects, the weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems. PMID:10359675

  4. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18°C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry. PMID:25977013

  5. The human health impacts of the Oak processionary moth

    E-print Network

    The human health impacts of the Oak processionary moth Dr Olivier le Polain, Dr Barry Walsh #12 of the trees (30m): 47/69 (68%) - Symptoms: rash (100%), itchy eyes (29.7%), breathing problems (4.2%) #12

  6. The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James

    1984-01-01

    Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

  7. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

  8. Biocontrol Characteristics of Bacillus Species in Suppressing Stem Rot of Grafted Cactus Caused by Bipolaris cactivora

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sooil; Kim, Sang Gyu; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important limiting factors for the production of the grafted cactus in Korea is the qualitative and quantitative yield loss derived from stem rots especially caused by Bipolaris cactivora. This study is aimed to develop microbial control agents useful for the control of the bipolaris stem rot. Two bacteria (GA1-23 and GA4-4) selected out of 943 microbial isolates because of their strong antibiotic activity against B. cactivora were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, respectively, by the cultural characteristics, Biolog program and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. Both bacterial isolates significantly inhibited the conidial germination and mycelial growth of the pathogen with no significant difference between the two, of which the inhibitory efficacies varied depending on the cultural conditions such as temperature, nutritional compositions and concentrations. Light and electron microscopy of the pathogen treated with the bacterial isolates showed the inhibition of spore germination with initial malformation of germ tubes and later formation of circle-like vesicles with no hyphal growth and hyphal disruption sometimes accompanied by hyphal swellings and shrinkages adjacent to the bacteria, suggesting their antibiotic mode of antagonistic activity. Control efficacy of B. subtilis GA1-23 and B. amyloliquefaciens GA4-4 on the cactus stem rot were not as high as but comparable to that of fungicide difenoconazole when they were treated simultaneously at the time of pathogen inoculation. All of these results suggest the two bacterial isolates have a good potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for the bipolaris stem rot of the grafted cactus. PMID:25288927

  9. Behaviourally mediated crypsis in two nocturnal moths with contrasting appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Richard J.; Callahan, Alison; Godin, Jean-Guy J.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2008-01-01

    The natural resting orientations of several species of nocturnal moth on tree trunks were recorded over a three-month period in eastern Ontario, Canada. Moths from certain genera exhibited resting orientation distributions that differed significantly from random, whereas others did not. In particular, Catocala spp. collectively tended to orient vertically, whereas subfamily Larentiinae representatives showed a variety of orientations that did not differ significantly from random. To understand why different moth species adopted different orientations, we presented human subjects with a computer-based detection task of finding and ‘attacking’ Catocala cerogama and Euphyia intermediata target images at different orientations when superimposed on images of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees. For both C. cerogama and E. intermediata, orientation had a significant effect on survivorship, although the effect was more pronounced in C. cerogama. When the tree background images were flipped horizontally the optimal orientation changed accordingly, indicating that the detection rates were dependent on the interaction between certain directional appearance features of the moth and its background. Collectively, our results suggest that the contrasting wing patterns of the moths are involved in background matching, and that the moths are able to improve their crypsis through appropriate behavioural orientation. PMID:19000977

  10. Evidence for histamine in the urticating hairs of Hylesia moths.

    PubMed

    Dinehart, S M; Jorizzo, J L; Soter, N A; Noppakun, N; Voss, W R; Hokanson, J A; Smith, E B

    1987-06-01

    An urticarial dermatosis after contact with the urticating hairs of the adult female Hylesia moth may occur by several mechanisms including the intradermal injection of inflammatory mediators through the urticating hairs. Extracts were prepared from whole moths, urticating hairs, and other moth parts. Each of these extracts was subjected to a radioenzyme assay for histamine. Histamine was present in extracts made from whole moths and from urticating hairs. Extracts made from other moth parts contained no histamine. Cutaneous wheals occurred after intradermal injections of histamine and various concentrations of Hylesia extract (HE) into the backs of cynomolgus monkeys. This whealing response was suppressed by pretreatment of the animals with diphenhydramine hydrochloride, but not by pretreatment with indomethacin. Histologic examinations showed a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate around dilated capillaries without evidence of mast cell degranulation in HE-injected sites but not in controls. These findings provide evidence that histamine may be the mediator responsible for the urticarial lesions seen after contact with Hylesia moths. PMID:3585053

  11. Use of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for dairy goats and growing kids: impacts on milk production, kid's growth, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Mahouachi, M; Atti, N; Hajji, H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5?kg of hay and 0.4?kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5?kg of hay and 0.4?kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600?g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130?g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260?g?CP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485?ml for Control group and 407?ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones. PMID:22536135

  12. Use of Spineless Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for Dairy Goats and Growing Kids: Impacts on Milk Production, Kid's Growth, and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Mahouachi, M.; Atti, N.; Hajji, H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5?kg of hay and 0.4?kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5?kg of hay and 0.4?kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600?g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130?g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260?g?CP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485?ml for Control group and 407?ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones. PMID:22536135

  13. Influence of Abscisic Acid and Sucrose on Somatic Embryogenesis in Cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma mostruosa

    PubMed Central

    Lema-Rumi?ska, J.; Goncerzewicz, K.; Gabriel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Having produced the embryos of cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma monstruosa at the globular stage and callus, we investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100??M on successive stages of direct (DSE) and indirect somatic embryogenesis (ISE). In the indirect somatic embryogenesis process we also investigated a combined effect of ABA (0, 0.1, 1??M) and sucrose (1, 3, 5%). The results showed that a low concentration of ABA (0-1??M) stimulates the elongation of embryos at the globular stage and the number of correct embryos in direct somatic embryogenesis, while a high ABA concentration (10–100??M) results in growth inhibition and turgor pressure loss of somatic embryos. The indirect somatic embryogenesis study in this cactus suggests that lower ABA concentrations enhance the increase in calli fresh weight, while a high concentration of 10??M ABA or more changes calli color and decreases its proliferation rate. However, in the case of indirect somatic embryogenesis, ABA had no effect on the number of somatic embryos and their maturation. Nevertheless, we found a positive effect of sucrose concentration for both the number of somatic embryos and the increase in calli fresh weight. PMID:23843737

  14. Avalanche dynamics of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus graph

    E-print Network

    Gregory Gauthier

    2012-04-29

    We investigate the avalanche dynamics of the abelian sandpile model on arbitrarily large balls of the expanded cactus graph (the Cayley graph of the free product $\\mathbb{Z}_3 * \\mathbb{Z}_2$). We follow the approach of Dhar and Majumdar (1990) to enumerate the number of recurrent configurations. We also propose the filling method of enumerating all the recurrent configurations in which adding a grain to a designated origin vertex (far enough away from the boundary vertices) causes topplings to occur in a specific cluster (a connected subgraph that is the union of cells, or copies of the 3-cycle) within the first wave of an avalanche. This filling method lends itself to combinatorial evaluation of the number of positions in which a certain number of cells topple in an avalanche starting at the origin, which are amenable to analysis using well-known recurrences and corresponding generating functions. We show that, when counting cells that topple in the avalanche, the cell-wise first-wave critical exponent of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus is 3/2.

  15. Marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear as affected by temperature and modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cefola, Maria; Renna, Massimiliano; Pace, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the diffusion of cactus pear fruits, in this study, the proper maturity index for peeling and processing them as ready-to-eat product was evaluated and characterized. Thereafter, the effects of different storage temperatures and modified atmosphere conditions on the marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear were studied. The storage of ready-to-eat fruits at 4 °C in both passive (air) and semi-active (10 kPa O2 and 10 kPa CO2) modified atmosphere improved the marketability by 30%, whereas the storage at 8 °C caused a dangerous reduction in O2 partial pressure inside modified atmosphere packages, due to fruits' increased metabolic activity. A very low level of initial microbial growth was detected, while a severe increase in mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria was shown in control samples at both temperatures during storage; an inhibitory effect of modified atmosphere on microbial growth was also observed. In conclusion, modified atmosphere improved only the marketability of fruits stored at 4 °C; whereas the storage at 8 °C resulted in deleterious effects on the ready-to-eat fruits, whether stored in air or in modified atmosphere. PMID:24426044

  16. Dark Matter and the CACTUS Gamma-Ray Excess from Draco

    E-print Network

    Profumo, S; Kamionkowski, Marc; Profumo, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The CACTUS atmospheric Cherenkov telescope collaboration recently reported a gamma-ray excess from the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Draco features a very low gas content and a large mass-to-light ratio, suggesting as a possible explanation annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Draco dark-matter halo. We show that with improved angular resolution, future measurements can determine whether the halo is cored or cuspy, as well as its scale radius. We find the relevant WIMP masses and annihilation cross sections and show that supersymmetric models can account for the required gamma-ray flux. We compute for these supersymmetric models the resulting Draco gamma-ray flux in the GLAST energy range and the rates for direct neutralino detection and for the flux of neutrinos from neutralino annihilation in the Sun. We also discuss the possibility that the bulk of the signal detected by CACTUS comes from direct WIMP annihilation to two photons and point out that a decaying-dark-matter scena...

  17. REMOTE CONTROL OF A CYBORG MOTH USING CARBON NANOTUBE-ENHANCED FLEXIBLE NEUROPROSTHETIC PROBE

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    REMOTE CONTROL OF A CYBORG MOTH USING CARBON NANOTUBE-ENHANCED FLEXIBLE NEUROPROSTHETIC PROBE W the probe to encircle the nerve cord. Images showing (b) the telemetry system and (c) a cyborg moth with FNP

  18. A 1-mW vibration energy harvesting system for moth flight-control applications

    E-print Network

    Chang, Samuel C

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the approach and methodologies required to build a 1-mW energy-harvesting system for moth flight control applications. The crepuscular hawk moth Manduca sexta is the chosen test subject. This project ...

  19. Improved establishment and development of three cactus species inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense transplanted into disturbed urban desert soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Bashan; Adriana Rojas; M. Esther Puente

    1999-01-01

    Survival and development of cactus transplants in urban, disturbed areas of the desert near La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, was monitored. Young plants of three species of pachycereid cacti (Pachycereus pringlei, Stenocereus thurberi, and Lophocereus schottii) inoculated with the plant growth promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in an eroded area (a dirt road) had a high survival rate and developed

  20. Antennal-specific Pheromone-degrading Aldehyde Oxidases from the Moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rybczynski; R. G. Vogt; M. R. LernerS

    Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating be- haviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concen- tration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone con- centration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FLORAL ODOR OF OREGON GRAPE: POSSIBLE FEEDING ATTRACTANTS FOR MOTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that flowers of Oregon grape, Berberis aquifolium Prursch., might release chemicals attractive to moths. Studies were conducted to determine what moths visit flowers of Oregon grape and to characterize the odor chemistry of those flowers in search of possible moth feeding attrac...

  2. agronomie: plant genetics and breeding A melanic form of the European grape vine moth,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    agronomie: plant genetics and breeding A melanic form of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia) Summary — A melanic form of the European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, is described from INTRODUCTION The grape vine moth Lobesia botrana Den and Schiff is known as the most important grape pest

  3. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

    E-print Network

    1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

  4. NOTE / NOTE A potential cost of responding to bats for moths

    E-print Network

    Fullard, James H.

    to escape a bat's attack could potentially become prey to a surface-feeding fish. Surface waves are used and ob- serving whether fish attack the moths and if the size (wing surface area) of the moth provides and James H. Fullard Abstract: Although the evasive flight of eared moths to attacking bats has received

  5. POPULATION ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    POPULATION ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak periodicity in the intensity of gypsy moth out- breaks is largely a result of harmonic oscillations in gypsy pattern of periodicity in gypsy moth popula- tions is that 5- and 10-year cycles are harmonics

  6. POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Predation on larvae and pupae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) was studied in a leading dispar, Peromyscus, Sorex, predation, small mammals, exclosures THE GYPSY MOTH, Lymantria dispar (L

  7. Forest Response to Stress and Damage (FORSTAD) Gypsy Moth Data 1980-2004 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS

    E-print Network

    Canham, Charles D.

    TITLE Forest Response to Stress and Damage (FORSTAD) Gypsy Moth Data 1980-2004 PRINCIPAL Studies PO Box AB Millbrook, NY 12545 Telephone: (845) 677-5343 CODES Density = gypsy moth egg mass density DATA DESCRIPTION Gypsy moth density is presented in egg masses/hectare for each year of data

  8. NOTES AND COMMENTS Oak mast seeding as a direct cause of gypsy moth outbreaks?

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    NOTES AND COMMENTS Oak mast seeding as a direct cause of gypsy moth outbreaks? A response to Sela on the dynamics of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) populations in North America. This paper highlighted a previously developed hypothesis, namely that gypsy moth outbreaks are caused by decreased rates of predation

  9. he gypsy moth (Lymantria dis-par) is probably the most de-

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    T he gypsy moth (Lymantria dis- par) is probably the most de- structive forest defoliator in the United States. More than 81 million acres of forests have been defoliated by the gypsy moth since 1924). During gypsy moth outbreaks, many species of hard- woods may be defoliated; repeated de- foliation causes

  10. Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.)

    E-print Network

    LETTER Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) E across the invasion front of the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States in data a mechanistic model developed for the gypsy moth system. We believe this study to be the first empirical

  11. Resident Microbiota of the Gypsy Moth Midgut Harbors Antibiotic Resistance Determinants

    E-print Network

    Handelsman, Jo

    Resident Microbiota of the Gypsy Moth Midgut Harbors Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Heather K the antibiotic resistome of the microbial community in gypsy moth larval midguts by applying functional (Vasanthakumar et al., 2008). The gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantria dispar) is an in- teresting example

  12. Mycological Society of America Entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes Associated with Gypsy Moth Larvae

    E-print Network

    Elkinton, Joseph

    Mycological Society of America Entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes Associated with Gypsy Moth Larvae hyphomycetes associated with gypsy moth larvae Ann E. Hajek1 Departmentof Entomology,Cornell University Laboratory,TowerRoad, Ithaca, New York14853-2901 Abstract: Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, popula- tions were

  13. Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1 , Alexei A. Sharov2 , and Patrick C. Tobin1 Introduction The gypsy moth in North America (Elkinton and Liebhold 1990 species. The gypsy moth is an excellent species for illustrating the population processes operating during

  14. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth Derek M. Johnson1

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    LETTERS Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth Derek M. Johnson1 , Andrew M. Liebhold2- systems1 and cause substantial economic losses2 . A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth and 2004 alone3 . The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most

  15. Interactions between Two Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Pathogens: Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Entomophaga maimaiga

    E-print Network

    Elkinton, Joseph

    Interactions between Two Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Pathogens: Nucleopolyhedrovirus, Entomophaga maimaiga, in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) populations in the United States in 1989 raised the collapse of defoliating gypsy moth popula- tions. To determine the impacts of E. maimaiga on Ld

  16. POPULATION ECOLOGY Factors Influencing Larval Survival of the Invasive Browntail Moth

    E-print Network

    Parry, Dylan

    to or exceeding that of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Burgess and Cross- man 1929). In additionPOPULATION ECOLOGY Factors Influencing Larval Survival of the Invasive Browntail Moth (Lepidoptera is the browntail moth Euproctis chry- sorrhoea L, which was discovered in the eastern United States in 1897. Its

  17. Am. Midl. Nat. 143:397404 Effects of Forest Defoliation by the Gypsy Moth on Detritus

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    397 Am. Midl. Nat. 143:397­404 Effects of Forest Defoliation by the Gypsy Moth on Detritus changes in chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) leaf quality caused by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L al., 1995; Eshleman et al., 1998). Larvae of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L., Lepidoptera

  18. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Evaluation of Preventive Treatments in Low-Density Gypsy Moth

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Evaluation of Preventive Treatments in Low-Density Gypsy Moth Populations Using the growth of isolated low-density populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). We developed of the USDA Forest Service Slow-the-Spread of the gypsy moth project from 1993 to 2001. Out of 556 treatments

  19. Disruption of Gypsy Moth1Male Sex Pheromone Behavior by High Frequency Sound2

    E-print Network

    Disruption of Gypsy Moth1Male Sex Pheromone Behavior by High Frequency Sound2 T.C.BAKER AND R. T 48824 Reprinted from the ENVIRONMENTALENTOMOLOGY #12;Disruption of Gypsy Moth1 Male Sex Pheromone Lymantria dispar L. (gypsy moth), while flying upwind toward a pheromone source, respond to high frequency

  20. Gypsy Moth Egg Mass Sampling for Decision-Making: A Users' Guide

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Gypsy Moth Egg Mass Sampling for Decision-Making: A Users' Guide Andrew Liebhold1 Kevin Thorpe2 America in 1868 or 1869, the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), has become one of the most destructive forest insects in the northeastern U.S. In the wake of the gypsy moth's continuously expanding infested

  1. WHAT CAUSES MALE-BIASED SEX RATIOS IN THE GYPSY MOTH PARASITOID GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (Marsh) is an oligophagous, gregarious larval parasitoid of the Indian gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA OBFUSCATA (Walker), that readily attacks the European gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA DISPAR (L.). This species is believed to have potential for inundative releases against gypsy moth popu...

  2. Introduction The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwoods in New Hampshire. A native of Europe and

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Gypsy Moth Introduction The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwoods in New Hampshire. A native of Europe and Asia, the gypsy moth was introduced into NorthAmerica in 1869 when specimens were accidentally released in Medford, Massachusetts. Gypsy moth feeds on the leaves of many tree

  3. Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

    2005-09-27

    We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 microM) in the sensillar lymph is approximately 20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths. PMID:16172410

  4. Sex chromosome evolution in moths and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Ken; Yoshido, Atsuo; Traut, Walther

    2012-01-01

    Lepidoptera, i.e. moths and butterflies, have a female heterogametic sex chromosome system, with most females having a WZ constitution while males are ZZ. Besides this predominant WZ/ZZ system, Z/ZZ, WZ(1)Z(2)/Z(1)Z(1)Z(2)Z(2) and W(1)W(2)Z/ZZ systems also occur. Sex is determined by an unknown W-linked gene or genes in Bombyx mori, but by dosage-dependent and equally unknown Z-linked genes in all Z/ZZ species. The female heterogametic sex chromosome system has been conserved for at least 180 MY in the phylogenetic branch that combines Lepidoptera and Trichoptera. The W chromosome, which is present in most lepidopteran species, was incorporated in the sex chromosome system much later, about 90-100 MY ago. The Z chromosomes are highly conserved among Lepidoptera, much like the Z in birds or the X in mammals. The W, on the other hand, is evolving rapidly. It is crammed with repetitive elements which appear to have a high turnover rate but poor in or even devoid of protein-coding genes. It has frequently undergone fusion with autosomes or sporadically lost altogether. PMID:22187366

  5. Effects of hay inclusion on intake, in vivo nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation of goats fed spineless cactus ( Opuntia fícus-indica Mill) based diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Vieira; Â. M. V. Batista; A. Guim; F. F. Carvalho; A. C. Nascimento; R. F. S. Araújo; A. F. Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the minimum level of tifton bermudagrass hay (TH) required to maximize cactus intake by buck goats without compromising nutrient utilization or ruminal fermentation. Five ruminally fistulated goats were used in a 5×5 Latin square experiment with 17-day periods. Experimental diets contained (g\\/kg dry matter (DM) basis) 765, 670, 572, 473 and 373 spineless cactus

  6. The effectiveness of chemical herbicides for the control of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) in the vicinity of the Sonora Ranch Experiment Station 

    E-print Network

    Gleason, Lowell S

    1951-01-01

    THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHEHICAL HERMCIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS (~tia spp. ) IN THE VICINITY OF THE SONORA RANCH EXPERINENT STATION A Thesis LONELL S ~ GLEASCN Approved as to style and content bF Chairaan of Cosssittee August..., 19&1 THE EFFHCTIVENEM OF CHENICAL HERBICINES FCR THE CONTROL OF PRICRLI PEAR CACTUS (/gratia spp. ) IN THE VICINITY OF THE SONORA BAlCH EXPERINENT STATION LONELL S, GLEASON A Thesis Subsitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural aud...

  7. Study on the optimal level of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus- indica) supplementation to sheep and its contribution as source of water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Firew Tegegne; C. Kijora; K. J. Peters

    2007-01-01

    A 90-day experiment using a randomised complete block design with eight sheep per treatment was conducted to determine the optimum cactus pear supplementation level and its contribution as source of water. Cactus pear replaced 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of pasture hay (C0, C20, C40, C60 and C80, respectively), on dry matter (DM) basis. Total DM, nutrients and water

  8. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-10-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable. PMID:17066791

  9. Water availability and the competitive effect of a columnar cactus on its nurse plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Martínez, Arturo; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador

    1998-02-01

    A field study was conducted in a semi-arid tropical ecosystem in Mexico to test whether competition for soil water is the causal mechanism underlying the negative effect of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia tetetzo on its nurse plant Mimosa luisana and to examine how this relationship varies over time. The effect of irrigation was evaluated by recording the production of leaves, modules (i.e. internodes with an axillary bud), inflorescences and fruits in shrubs growing either isolated or associated with juvenile or adult columnar cacti. 4 001 of water, in five doses of 801 each every 15 d, were added to the treatment plants; no water other than rainfall was added to control plants. Additionally, to evaluate how the effect of the columnar cacti on the shrubs may vary among years we made a comparison of the production of plant structures between 2 years of contrasting rainfall. The irrigation treatment increased the production of modules, inflorescences and fruits, but not of leaves. Shrub response to watering was also dependent on class of association: those associated with juvenile cacti showed a higher response to irrigation than any other treatment. Our results show that water addition increases the production of structures and partially reduces the negative effect of the cactus on nurse shrub, thus supporting the hypothesis of competition for water. The negative effect of the cacti on their nurse plants was present during both years of observations, but the intensity of the negative effect varies from relatively wet to dry years. The results are discussed in relation to how temporal changes in resource availability affect the results of competitive interactions and the importance of this mechanism in the structure and dynamics of this dryland community.

  10. Differences in tolerance to host cactus alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ignacio M; Carreira, Valeria P; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  11. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  12. [pp. 367-380. In WE Wallner (ed.), PROCEEDINGS Lymantriidae: A Comparison of Features of New and Old World Tussock Moths. New Haven,

    E-print Network

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    include three introduced species which have become established in North America, the gypsy moth, Lymantria of the invading Lymantriids is the gypsy moth, which continues to spread in North America. With economically pseudotsugata (McD.), and the satin moth, to the more catholic appetites of the gypsy moth and browntail moth

  13. Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes prevent oxidative damage induced by the mycotoxin zearalenone in Balb/C mice.

    PubMed

    Zourgui, Lazhar; Golli, Emna El; Bouaziz, Chayma; Bacha, Hassen; Hassen, Wafa

    2008-05-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is one of the most widely distributed fusarial mycotoxins which is encountered at high incidence in many foodstuffs. ZEN was associated with different reproductive disorders in animals. Several in vivo studies have shown that ZEN is hepatotoxic, haematotoxic and causes several alterations of immunological parameters. Furthermore, evidence of its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity has recently emerged from several reports. The aim of the current study was (i) to find out whether oxidative stress could be relevant for ZEN induced toxicity in vivo using Balb/c mice and (ii) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cactus cladodes Opuntia ficus to prevent the deleterious effects of ZEN. To this end, the effect of a single dose of ZEN (40 mg/kg b.w.) alone and with extract of cactus cladodes (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) on the induction of oxidative stress was monitored in kidney and liver by measuring the MDA level, the protein carbonyls generation, the catalase activity and the expression of the heat shock proteins (Hsp). Our results clearly showed that ZEN induced significant alterations in all tested oxidative stress markers. Oxidative damage seems to be a key determinant of ZEN induced toxicity in both liver and kidney of Balb/c mice. The combined treatment of ZEN with the lowest tested dose of cactus extracts (25 mg/kg b.w.) showed a total reduction of ZEN induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. It could be concluded that cactus cladodes extract was effective in the protection against ZEN hazards. This could be relevant, particularly with the emergent demand for natural products which may counteract the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and therefore prevent multiple human diseases. PMID:18313193

  14. Water Diffusivity and Quality Attributes of Fresh and Partially Osmodehydrated Cactus Pear (Opuntia Ficus Indica) Subjected to Air-Dehydration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Ruiz-Cabrera; G. Flores-Gómez; R. González-García; A. Grajales-Lagunes; M. Moscosa-Santillan; M. Abud-Archila

    2008-01-01

    Water diffusivity, vitamin C degradation, and color change were assessed in two batches of cactus pear that were dried; one by regular air-drying; and the other one by applying partial osmodehydration followed by air-drying. The drying was done with a convection oven at 40, 50, 60, and 70°C. The pretreatment was performed by immersing the samples for 3 hours in

  15. Salt stress increases the expression of p5cs gene and induces proline accumulation in cactus pear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia O. Silva-Ortega; Ana E. Ochoa-Alfaro; Juan A. Reyes-Agüero; Gerardo A. Aguado-Santacruz; Juan F. Jiménez-Bremont

    2008-01-01

    Proline (Pro) is one of the most accumulated osmolytes in salinity and water deficit conditions in plants. In the present study, we measured the Pro content, the activity and the expression level of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS: ?-glutamyl kinase, EC 2.7.2.11 and glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, EC 1.2.1.41), a key regulatory enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of Pro, in cactus pear (Opuntia

  16. MICROPROPAGATION OF CACTUS (Opuntia ficus-indica) AS STRATEGIC TOOL TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION IN ARID AND SEMI ARID REGIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. KHALAFALLA; E. ABDELLATEF; M. M. MOHAMEED AHMED; M. G. OSMAN

    Khalafalla, M. M., Abdellatef, E., Mohameed Ahmed, M. M. and Osman, M. G. 2007. Micropropagation of Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as Strategic Tool to Combat Desertification in Arid and Semi Arid Regions. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 2(4):1-8 With aim of large production of plant material, a protocol for micropropagation of Opuntia ficus-indica was developed at the laboratory of plant tissue

  17. Adult motor patterns produced by moth pupae during development.

    PubMed

    Kammer, A E; Rheuben, M B

    1976-08-01

    Muscle potentials were recorded extracellularly from developing pupae and adults of the saturniid moths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi and the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. During the week prior to the terminal ecdysis, developing moths still enclosed within the pupal cuticle produced motor patterns similar to those recorded from adults during flight and shivering. The pupal patterns had a longer cycle time and were more variable than the adult motor patterns. Characteristic inter-family differences in adult motor patterns were apparent in pupal motor patterns. Development of motor patterns was followed over several days by observing individuals with chronically implanted leads. Early in the pupal period potentials were small and infrequent. The amount of activity gradually increased and became more patterned. As development proceeded adult patterns were produced for increasing lengths of time, although the patterns changed quickly and spontaneously. Restricting the wing movements of A. polyphemus adults increased the cycle time, increased the number of spikes per burst in muscles opposing the restraint, and did not alter the interspike interval within a burst. The flight patterns produced by pharate moths, in which the wings are also immobile, also have a longer cycle time than that of adult flight, but the number of spikes per burst the same and the interspike interval is longer than in adult flight. These observations suggest that the differences between pupal and adult patterns are not necessarily due to the confinement of the wings by the pupal cuticle. PMID:993706

  18. Olfactory Perireceptor and Receptor Events in Moths: A Kinetic Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Ernst Kaissling

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model of perireceptor and receptor events has been developed for olfactory sensilla on the antennae of the moth Antheraea polyphemus. The model includes the adsorptive uptake of pheromone molecules by the olfactory hair, their transport on and within the hair by diffusion, the formation of a complex of pheromone and the extracellular pheromone-binding protein (PBP), the interaction of

  19. Trans-2-hexenal: mating stimulant for polyphemus moths.

    PubMed

    Riddiford, L M

    1967-10-01

    The volatile compound from oak leaves which stimulates the female polyphemus moth to release her sex pheromone has been isolated and identified as trans-2-hexenal. Although leaves of other food plants contain trans-2-hexenal, they also release masking odors which block the activity of the hexenal. PMID:6054815

  20. Mosquito Feeding Affects Larval Behaviour and Development in a Moth

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    mosquitoes, apparently because of a reduced feeding time for larvae. In addition, larvae tended to leaveMosquito Feeding Affects Larval Behaviour and Development in a Moth Ve´ronique Martel1 *¤ , Fredrik investigated the impact of a terrestrial micropredator, the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, on its unusual

  1. An Overview of Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has resulted in the development of resistance in potato tuber moth populations, safety risks to farm workers, the food supply, and the environment. An integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, in which natural enemies of pest arthropods and other alterna...

  2. MICROBIAL CONTROL OF THE POTATO TUBER MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber moth (PTM) is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Pathogens that are specific to insects offer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. A diverse spectrum of microscopic and multicellular organisms (bact...

  3. Natural control of the Small Ermine Moth Yponomeuta padella (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Mowat; S. Clawson

    1995-01-01

    The natural mortality of the Small Ermine Moth Yponomeuta padella (L.) was investigated. A previously-unknown microsporidium (Microspora), which infected the cells of the host gut wall, caused mortality in laboratory experiments. This parasite was the most probable cause of population decline in field sites and, as it readily infected the host in laboratory or field, offered the possibility of a

  4. Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

  5. Young Scientists Explore Butterflies and Moths. Book 4 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on butterflies and moths and their stages of development. The first section contains exercises on recognizing insect body…

  6. Mechanics of a 'simple' ear: tympanal vibrations in noctuid moths.

    PubMed

    Windmill, J F C; Fullard, J H; Robert, D

    2007-08-01

    Anatomically, the ears of moths are considered to be among the simplest ears found in animals. Microscanning laser vibrometry was used to examine the surface vibrations of the entire tympanal region of the ears of the noctuid moths Agrotis exclamationis, Noctua pronuba, Xestia c-nigrum and Xestia triangulum. During stimulation with ultrasound at intensities known to activate receptor neurones, the tympanum vibrates with maximum deflection amplitudes at the location where the receptor cells attach. In the reportedly heterogeneous tympana of noctuid moths, this attachment site is an opaque zone that is surrounded by a transparent, thinner cuticular region. In response to sound pressure, this region moves relatively little compared with the opaque zone. Thus, the deflections of the moth tympanic membrane are not those of a simple circular drum. The acoustic sensitivity of the ear of N. pronuba, as measured on the attachment site, is 100+/-14 nm Pa(-1) (N=10), corresponding to tympanal motion of a mere 200 pm at sound pressure levels near the neural threshold. PMID:17644678

  7. PROTEIN UPTAKE IN THE OOCYTES OF THE CECROPIA MOTH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARBARA STAY

    2009-01-01

    The formation of yolk spheres in the oocyte of the cecropia moth, Hyalophora cecropia (L.), is known immunologically to result largely from uptake of a sex-limited blood protein. Recent electron microscope analyses of insect and other animal oocytes have demonstrated fine structural configurations consistent with uptake of proteins by pinocytosis. An electron microscope analysis of the cecropia ovary confirms the

  8. Evidence for short-range sonic communication in lymantriine moths.

    PubMed

    Rowland, E; Schaefer, P W; Belton, P; Gries, G

    2011-02-01

    Sexual communication of nun moth, Lymantria monacha (L.), pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura Moore, and fumida tussock moth, Lymantria fumida Butler (all Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Lymantriinae), is known to be mediated by pheromones. We now show that males are attracted by the sounds of conspecific females over short distances and that wing fanning male and female L. monacha, L. mathura and L. fumida produce species- and sex-specific wing beat and associated click sounds that could contribute to reproductive isolation. Evidence for short-range communication in these lymantriines includes (i) scanning electron micrographs revealing metathoracic tympanate ears, (ii) laser interferometry showing particular sensitivity of tympana tuned to frequency components of sound signals from conspecifics, and (iii) phonotaxis of male L. monacha and L. fumida to speakers playing back sound signals from conspecific females. We conclude that tympanate ears of these moths have evolved in response not only to bat predation, but also for short-range mate finding and possibly recognition. PMID:21115014

  9. Use of Low Temperature to Control Postharvest Indianmeal Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The restrictions on the use of fumigants for product disinfestation due to worker safety or environmental concerns has increased interest in non-chemical alternatives. The Indianmeal moth is often the most serious pest of postharvest tree nuts, and has been the target of numerous studies examining t...

  10. Diamondback moth–host plant interactions: Implications for pest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sarfraz; L. M. Dosdall; B. A. Keddie

    2006-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops with a cosmopolitan distribution. Its genetic elasticity has enabled it to develop resistance to almost every insecticide applied in the field. Its natural host range is limited to cultivated and wild Brassicaceae that are characterized by having glucosinolates, sulfur-containing secondary plant compounds. Adults utilize an

  11. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  12. Physiological mismatching between neurons innervating olfactory glomeruli in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Anton, S.; Hansson, B. S.

    1999-01-01

    The primary olfactory centres of most vertebrates and most neopteran insects are characterized by the presence of spherical neuropils, glomeruli, where synaptic interactions between olfactory receptor neurons and second-order neurons take place. In the neopteran insect taxa investigated so far, receptor neurons of a specific physiological identity target one glomerulus and thus bestow a functional identity on the glomerulus. In moths, input from pheromone-specific receptor neurons is received in a male-specific structure of the antennal lobe, called the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which consists of a number of specialized glomeruli. Each glomerulus of the complex receives a set of peripheral sensory afferents that encode one of several compounds involved in sexual communication. The complex is also innervated by dendritic branches of antennal lobe output neurons called projection neurons, which transfer information from the antennal lobe to higher centres of the brain. A hypothesis stemming from earlier work on moths claims that the receptor neuron innervation pattern of the MGC should be reflected in the pattern of dendrites of projection neurons invading the different MGC glomeruli. In this study we show that in the noctuid moth Trichoplusia ni, as in several other noctuid moth species, this hypothesis does not hold. The degree of matching between axon terminals of receptor neurons and the dendritic branches of identified projection neurons that express similar physiological specificity is very low.

  13. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization from decomposing gypsy moth frass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Lovett; Adriana E. Ruesink

    1995-01-01

    Defoliation of forests by insects is often assumed to produce a pulse of available nitrogen (N) from the decomposition of frass pellets. In this study we measured rates of carbon (C) and N mineralization from gypsy moth frass incubated with and without soil, and for soil alone. Incubations were at constant temperature and soil moisture conditions and lasted for 120

  14. Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-06-01

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P<0.01) decreased the body, testis, and accessory sex organ weights, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, histological analysis revealed pronounced morphological alterations with tubular necrosis and reduction in the number of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of sodium dichromate-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, exposure to sodium dichromate significantly (P<0.01) increased LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testis. Interestingly, pretreatment with CCE significantly (P<0.01) restored the serum testosterone level, sperm count, and motility to the levels of the control group. Moreover, CCE administration was capable of reducing the elevated level of LPO and significantly (P<0.01) increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in testis. Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis. PMID:24752970

  15. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Uebelhack, Ralf; Busch, Regina; Alt, Felix; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Chong, Pee-Win

    2014-01-01

    Background Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) fiber was shown to promote weight loss in a 3-month clinical investigation. As demonstrated by in vitro studies, cactus fiber binds to dietary fat and its use results in reduced absorption, which in turn leads to reduced energy absorption and ultimately the reduction of body weight. Objective The objective of our study was to elucidate the dietary fat binding capacity of cactus fiber through determination of fecal fat excretion in healthy volunteers. Subjects and Methods This clinical investigation was performed as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects for a period of approximately 45 days. Twenty healthy volunteer subjects were randomized to receive cactus fiber or placebo, 2 tablets thrice daily with main meals. All subjects were provided with meals during the study period (except washout) according to a standardized meal plan, with 35% of daily energy need coming from fat. Two 24-hour feces samples were collected during both the baseline and treatment periods for analysis of the fat content. Results Cactus fiber showed an increased fecal fat excretion compared with placebo (mean [SD] = 15.79% [5.79%] vs 4.56% [3.09%]; P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported throughout the study period. Conclusions Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667. PMID:25067985

  16. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  17. Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

  18. Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids.

    PubMed

    Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K; Spalding, Adrian; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H

    2013-08-23

    With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations. PMID:23720524

  19. Attraction of male gypsy and nun moths to disparlure and some of its chemical analogues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Schneider; R. Lange; F. Schwarz; M. Beroza; B. A. Bierl

    1974-01-01

    The attractive power of disparlure—the sex attractant of the gypsy moth (Lymantria\\/Porthetria dispar)—vs. four synthetic analogous epoxides was tested in 1972 in a pine forest near Heidelberg. With two levels of concentration in the traps (2 and 20 µg), a total of 1112 nun moths (Lymantria\\/Porthetria monacha) and 257 gypsy moths were caught in 9 experiments. Approximately equal percentages of

  20. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. PMID:24210248

  1. New triterpenoid saponins from cacti and anti-type I allergy activity of saponins from cactus.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Kazutaka; Baba, Masaki; Ito, Satoru; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Kunio

    2012-07-15

    The research in our laboratory focuses on the isolation of saponins from cactus. In this study, we report five new triterpenoid saponins, dumortierinoside A methyl ester (1), pachanoside I1 (2), pachanoside D1 (3), gummososide A (4), and gummososide A methyl ester (5). Compounds 1-3 isolated from Isolatocereus dumortieri Backbg., and compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from Stenocereus alamosensis A. C. Gibson & K. E. Horak. Compound 2 possessed a new pachanane-type triterpene skeleton, pachanol I, in its aglycon. The aglycon of 3 was pachanol D, while those of 4 and 5 were both gummosogenin, which we have previously reported, but this is the first report of pachanol D and gummosogenin in their aglycon forms. Additionally, we evaluated the anti-type I allergy activity of the saponins with RBL-2H3 (Rat basophilic leukemia) cells by measuring the ?-hexosaminidase release inhibitory activity. As a result of these studies, gummososide A methyl ester (5) was found to show activity (IC(50)=99.5 ?M) and thurberoside A exhibited mild activity (IC(50)=166.9 ?M). PMID:22704889

  2. Insectivorous bat pollinates columnar cactus more effectively per visit than specialized nectar bat.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Price, Ryan D; Heady, Paul A; Kay, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions are great model systems to investigate mutualistic relationships. We compared pollinator effectiveness between facultative and obligate nectar-feeding bats to determine how foraging specialization influences mutualistic interactions in a bat-adapted cactus. We predicted that a specialized nectarivorous bat would deliver more pollen than an opportunistic nectar-feeding bat because of specialized adaptations to nectar feeding that indicate close association with their food plants. Counter to our predictions, the opportunistic Antrozous pallidus delivered significantly more pollen grains per visit than the specialized Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. Higher pollinator effectiveness, based on visitation rates and pollen deposition levels, varied between species by site, and although A. pallidus visits flowers much less frequently than L. yerbabuenae over all sites, it is likely an effective and reliable pollinator of Pachycereus pringlei in Baja, Mexico. Our results suggest that morphological adaptations and dietary specialization on nectar do not necessarily confer advantages for pollination over less specialized plant visitors and highlight the reciprocally exploitative nature of mutualisms. PMID:23234851

  3. Avalanche dynamics of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus graph

    E-print Network

    Gauthier, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the avalanche dynamics of the abelian sandpile model on arbitrarily large balls of the expanded cactus graph (the Cayley graph of the free product $\\mathbb{Z}_3 * \\mathbb{Z}_2$). I follow the approach of Dhar and Majumdar (1990) to enumerate the number of recurrent configurations. I also propose the substitution method of enumerating all the recurrent configurations in which adding a grain to a designated origin vertex (far enough away from the boundary vertices) causes topplings to occur in a specific cluster (a connected subgraph that is the union of cells, or copies of the 3-cycle). This substitution method lends itself to combinatorial evaluation of the number of positions in which a certain number of cells topple in an avalanche starting at the origin, which are amenable to analysis using well-known recurrences and corresponding generating functions. Using asymptotic methods, I show that, when counting cells that topple in the avalanche, the critical exponent of the Abelian sandpile model o...

  4. Antennal carboxylesterases in a moth, structural and functional diversity

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nicolas; Chertemps, Thomas; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone-degrading enzymes (PDEs) are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly degrading pheromone molecules. Because esters are widespread insect pheromone components, PDEs belonging to the carboxylesterase (CCE) family have been the most studied. However, only two CCEs were both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized as PDEs until recently. In the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis, we have identified an unsuspected diversity of antennal CCEs, with a total number of 30 genes. Two CCEs, enriched in antennae and belonging to distinct clades, were shown to present different substrate specificities toward pheromone and plant compounds. A same CCE was also shown to efficiently degrade both pheromone and plant components. Our results suggest that the structural evolution of antennal CCEs reflects their functional diversity and that a complex set of CCE-mediated reactions take place is the olfactory organs of moths. PMID:22896794

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  6. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter-rate models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  7. Immunocytochemical localization of pheromone-binding protein in moth antennae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Steinbrecht; M. Ozaki; G. Ziegelberger

    1992-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins are supposed to play an important role in stimulus transport and\\/or inactivation in olfactory sense organs. In an attempt to precisely localize pheromone-binding protein in the antenna of moths, post-embedding immunocytochemistry was performed using an antiserum against purified pheromone-binding protein of Antheraea polyphemus. In immunoblots of antennal homogenates, the antiserum reacted exclusively with pheromone-binding protein of A. polyphemus,

  8. The influence of moth hearing on bat echolocation strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brock Fenton; James H. Fullard

    1979-01-01

    The ears of moths we tested in Canada and Côte d'Ivoire are most sensitive to sounds between 20 and 40 kHz, and much less sensitive to sound over 65 kHz. The insectivorous bats most commonly encountered in these (and other) locations use high intensity, frequency modulated echolocation calls with frequency components in the 20–40 kHz range, making them detectable by

  9. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Tasin; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Marie Bengtsson; Claudio Ioriatti; Peter Witzgall

    2006-01-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential\\u000a for our understanding of plant–insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects.\\u000a Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine\\u000a moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a

  10. What causes outbreaks of the gypsy moth in North America?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Liebhold; Joseph Elkinton; David Williams; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2000-01-01

    The gypsy moth has been present in North America for more than 100 years, and in many of the areas where it has become established\\u000a outbreaks occur with varying degrees of periodicity. There also exists extensive spatial synchrony in the onset of outbreaks\\u000a over large geographic regions. Density-dependent mortality clearly limits high-density populations, but there is little evidence\\u000a for strong

  11. Gypsy moth cell lines divergent in viral susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Goodwin; G. J. Tompkins; P. McCawley

    1978-01-01

    Summary  A series of cell lines unique in insect virus susceptibility pattern have been isolated from the ovaries of the gypsy moth\\u000a (Lymantria dispar: Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on a synthetic medium with mammalian and avian serum supplementation. Growth curves showed the\\u000a poorest growth occurring on peptone-based media with somewhat better growth on amino-acid-based media. The best growth was\\u000a obtained with combined media.

  12. Pheromone-mediated behavior of the gypsy moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Richerson

    1977-01-01

    The pheromone-mediated behavior of gypsy moth males was studied in both natural and simulated populations in central Pennsylvania. Feral males released into 50-m-diam plots, each with 2 feral females around the perimeter, oriented initially to trees and not to females. Neither exposure to virgin females nor exposure to wicks baited with approx 6 mg disparlure affected the subsequent sexual activity

  13. Reproductive behavior of the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MANES WYSOKI; SHAUL BEN YEHUDA; DAVID ROSEN

    1993-01-01

    The reproductive behavior of the honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was studied in the laboratory. The sex ratio was 1.1:1, males to females, in both laboratory and field stocks. Most of the females that mated did so during the first night after emergence; males began mating on the following night. Mating occurred 1–2 h before dawn and averaged

  14. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  15. Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

  16. Cryptically Patterned Moths Perceive Bark Structure When Choosing Body Orientations That Match Wing Color Pattern to the Bark Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang-ku; Moon, Jong-yeol; Lee, Sang-im; Jablonski, Piotr G.

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths’ behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

  17. Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy

    E-print Network

    Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding mol- ecules for the Cry1A class of Bt toxins in older gypsy moth larvae, was present both in the apical brush border and in the base- ment membrane

  18. Author's personal copy Mapping asynchrony between gypsy moth egg-hatch and forest leaf-out: Putting

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    Author's personal copy Mapping asynchrony between gypsy moth egg-hatch and forest leaf-out: Putting asyn- chrony from 2000 to 2010. Maps compared MODIS derived leaf-out with gypsy moth egg-hatch from the BioSIM insect phenology model. Mean temporal differences between gypsy moth egg-hatch and leaf

  19. SPECIAL FEATURE: REVIEW Allee Effects: Mating and Invasion The role of Allee effects in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.),

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    SPECIAL FEATURE: REVIEW Allee Effects: Mating and Invasion The role of Allee effects in gypsy moth causes of the Allee effect in the gypsy moth and highlight the importance of mate-finding failure dynamics of the gypsy moth system, which conceptually could serve as a model system for understanding how

  20. Using Simple Models to Predict Virus Epizootics in Gypsy Moth Populations Author(s): Greg Dwyer and Joseph S. Elkinton

    E-print Network

    Elkinton, Joseph

    Using Simple Models to Predict Virus Epizootics in Gypsy Moth Populations Author(s): Greg Dwyer to predict virus epizootics in gypsy moth populations GREG DWYER and JOSEPH S. ELKINTON Departmentof) of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (L.)), we estimated each of the model parameters independently, estimating

  1. Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae A. M. Liebhold, K. F. Raffa* and A. L. Diss

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae A. M. Liebhold, K. F. Raffa* and A. L. Diss in low-density gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), popula- tions in established populations in north densities. 2 We compared small mammal communities and levels of predation on gypsy moth pupae among five

  2. Summary We examined the effects of fertilization and gyp-sy moth defoliation on condensed tannin concentration (%CT)

    E-print Network

    Parry, Dylan

    control) and fertilization treatments (100 kg nitrogen (N) ha­1 and an unfertilized control). Gypsy moth of severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and of N fertilization on fine root condensedSummary We examined the effects of fertilization and gyp- sy moth defoliation on condensed tannin

  3. Geographical variation in the periodicity of gypsy moth outbreaks Derek M. Johnson, Andrew M. Liebhold and Ottar N. Bjrnstad

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Geographical variation in the periodicity of gypsy moth outbreaks Derek M. Johnson, Andrew M variation in the periodicity of gypsy moth outbreaks. Á Ecography 29: 367Á374. The existence of periodic the range of a single Lepidopteran species. The exotic gypsy moth is an introduced foliage- feeding insect

  4. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S

    2014-04-01

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae), were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone were attractive to P. orphisalis, whereas benzyl acetate, eugenol, cis-jasmone, limonene, linalool, methyl-2-methoxybenzoate, methyl salicylate, beta-myrcene, and 2-phenylethanol were not. When used in combination with phenylacetaldehyde, 4-oxoisophorone and methyl-2-methoxybenzoate increased catches of P. orphisalis in traps by -50%, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. A second crambid species, the false celery leaftier moth, Udea profundalis Packard, was also attracted to phenylacetaldehyde, but was not attracted to any other single-chemical lure. Cis-jasmone, limonene, and 4-oxoisophorone increased catches of U. profundalis by -50% when presented in traps with phenylacetaldehyde, while linalool increased the catch 2.5-fold, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. Both sexes of each species were similarly attracted to most of these lures. These findings provide chemical lures for trapping males and females of both P. orphisalis and U. profundalis. PMID:24772546

  5. Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport Endophytic Fungi and Mycoparasitic Antagonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy S. Feldman; Heath E. O’Brien; A. Elizabeth Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Claviceps paspali, a common fungal pathogen of Paspalum grasses, attracts moth vectors by producing sugary exudates in the grass florets it infects. These exudates also support\\u000a mycoparasitic Fusarium species that may negatively influence C. paspali fitness. We examined the potential for moths on which C. paspali depends to also transmit mycoparasitic Fusarium and fungal endophytes, which inhabit asymptomatic plant tissue

  6. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  7. CHEMICAL ATTRACTANTS FOR MOTHS, U.S. PATENT NO. 6.344.191

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositions and lures are described which provide synthetic chemical attractants which function as highly effective attractants for male and female moths, primarily moths of the family Noctuidae. In one aspect, the attractants provide an effective attractant amount of vapor of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3...

  8. Limiting the costs of mutalism: multiple modes of interaction between yuccas and yucca moths

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, J. F.; Bao, T.

    1999-01-01

    In pollination–seed predation mutualisms between yuccas and yucca moths, conflicts of interest exist for yuccas, because benefits of increased pollination may be outweighed by increased seed consumption. These conflicts raise the problem of what limits seed consumption, and ultimately what limits or regulates moth populations. Although the current hypothesis is that yuccas should selectively abscise flowers with high numbers of yucca-moth eggs, within-inflorescence selective abscission occurs in only one of the three moth–yucca systems that we studied. It occurs only when oviposition directly damages developing ovules, and does not, therefore, provide a general explanation for the resolution of moth–yucca conflicts. Within-locule egg mortality provides an alternative and stronger mechanism for limiting seed damage, and generating density-dependent mortality for yucca-moth populations. However, the most important feature of moth–yucca systems is that they are diverse, encompassing multiple modes of interaction, each with different consequences for limiting and regulating yucca moths.

  9. Forty million years of mutualism: Evidence for Eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, Olle; Leebens-Mack, James

    1999-01-01

    The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 ± 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0–6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 ± 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 ± 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available. PMID:10430916

  10. Codling moth resistance and associated pytochemical variation in fruit of Malus tschonoskii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Work is ongoing to evaluate the potential for host plant resistance to codling moth and other apple pests among the diverse Malus germplasm housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PRGU) in Geneva, NY. Significant resistance to larval feeding from codling moth has been observed in fruit fro...

  11. The influence of larval diet on adult feeding behaviour in the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Raguso; Tamairé Ojeda-Avila; Sheetal Desai; Melissa A. Jurkiewicz; H. Arthur Woods

    2007-01-01

    Lab-reared sphingid and noctuid moths appear to feed less than wild moths, and often are starved to enhance responsiveness in feeding assays. To measure the impact of larval nutrition on adult feeding, we raised a model sphingid species, Manduca sexta, on control or modified diets (reduced sugar, protein or water, supplemented ?-carotene) or cut tobacco leaves, then conducted feeding assays

  12. Increased catch of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in kairomone-baited clear delta traps.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L

    2010-04-01

    The relative performance of a clear delta trap baited with individual or combination sex pheromone and kairomone lures for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., was evaluated against three vertical clear pane and colored delta traps in field trials within apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). The clear caught significantly more moths of each sex than an orange delta trap when baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and acetic acid (PE+AA) and performed similarly to oil-coated pane traps. The clear caught significantly more females than the orange delta trap with pear ester alone, pear ester plus (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) (PE-PH), or a combination of PE-PH and acetic acid. Male moth capture was similar in both clear and colored delta traps with all codlemone lures tested. Seasonal moth catches of female moths were higher in clear than either white (second flight, 2008) or orange (first and second flights, 2009) traps baited with PE-PH. Total moth catch was significantly higher in clear than white traps in 2008 and did not differ between clear and orange traps in 2009. Clear traps baited with acetic acid but not with pear ester, PE-PH, or when unbaited caught significantly more nontarget moths than colored traps. These studies suggest that the use of clear traps with their higher captures of female codling moths could improve both monitoring programs and the development of lure and kill strategies. PMID:20388291

  13. Recapture of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males: influence of lure type and pheromone background.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Brunner, Jay F; Jones, Vincent P; Bello, Nora M

    2010-08-01

    Recapture of marked male codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), released four distances from traps was measured in experiments comparing either lure type or mating disruption. Experiment 1 assessed recapture by 0.1, 1, and 10 mg of codlemone lures. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed moth recapture in orchard plots with 0, 500, or 1,000 Isomate C Plus dispensers per ha. Moths were released 1, 3, 10, and 30 m downwind of the trap in experiments 1 and 2, and 3, 10, 30, and 45 m in experiment 3. Lure type did not affect recapture, however, significantly more moths were recaptured at 3 m compared with 10 or 30 m. Most moths recaptured < or = 10 m of the trap were recaptured by day 3, whereas most of the moths recaptured > or = 10 m were recaptured after day 3. Thus, 0.1-, 1-, and 10-mg lures, have an attractive range of between 10 and 30 m in orchards lacking mating disruption. Both mating disruption rates greatly reduced moth recapture, and moths recaptured under a 1,000 dispenser per ha rate were recaptured from < or = 10 m and within the first 2 d after release. Similar results were observed when release points were expanded to 45 m. Thus, results suggest that pheromone dispenser technologies and placement strategies that maximize disruption of males that arise within 10 m of a female are needed to markedly improve mating disruption. PMID:20857733

  14. Chapter VII Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth

    E-print Network

    Helsinki, University of

    111 Chapter VII Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth Sofia Gripenberg1 of Biological and Environmental Sciences, PO Box 65 (Viikinkaari 1), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland 2 structure of the leaf-mining moth Tischeria ekebladella, a specialist herbivore of the pedunculate oak

  15. Larval parasitoids of the apple ermine moth, Yponomeuta malinellus in Korea, Japan, and China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jang-Hoon LEE; Robert W. PEMBERTON

    2005-01-01

    Larval parasitoids of Yponomeuta malinellus Zell. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the apple ermine moth (AEM), were sought in northeast Asia with the goal of identifying potential biological controls of the moth, which appeared to threaten the apple industry in Washington State, USA during the 1980s. Ten primary and four secondary parasitoids were found. Dolichogenidea delecta (Haliday) (Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Encyrtidae), Herpestomus

  16. Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America

    E-print Network

    Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America Masha to Biological invasions Gypsy moth- biology and formulation of mathematical model SI model results Predator prey model results Time delay models- introduction and results #12;Biological invasions #12;Biological

  17. Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared The silver Y moth is listed as an exotic organism of high invasive risk to the United States (USDA-APHIS 2008). There are no establishment records in the United States, however, this and unidentified Autographa species have been

  18. Gypsy moth in the United States: An atlas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Liebhold; K. W. Gottschalk; E. R. Luzader; D. A. Mason; R. Bush

    1997-01-01

    This atlas includes 52 maps that doucment the historical spread of gypsy moth from 1900 to the present, historical forest defoliation in the Northeast from 1984 to the present, and the distribution of susceptible forests in the conterminous United States. These maps should be useful for planning activities to limit the spread of gypsy moth and mitigate the effects of

  19. Physiological Age of Host Plant Foliage and Survival of Gypsy Moth Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Ponomarev

    2003-01-01

    The pH of leaf homogenates of common birch (Betula verrucosa L.), a food plant of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, was measured at different times of day in the course of leaf organogenesis, and midgut pH was measured in gypsy moth larvae phenotypically differing in the color of the hypodermis at the fifth instar. A possible relation between these

  20. Parasitoid complex of the bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus, in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid complex of Yponomeuta evonymellus L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the bird cherry ermine moth, was sought in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) with the goal of identifying potential biological controls of the moth. 13 primary and two secondary parasitoids were found. Diadegma armil...

  1. Does butterfly diversity predict moth diversity? Testing a popular indicator taxon at local scales

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    Does butterfly diversity predict moth diversity? Testing a popular indicator taxon at local scales taxa has not been adequately tested. We examined whether a popular indicator taxon, the butterflies butterflies and moths at 19 sites representing the three major terrestrial habitats in sub-alpine Colorado

  2. Attractiveness of floral compounds to male and female moths in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl a...

  3. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more p...

  4. Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinyao Zeng; Ning Xiang; Lei Jiang; Gareth Jones; Yongmei Zheng; Bingwan Liu; Shuyi Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies,

  5. Stand structure and development after gypsy moth defoliation in the Appalachian Plateau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann Fajvan; John M. Wood

    1996-01-01

    The vegetation structures of Appalachian hardwood stands in southwestern Pennsylvania were examined before, and 4 years after, defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) on a range of site aspects. Gypsy moth-induced mortality of oaks (Quercus spp.) was associated with growth increases in subcanopy species such as Acer spp., regardless of aspect. Density of non-oak tree seedlings and other

  6. A web-based expert system for gypsy moth risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Potter; X. Deng; J. Li; M. Xu; Y. Wei; I. Lappas; M. J Twery; D. J Bennett

    2000-01-01

    The gypsy moth is one of North America's most devastating exotic forest pests because it can cause the loss of valuable oak species, degraded aesthetics, loss of wildlife habitat, and detrimental effects on watersheds. Due to the increasingly wide infestation of the gypsy moth, it is important to develop decision aids that help assess the risks of this pest to

  7. Attraction of the gypsy moth to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Dahurian larch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Valimaki, Sanna; Shi, Juan; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Heliovaara, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory responses of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a major defoliator of deciduous trees, were examined in Inner Mongolia, China. We studied whether the gypsy moth adults are attracted by the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch) foliage and compared the attractiveness of the plant volatiles with that of the synthetic sex pheromone. Our results indicated that the VOCs of the Dahurian larch were effective in attracting gypsy moth males especially during the peak flight period. The VOCs also attracted moths significantly better than the sex pheromone of the moth. Our study is the first trial to show the responses of adult gypsy moths to volatile compounds emitted from a host plant. Electroantennogram responses of L. gmelinii volatiles on gypsy moths supported our field observations. A synergistic effect between host plant volatiles and sex pheromone was also obvious, and both can be jointly applied as a new attractant method or population management strategy of the gypsy moth. PMID:23016284

  8. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  9. Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The light brown apple moth and agricultural commodities. Michigan risk maps for exotic plant pests. Other common names apple leafroller

  10. Thermal Energy Exchange Model and Water Loss of a Barrel Cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes1

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Donald A.; Nobel, Park S.

    1977-01-01

    The influences of various diurnal stomatal opening patterns, spines, and ribs on the stem surface temperature and water economy of a CAM succulent, the barrel cactus Ferocactus acanthodes, were examined using an energy budget model. To incorporate energy exchanges by shortwave and longwave irradiation, latent heat, conduction, and convection as well as the heat storage in the massive stem, the plant was subdivided into over 100 internal and external regions in the model. This enabled the average surface temperature to be predicted within 1 C of the measured temperature for both winter and summer days. Reducing the stem water vapor conductance from the values observed in the field to zero caused the average daily stem surface temperature to increase only 0.7 C for a winter day and 0.3 C for a summer day. Thus, latent heat loss does not substantially reduce stem temperature. Although the surface temperatures averaged 18 C warmer for the summer day than for the winter day for a plant 41 cm tall, the temperature dependence of stomatal opening caused the simulated nighttime water loss rates to be about the same for the 2 days. Spines moderated the amplitude of the diurnal temperature changes of the stem surface, since the daily variation was 17 C for the winter day and 25 C for the summer day with spines compared with 23 C and 41 C, respectively, in their simulated absence. Ribs reduced the daytime temperature rise by providing 54% more area for convective heat loss than for a smooth circumscribing surface. In a simulation where both spines and ribs were eliminated, the daytime average surface temperature rose by 5 C. PMID:16660148

  11. Sun/shade conditions affect recruitment and local adaptation of a columnar cactus in dry forests

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Jácome, Antonio; Montaña, Carlos; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Facilitation among plants in water-limited environments (i.e. where evapotranspiration overcomes the availability of water during the growing season) has been considered a local adaptation to water and light conditions. Among cacti, early life-history stages can benefit from the facilitative effects of nurse plants that reduce solar radiation and water stress. However, whether light condition itself acts as an agent of selection through facilitation remains untested. The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether light conditions affect seedling recruitment, (2) whether the positive effect of shade on seedling recruitment is more intense under more stressful conditions and (3) whether shade condition (facilitation) reduces the magnitude of local adaptation on seedling recruitment relative to full sunlight conditions. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment, coupled with the artificial manipulation of sun/shade conditions, was performed to test for the effects of local adaptation on germination, seedling survival and growth, using two demes of the columnar cactus Pilosocereus leucocephalus, representing different intensities of stressful conditions. Key Results Full sunlight conditions reduced recruitment success and supported the expectation of lower recruitment in more stressful environments. Significant local adaptation was mainly detected under full sunlight conditions, indicating that this environmental factor acts as an agent of selection at both sites. Conclusions The results supported the expectation that the magnitude of local adaptation, driven by the effects of facilitative nurse plants, is less intense under reduced stressful conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that sun/shade conditions act as a selective agent accounting for local adaptation in water-limited environments, and that facilitation provided by nurse plants in these environments can attenuate the patterns of local adaptation among plants benefiting from the nurse effect. PMID:23223204

  12. Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a seri-ous pest of hardwoods in our state. Although this insect

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a seri- ous pest of hardwoods in our state in moth populations in 2000. This population increase serves as a reminder that, in areas where gypsy moth low to be noticed. Gypsy moth is a native of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. It was accidentally

  13. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn.

    PubMed

    Throne, James E; Arbogast, Richard T

    2010-08-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn by using previously published data describing immature developmental times and survivorship, and adult longevity and fecundity. The model accurately simulated population development of Indianmeal moths in corn stored during fall and into winter of three separate storage seasons in South Carolina. This is the period when the Indianmeal moth is a pest in stored corn in South Carolina. The model predicted that populations would increase after winter as grain temperatures rose, but observed populations in the grain bins never increased after winter. Despite this, the model should be useful from a management perspective because the corn is being sold off or used up after winter, and the observed Indianmeal moth populations never reached damaging levels after winter. PMID:20857766

  14. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments. PMID:25675276

  15. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Dapeng; Weng, Zhankun

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  16. Selection of suitable trichogramma strains to control the codling moth Cydia pomonella and the two summer fruit tortrix moths Adoxophyes orana, Pandemis heparana [Lep.: Tortricidae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Hassan

    1989-01-01

    Simple laboratory methods to select candidateTrichogramma strains for use in biological control were tried. 17 strains were screened for their suitability against the codling mothCydia pomonella L. as well as the 2 summer fruit tortrix mothsAdoxophyes orana F.R. andPandemis heparana Schiff. In one set of experiments, the capacity ofTrichogramma to parasitize each of these target pests was examined, in another

  17. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Tamás Gábor Tornyi; Andreas Görgen; Magne Guttormsen; Ann-Cecilie Larsen; Sunniva Siem; Attila Krasznahorkay; Lóránt Csige

    2013-12-02

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers $60\\%$ of 2$\\pi$. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ${\\Delta}E-E$ silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and $\\gamma$ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  18. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Tornyi, Tamás Gábor; Guttormsen, Magne; Larsen, Ann-Cecilie; Siem, Sunniva; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Csige, Lóránt

    2013-01-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers $60\\%$ of 2$\\pi$. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ${\\Delta}E-E$ silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly...

  19. The Presence of Nuclear Cactus in the Early Drosophila Embryo May Extend the Dynamic Range of the Dorsal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Michael D.; Reeves, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    In a developing embryo, the spatial distribution of a signaling molecule, or a morphogen gradient, has been hypothesized to carry positional information to pattern tissues. Recent measurements of morphogen distribution have allowed us to subject this hypothesis to rigorous physical testing. In the early Drosophila embryo, measurements of the morphogen Dorsal, which is a transcription factor responsible for initiating the earliest zygotic patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis, have revealed a gradient that is too narrow to pattern the entire axis. In this study, we use a mathematical model of Dorsal dynamics, fit to experimental data, to determine the ability of the Dorsal gradient to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis. We found that two assumptions are required for the model to match experimental data in both Dorsal distribution and gene expression patterns. First, we assume that Cactus, an inhibitor that binds to Dorsal and prevents it from entering the nuclei, must itself be present in the nuclei. And second, we assume that fluorescence measurements of Dorsal reflect both free Dorsal and Cactus-bound Dorsal. Our model explains the dynamic behavior of the Dorsal gradient at lateral and dorsal positions of the embryo, the ability of Dorsal to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis, and the robustness of gene expression to stochastic effects. Our results have a general implication for interpreting fluorescence-based measurements of signaling molecules. PMID:25879657

  20. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A total of 108 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the gen...

  1. Development of a cactus-mucilage edible coating ( Opuntia ficus indica) and its application to extend strawberry ( Fragaria ananassa) shelf-life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Del-Valle; P. Hernández-Muñoz; A. Guarda; M. J. Galotto

    2005-01-01

    Increased consumer demand for higher quality food in combination with the environmental need to reduce disposable packaging waste have led to increased interest in research into edible films and coatings. In this work, the use of prickly pear cactus mucilage (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated as an edible coating to extend the shelf-life of strawberries. Different methods for mucilage extraction

  2. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  3. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-?-ocimene and (E)-?-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-?-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of ?-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the ?-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control. PMID:24508043

  4. Chlorantraniliprole resistance in the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Yan, Hui-Hui; Gao, Li; Guo, Yun-Yun; Xue, Chao-Bin

    2014-04-01

    The wide application of chlorantraniliprole, which selectively targets insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has led to increasingly prominent development of resistance to this insecticide. Although much work has been carried out on the structure and function of RyR, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to chlorantraniliprole in diamondback moth still needs further investigation. P. xylostella strains with medium and high resistance to chlorantraniliprole were obtained by laboratory selection and field collection. The biological activity of chlorantraniliprole against the third-instar larvae of susceptible and resistant strains was tested, and resistance development and biological fitness were investigated. The realized heritability (h2) of resistance showed the diamondback moth has a high risk of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. RyR transcript levels were lower in resistant strains than in susceptible strains, indicating that decreased expression of PxRyR may be associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. A 4,400 bp fragment of the RyR cDNA, which encodes most of the functional domains of RyR, was cloned and characterized from four strains (S, F18, BY, and ZC). A 14 amino acid (Q4546-S4559) deletion was found in three resistant strains (F18, BY, and ZC). A point mutation resulting in a glycine to glutamate substitution, as reported in a previously published article, was also found in the carboxyl-terminal region of two resistant strains (BY and ZC). These results indicated that decreased transcriptional level of RyR mRNA and combined with the site mutation might be related to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:24772564

  5. Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

  6. Veterinary pediatrics of butterflies, moths, and other invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Emmel, Thomas C

    2012-05-01

    In the life cycle of invertebrate animals, the typical life history includes the egg and larval stage, which may be called the pediatric phases, representing development up to the point where the animal reaches adulthood with fully functional reproductive organs and full adult characteristics of morphology, coloration, physiology, and behavior. These typical immature or pediatric stages are found in both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. This article reviews the factors that impact the health and survival of juvenile stages of butterflies and moths in particular, and what can be done to extend veterinarian care and advice to clients to invertebrate problems. PMID:22640542

  7. Mitogenomic analysis of Montipora cactus and Anacropora matthai (cnidaria; scleractinia; acroporidae) indicates an unequal rate of mitochondrial evolution among Acroporidae corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ching-Chih; Wallace, Carden C.; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2005-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome was determined for specimens of the coral species Montipora cactus (Bernard 1897) and Anacropora matthai (Pillai 1973), representing two morphologically distinct genera of the family Acroporidae. These sequences were compared with the published mt genome sequence for the confamilial species, Acropora tenuis (Dana 1846). The size of the mt genome was 17,887 bp and 17,888 bp for M. cactus and A. matthai. Gene content and organization was found to be very similar among the three Acroporidae mt genomes with a group I intron occurring in the NADH dehyrogenase 5 ( nad5) gene. The intergenic regions were also similar in length among the three corals. The control region located between the small ribosomal RNA ( ms) and the cytochrome oxidase 3 ( cox3) gene was significantly smaller in M. cactus and A. matthai (both 627 bp) than in A. tenuis (1086 bp). Only one set of repeated sequences was identified at the 3'-end of the control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. A lack of the abundant repetitive elements which have been reported for A. tenuis, accounts for the relatively short control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. Pairwise distances and relative rate analyses of 13 protein coding genes, the group I intron and the largest intergenic region, igr3, revealed significant differences in the rate of molecular evolution of the mt genome among the three species, with an extremely slow rate being seen between Montipora and Anacropora. It is concluded that rapid mt genome evolution is taking place in genus Acropora relative to the confamilial genera Montipora and Anacropora although all are within the relatively slow range thought to be typical of Anthozoa.

  8. Reproductive response of fat-tailed Barbarine ewes subjected to short-term nutritional treatments including spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis) cladodes.

    PubMed

    Sakly, C; Rekik, M; Ben Salem, I; Lassoued, N; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Ben Salem, H

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive outputs in fat-tailed Barbarine sheep in central Tunisia are often low because of feed shortage and the low nutritive value of diets. Supplementation with conventional concentrates is economically unsuitable in central Tunisia, so more cost-effective and sustainable alternative feeding strategies need to be developed. We tested effects of short-term nutritional treatments including cactus cladodes during the induction of 'male effect' on fertility and prolificacy parameters (follicular growth, ovulatory response and early embryo losses). One hundred and twenty ewes were distributed in 4 equal groups balanced for live weight grazed natural pastures and were supplemented for 21 days, starting day 10 after introduction of rams, with cactus cladodes (CA), cactus cladodes and soybean meal (CAS), concentrate (CC) or only soybean meal (S). Nutritional treatment did not affect live weight in this experiment. Ewes receiving cactus had higher number of large pre-ovulatory follicles (?6 mm; 1.08 ± 0.05), between days 14 and 19 after introduction of rams, than females in the CC and S ewes (0.64 ± 0.06; p < 0.05). However, there were no differences in the onset of oestrous behaviour in response to 'male effect' or in the number of corpora lutea. Average ovulation rates were 1.42 ± 0.16 for CC, 1.47 ± 0.13 for CAS, 1.31 ± 0.15 for CA and 1.31 ± 0.13 for S groups respectively. Finally, reproductive wastages at day 35 after mating were not different between groups being 0.33 ± 0.19 for CC, 0.60 ± 0.17 for CAS, 0.43 ± 0.16 for CA and 0.31 ± 0.15 for S groups respectively. It is concluded that Barbarine ewes fed nutritional treatments including cactus performed similarly to those receiving diets including conventional concentrate feeds. PMID:23301658

  9. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

  10. Can sunspot activity and ultraviolet-B radiation explain cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species?

    PubMed

    Selås, Vidar; Hogstad, Olav; Kobro, Sverre; Rafoss, Trond

    2004-09-22

    Cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species have long remained a puzzle for foresters and ecologists. This paper presents time-series exhibiting a strong negative relationship between sunspot numbers and population indices of autumnal and winter moths, both in a mountain birch forest in central Norway and in a mixed lowland forest in southern Norway. In the latter area, also the population level of a moth species feeding entirely on lichens was negatively related to sunspot numbers. Low sunspot activity leads to a thinner ozone layer and thus higher surface ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. As winter moth larvae prefer leaves subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation, we suggest that the causal relationship between sunspots and moths is that the metabolic costs of producing UV-B-protective pigments during periods of low sunspot activity reduce trees' and lichens' resistance to herbivores, and thus increase the survival of moth larvae. Higher peak densities of moth cycles in mountain forests could be explained by the general higher UV-B radiation at higher altitudes. PMID:15347511

  11. Naïve bats discriminate arctiid moth warning sounds but generalize their aposematic meaning.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Chadwell, Brad A; Garrett, Nick; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Conner, William E

    2009-07-01

    Naïve red (Lasiurus borealis Müller) and big brown (Eptesicus fuscus Beauvois) bats quickly learn to avoid noxious sound-producing tiger moths. After this experience with a model tiger moth, bats generalize the meaning of these prey-generated sounds to a second tiger moth species producing a different call. Here we describe the three-dimensional kinematic and bioacoustic details of this behaviour, first, as naïve bats learn to deal with an unpalatable model tiger moth and subsequently, as they avoid acoustic mimics. The tiger moths' first clicks influenced the bats' echolocation behaviour and the percentage of interactions that included terminal buzzes was associated with capture and investigatory behaviour. When the mimic was introduced, the bats decreased both their minimum distance to the tiger moth and the time at which they broke off their attack compared with their exposure to the model on the night before. These kinematic signatures closely match the bats' behaviour on their first night of experience with the model. Minimum distances and time of pursuit cessation increased again by the last night of the mimic's presentation. These kinematic and bioacoustic results show that although naïve bats generalize the meaning of aposematic tiger moth calls, they discriminate the prey-generated signals as different and investigate. Extrapolating to experienced bats, these results suggest that acoustic predators probably exert potent and fine-scaled selective forces on acoustic mimicry complexes. PMID:19561203

  12. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold. PMID:21989514

  13. Implicating an introduced generalist parasitoid in the invasive browntail moth's enigmatic demise.

    PubMed

    Elkinton, Joseph S; Parry, Dylan; Boettner, George H

    2006-10-01

    Recent attention has focused on the harmful effects of introduced biological control agents on nontarget species. The parasitoid Compsilura concinnata is a notable example of such biological control gone wrong. Introduced in 1906 primarily for control of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, this tachinid fly now attacks more than 180 species of native Lepidoptera in North America. While it did not prevent outbreaks or spread of gypsy moth, we present reanalyzed historical data and experimental findings suggesting that parasitism by C. concinnata is the cause of the enigmatic near-extirpation of another of North America's most successful invaders, the browntail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea). From a range of approximately 160,000 km2 a century ago, browntail moth (BTM) populations currently exist only in two spatially restricted coastal enclaves, where they have persisted for decades. We experimentally established BTM populations within this area and found that they were largely free of mortality caused by C. concinnata. Experimental populations of BTM at inland sites outside of the currently occupied coastal enclaves were decimated by C. concinnata, a result consistent with our reanalysis of historical data on C. concinnata parasitism of the browntail moth. The role of C. concinnata in the disappearance of browntail moth outside these enclaves has not been reported before. Despite the beneficial role played by C. concinnata in reversing the browntail moth invasion, we do not advocate introduction of generalist biological control agents. Our findings illustrate that the impact of such organisms can be both unpredictable and far-reaching. PMID:17089674

  14. Extracellular transduction events under pulsed stimulation in moth olfactory sensilla.

    PubMed

    Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lánský, Petr; Krivan, Vlastimil

    2003-07-01

    In natural conditions, pheromones released continuously by female moths are broken in discontinuous clumps and filaments. These discontinuities are perceived by flying male moths as periodic variations in the concentration of the stimulus, which have been shown to be essential for location of females. We study analytically and numerically the evolution in time of the activated pheromone-receptor (signaling) complex in response to periodic pulses of pheromone. The 13-reaction model considered takes into account the transport of pheromone molecules by pheromone binding proteins (PBP), their enzymatic deactivation in the perireceptor space and their interaction with receptors at the dendritic membrane of neurons in Antheraea polyphemus sensitive to the main pheromone component. The time-averaged and periodic properties of the temporal evolution of the signaling complex are presented, in both transient and steady states. The same time-averaged response is shown to result from many different pulse trains and to depend hyperbolically on the time-averaged pheromone concentration in air. The dependency of the amplitude of the oscillations of the signaling complex on pulse characteristics, especially frequency, suggests that the model can account for the ability of the studied type of neuron to resolve repetitive pulses up to 2 Hz, as experimentally observed. Modifications of the model for resolving pulses up to 10 Hz, as found in other neuron types sensitive to the minor pheromone components, are discussed. PMID:12907588

  15. DBM-DB: the diamondback moth genome database

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weiqi; Yu, Liying; He, Weiyi; Yang, Guang; Ke, Fushi; Baxter, Simon W.; You, Shijun; Douglas, Carl J.; You, Minsheng

    2014-01-01

    The diamondback moth Genome Database (DBM-DB) is a central online repository for storing and integrating genomic data of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.). It provides comprehensive search tools and downloadable datasets for scientists to study comparative genomics, biological interpretation and gene annotation of this insect pest. DBM-DB contains assembled transcriptome datasets from multiple DBM strains and developmental stages, and the annotated genome of P. xylostella (version 2). We have also integrated publically available ESTs from NCBI and a putative gene set from a second DBM genome (KONAGbase) to enable users to compare different gene models. DBM-DB was developed with the capacity to incorporate future data resources, and will serve as a long-term and open-access database that can be conveniently used for research on the biology, distribution and evolution of DBM. This resource aims to help reduce the impact DBM has on agriculture using genomic and molecular tools. Database URL: http://iae.fafu.edu.cn/DBM/ PMID:24434032

  16. Flight energetics of sphinx moths: power input during hovering flight.

    PubMed

    Casey, T M

    1976-06-01

    The energetic cost of hovering flight was measured in sphinx moths from five species. Mean power input per unit mass (Pi/M) varied from 237-2 W kg-1 in Manduca sexta (Subfamily:Sphinginae), mean body mass 1-2 X 10(-3) kg, to 327-9 W kg-1 in Deilephila elpenor (Subfamily: Macroglossinae) mean body mass 7-3 X 10(-4) kg. Mean Pi/M for the five species was inversely proportional to mean body mass and directly proportional to mean wing loading. For any given body mass, Pi/M was greater in Hyles lineata than in M. sexta. This difference is correlated with higher wing loading at any given mass in H. lineata. Energy expenditure per unit mass of thorax was 1018 W kg-1 in H. lineata and 694 W kg-1 in M. sexta. Within each of these species, Pi per unit mass of thorax does not vary with body mass. Power input data are compared with calculated power requirements based on momentum theory and blade-element theory of helicopter aerodynamics. Absolute efficiency, the ratio between calculated power requirements and measured energy expenditure, appears to vary directly with body mass. These data provide an energetic basis for observed correlates between thoracic temperature and flight effort in flying sphinx moths. PMID:932631

  17. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system.

    PubMed

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  18. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  19. Peripheral and Central Olfactory Tuning in a Moth

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Rose C.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

  20. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  1. Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., with piggyBac EGFP.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Holly J; Neven, Lisa G; Thibault, Stephen T; Mohammed, Ahmed; Fraser, Malcolm

    2011-02-01

    Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was accomplished through embryo microinjection with a plasmid-based piggyBac vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Sequencing of the flanking regions around the inserted construct resulted in identification of insect genomic sequences, not plasmid sequences, thus providing evidence that the piggyBac EGFP cassette had integrated into the codling moth genome. EGFP-positive moths were confirmed in the 28th and earlier generations post injection through PCR and Southern blot analyses, indicating heritability of the transgene. PMID:20386982

  2. Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

    2011-01-01

    Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long–range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones. PMID:22654810

  3. Genetic variability of an unusual apomictic triploid cactus--Haageocereus tenuis Ritter--from the Coast of Central Peru.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Mónica; Speranza, Pablo; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2013-01-01

    Haageocereus tenuis is a prostrate cactus restricted to a small area of 2 km(2) near the city of Lima, Peru. The species is triploid and propagates mainly through stem fragmentation. In addition, propagation via agamospermy is documented and adventitious embryony is also inferred as a mechanism. Although seedling recruitment has not been observed in nature, we have shown that asexually produced seeds are viable. About 45 adult individuals, plus 9 individuals obtained from seeds, were sampled and 5 microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic variability. Microsatellite analysis confirms that individuals from the only existing population are genetically identical and that the population likely represents a single clone. The absence of mutations in any individual, even in highly variable microsatellite loci, may indicate that the species is also of recent origin. Other prostrate species of Haageocereus are suspected to be occasional apomicts. This phenomenon has significant implications for the evolutionary biology and ecology of Haageocereus and other clonal Cactaceae. PMID:23028024

  4. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale. PMID:18767708

  5. Salt stress increases the expression of p5cs gene and induces proline accumulation in cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Silva-Ortega, Claudia O; Ochoa-Alfaro, Ana E; Reyes-Agüero, Juan A; Aguado-Santacruz, Gerardo A; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F

    2008-01-01

    Proline (Pro) is one of the most accumulated osmolytes in salinity and water deficit conditions in plants. In the present study, we measured the Pro content, the activity and the expression level of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS: gamma-glutamyl kinase, EC 2.7.2.11 and glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, EC 1.2.1.41), a key regulatory enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of Pro, in cactus pear (Opuntia streptacantha) subjected to 6, 9 and 11 days of salt stress. Treatment with NaCl of O. streptacantha young plants resulted in a decrease in the cladode thickness and root length, and in a significant and gradual accumulation of Pro in young cladodes, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. P5CS activity, studied as gamma-glutamyl kinase, was reduced at all times as a consequence of salt treatment, except at the sixth day at 75 and 150mM of NaCl, where a slight increase was observed. We isolated an open reading frame (ORF) fragment of p5cs gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the P5CS protein exhibited 90.4% of identity with the P5CS protein from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Osp5cs gene of O. streptacantha was induced by salt stress at 9 and 11 days of treatment. Furthermore, ABA-induced Osp5cs gene expression was observed in cladodes of cactus pear young plants. We observed an evident correlation between the transcript up-regulation and the Pro accumulation under salt stress; however, these results do not parallel with the changes in P5CS enzymatic activity. This Pro accumulation might function as an osmolyte for the intracellular osmotic adjustment and might be playing a critical role in protecting photosynthetic activity in O. streptacantha plants under salt stress. PMID:18054243

  6. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces pollinator visitation and seed set in the coast barrel cactus, Ferocactus viridescens.

    PubMed

    LeVan, Katherine E; Hung, Keng-Lou James; McCann, Kyle R; Ludka, John T; Holway, David A

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction arise not only from resource allocation but also from interactions among mutualists. Indirect costs of plant defense by ants, for example, can outweigh benefits if ants deter pollinators. Plants can dissuade ants from occupying flowers, but such arrangements may break down when novel ant partners infiltrate mutualisms. Here, we examine how floral visitation by ants affects pollination services when the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) replaces a native ant species in a food-for-protection mutualism with the coast barrel cactus (Ferocactus viridescens), which, like certain other barrel cacti, produces extrafloral nectar. We compared the effects of floral visitation by the Argentine ant with those of the most prevalent native ant species (Crematogaster californica). Compared to C. californica, the Argentine ant was present in higher numbers in flowers. Cactus bees (Diadasia spp.), the key pollinators in this system, spent less time in flowers when cacti were occupied by the Argentine ant compared to when cacti were occupied by C. californica. Presumably as a consequence of decreased duration of floral visits by Diadasia, cacti occupied by L. humile set fewer seeds per fruit and produced fewer seeds overall compared to cacti occupied by C. californica. These data illustrate the importance of mutualist identity in cases where plants balance multiple mutualisms. Moreover, as habitats become increasingly infiltrated by introduced species, the loss of native mutualists and their replacement by non-native species may alter the shape of trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction. PMID:23892582

  7. Luminance-dependent visual processing enables moth flight in low light.

    PubMed

    Sponberg, Simon; Dyhr, Jonathan P; Hall, Robert W; Daniel, Thomas L

    2015-06-12

    Animals must operate under an enormous range of light intensities. Nocturnal and twilight flying insects are hypothesized to compensate for dim conditions by integrating light over longer times. This slowing of visual processing would increase light sensitivity but should also reduce movement response times. Using freely hovering moths tracking robotic moving flowers, we showed that the moth's visual processing does slow in dim light. These longer response times are consistent with models of how visual neurons enhance sensitivity at low light intensities, but they could pose a challenge for moths feeding from swaying flowers. Dusk-foraging moths avoid this sensorimotor tradeoff; their nervous systems slow down but not so much as to interfere with their ability to track the movements of real wind-blown flowers. PMID:26068850

  8. Genotype environment interaction for male attractiveness in an acoustic moth: evidence for plasticity and canalization

    E-print Network

    Danielson-Francois, Anne

    Genotype · environment interaction for male attractiveness in an acoustic moth: evidence of sexually selected traits have concen- trated on mutation-selection balance, genetic tradeoffs features evaluated by females, often depends on development, energy reserves, or physiological state (David

  9. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  10. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl ?11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  11. Type 3 functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing?

    E-print Network

    (Peromyscus leucopus) to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) pupae is decelerating (e.g. type 2) or accelerating (e. In eastern North America, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus; hereafter referred to as mice) are major

  12. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  13. Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Naomi E.

    in social insects, temperature- dependent sex determination in fish and turtles, and seasonal plas- ticity in many moths and butterflies. Considerable progress has been made in understanding some of the underlying

  14. Phylogeny and life history evolution of Prodoxus yucca moths (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLLE P ELLMYR; M ANUEL; B ALCAZAR-LARA; J AMES L EEBENS-MACK

    Yucca moths (Lep., Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate pollination mutualism with yuccas. In addition to the pollinators, yuccas also host many non-pollinating yucca moths. Here the genus Prodoxus, the non- pollinating sister group of the pollinators, is revised using morphological and molecular data, their phylogenetic relationships are analysed, and the evolution of host tissue specialization explored. Twenty-two species are

  15. q-deformations and the dynamics of the larch bud-moth population cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Sudharsana V.; Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of q-deformation of numbers is applied here to improve and modify a tritrophic population dynamics model to understand defoliation of the coniferous larch trees due to outbreaks of the larch bud-moth insect population. The results are in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, with the larch needle lengths, bud-moth population and parasitoid populations all showing 9-period cycles which are mutually synchronized.

  16. Selection of Effective Species or Strains of Trichogramma Egg Parasitoids of Diamondback Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Klemm; M. F. Guo; L. F. Lai; H. Schmutterer

    Twenty-seven Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea species or strains of different origin were tested on diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) for host acceptance and host suitability. The experiments were conducted at 27 ± 2ºC and 75-90% RH. Depending on their initial parasitization activity, the number of offspring produced and emergence ratio, 18 Trichogramrna species were identified as parasitoids of diamondback moth. Twelve

  17. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended. PMID:24026215

  18. Gypsy moth in the United States: An atlas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Luzader, E.R.; Mason, D.A.; Bush, R.

    1997-02-01

    This atlas includes 52 maps that doucment the historical spread of gypsy moth from 1900 to the present, historical forest defoliation in the Northeast from 1984 to the present, and the distribution of susceptible forests in the conterminous United States. These maps should be useful for planning activities to limit the spread of gypsy moth and mitigate the effects of this forest insect pest in areas that have not yet been invaded.

  19. Effects of Atlas cedar ( Cedrus atlantica ) defoliation on performance of the pine processionary moth ( Thaumetopoea pityocampa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sbabdji; B. Kadik

    2011-01-01

    The pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is an important defoliating insect of native cedar stands in Northern Africa. In 2002 and 2003, we studied the size of needles\\u000a of Atlas cedar trees that had been defoliated or not in the previous year, and compared the oviposition preference and larval\\u000a performance of processionary moth on these two types of trees in

  20. Increased moth herbivory associated with environmental stress of pinyon pine at local and regional levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Cobb; Susan Mopper; Catherine A. Gehring; Matt Caouette; Kerry M. Christensen; Thomas G. Whitham

    1997-01-01

    Using 6 years of observational and experimental data, we examined the hypothesis that water and nutrient stress increase\\u000a the susceptibility of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) to the stem- and cone-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella). At two geographic levels, a local scale of 550 km2 and a regional scale of 10,000 km2, moth herbivory was strongly correlated with an edaphic stress gradient.

  1. Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of blue-light-emitting diodes by moth-eye structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kondo; A. Suzuki; F. Teramae; T. Kitano; Y. Kaneko; R. Kawai; K. Teshima; S. Maeda; S. Kamiyama; M. Iwaya; H. Amano; I. Akasaki

    2010-01-01

    For high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the high light extraction efficiency obtained by surface texturing is currently indispensable. We have developed a new method of moth-eye structure fabrication based on low-energy electron-beam projection lithography (LEEPL). The moth-eye structure comprises periodic corns with a pitch of optical wavelength scale, and is known to have a very low optical reflectivity. Since the LEEPL

  2. Potential interactions between invasive woody shrubs and the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ), an invasive insect herbivore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan W. McEwan; Lynne K. Rieske; Mary A. Arthur

    2009-01-01

    As the range of the invasive and highly polyphagous gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) expands, it increasingly overlaps with forest areas that have been subject to invasion by non-native shrubs. We explored\\u000a the potential for interactions between these co-occurring invasions through a gypsy moth feeding trial using the following\\u000a three highly invasive, exotic shrubs: honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii), privet (Ligustrum sinense) and

  3. Gypsy moths: Geographic distribution and control. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the forest pest, Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth). The occurrence, population dynamics, reproduction, environmental impact, and controls of gypsy moths are considered. Methods of control include use of insecticide, natural predators, introduced diseases, and local trapping. Economic impacts as well as environmental disruption due to major infestation in hardwood forests by this introduced pest are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. "This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control. PMID:22797850

  5. Unexpected dynamic up-tuning of auditory organs in day-flying moths.

    PubMed

    Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Kössl, Manfred

    2015-07-01

    In certain nocturnal moth species the frequency range of best hearing shifts to higher frequencies during repeated sound stimulation. This could provide the moths with a mechanism to better detect approaching echolocating bats. However, such a dynamic up-tuning would be of little value for day-flying moths that use intra-specific acoustic communication. Here we examined if the ears of day-flying moths provide stable tuning during longer sound stimulation. Contrary to our expectations, dynamic up-tuning was found in the ear of the day-flying species Urania boisduvalii and Empyreuma pugione. Audiograms were measured with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The level of the dominant distortion product (i.e. 2f1-f2) varied as a function of time by as much as 45 dB during ongoing acoustic stimulation, showing a systematic decrease at low frequencies and an increase at high frequencies. As a consequence, within about 2 s of acoustic stimulation, the DPOAEs audiogram shifted from low to high frequencies. Despite the up-tuning, the range of best audition still fell within the frequency band of the species-specific communication signals, suggesting that intra-specific communication should not be affected adversely. Up-tuning could be an ancestral condition in moth ears that in day-flying moths does not underlie larger selection pressure. PMID:25894491

  6. Electroantennogram responses of Hyles lineata (Sphingidae: Lepidoptera) to volatile compounds from Clarkia breweri (Onagraceae) and other moth-pollinated flowers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Raguso; Douglas M. Light; Eran Pickersky

    1996-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) from field-collectedHyles lineata moths were recorded in response to 10 individual floral volatiles identified fromClarkia breweri (Onagraceae), to 22 scent compounds produced by other moth-pollinated flowers and to eight ubiquitous “green leaf volatiles.” Females' EAGs were generally 1.5- to 2-fold greater than those observed for male moths. Female:male EAG rank orders were significantly correlated, but marked differences in

  7. Spatial distribution of the gypsy moth [ Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae ] and some of its parasitoids within a forest environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Weseloh

    1972-01-01

    Aspects of the microhabitat distributions of the gypsy moth,Porthetria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), and some of its parasitoids were investigated in the field by means of sticky panels and gypsy moth egg masses exposed\\u000a at different heights in trees, by egg masses exposed within forested and cleared areas, and by gypsy moth pupal collections\\u000a from different heights in trees.Ooencyrtus kuwanai

  8. Ejaculate economics: an experimental test in a moth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that spermatogenesis is costly. As a consequence, males should optimize the use of their sperm to maximize their reproductive outputs in their lifetime. However, experimental evidence on this prediction is largely lacking. Here, we examine how a male moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) responds to the presence of rivals or additional mates and how such response influences his lifetime reproductive fitness. We show that when rival males are present around a copulating pair, the male ejaculates more sperm to win a sperm competition battle but in such an environment he inseminates fewer females, sires fewer offspring and lives shorter. The opposite is the case when additional females are present during copulation. These findings reveal that elevated reproductive expenditure owing to sperm competition intensity is made at the expense of longevity and future reproduction. PMID:24429687

  9. Wolbachia infection lowers fertile sperm transfer in a moth.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Z; Champion de Crespigny, F E; Sait, S M; Tregenza, T; Wedell, N

    2011-04-23

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis manipulates host reproduction by rendering infected males reproductively incompatible with uninfected females (cytoplasmic incompatibility; CI). CI is believed to occur as a result of Wolbachia-induced modifications to sperm during maturation, which prevent infected sperm from initiating successful zygote development when fertilizing uninfected females' eggs. However, the mechanism by which CI occurs has been little studied outside the genus Drosophila. Here, we show that in the sperm heteromorphic Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, infected males transfer fewer fertile sperm at mating than uninfected males. In contrast, non-fertile apyrene sperm are not affected. This indicates that Wolbachia may only affect fertile sperm production and highlights the potential of the Lepidoptera as a model for examining the mechanism by which Wolbachia induces CI in insects. PMID:20880864

  10. Sodium: a male moth's gift to its offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, S R; Eisner, T

    1996-01-01

    Males of the moth Gluphisia septentrionis acquire sodium by drinking from mud puddles. Analyses of male and female bodies indicate that such "puddling" behavior enables the male to provide his mate with a nuptial gift of sodium, presumably via the spermatophore. This gift (about 10 microg), amounting to more than half of a puddler male's total body sodium, is in large measure apportioned by the female to her eggs. Puddler-sired eggs contain 2 to 4 times more sodium than those control-sired; this difference is already apparent in eggs laid the night after mating. Paternal endowment of offspring with sodium had not previously been demonstrated for an insect to our knowledge. The potential adaptive significance of such chemical bestowal is evident, given that the foliar diet of G. septentrionis larvae is extremely low in sodium content. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:11607627

  11. Wave trains in a model of gypsy moth population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, J. W.; Vasquez, D. A.; Christie, I.; Colbert, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    A recent model of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] populations led to the observation of traveling waves in a one-dimensional spatial model. In this work, these waves are studied in more detail and their nature investigated. It was observed that when there are no spatial effects the model behaves chaotically under certain conditions. Under the same conditions, when diffusion is allowed, traveling waves develop. The biomass densities involved in the model, when examined at one point in the spatial domain, are found to correspond to a limit cycle lying on the surface of the chaotic attractor of the spatially homogeneous model. Also observed are wave trains that have modulating maxima, and which when examined at one point in the spatial domain show a quasiperiodic temporal behavior. This complex behavior is determined to be due to the interaction of the traveling wave and the chaotic background dynamics.

  12. Ejaculate economics: an experimental test in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that spermatogenesis is costly. As a consequence, males should optimize the use of their sperm to maximize their reproductive outputs in their lifetime. However, experimental evidence on this prediction is largely lacking. Here, we examine how a male moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) responds to the presence of rivals or additional mates and how such response influences his lifetime reproductive fitness. We show that when rival males are present around a copulating pair, the male ejaculates more sperm to win a sperm competition battle but in such an environment he inseminates fewer females, sires fewer offspring and lives shorter. The opposite is the case when additional females are present during copulation. These findings reveal that elevated reproductive expenditure owing to sperm competition intensity is made at the expense of longevity and future reproduction. PMID:24429687

  13. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: conserved karyotypes with diverged features.

    PubMed

    Síchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n?=?31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n?=?30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n?=?28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the understanding of chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera in general. PMID:23717623

  14. Chromosomal Evolution in Tortricid Moths: Conserved Karyotypes with Diverged Features

    PubMed Central

    Šíchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n?=?31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n?=?30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n?=?28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the understanding of chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera in general. PMID:23717623

  15. Chemical desilking of Cactoblastis cactorum Berg pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conclude that de-silking of C. cactorum cocoons with NaOC1 is a fast and safe procedure that does no great harm to pupae when used as recommended. The effect of low humidity following de-silking was not found to be detrimental to C. cactorum. Nevertheless, we prefer to maintain a high RH in the...

  16. The dependence of behavioral auditory thresholds on the delay of echo-like signals in noctuid moths (lepidoptera, noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Lapshin, D N; Vorontsov, D D

    2009-03-01

    The auditory system of noctuoid moths capable to respond to ultrasounds has long been a model for anti-predator studies in neuroethology. Many moths avoid hunting bats by listening for their echolocation calls and taking evasive manoeuvres to escape predation. Besides these flight defences, certain tiger moths (Arctiidae) emit high-frequency clicks to jam the echolocator of an attacking bat. Another suggested function for ultrasonic audition in moths along with their capability to emit loud ultrasonic clicks was pulse echolocation. However, it seemed difficult to arrange sufficient temporal resolution in a simple invertebrate auditory system. Here we present an evidence of moth's capability to perceive an echo following its own click with a very short delay. The behavioral responses of moths to the acoustic pulses imitating echoes of their own clicks were investigated under conditions of tethered flight. It has been found that such echo-like stimulation evokes an increase in average emission rate of own acoustic signals in moths. Auditory thresholds were measured in two noctuid species (Enargia paleacea Esp. and Blepharita satura Schiff.) at stimulus delays 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ms in relation to the respective moth clicks. Our findings reveal the ability of these moths to perceive echoes of their own signals, thus demonstrating potential possibility for use of pulse echolocation. PMID:19412976

  17. N-Butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested. PMID:24534117

  18. Apple and sugar feeding in adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella: effects on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, Erik J; Landolt, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented. However, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pairs of moths maintained with the following food regimens: water, sucrose water, honey water, apple juice, apple flesh, or starved, i.e., no food or water provided. Longevity and total fecundity were enhanced in all treatments relative to the starved treatment moths. Sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice treatments yielded the highest longevity, but total fecundity was highest for moths maintained on honey water or apple juice. Total egg fertility did not differ among treatments. However, egg fertility declined more gradually over the female lifespan for the three aqueous solution diets of sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice. Similarly, fecundity per day declined more gradually over time for honey water and apple juice treatments. Performance of moths maintained with apple flesh was generally intermediate between that of moths with water and the three aqueous solution treatments. This suggests that moths benefit from feeding on ripe apple flesh, although apple may be more difficult to ingest or its nutrients less concentrated compared to aqueous solutions. The results presented here may explain attraction of adult moths to sweet baits as well as to odors from ripe fruit, which may be a natural source of food in the fall. PMID:22239247

  19. The gleaning attacks of the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, are relatively inaudible to moths.

    PubMed

    Faure, P A; Fullard, J H; Dawson, J W

    1993-05-01

    This study empirically tests the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaning insectivorous bats (short duration, high frequency, low intensity) are acoustically mismatched to the ears of noctuid moths and are less detectable than those of aerially hawking bats. We recorded auditory receptor cell action potentials elicited in underwing moths (Catocala spp.) by echolocation calls emitted during gleaning attacks by Myotis septentrionalis (the northern long-eared bat) and during flights by the aerial hawker Myotis lucifugus (the little brown bat). The moth ear responds inconsistently and with fewer action potentials to the echolocation calls emitted by the gleaner, a situation that worsened when the moth's ear was covered by its wing (mimicking a moth resting on a surface). Calls emitted by the aerial-hawking bat elicited a significantly stronger spiking response from the moth ear. Moths with their ears covered by their wings maintained their relative hearing sensitivity at their best frequency range, the range used by most aerial insectivorous bats, but showed a pronounced deafness in the frequency range typically employed by gleaning bats. Our results (1) support the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaners are acoustically inconspicuous to the ears of moths (and presumably other nocturnal tympanate insects), leaving the moths particularly vulnerable to predation, and (2) suggest that gleaners gain a foraging advantage against eared prey. PMID:8315370

  20. Apple and Sugar Feeding in Adult Codling Moths, Cydia pomonella: Effects on Longevity, Fecundity, and Egg Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Wenninger, Erik J.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented. However, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pairs of moths maintained with the following food regimens: water, sucrose water, honey water, apple juice, apple flesh, or starved, i.e., no food or water provided. Longevity and total fecundity were enhanced in all treatments relative to the starved treatment moths. Sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice treatments yielded the highest longevity, but total fecundity was highest for moths maintained on honey water or apple juice. Total egg fertility did not differ among treatments. However, egg fertility declined more gradually over the female lifespan for the three aqueous solution diets of sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice. Similarly, fecundity per day declined more gradually over time for honey water and apple juice treatments. Performance of moths maintained with apple flesh was generally intermediate between that of moths with water and the three aqueous solution treatments. This suggests that moths benefit from feeding on ripe apple flesh, although apple may be more difficult to ingest or its nutrients less concentrated compared to aqueous solutions. The results presented here may explain attraction of adult moths to sweet baits as well as to odors from ripe fruit, which may be a natural source of food in the fall. PMID:22239247

  1. Mitogenomic analysis of Montipora cactus and Anacropora matthai (cnidaria; scleractinia; acroporidae) indicates an unequal rate of mitochondrial evolution among Acroporidae corals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Chih Tseng; Carden C. Wallace; Chaolun Allen Chen

    2005-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome was determined for specimens of the coral species Montipora\\u000a cactus (Bernard 1897) and Anacropora\\u000a matthai (Pillai 1973), representing two morphologically distinct genera of the family Acroporidae. These sequences were compared\\u000a with the published mt genome sequence for the confamilial species, Acropora tenuis (Dana 1846). The size of the mt genome was

  2. Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Antioxidant Activity and Content of Carotenoids and Phenolic Compounds of Cactus Pear Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Jaramillo-Flores; L. González-Cruz; M. Cornejo-Mazón; L. Dorantes-Alvarez; G. F. Gutiérrez-López; H. Hernández-Sánchez

    2003-01-01

    Cactus pears (Opuntia ficus-indica) are draught resistant plants originated in Mexico. Their flattened stem segments, called cladodes, have moisture, protein and fibre contents of 92, 1-2 and 4-6% respectively, and a pectin content in the range of 0.8-3.3% depending on the species. They also contain certain concentration of carotenoids which are of special interest because of their antioxidant activity. This

  3. Intake, digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep on hay supplemented with prickly pear cactus [ Opuntia ficus- indica (L.) Mill.] with or without groundnut meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Misra; A. S. Mishra; M. K. Tripathi; O. H. Chaturvedi; S. Vaithiyanathan; R. Prasad; R. C. Jakhmola

    2006-01-01

    Prickly pear cactus [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] and roughage (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets with (OCG) or without (OC) an organic N source supplement (50g groundnut meal) were compared to a roughage plus 200g concentrate (CC)-supplemented diet. Intake, nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and microbial N supply in Malpura hoggets were assessed. Opuntia cladodes contained DM 218g\\/kg, CP

  4. Epicuticular changes and storage potential of cactus pear [ Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] fruit following gibberellic acid preharvest sprays and postharvest heat treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schirra; G. D’hallewin; P. Inglese; T. La Mantia

    1999-01-01

    Cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (L.) cv. Gialla] fruit were treated 10 weeks after the second induced-bloom flush with 10 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) or were heated at 37°C for 30 h under saturated humidity after harvest. The two treatments were also combined before storage at 6°C for 45 days plus 4 additional days at 20°C to simulate a marketing

  5. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-?-farnesene, and (E,E)-?-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-?-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend should be helpful for monitoring female codling moth, and may provide the basis for further improvement of codling moth kairomone. PMID:23564293

  6. Spatial Scale and the Spread of a Fungal Pathogen of Gypsy Moth Author(s): Greg Dwyer, Joseph S. Elkinton, and Ann E. Hajek

    E-print Network

    Elkinton, Joseph

    Spatial Scale and the Spread of a Fungal Pathogen of Gypsy Moth Author(s): Greg Dwyer, Joseph S Pathogen of Gypsy Moth Greg Dwyer,1, * Joseph S. Elkinton,1 and Ann E. Hajek2 1. Department of Entomology

  7. The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

    2005-12-01

    We studied the efficiency and effects of the multiple sensory cues of tiger moths on echolocating bats. We used the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, a purported moth specialist that takes surface-bound prey (gleaning) and airborne prey (aerial hawking), and the dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, an eared species unpalatable to bats that possesses conspicuous colouration and sound-producing organs (tymbals). This is the first study to investigate the interaction of tiger moths and wild-caught bats under conditions mimicking those found in nature and to demand the use of both aerial hawking and gleaning strategies by bats. Further, it is the first to report spectrograms of the sounds produced by tiger moths while under aerial attack by echolocating bats. During both aerial hawking and gleaning trials, all muted C. tenera and perched intact C. tenera were attacked by M. septentrionalis, indicating that M. septentrionalis did not discriminate C. tenera from palatable moths based on potential echoic and/or non-auditory cues. Intact C. tenera were attacked significantly less often than muted C. tenera during aerial hawking attacks: tymbal clicks were therefore an effective deterrent in an aerial hawking context. During gleaning attacks, intact and muted C. tenera were always attacked and suffered similar mortality rates, suggesting that while handling prey this bat uses primarily chemical signals. Our results also show that C. tenera temporally matches the onset of click production to the ;approach phase' echolocation calls produced by aerial hawking attacking bats and that clicks themselves influence the echolocation behaviour of attacking bats. In the context of past research, these findings support the hypotheses that the clicks of arctiid moths are both an active defence (through echolocation disruption) and a reliable indicator of chemical defence against aerial-hawking bats. We suggest these signals are specialized for an aerial context. PMID:16326950

  8. Species-specific effects of herbivory on the oviposition behavior of the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Duffy, Kristin; Pesque, Adrien; Mikles, David; Goodwin, Brenna

    2013-01-01

    In Southwestern USA, the jimsonweed Datura wrightii and the nocturnal sphinx moth Manduca sexta form a pollinator-plant and herbivore-plant association. While certain plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) attract moths for oviposition, it is likely that other host-derived olfactory cues, such as herbivore-induced VOCs, repel moths for oviposition. Here, we studied the oviposition preference of female M. sexta towards intact and damaged host plants of three species: D. wrightii, D. discolor (a less preferred feeding resource but also used by females for oviposition), and Solanum lycopersicum-tomato-(used by moths as an oviposition resource only). Damage was inflicted to the plants either by larval feeding or artificial damage. Mated females were exposed to an intact plant and a damaged plant and allowed to lay eggs for 10 min. Oviposition preferences of females were highly heterogeneous in all cases, but a larger proportion of moths laid significantly fewer eggs on feeding-damaged and artificially damaged plants of S. lycopersicum. Many females also avoided feeding-damaged D. discolor and D. wrightii plants induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate. Chemical analyses showed a significant increase in the total amount of VOCs released by vegetative tissues of feeding-damaged plants, as well as species-specific increases in emission of certain VOCs. In particular, feeding-damaged S. lycopersicum plants emitted (-)-linalool, an odorant that repels moths for oviposition. Finally, the emission of D. wrightii floral VOCs, which are important in mediating feeding by adult moths (and hence pollination), did not change in plants damaged by larval feeding. We propose that the observed differential effects of herbivory on oviposition choice are due to different characteristics (i.e., mutually beneficial or parasitic) of the insect-plant interaction. PMID:23274850

  9. Sexual dimorphism in neuronal projections from the antennae of silk moths ( Bombyx mori, Antheraea polyphemus ) and the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Koontz; D. Schneider

    1987-01-01

    The antennal lobe of both sexes of the silk moth Bombyx mori contains 55–60 ventrally located antennal glomeruli; in addition, that of the male contains a dorsal macroglomerular complex (MGC). A group of identifiable glomeruli consisting of two lateral large glomeruli (LLG) and four medial small glomeruli (MSG) is present in both sexes, but the LLG are greatly enlarged in

  10. PREPARATIONS FOR A SEASON-LONG RELEASE OF STERILE CODLING MOTHS IMPORTED FROM CANADA FOR THE CONTROL OF CODLING MOTH IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the importance of codling moth and the high annual costs associated with its control the fruit industry and a group of international scientists are evaluating whether the sterile insect technique (SIT) may be an effective and economical method of controlling this pests. Conditions for th...

  11. Snmp-1, a Novel Membrane Protein of Olfactory Neurons of the Silk Moth Antheraea polyphemus with Homology to the CD36 Family of

    E-print Network

    Vogt, Richard G.

    Snmp-1, a Novel Membrane Protein of Olfactory Neurons of the Silk Moth Antheraea polyphemus of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. We have purified and cloned a prominent 67-kDa protein which we of olfactory neuron receptor membranes of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. The morphology of the A

  12. Blend chemistry and field attraction of commercial pheromone lures for monitoring grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape berry moth pheromone lures from four manufacturers, Alpha Scents, Inc. (West Linn, OR), ISCA Technologies (Riverside, CA), Suterra (Bend, OR), and Trécé, Inc. (Adair, OK), were evaluated for purity and efficacy of attracting grape berry moth and a non-target torticid moth in vineyards. The pe...

  13. Tracing the influence of larch-bud-moth insect outbreaks and weather conditions on larch tree-ring growth in Engadine

    E-print Network

    Tracing the influence of larch-bud-moth insect outbreaks and weather conditions on larch tree that the impact of the larch-bud-moth (LBM) Zeiraphera diniana outbreaks on the growth of larch Larix decidua called this tree-ring pattern the ``larch-bud-moth syndrome''. A careful analysis of the various

  14. 115Proceedings: Ecology, Survey and Management of Forest Insects GTR-NE-311 Preliminary Results on Predation of Gypsy Moth Egg Masses in Slovakia

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    on Predation of Gypsy Moth Egg Masses in Slovakia Marek Turcáni1 , Andrew Liebhold2 , Michael McManus3-1703, e-mail: mlmcmanus@fs.fed.us Abstract Predation of gypsy moth egg masses was studied in Slovakia from of egg mass predation in gypsy moth population dynamics. The relative contribution of invertebrates vs

  15. Maternal Effects in Gypsy Moth: Only Sex Ratio Varies with Population Density Author(s): Judith H. Myers, George Boettner and Joseph Elkinton

    E-print Network

    Elkinton, Joseph

    Maternal Effects in Gypsy Moth: Only Sex Ratio Varies with Population Density Author(s): Judith H MATERNAL EFFECTS IN GYPSY MOTH: ONLY SEX RATIO VARIES WITH POPULATION DENSITY JUDITH H. MYERS,' GEORGE varied among offspring of gypsy moths from high- and low-density populations, we collected eggs from

  16. Combined heat and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for control of codling moth in sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2005-06-01

    Nonchemical quarantine treatments, using a combination of short-duration high temperatures under low oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide atmospheric environment were developed to control codling moth in sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.). The two treatments developed are a chamber temperature of 45 degrees C for 45 min and a chamber temperature of 47 degreesC for 25 min under a 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide, -2 degrees C dew point environment. Both these treatments have been shown to provide control of all life stages of codling moth while preserving commodity market quality. The third and fourth instars of codling moth are equally tolerant to CATTS treatments and are the most tolerant immature stages to these treatments. We determined that low levels of oxygen are more important than elevated carbon dioxide in achieving high levels of insect mortality. Efficacy tests of both treatments resulted in 100% mortality of 5000 third instars of codling moth in each treatment. These treatments may be used to provide quarantine security in exported sweet cherries where codling moth is a quarantine concern and fumigation with methyl bromide is not desired. PMID:16022297

  17. Risk assessment of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Joel Peter William; Régnière, Jacques; Worner, Sue

    2007-03-01

    The gypsy moth is a global pest that has not yet established in New Zealand despite individual moths having been discovered near ports. A climate-driven phenology model previously used in North America was applied to New Zealand. Weather and elevation data were used as inputs to predict where sustainable populations could potentially exist and predict the timing of hatch and oviposition in different regions. Results for New Zealand were compared with those in the Canadian Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) where the gypsy moth has long been established. Model results agree with the current distribution of the gypsy moth in the Canadian Maritimes and predict that the majority of New Zealand’s North Island and the northern coastal regions of the South Island have a suitable climate to allow stable seasonality of the gypsy moth. New Zealand’s climate appears more forgiving than that of the Canadian Maritimes, as the model predicts a wider range of oviposition dates leading to stable seasonality. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of climate change on the predicted potential distribution for New Zealand. Climate change scenarios show an increase in probability of establishment throughout New Zealand, most noticeably in the South Island.

  18. FIELD RESPONSE OF ALFALFA LOOPER AND CABBAGE LOOPER MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE, PLUSIINAE) TO SINGLE AND BINARY BLENDS OF FLORAL ODORANTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven compounds known as floral odorants were tested as lures for attractiveness to alfalfa looper moths, Autographa californica (speyer) and cabbage looper moths, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). Phenylacetaldehyde, limonen, ß-mycrene, methyl-2-methoxy benzoate, methyl salicylate, alpha-pinene, and ß-pine...

  19. Factors influencing the parasitism of codling moth eggs by Trichogramma cacoeciae March. and T. principium Sug. et Sor. (Hymen. Trichogrammatidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Makee

    2005-01-01

    Non-choice laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of host acceptance, previous rearing host, host age and the contact time between parasitoids and host on the efficacy of Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal and T. principum Sug. et Sor. against the codling moth Cydia pomonella. The tendency of T. cacoeciae and T. principum females to attack the codling moth was similar

  20. Biology and ecology of Herpestomus brunnicornis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a potential biological control agent of the apple ermine moth (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Kuhlmann

    1996-01-01

    Fourth and fifth instar larvae, and also pupae of the apple ermine moth, Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller, are attacked by the ichneumonid Herpestomus brunnicornis Gravenhorst in central Europe. The parasitoid was studied as a potential biological control agent of the apple ermine moth in British Columbia. Investigations of the biology of H. brunnicornis its distribution of attack within the tree canopy

  1. Incorporation of Rhodamine B into Male Tobacco Budworm Moths Heliothis Virescens to use as a Marker for Mating Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhodamine B, a dye commonly used in a variety of biological studies was incorporated into the bodies of tobacco budworm moths by feeding them 0.1% rhodamine in 10% sucrose solution. After one to three days of male moth exposure to this pigment it was clearly detectable in >82% of spermatophores from...

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 53, NO. 4, AUGUST 2004 1113 Explosives Detection With Hard-Wired Moths

    E-print Network

    Daly, Kevin Charles

    Detection With Hard-Wired Moths Tony L. King, Member, IEEE, Frank M. Horine, Kevin C. Daly, and Brian H system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as bombs or landmines

  3. USING NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS TO TRAP THE ALMOND MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA:PYRALIDAE) IN A PEANUT SHELLING AND STORAGE FACILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The almond moth, Ephestia (Cadra) cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important insect pest in agricultural product processing and storage facilities worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate various trapping strategies to control the almond moth in a peanut (Arachis hypog...

  4. THE GLEANING ATTACKS OF THE NORTHERN LONG-EARED BAT, MYOTIS SEPTENTRIONALIS, ARE RELATIVELY INAUDIBLE TO MOTHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL A. FAURE; JAMES H. FULLARD; W. DAWSON

    1993-01-01

    Summary This study empirically tests the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaning insectivorous bats (short duration, high frequency, low intensity) are acoustically mismatched to the ears of noctuid moths and are less detectable than those of aerially hawking bats. We recorded auditory receptor cell action potentials elicited in underwing moths (Catocala spp.) by echolocation calls emitted during gleaning attacks

  5. Pine-tree lappet moth (Dendrolimus pini) future climate Duncan Ray1, Yvonne Grieve2 and Roger Moore1

    E-print Network

    Pine-tree lappet moth (Dendrolimus pini) future climate evaluation Duncan Ray1, Yvonne Grieve2;30/11/20112 Dendrolimus pini ­ Pine-tree Lappet Moth · Serious defoliator of pine forests in central and eastern Europe · Feeds on various pine species and other conifers - causes severe conifer defoliation & death · Pt

  6. Experimental use of the micro-encapsulated pear ester kairomone for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in walnuts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus invasion of tree nuts is primarily through insect damage by moth larvae, such as the codling moth (CM) attacking walnuts. Our goal is to diminish insect-caused nut damage through the use of novel, species-specific host-plant kairomones. We have identified the pear ester (PE) (ethyl (2E, ...

  7. FIELD EVALUATION OF A SYNTHETIC FEMALE SEX PHEROMONE FOR THE LEAFMINING MOTH PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA (LEPIDOPTERA: GRACILLARIIDAE) IN FLORIDA CITRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with a binary mixture in the ratio of 30:10 of two EAG-active compounds, (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal and (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal attracted significantly more moths of the leafmining moth P. citrella compared with unbaited traps in a Florida citrus grove. The addition of a third EA...

  8. Some chemical bases for gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar , larval rejection of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica , foliage as food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Markovic; Dale M. Norris; Miodrag Cekic

    1996-01-01

    Green ash is one of the few tree species rejected as food by larvae of the generalist gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Such rejection is based especially on chemicals present in green ash foliage. The gypsy moth larval feeding-inhibitory activity is contained in the ethyl acetate extractables of green ash foliage. Three representative columnchromatographed fractions of the extractables contained

  9. Effects of host plant, Gossypium hirsutum L., on sexual attraction of cabbage looper moths, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Landolt; R. R. Heath; J. G. Millar; K. M. Davis-Hernandez; B. D. Dueben; K. E. Ward

    1994-01-01

    Unmated female or male cabbage looper moths,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), were attracted more often in a flight tunnel to a cage with moths of the opposite sex and a bouquet of cotton foliage. Increased sexual attractiveness of females with plants may be a result of stimulation of pheromone release in response to plant odor, since more males were attracted when odor

  10. Census of the Bacterial Community of the Gypsy Moth Larval Midgut by Using Culturing and Culture-Independent Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nichole A. Broderick; Kenneth F. Raffa; Robert M. Goodman; Jo Handelsman

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about bacteria associated with Lepidoptera, the large group of mostly phytophagous insects comprising the moths and butterflies. We inventoried the larval midgut bacteria of a polyphagous foliivore, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), whose gut is highly alkaline, by using traditional culturing and culture- independent methods. We also examined the effects of diet on microbial composition. Analysis

  11. Allozyme and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses Confirm Entomophaga maimaiga Responsible for 1989 Epizootics in North American Gypsy Moth Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann E. Hajek; Richard A. Humber; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bernie May; Scott R. A. Walsh; Julie C. Silver

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, populations of North American gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, in seven contiguous northeastern states were severely reduced by a fungal pathogen. Based on morphology, development, and pathology, this organism appeared to be Entomophaga maimaiga. We have now used allozyme and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses to confirm this identification. Previously, this mycopathogen had been reported only from gypsy moth

  12. Effects on behavior of Apanteles melanoscelus females caused by modifications in extraction, storage, and presentation of Gypsy moth silk kairomone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Weseloh

    1977-01-01

    Choice experiments were performed to investigate details of femaleApanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) behavior when exposed to gypsy moth silk kairomone [Lymantria dispar (L.)] and to host larvae when kairomone is present. Female parasites only responded to the kairomone when it had been placed on thin strands such as cotton fibers. Both gypsy moth silk and silk glands contain the same or

  13. Copper(II) removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption on non-treated and chemically modified cactus fibres.

    PubMed

    Prodromou, M; Pashalidis, I

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption efficiency of a biomass by-product (cactus fibres) regarding the removal of copper(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated before and after its chemical treatment. The chemical treatment of the biomass by-product included phosphorylation and MnO2-coating. The separation/removal efficiency has been studied as a function of pH, Cu(II) concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time. Evaluation of the experimental data shows that the MnO2-coated product presents the highest adsorption capacity, followed by the non-treated and phosphorylated material. Regarding the effect of ionic strength/salinity on the adsorption, in contrast to the removal efficiency of the phosphorylated product, which is significantly affected, the MnO2-coated and non-treated material don't show any effect, indicating the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes. The adsorption reaction is in all cases endothermic and relatively fast, particularly the adsorption on the MnO2-coated product. The results of the present study indicate that for the removal of bivalent metal-ions from contaminated waters the MnO2-coated material is expected to be the most effective adsorbent and an alternative to MnO2 resins for the treatment of environmentally relevant waters. PMID:24334902

  14. Activated biochar derived from cactus fibres--preparation, characterization and application on Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hadjittofi, Loukia; Prodromou, Melpomeni; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    The adsorption efficiency of activated biochar prepared from cactus fibres regarding the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time). Activation of the biochar took place using nitric acid oxidation and characterisation was performed by SEM analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption and acid-base titrations. The results show that laminar structures constitute the material and carboxylic moieties are the predominant binding sites. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 3.5 mol kg(-1). The effect of ionic strength and temperature on the adsorption efficiency indicates that at low pH outer-sphere and at near neutral pH inner-sphere complexes are the predominant surface species and the kinetic data obtained were fitted very well by the Lagergren rate expression. PMID:24718356

  15. Influence of Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles on the genetic structure of the mistletoe cactus Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae) in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez-Gómez, Flor

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographical work on cloud forest-adapted species provides inconsistent evidence on cloud forest dynamics during glacial cycles. A study of Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae), a bird-dispersed epiphytic mistletoe cactus, was conducted to investigate genetic variation at sequence data from nuclear [internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 677 bp] and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL, 1092bp) DNA for 154 individuals across the species range in Mesoamerica to determine if such patterns are consistent with the expansion/contraction model of cloud forest during glacial cycles. We conducted population and spatial genetic analyses as well as gene flow and divergence time estimates between 24 populations comprising the distribution of R. baccifera in Mexico and Guatemala to gain insight of the evolutionary history of these populations, and a complementary species distribution modeling approach to frame information derived from the genetic analyses into an explicit paleoecological context. The results revealed a phylogeographical break at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and high levels of genetic diversity among populations and cloud forest areas. Despite the genetic differentiation of some R. baccifera populations, the widespread ITS ribotypes suggest effective nuclear gene flow via pollen and population differentiation shown by the rpl32-trnL suggests more restricted seed flow. Predictions of species distribution models under past last glacial maximum (LGM) climatic conditions and a significant signal of demographic expansion suggest that R. baccifera populations experienced a range expansion tracking the conditions of the cloud forest distribution and shifted to the lowlands with population connectivity during the LGM. PMID:25649131

  16. POLARIZED INTERCELLULAR BRIDGES IN OVARIAN FOLLICLES OF THE CECROPIA MOTH

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Richard I.; Telfer, William H.

    1973-01-01

    Fluorescein-labeled rabbit serum globulin was injected into vitellogenic oocytes of the cecropia moth. Though the label spread throughout the ooplasm in less than 30 min, it was unable even after 2 h to cross the complex of intercellular bridges connecting the oocyte to its seven nurse cells. After injection into a single nurse cell, fluorescence was detected in the oocyte adjacent to the bridge complex within 3 min and had spread throughout the ooplasm in 30 min. Here also, the cell bodies of the six uninjected nurse cells remained nonfluorescent. Four of the nurse cells are not bridged directly to the oocyte but only through the apical ends of their siblings. Unidirectional movement must therefore occur in the apical cytoplasm of the nurse cells, as well as in the intercellular bridges. The nurse cells of healthy follicles had an intracellular electrical potential -40 mV relative to blood or dissecting solution, while oocytes measured -30 mV. A mV difference was also detected by direct comparison between a ground electrode in one cell and a recording electrode in the other. Three conditions were found in which the 10 mV difference was reduced or reversed in polarity. In all three cases fluorescent globulin was able in some degree to cross the bridges from the oocyte to the nurse cells. PMID:4125369

  17. Olfactory perireceptor and receptor events in moths: a kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Kaissling, K E

    2001-02-01

    A mathematical model of perireceptor and receptor events has been developed for olfactory sensilla on the antennae of the moth Antheraea polyphemus. The model includes the adsorptive uptake of pheromone molecules by the olfactory hair, their transport on and within the hair by diffusion, the formation of a complex of pheromone and the extracellular pheromone-binding protein (PBP), the interaction of the complex pheromone-PBP with the hypothetical receptor molecule on the plasma membrane of the olfactory cell, the deactivation of the pheromone and, finally, its enzymatic degradation. In the model the PBP with its reduced form (with one or two intramolecular disulfide bonds) first acts as a carrier of the odorant. Later, while the pheromone is bound, it changes to an oxidized form (three disulfide bonds) with a scavenger function (carrier-to-scavenger model). This process of pheromone deactivation rather than the enzymatic pheromone degradation is responsible for the fall of the receptor potential after stimulus offset. The model is based on morphometrical, radiometrical, electrophysiological and biochemical data reported by several authors. The study supports the idea that peripheral events rather than intracellular signalling processes govern the kinetics of the receptor potential in the unadapted receptor cell. PMID:11238244

  18. Microspectrophotometry of rhodopsin and metarhodopsin in the moth Galleria

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Fresh, frozen sections of the photoreceptor layer of the compound eye of the moth Galleria have been examined by microspectrophotometry, using 4 X 8 mum measuring beams that sampled from approximately two to four rhabdoms. The principal visual pigmen: absorbs maximally at 510 nm (P510), and on irradiation is converted to a thermally stable, pH- insensitive metarhodopsin with lambdamax at 484 nm (M484) and a 43% increase in molar extinction coefficient. Subsequently, short wavelength irradiation of the metarhodopsin photoregenerates some P510; but the absence of an isosbestic point in the cycle of spectral changes is consistent with the presence of smaller amounts of violet- or ultraviolet-sensitive visual pigment(s) that also are converted to a blue-absorb g metarhodopsin. Difference spectra for both P510 and M484 were measured, using hydroxylamine. The 484-nm metarhodopsin is reversibly converted to a form with lambdamax at 363 nm by high concentrations of glycerol. Dark regeneration of rhodopsin in vivo after several minutes exposure of thoroughly dark-adapted animals to full sunlight requires several days. PMID:240907

  19. Malaysian Nature Society/Natural History Museum, London/Southdene Sdn. Bhd.: Moths of Bornea Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by J.D. Holloway over a 20 year time span -- and brought to the internet by Southdene Sdn. Bhd., the Malaysian Nature Society, and the Natural History Museum in London -- the Moths of Borneo provides descriptions and full-color illustrations of approximately 4,500 moth species. This impressive website currently contains 14 volumes, and it is anticipated that four additional volumes will be added to complete the work. Each volume contains an abstract and a table of contents as well as sections for New Taxa, New Synonymy, References, Checklist, Genitalia, and more. Species are organized by various groups including family, subfamily, and tribe. While the species profiles generally include a brief diagnosis-accompanied by geographical range, and habitat preference (the moth groups receive more detailed descriptions).

  20. Impact of ant predation and heat on carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) mortality in California date gardens.

    PubMed

    Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

    2005-06-01

    Dates, Phoenix dactylifera L., undergo a natural fruit abscission during the summer in California date gardens. Many of the abscised dates become lodged in the date bunch, and we demonstrated that carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), prefer to use these dates as a reproduction host compared with dates that fall to the ground. We also found that abscised fruit shaken onto the ground had significantly fewer live carob moth larvae than fruit that remained in bunches in the tree. Mortality in the dropped fruit was attributed to predation by two native ant species, the fire ant Solenopsis aurea Wheeler, and the California harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus (Buckley), in concert with extreme summer ground temperatures. Dates that fell in the full sunlight rapidly increased in temperature, which resulted in larvae either exiting the fruit (exposing them to ants) or dying in the fruit. Removal of abscised dates from bunches may provide a possible management strategy for carob moths in California date gardens. PMID:16022299

  1. Body-size influence on defensive behavior of Amazonlan moths: an ecophysiological approach.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, F B

    2005-02-01

    Ectotherm locomotion is restricted by low temperatures, and many species, such as some flying insects, need to achieve thermal thresholds before taking off. Body size influences heat exchange between an animal and the environment. Therefore, larger animals have higher thermal inertia, and necessarily spend more time in pre-flight warming up, a critical period when they remain exposed and more susceptible to predators. Thus, one could expect larger animals, along their evolutionary history, to have developed a more diversified repertoire of defensive behaviors when compared to their smaller counterparts. Moths are an interesting model for testing this hypothesis, as they exhibit considerable variation in body size and many species present pre-flight warming up by muscle shivering, an evidence of thermal restriction on locomotion. I registered the responses of 76 moths immediately after simulating the attack of a predator and then associated behavioral response to body size. I conducted the experiments at 20 and 25 degrees C to check for possible thermal restrictions on behavior, and identified animals to the family level to check for the effects of a common phylogenetic history. When disturbed at 25 degrees C, smaller moths tend to fly, while larger ones tend to run. At 20 degreedC almost all moths ran, including the smaller ones, indicating a possible thermal restriction on flight. Corroborating the proposed hypothesis, a more diversified repertoire of defensive behaviors was registered among larger moths. An alternative interpretation would be that common behaviors among related moths could be explained by common phylogenetic histories. However, two facts support the physiological restriction hypothesis: (1) the analysis within Sphingidae and Geometridae (not closely related families) showed similar results to those of the overall analysis, and (2) a more diverse repertoire of defensive behaviors was associated to the lower, and therefore more restrictive to locomotion, temperature (20 degrees C). PMID:16025909

  2. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We work on the development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), which would enable to produce male-only progeny for the population control of this pest using sterile insect technique (SIT). To facilitate this research, we have developed a number of cytogenetic and molecular tools, including a physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome using BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes). However, chromosomal localization of unique, single-copy sequences such as a transgene cassette by conventional FISH remains challenging. In this study, we adapted a FISH protocol with tyramide signal amplification (TSA-FISH) for detection of single-copy genes in Lepidoptera. We tested the protocol with probes prepared from partial sequences of Z-linked genes in the codling moth. Results Using a modified TSA-FISH protocol we successfully mapped a partial sequence of the Acetylcholinesterase 1 (Ace-1) gene to the Z chromosome and confirmed thus its Z-linkage. A subsequent combination of BAC-FISH with BAC probes containing anticipated neighbouring Z-linked genes and TSA-FISH with the Ace-1 probe allowed the integration of Ace-1 in the physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome. We also developed a two-colour TSA-FISH protocol which enabled us simultaneous localization of two Z-linked genes, Ace-1 and Notch, to the expected regions of the Z chromosome. Conclusions We showed that TSA-FISH represents a reliable technique for physical mapping of genes on chromosomes of moths and butterflies. Our results suggest that this technique can be combined with BAC-FISH and in the future used for physical localization of transgene cassettes on chromosomes of transgenic lines in the codling moth or other lepidopteran species. Furthermore, the developed protocol for two-colour TSA-FISH might become a powerful tool for synteny mapping in non-model organisms. PMID:25471491

  3. Volatile principle from oak leaves: role in sex life of the polyphemus moth.

    PubMed

    Riddiford, L M; Williams, C M

    1967-02-01

    An emanation from oak leaves is necessary for the mating of polyphemus moths under laboratory conditions. This requirement can be satisfied by placing the moths in the presence of oak leaves or aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from oak leaves. The active principle is a vola- tile, heat-stable, polar material which has been partially purified. The oak emanation acts on the female and not on the male, and the sensory receptors are located on the female antennae. The reception of the oak emanation is prerequisite for the female's release of her sex pheromone, which in turn, is necessary for the sexual activation of the male. PMID:17737409

  4. Outbreak of caterpillar dermatitis caused by airborne hairs of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi).

    PubMed

    Balit, C R; Ptolemy, H C; Geary, M J; Russell, R C; Isbister, G K

    Caterpillars may be an under-recognised cause of skin and eye reactions. We report a four-month outbreak of recurrent papulourticarial rash among staff and visitors at a community centre. Caterpillar of the mistletoe browntail moth The cause was eventually diagnosed as airborne hairs from (Euproctis edwardsi). caterpillars of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi), which infested a eucalypt tree growing in front of the centre. To our knowledge, this is the first clear case of airborne caterpillar hairs causing dermatitis in an indoor environment. PMID:11837874

  5. Direct sampling of resting codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults in apple tree canopies and surrounding habitats.

    PubMed

    Epstein, David L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Gut, Larry J

    2011-06-01

    Field investigations were conducted to determine the resting locations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L.]) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males and females in mating disrupted and nondisrupted apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard plots. A custom-made sampling device, consisting of a leaf blower converted into a powerful vacuum, yielded 20-24% success in recovering marked moths, released in the tree canopy in orchards. Four collections each were made between 0900 and 1800 hours and 1800 and 2200 hours in 2005. Ninety-four moths were collected during the 1800-2200 hours samples. In mating disruption plots, 42% of females and 22% of males were found in the top third of the tree canopy (3.0-4.5m), 46% females and 43% males in the middle third (1.5-3.0m), and 12% female and 35% male in the lower third (0-1.5m). In nondisrupted plots 36.4% of females and 40% of males were in the top third of the canopy, 36.4% females and 52% males in the middle third, and 27.2% females and 8% males in the lower third of the tree canopy. Daylight vacuum sampling recovered only one female and two male moths from the top, four males from the middle and one male from the lower third of the tree canopy. Release-recapture studies of marked adult codling moths were conducted in 2006-2007 in screened tents to determine within orchard habitats for adult moths during 0900-1800 hours. Of moths recaptured, 14.6% of females and 13.5% of males were from the ground (herbicide strip and drive-row grass) and 32.9% of females and 24.6% of males were captured in the tree canopy 16-h post release, 17.4% of females and 3.4% of males from the ground and 26.5% of females and 38.2% of males in the tree 40-h post release, and 15.1% of females and 18.6% of males from the ground and 15.7 of females and 25.5% of males in the tree 64-h post release. Application of pyrethrum + PBO by using an orchard blast sprayer in 2007 resulted in the recapture of 28% and 37% of laboratory reared male and female moths, respectively, from trees during 0900-1800 h. Our results suggest that distributing pheromone dispensers throughout the tree canopy may be more effective than placing them in one location, such as near the tree crown. PMID:22251645

  6. Characterization of antireflection moth-eye film on crystalline silicon photovoltaic module.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Noboru; Ijiro, Toshikazu; Okamoto, Eiko; Hayashi, Kentaro; Masuda, Hideki

    2011-03-14

    We have characterized antireflection (AR) moth-eye films placed on top of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules by indoor and outdoor experiments and examined improvements in conversion efficiency. The effects of the ratio of diffuse solar irradiation to total solar irradiation (diffusion index) and incident angle on efficiency have been quantitatively analyzed. Using computer simulations, yearly efficiency improvements under different installation conditions have been projected. We have shown that the use of AR moth-eye films offers the best advantages. Further, vertical tilt angle installation leads to the highest efficiency improvement, whereas spectral matching with the PV modules influences the efficiency improvement. PMID:21445213

  7. Identification and synthesis of insect pheromone XXX. Sex pheromone of mulberry clearwing moth Paradoxecia pieli Lieu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tan Zhong-Xin; Lin Guo-Qiang; Liu Han-Quan; Pu Guan-Qin; Du He-Ming; Mao Jian-Pin; Meng Lian-Zhong; Wu Cai-Hong

    1992-01-01

    (E,Z)-3,13-OctadecadienyI acetate (1a) and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol(2a) were identified from the sex pheromone gland of the virgin female mulberry clearwing mothParadoxecia pieli L., by GC analysis, EAG, SCR survey, and field bioassay. One female equivalent contained 250 ng of1a and 30 ng of2a. In the field tests, 100µg of synthetic1a was attractive to male moths of the species.

  8. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it. PMID:15384349

  9. Trifluoromethyl ketones as inhibitors of the processionary moth sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, A; Guerrero, A

    1994-02-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones have been evaluated in the laboratory and in the field as inhibitors of the pheromone response of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa males. Among them, two compounds, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one and (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one, are closely related analogs of the natural pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate. In the laboratory experiments, carried out by pre-exposure of males to vapors of the chemicals, alpha-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, beta-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one and (Z)-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one displayed notable blockage of the pheromone detection on EAG. The activity of 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one is postulated to be due to the inhibition of the pheromone-degrading esterase. In general, the compounds have shown low specificity for the substrate and exhibited only a modest or null EAG intrinsic activity. In the field, benzyl trifluoromethyl ketone, trifluoroacetophenone, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one and beta-naphthyl trifluoroacetate showed a remarkable disruptant effect when mixed with the pheromone in 1:0.1, 1:1 and 1:10 ratio. (Z)-16-Nonadecen-14-yn-2-one has been found to be a modest agonist of the natural pheromone, exhibiting an attractant activity threefold lower than the parent molecule. PMID:8055254

  10. A Common Caatinga Cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, is an Important Ecotope of Wild Triatoma brasiliensis Populations in the Jaguaribe Valley of Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M.; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M.; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the Caatinga eco-region of northeastern Brazil. Wild T. brasiliensis populations have been reported only from rocky outcrops. However, this species frequently infests/re-infests houses in rock-free sedimentary lowlands. We therefore hypothesized that it should also occupy other natural ecotopes. We show that a common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, locally known as xiquexique, often harbors T. brasiliensis breeding colonies apparently associated with rodents (n = 44 cacti, infestation rate = 47.7%, 157 bugs captured). Our findings suggest that infested cacti might be involved in house re-infestation by T. brasiliensis in the Caatinga region. PMID:24710611

  11. Biological control of indianmeal moth and rice weevil by parasitoids with reference to the intraspecific competition pattern.

    PubMed

    Nam, Youngwoo; Ji, Jeongyeon; Na, Ja Hyun; Chun, Yong Shik; Ryoo, Mun Il

    2011-04-01

    Biological control of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), by their parasitoids Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) and Bracon hebetor Say was examined while considering the intraspecific competition pattern of the pests. In both experimental and simulation studies, A. calandrae was shown to suppress the rice weevil population, a contest type competitor, regardless of the parasitoid/weevil ratios tested. In contrast, B. hebetor only significantly suppressed the Indianmeal moth, a scramble type competitor, when the parasitoid/moth ratio was >0.05. At ratios lower than 0.05, the role of B. hebetor was negligible, and the correlation coefficients between the number of moths that had emerged and the parasitoid/moth ratio was estimated to be 0.07. The control efficiency of the two parasitoids with respect to the parasitoid/host ratio was estimated using a ratio-response model. To suppress the weevil density to a level that was only 10% of the current density, the ratio was estimated to be 0.02, whereas this value was 0.14 for the Indianmeal moth. However, for the continuous suppression of the Indianmeal moth, periodic and iterative introduction of B. hebetor was required. PMID:21510223

  12. Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r?=?0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r?=?0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r?=?0.701), Blattella germanica (r?=?0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r?=?0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens. PMID:24787549

  13. Effect of habitat disturbance on pollination biology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus quevedonis at landscape-level in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Oseguera, A G; Casas, A; Herrerías-Diego, Y; Pérez-Negrón, E

    2013-05-01

    Stenocereus quevedonis ('pitire') is a columnar cactus endemic to central Mexico, grown for its edible fruit. Phenology, pollination biology and behaviour of flower visitors of this species were compared in six conserved and disturbed sites, hypothesising that: (i) pitire pollination is self-incompatible, requiring animal vectors; (ii) higher incidence of radiation on plants in cleared forest may lead to a higher number of flowers per pitire plant and longer blooming season, and disturbing and differential spatial availability of flower resources may determine differential attraction of pollinators to conserved and disturbed areas; (iii) if pitire pollination system is specialised, reproductive success would decrease with pollinator scarcity, or other species may substitute for main pollinators. In all sites, pitire reproduction started in January, flowering peak occurring in April, anthesis duration was 15?h and predominantly nocturnal (9?h), pollen was released at 23:00?h, nectar was produced throughout anthesis, and breeding system was self-incompatible. Flower production per plant was similar in disturbed and conserved sites, but flower availability was higher (because of higher tree density) and longer in disturbed sites. Pollination is nocturnal, the most frequent legitimate pollinator being the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae; diurnal pollination is rare but possible, carried out by bee species. Fruit and seed set in control and nocturnal pollination treatments at disturbed sites were higher than in conserved sites. Frequency of L. yerbabuenae visits was similar among site types, but more visits of complementary nocturnal and diurnal pollinators were recorded in disturbed sites, which could explain differences in reproductive success. PMID:23016649

  14. Seasonal photosynthetic gas exchange and water-use efficiency in a constitutive CAM plant, the giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea).

    PubMed

    Bronson, Dustin R; English, Nathan B; Dettman, David L; Williams, David G

    2011-11-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and the capacity to store large quantities of water are thought to confer high water use efficiency (WUE) and survival of succulent plants in warm desert environments. Yet the highly variable precipitation, temperature and humidity conditions in these environments likely have unique impacts on underlying processes regulating photosynthetic gas exchange and WUE, limiting our ability to predict growth and survival responses of desert CAM plants to climate change. We monitored net CO(2) assimilation (A(net)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and transpiration (E) rates periodically over 2 years in a natural population of the giant columnar cactus Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro) near Tucson, Arizona USA to investigate environmental and physiological controls over carbon gain and water loss in this ecologically important plant. We hypothesized that seasonal changes in daily integrated water use efficiency (WUE(day)) in this constitutive CAM species would be driven largely by stomatal regulation of nighttime transpiration and CO(2) uptake responding to shifts in nighttime air temperature and humidity. The lowest WUE(day) occurred during time periods with extreme high and low air vapor pressure deficit (D(a)). The diurnal with the highest D(a) had low WUE(day) due to minimal net carbon gain across the 24 h period. Low WUE(day) was also observed under conditions of low D(a); however, it was due to significant transpiration losses. Gas exchange measurements on potted saguaro plants exposed to experimental changes in D(a) confirmed the relationship between D(a) and g(s). Our results suggest that climatic changes involving shifts in air temperature and humidity will have large impacts on the water and carbon economy of the giant saguaro and potentially other succulent CAM plants of warm desert environments. PMID:21822726

  15. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15min (6.83 and 6.72MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6mg VCEAC/100mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1?mol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage. PMID:26186846

  16. Effect of different film packaging on microbial growth in minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    PubMed

    Palma, A; Mangia, N P; Fadda, A; Barberis, A; Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are natural contaminants of fresh produce and minimally processed products, and contamination arises from a number of sources, including the environment, postharvest handling and processing. Fresh-cut products are particularly susceptible to microbial contaminations because of the changes occurring in the tissues during processing. In package gas composition of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in combination with low storage temperatures besides reducing physiological activity of packaged produce, can also delay pathogen growth. Present study investigated on the effect of MAPs, achieved with different plastic films, on microbial growth of minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntio ficus-indica) fruit. Five different plastic materials were used for packaging the manually peeled fruit. That is: a) polypropylene film (Termoplast MY 40 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 300 cc/m2/24h); b) polyethylene film (Bolphane BHE, 11 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 19000 cc/m2/24h); c) polypropylene laser-perforated films (Mach Packaging) with 8, 16 or 32 100-micron holes. Total aerobic psychrophilic, mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast, mould populations and in-package CO2, O2 and C2H4 were determined at each storage time. Different final gas compositions, ranging from 7.8 KPa to 17.1 KPa O2, and 12.7 KPa to 2.6 KPa CO2, were achieved with MY and micro perforated films, respectively. Differences were detected in the mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and yeast loads, while no difference was detected in psychrophilic microorganisms. At the end of storage, microbial load in fruits sealed with MY film was significantly lower than in those sealed with BHE and micro perforated films. Furthermore, fruits packed with micro-perforated films showed the highest microbial load. This occurrence may in part be related to in-package gas composition and in part to a continuous contamination of microorganisms through micro-holes. PMID:25145227

  17. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the vampire moths and their fruit-piercing relatives (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Calpinae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, J M; Zahiri, R; Hoy, M A; Janzen, D; Weller, S J; Wahlberg, N

    2012-11-01

    Within butterflies and moths, adult hematophagy is limited to species within the vampire moth genus Calyptra. These moths are placed within the subfamily Calpinae, whose other members are known to exhibit a broad range of feeding behaviors including those that can be considered 'piercers' of fruits or other hosts and 'tear feeders'. Here, we reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis of Calpinae using molecular data to test whether hematophagy in Calyptra arose from plant or animal-related behaviors. We use a Bayesian method of ancestral state reconstruction to determine the most likely feeding behaviors for the subtribes and genera within this lineage. PMID:22796530

  18. Expression of Pheromone Binding Proteins During Antenna1 Development in the Gypsy Moth Lymantria dispar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rg Vogt; Ac Kohne; J. T. Dubnau; G. D. Prestwich

    1989-01-01

    We have identified 2 olfactory specific proteins in the gypsy moth Lymantria disparthat are uniquely associated with the male antennae, the principal olfactory organs of this animal. These proteins were the major soluble protein components of the olfactory sensilla, present in equivalent amounts. Both proteins comigratecl on SDS-PAGE, showing an apparent molecular mass of 15,000 Da but migrated separately on

  19. Extracellular Transduction Events Under Pulsed Stimulation in Moth Olfactory Jean-Pierre Rospars1,2

    E-print Network

    Krivan, Vlastimil

    and their interaction with receptors at the dendritic membrane of neurons in Antheraea polyphemus sensitive to the main of reactions taking place up to receptor activation, in the case of the receptor neuron of the moth Antheraea polyphemus sensitive to the main component of the sexual pheromone. Significant improvements have been

  20. Moth pheromone binding proteins contribute to the excitation of olfactory receptor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blanka Pophof

    2002-01-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) occur in high concentrations in the sensillum lymph surrounding the sensory dendrites of moth pheromone-sensitive sensilla. They were shown to transport the lipophilic odorants through the aqueous sensillum lymph to the receptor cells. The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus are supplied with three types of receptor cells responding specifically to three pheromone components. The

  1. Functional morphology of the ommatidia in the compound eye of the moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Insecta, Saturniidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friederike Anton-Erxleben; Helmut Langer

    1988-01-01

    The fine structure of the superposition eye of the Saturniid moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer was investigated by electron microscopy. Each of the approximately 10000 ommatidia consists of the same structural components, but regarding the arrangement of the ommatidia and the rhabdom structure therein, two regions of the eye have to be distinguished. In a small dorsal rim area, the ommatidia

  2. Efficient Olfactory Coding in the Pheromone Receptor Neuron of a Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubomir Kostal; Petr Lansky; Jean-Pierre Rospars

    2008-01-01

    The concept of coding efficiency holds that sensory neurons are adapted, through both evolutionary and developmental processes, to the statistical characteristics of their natural stimulus. Encouraged by the successful invocation of this principle to predict how neurons encode natural auditory and visual stimuli, we attempted its application to olfactory neurons. The pheromone receptor neuron of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus,

  3. HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Using Yellow Rocket as a Trap Crop for Diamondback Moth

    E-print Network

    Nault, Brian

    J. Econ. Entomol. 98(3): 884Ð890 (2005) ABSTRACT Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety, and this possibilityisdiscussedinthecontextofgeneralcropandinsectpestmanagementpracticesincrucifers. KEY WORDS Plutella xylostella, Barbarea vulgaris, trap crop, management THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH). Another trap crop suggested for P. xylostella control is yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety

  4. From forest to farmland: diversity of geometrid moths along two habitat gradients on Borneo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN BECK; CHRISTIAN H. SCHULZE; K. EDUARD LINSENMAIR; KONRAD FIEDLER

    2002-01-01

    Geometrid moths were collected on Mt. Kinabalu (Sabah, Malaysia) along two habitat gradients, ranging from primary rain forest to cultivated areas. During 135 nights' trapping in 1997, 4585 individuals representing 500 species were attracted by light. Primary forest samples and those from old-grown regener- ated forest exhibited high diversity (Fisher's ?= 75-128), while agricultural areas as well as most secondary

  5. Cherry Ermine Moth (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) Occurrence and Survey Methods Evaluation in Washington State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIC LAGASA; DOUGLAS PRASHER; ERIC BRUNTJEN

    Another closely related exotic species, the apple ermine moth (AEM) Yponomeuta malinellus (Zeller) was found in B.C., Canada, and northwestern Washington State in the early 1980's. AEM and CEM larvae and adults are essentially identical in appearance, biology, and time of occurrence. The primary difference in the two species is their development on different host plants, with AEM larvae feeding

  6. Plastic responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase to cadmium in the gypsy moth larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena Vlahovi?; Jelica Lazarevi?; Vesna Peri?-Mataruga; Larisa Ilijin; Marija Mrdakovi?

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical analyses can point to toxicant presence before its effects can be detected at higher organizational levels. We investigated responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to different cadmium treatments in 4th instar gypsy moth larvae from 20 full-sib families. Changes in trait values and trait plasticities as well as their variation were monitored after acute and chronic exposure

  7. Update on pest management of the banded sunflower moth in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth has been a consistent pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Adults begin to emerge from the soil about mid-July and are present in the field until mid-August. Larvae feed in the florets, developing seed, and also destroy mature seeds. The goal of this project was to inv...

  8. Pericarp strength of sunflower and its value for plant defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower pericarps provide a barrier against seed-feeding by larvae of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum. Pericarp hardening is thought to be accelerated by a phytomelanin layer beneath the hypodermis, but among germplasm with phytomelanin, broad variation in sunflower pericarp strength exi...

  9. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  10. INSECTICIDAL EFFECTS OF NEW STRAINS OF BACILLLUS THURINGIENSIS ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH, PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-eight strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) grown on T-3 agar were screened for toxicity against the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. Samples of Bt whole culture preparations (spores and crystals), solublized crystals (pH-treated Bt)] and spores alone were each applied to artific...

  11. INSECTICIDAL EFFECTS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH, PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-eight strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for toxicity against the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. Bt strains were cultured on agar plates, examined for the presence of crystals and then harvested in water. Samples of Bt whole culture preparations, those treated ...

  12. BIOLOGY, DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF TINEID MOTHS, by Gaden S. Robinson. 143

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    BIOLOGY, DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF TINEID MOTHS, by Gaden S. Robinson. 143 pages, 16 color on which Gaden Robinson (1949-2009) had devoted much of his profeSSional life. It is likely that the author that has appeared in Robinson's web-based world catalogue of the Tineidae [Global Taxonomic Database

  13. INTRODUCTION Many moths possess ears that enable them to detect the echolocation

    E-print Network

    Fullard, James H.

    3808 INTRODUCTION Many moths possess ears that enable them to detect the echolocation calls co-habits with bats by being able to detect their echolocation calls and escaping to the walls of the day roosts (Pavey and Burwell, 2005). The echolocation calls of R. megaphyllyus and M. australis

  14. Life Cycle and Immature Stages of the Arctiid Moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Rodríguez-Loechesa; Alejandro Barro

    2008-01-01

    Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk

  15. Mating Behavior and Reproductive Potential in the Turnip Moth Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mats G. E. Svensson; Elisabeth Marling; Jan Löfqvist

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the lifetime mating potential and the reproductive behavior of male and female turnip moths Agrotis segetum (Schiff.) under field and laboratory conditions. The sex ratio was 1 : 1 in a lab-reared population as well as in two wild populations. Males were capable of mating repetitively a relatively large number of times (mean of 6.7 ± 2.7 matings)

  16. First report of moth pollination in Struthiola ciliata (Thymelaeaceae) in southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Makholela; J. C. Manning

    2006-01-01

    Struthiola ciliata (L.) Lam., an ericoid shrub widespread in fynbos vegetation in the southwestern Cape, displays the floral syndrome associated with pollination by settling moths. Flowers, which are produced throughout the year, are creamy white in colour, with a slender hypanthium tube ±20 mm long. The anthers are included within the tube and the mouth of the tube is surrounded by

  17. Habitat models and habitat connectivity analysis for butterflies and burnet moths The example of Zygaena carniolica

    E-print Network

    Biedermann, Robert

    connectivity within the study area. Thus, we could show no effects of isolation or habitat size for bothHabitat models and habitat connectivity analysis for butterflies and burnet moths ­ The example July 2005 Abstract In this paper, habitat models were used to predict potential habitat for endangered

  18. Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2012-04-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basic biology and physiology of this temperate pest, little is known on its potential to develop and establish in tropical environments with short photoperiods and few to no days below 10 degrees C. Apples were harvested over three field seasons (2007-2009) from unmanaged orchards in central Washington State and subjected to simulated commercial cold storage at 1.1 +/- 2 degrees C for up to 119 d. After cold storage, infested fruits were held at 20 degrees C under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod for up to 6 mo. Over the entire experiment only 27% of the larvae collected exited the fruit and cocooned. Of those 27%, only 1.06% of larvae held under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod successfully emerged as moths. No moths emerged when host fruit would be available in a representative importing country in the tropics over the 3 yr of testing. These results indicate that codling moth in apples from the Pacific Northwest pose little threat of surviving and establishing in tropical regions where daylength is insufficient to break diapause and the chilling requirement is not met. PMID:22606796

  19. Separating the attractant from the toxicant improves attract-and-kill of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2013-10-01

    The behavior of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), responding to three attract-and-kill devices was compared in flight tunnel experiments measuring attraction and duration of target contact. Placing a 7.6 by 12.6 cm card immediately upwind of a rubber septum releasing pheromone, dramatically increased the duration on the target to > 60 s. In this setting, nearly all the males flew upwind, landed on the card first, and spent the majority of time searching the card. In contrast, male codling moths spent < 15 s at the source if given the lure only. In a forced contact bioassay, knockdown rate or mortality of male codling moths increased in direct proportion to duration of contact on a lambda-cyhalothrin-loaded filter paper. When this insecticide-treated paper was placed immediately upwind of the lure in the flight tunnel, > 90% of males contacting the paper were knocked down 2 h after voluntary exposure. These findings suggest that past attempts to combine insecticide directly with sex pheromones into a small paste, gel, or other forms of dollops are ill-advised because moths are likely over-exposed to pheromone and vacate the target before obtaining a lethal dose of insecticide. It is better to minimize direct contact with the concentrated pheromone while enticing males to extensively search insecticide-treated surface nearby the lure. PMID:24224258

  20. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus--a novel method for codling moth control.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally efficient in enhancing the activity of CpGV. The addition of brown cane sugar to yeast further increased larval mortality and the protection of fruit against larvae. In comparison, without yeast, the addition of sugar to CpGV did not produce a significant effect. A field trial confirmed that fruit injury and larval survival were significantly reduced when apple trees were sprayed with CpGV, M. pulcherrima, and sugar. We have shown earlier that mutualistic yeasts are an essential part of codling moth larval diet. The finding that yeast also enhances larval ingestion of an insect-pathogenic virus is an opportunity for the development of a novel plant protection technique. We expect the combination of yeasts and insect pathogens to essentially contribute to future insect management. PMID:23881444

  1. Enzymatic characterization of nine endoparasite species of small ermine moths (Yponomeutidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. J. Menken

    1982-01-01

    Summary Eight hymenopterous and 1 dipterous species, all endoparasitic in eggs, larvae, or pupae of small ermine moths (Yponomeuta) were investigated for their allozyme variation at 3–29 loci. The mean heterozygosity level of the hymenopterous species is one-third of that of the dipterous species. Zymogram patterns of the parasite larvae do not interfere with those of the host.

  2. Appetitive flight patterns of male Agrotis segetum moths over landscape scales.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, A M; Reynolds, D R; Smith, A D; Svensson, G P; Löfstedt, C

    2007-03-01

    An analysis is presented of the first harmonic radar studies of pheromone-plume locating flights of male Agrotis segetum moths over distances of up to 500 m. Upon release most moths flew in a direction having a downwind component. The first significant changes in flight orientations occur in the immediate vicinity of a pheromone source. Moths that were initially flying downwind change course and start flying crosswind whilst those that initially flew crosswind change course and start flying upwind. It is shown that such behaviour is consistent with the adoption of an effective plume-location strategy, and conditions are identified when downwind flights would be more advantageous than crosswind ones. Additionally, some of the complex flight patterns that can arise at later times are shown to be compatible with the adoption of an optimal biased scale-free (Lévy-flight) searching strategy. It is found that disruptive doses of sex pheromone can have a marked influence upon male moth flight patterns. PMID:17109897

  3. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of light brown apple moth on lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest treatment for light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is needed to safe guard domestic distribution and export of U.S. fresh fruits and vegetables including lettuce as the pest becomes established in California with risk of potential spread. Oxygenated phosphine fu...

  4. Structure and function of antennal lobe neurons in the male turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Hansson; S. Anton; T. A. Christensen

    1994-01-01

    Interneurons with dendritic branches in the antennal lobe of the male turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Schiff., Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated with intracellular recording and staining methods. Seventeen projection neurons that transmit information from the antennal lobe to higher centers in the brain displayed dendritic arbors in the male specific macroglomerular complex (MGC) and responded to chemical components of the female

  5. Individual variation in the pheromone of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Löfstedt; Boel S. Lanne; Jan Löfqvist; Monica Appelgren; Gunnar Bergström

    1985-01-01

    Female turnip moths (Agrotis segetum) from a laboratory culture inbred for more than 30 generations, and the offspring (first and third generation) from field-collected insects were analyzed individually for acetates and alcohols in the pheromone gland. Quantitative analysis of individual components was performed at the subnanogram level by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (selected ion monitoring). The titer of the pheromone, i.e.,

  6. HYDROPRENE PROLONGS DEVELOPMENT TIME AND INCREASES MORTALITY IN WANDERING-PHASE INDIANMEAL MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) LARVAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wandering-phase Indianmeal moth larvae, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were exposed to the label rate of hydroprene (1.9 X 10-3 mg[AI]/ cm2) sprayed on concreted petri dishes. Larvae were exposed for 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h and maintained at 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32ºC and 57% relative humidity ...

  7. Male and female noctuid moths attracted to synthetic lures in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Miklós; Szarukán, István; Dorogi, Béla; Gulyás, Attila; Nagy, Pál; Rozgonyi, Zoltán

    2010-06-01

    In field tests in Europe, traps baited with a blend of isoamyl alcohol, acetic acid, and isobutanol (compounds previously found attractive to a number of noctuids in North America) caught the following noctuid moths: Agrotis segetum Schiff., Agrotis crassa Hbn., Agrotis exclamationis L., Amathes (Xestia) c-nigrum L., Apatele rumicis L., Amphipyra pyramidea L., Dipterygia scabriuscula L., Discestra trifolii Hfn., Euxoa aquilina Schiff., Euclidia glyphica L., Mamestra brassicae L., Mamestra oleracea L., Mamestra suasa Schiff., Mythimna albipuncta Den. & Schiff., Mythimna l-album L., Noctua pronuba L., and Trachea atriplicis L. A substantial percentage of the catch of each species of moths was females. The presence of isobutanol in the mixture was important for catching A. rumicis, D. trifolii, and E. glyphica. The addition of 3-methyl-1-pentanol to the ternary mixture did not increase trap captures of any of the moths. Traps baited with the floral attractant phenylacetaldehyde alone caught several species of noctuid moths. However, when phenylacetaldehyde was added to the isoamyl-alcohol ternary blend, no increases in catches of any of the species, relative to the ternary blend or phenyacetaldehyde alone, were observed, with catches of most species being depressed. Comparing the noctuid species attracted to the phenylacetaldehyde- and isoamyl alcohol-based lures showed that phenylacetaldehyde attracted predominantly Plusiinae and Melicleptriinae spp., while isoamyl alcohol-based lures attracted species mostly from the Noctuinae or Hadeninae subfamilies. PMID:20449640

  8. Book Review: Olethreutinae Moths of Australia, Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, Volume 10

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caterpillars of moths in the family commonly known as “leaf-rollers” are economically important pests of numerous agriculture crops, ornamental plants, and forest trees. Detection, exclusion, and control of these pests rely heavily on their accurate identification. This paper provides a review of a ...

  9. Flight tunnel responses of female grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana) to host plants.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Moser, Charles L; Nojima, Satoshi; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L; Loeb, Gregory M

    2008-05-01

    Semiochemicals play important roles in mate and host recognition of herbivorous insects, such as moths, and flight tunnels have been an effective tool in the identification of these bioactive compounds. However, more work has been carried out on pheromones than on host plant cues, and few examples exist where flight tunnel evaluations of host cues have resulted in a lure that is attractive under field conditions. Our goal was to determine whether the flight tunnel could be used to evaluate the response of a specialist moth, grape berry moth (GBM), to its host plant (grapevines), by incorporating ecological and physiological aspects of GBM biology. We found grape shoot tips and mature leaves were more attractive to female GBM than unripe and ripe berries or flowers. Under optimized flight tunnel conditions, approximately 80% of tested females flew upwind and closely approached or landed on the most preferred target. Mating status, wind speed, the time of day, and the presence/absence of patterns that resemble grape tissues on the top of the flight tunnel all significantly affected the responses of female GBM. Consideration of these factors in flight tunnel assays will aid in the development of a synthetic lure that can be used to monitor female moths in the field. PMID:18438614

  10. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF FEMALE EXTERNAL TRANSLUCENT PITS USEFUL IN SEXING GYPSY MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: LYMANTRIIDAE) CATERPILLARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distinguishing the presence of “translucent pits” on the ventral sternites of the 8th and 9th abdominal segments in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, caterpillars identified female from male caterpillars when viewed under a dissecting microscope. Ultrastructural details of the translucent pits were rev...

  11. Attractiveness of a Four-Component Pheromone Blend to Male Navel Orangeworm Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attractiveness of the various combinations of the four component pheromone of the female navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella, was measured in a wind-tunnel bioassay. Upwind flight along the pheromone plume and landing on the odor source required the simultaneous presence of two componen...

  12. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY STUDIES WITH PHEROMONE BINDING PROTEINS OF THE GYPSY MOTH, LYMANTRIA DISPAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone olfaction in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, involves accurate distinction of compounds with similar structure and polarity. The identified pheromone is (7R, 8S)-cis-2-methyl-7, 8-epoxyoctadecane, 1a, and a known antagonist is (7Z) 2-methyloctadec-7-ene, 4a. The first step in olfaction...

  13. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI AFFECTS A BENEFICIAL INSECT, THE CINNABAR MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. iological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (L), is susceptible ...

  14. Fossilized Biophotonic Nanostructures Reveal the Original Colors of 47-Million-Year-Old Moths

    E-print Network

    Cao, Hui

    Fossilized Biophotonic Nanostructures Reveal the Original Colors of 47-Million-Year-Old Moths Maria data from fossils. Here we report the first example of structurally colored scales in fossil fossilization but are reconstructed based upon preserved ultrastructural detail. The dorsal surface

  15. Optimization of Source Identification Algorithm Derived from Moth-Inspired Plume Tracing Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Li; Joseph E. Sutton

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method of designing and optimizing a single chemical sensor-based source identification algorithm, derived from moth-inspired chemical plume tracing (CPT) strategies. In doing it, we define a source identification zone (SIZ) using last chemical detection points (LCDPs). Then, we optimize the proposed algorithm using a simulated plume with significant meander and filament intermittency by considering dynamics of

  16. Archips xylosteana (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a Palearctic leaf-rolling moth, new to North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Archips xylosteana (L.), a widespread Palearctic tortricid moth, is reported from St. John’s, Newfoundland, the first confirmed records of this species in North America. Adults were collected by beating branches and foliage of a variety of ornamental trees and shrubs on the campus of Memorial Univer...

  17. Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat–tiger moth arms race

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nickolay I. Hristov; William E. Conner

    2005-01-01

    The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger

  18. Biological Control of Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum, by the brown lygodium moth, Neomusotima conspurcatalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum is one of the most problematic invasive weeds impacting natural areas in southern and central Florida. Management has proven difficult and expensive, which prompted interest in the development of biological control options. The brown lygodium moth, Neom...

  19. Arabidopsis genotypes resistant and susceptible to diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Putellidea): No net effects on insect growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plutella xylostella (L.), diamondback moth (DBM) is a destructive pest of the Brassicaceae including Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold. Ecotypes of Arabidopsis vary in the amounts of leaf area consumed when fed on by DBM, which has been used as a measure of resistance to DBM. Recombinant inbred lin...

  20. CLOTHES MOTHS AND CARPET BEETLES Gary W. Bennett and Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologists

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    and feathers. Damage done will depend upon the type of item being fed upon and the species of clothes moth-cleaning, washing, pressing with an iron heated to 1340 F, or brushing and sunning infestations by dry-cleaning, washing or brushing and sunning both sides of the rugs and rug pads. Before

  1. A mutation in pheromonal communication system of cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth F. Haynes; Randy E. Hunt

    1990-01-01

    A mutation that results in a dramatic change in the relative proportions of the pheromone components produced by female cabbage looper moths has been found. The most notable changes involve reduction in the emission rate of the major component [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate], near absence of a component [(Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate] that is normally present at about 20% of the major component, and

  2. Optical diffraction by the microstructure of the wing of a moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, D. J.; Smit, J. E.; Lee, M. E.; Möller, A.

    1995-09-01

    On the wing of the moth Trichoplusia orichalcea a prominent, apparently highly reflective, golden spot can be seen. Scales from this area of the wing exhibit a regular microstructure resembling a submicrometer herringbone pattern. We show that a diffraction process from this structure is responsible for the observed optical properties, such as directionality, brightness variations, polarization, and color.

  3. Tolerance of codling moth and apple quality associated with low-pressure/low-temperature treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of effective low-pressure/low-temperature (LPLT) disinfestation treatments for fresh fruits requires knowledge on the tolerance of target insects to the LPLT treatment environment. In this study, different life stages of codling moth (eggs, 2nd-3rd instar larvae, 5th instar larvae and pu...

  4. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  5. EFFECTS OF ORCHARD HOST PLANTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent population outbreaks of Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (OFM) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) have caused significant economic hardships for fruit growers and processors in the mid-Atlantic region. Historically, efforts at OFM control in the eastern U.S. have been most intensive o...

  6. Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Min; Jeong, Yonkil; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2012-11-01

    We present the effect of broadband antireflective coverglasses (BARCs) with moth eye structures on the power generation capability of a sub-receiver module for concentrated photovoltaics. The period and height of the moth eye structures were designed by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in order to cover the full solar spectral ranges without transmission band shrinkage. The BARCs with moth eye structures were prepared by the dry etching of silver (Ag) nanomasks, and the fabricated moth eye structures on coverglass showed strongly enhanced transmittance compared to the bare glass with a flat surface, at wavelengths of 300 - 1800 nm. The BARCs were mounted on InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the power conversion efficiency of this sub-receiver module reached 42.16% for 196 suns, which is a 7.41% boosted value compared to that of a module with bare coverglass, without any detrimental changes of the open circuit voltages (Voc) and fill factor (FF). PMID:23187668

  7. Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Min; Jeong, Yonkil; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2012-11-01

    We present the effect of broadband antireflective coverglasses (BARCs) with moth eye structures on the power generation capability of a sub-receiver module for concentrated photovoltaics. The period and height of the moth eye structures were designed by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in order to cover the full solar spectral ranges without transmission band shrinkage. The BARCs with moth eye structures were prepared by the dry etching of silver (Ag) nanomasks, and the fabricated moth eye structures on coverglass showed strongly enhanced transmittance compared to the bare glass with a flat surface, at wavelengths of 300 - 1800 nm. The BARCs were mounted on InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the power conversion efficiency of this sub-receiver module reached 42.16% for 196 suns, which is a 7.41% boosted value compared to that of a module with bare coverglass, without any detrimental changes of the open circuit voltages (V(oc)) and fill factor (FF). PMID:23326839

  8. (-)-Germacrene D Increases Attraction and Oviposition by the Tobacco Budworm Moth Heliothis virescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mozuraitis; M. Stranden; M. I. Ramirez; A.-K. Borg-Karlson; H. Mustaparta

    2002-01-01

    The sesquiterpene germacrene D (GD) activates a major type of olfactory receptor neuron on the antennae of the heliothine moths. In Heliothis virescens females, 80% of the recordings have shown activity of one neuron type responding with high sensitivity and selectivity to GD. With the aim of determining the behavioural significance of this sesquiterpene, we have used a two-choice wind-tunnel

  9. Host status of Hass avocado fruit for the False Codling Moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricadae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Grové; W. P. Steyn; M. S. De Beer

    The false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a known pest of avocados, although the larvae do not develop fully inside the fruit. In this study, the host status of Hass avocado was established for C. leucotreta. Late hanging Hass fruit were artificially infested with eggs of C. leucotreta and covered with bags. The fruit were shed and

  10. Laboratory Bioassays Testing the Host Range of the Gypsy Moth Fungal Pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Hajek; L. Butler; M. M. Wheeler

    1995-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga causes epizootics in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, populations, but little is known about the effects of this pathogen on other insect species. The host specificity of E. maimaiga was evaluated by externally inoculating larvae with conidia in the laboratory. Larvae were considered successfully infected if E. maimaiga produced spores in\\/on cadavers. A total of 78

  11. Dispersal of first-instar gypsy moth larvae in relation to population quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Capinera; Pedro Barbosa

    1976-01-01

    Field studies of dispersal by first instar gypsy moth larvae indicate that almost all larvae undergo an initial dispersal episode. However, in laboratory studies large larvae (from large eggs) disperse more frequently than small larvae (from small eggs) in the presence of favored food. Large larvae may be better adapted for dispersal. When larvae encounter unacceptable food or are denied

  12. Leaf phenolic inhibition of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus Role of polyhedral inclusion body aggregation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven T. Keating; Mark D. Hunter; Jack C. Schultz

    1990-01-01

    Bioassays with nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) administered to gypsy moth larvae on leaf disks from various tree species reveal strong viral inhibition by some tree species. Phenolic extracts from inhibitory tree leaves cause virus polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs) to form large aggregations. However, aggregated PIBs treated with leaf extracts and administered to larvae on laboratory diet (without phenolics) retain virulence.

  13. Developing Effective Brochures for Increasing Knowledge of Environmental Problems: The Case of the Gypsy Moth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charlotte F.; Witter, John A.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational brochures in increasing participants' knowledge about the environmental problem of gypsy moth infestations and associated action strategies. Results suggest that brochures rated high in communication effectiveness were most useful in increasing knowledge. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/MDH)

  14. VIRUS TRANSMISSION IN GYPSY MOTHS IS NOT A SIMPLE MASS ACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), to test one of the basic assumptions of most models of disease dynamics, that the rate of horizontal transmission is directly proportional to the product of the densiti...

  15. Host selection by Blepharipa pratensis (Meigen), a tachinid parasite of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Odell; Paul A. Godwin

    1984-01-01

    The host selection process ofBlepharipa pratensis (Meigen), a tachinid parasite of the gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L., was investigated. Once in the host's habitat, and following contact with a recently damaged leaf edge (cut, torn, eaten), the fly orients perpendicular to the edge and moves back and forth with the front tarsi grasping the damaged edge. Oviposturing (oviposition intention) may occur.

  16. The Peripheral Olfactory Repertoire of the Lightbrown Apple Moth, Epiphyas postvittana

    PubMed Central

    Thrimawithana, Amali H.; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Newcomb, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    The lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana is an increasingly global pest of horticultural crops. Like other moths, E. postvittana relies on olfactory cues to locate mates and oviposition sites. To detect these cues, moths have evolved families of genes encoding elements of the peripheral olfactory reception system, including odor carriers, receptors and degrading enzymes. Here we undertake a transcriptomic approach to identify members of these families expressed in the adult antennae of E. postvittana, describing open reading frames encoding 34 odorant binding proteins, 13 chemosensory proteins, 70 odorant receptors, 19 ionotropic receptors, nine gustatory receptors, two sensory neuron membrane proteins, 27 carboxylesterases, 20 glutathione-S-transferases, 49 cytochrome p450s and 18 takeout proteins. For the odorant receptors, quantitative RT-PCR corroborated RNAseq count data on steady state transcript levels. Of the eight odorant receptors that group phylogenetically with pheromone receptors from other moths, two displayed significant male-biased expression patterns, one displayed significant female-biased expression pattern and five were expressed equally in the antennae of both sexes. In addition, we found two male-biased odorant receptors that did not group with previously described pheromone receptors. This suite of olfaction-related genes provides a substantial resource for the functional characterization of this signal transduction system and the development of odor-mediated control strategies for horticultural pests. PMID:26017144

  17. INCREASED CATCH OF MALE CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) IN ORANGE PLASTIC DELTA-SHAPED TRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), to evaluate the attractiveness of an orange plastic versus the standard white plastic delta-shaped sticky trap in capturing adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Initial field tests showed that both orange and green-painted traps caught...

  18. Mobile mating disruption of light brown apple moths using pheromone-treated sterile Mediterranean fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public opposition to aerial application of sex pheromone for mating disruption of light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana, LBAM) in California stopped its further use in the ca. $74 million eradication programme in 2008, underscoring the need for other eradication tactics. We demonstrate that ...

  19. Goat Moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) of the Hanford Site and Hanford National Monument, Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three species of goat moths are recorded at the Hanford Nuclear Site and Hanford National Monument in south central Washington State. They are: Comadia bertholdi (Grote), 1880, Givira cornelia (Neumoegen & Dyar), 1893, and Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck), 1818. The general habitat of the Hanford area...

  20. POSTHARVEST TREATMENT TO CONTROL CODLING MOTH IN FRESH APPLES USING WATER ASSISTED RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples destined for export to Japan and South Korea are currently disinfested for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), using methyl bromide fumigation. Restrictions and limitations imposed on the uses of methyl bromide have increased interest in developing alternative non-che...

  1. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, larvae cause severe damage apples, pears and walnuts worldwide by internal feeding and the introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. CM neonate larvae are attracted to and arrested by a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the “pear es...

  2. Identification of two components of the sex pheromone of the moth,Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Bellas, T E; Bartell, R J; Hill, A

    1983-04-01

    Two compounds, (E)-11-tetradecen-1-yl acetate and (E,E)-9,11-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate, have been identified in extracts of females of the lightbrown apple moth,Epiphyas postvittana (Walker). The two compounds are active as a coalitive pair and are present in extracts of females in a ratio of about 20?1. PMID:24407457

  3. Irradiation for quarantine control of the invasive light brown apple moth, Epiphyas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, early instars, late instars, early pupae and late pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60, ...

  4. Modeling the sterile insect technique for suppression of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Kean, John M; Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Woods, Bill

    2011-10-01

    A population model was derived for light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), subject to the sterile insect technique (SIT). The model was parameterized from the literature and from recent laboratory studies conducted in New Zealand and Australia. Relationships were fitted for several model parameters that vary with irradiation dose, allowing the model to simulate effectively complete sterility at 300 Gy through inherited sterility occurring from lower doses. At 300 Gy, the model suggests that eventual population extinction is 95% probable when the ratio of released to wild males in monitoring traps exceeds 6.4. Higher overflooding rates would be required to achieve eradication more rapidly. The optimal release interval, in terms of minimizing the required rate of production of factory moths, is approximately weekly. There is little advantage in releasing males only compared with releasing both sexes. Female-only releases are unlikely to be a useful tool for inherited sterility eradication because there is no reduction in the fertility of F1 offspring. The critical release rate required to halt population increase declines with decreasing irradiation dose, but at doses of < 171 Gy there is a risk that irradiated-lineage moths may form a self-sustaining population, making eradication by SIT alone impossible. The model suggests that a dose of around 200 Gy may be optimal because the resulting inherited sterility would reduce by a third the number of factory moths required compared with 300 Gy. PMID:22066173

  5. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere. PMID:21735898

  6. Competition between the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and the northern tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis: interactions mediated by host plant chemistry, pathogens, and parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Redman, A M; Scriber, J M

    2000-10-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and the northern tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis, overlap geographically as well as in their host ranges. Adult female swallowtails are incapable of distinguishing between damaged and undamaged leaves, and the opportunities for competition between these two species are numerous. We designed field and laboratory experiments to look for evidence of indirect competition between P. canadensis and L. dispar larvae. Swallowtail caterpillars were reared in the laboratory on leaves from gypsy-moth-defoliated and undefoliated trees to explore host-plant effects. We tested for pathogen-mediated interactions by rearing swallowtail larvae on both sterilized and unsterilized leaves from defoliated and undefoliated sources. In addition, we measured the effects of known gypsy moth pathogens, as well as gypsy moth body fluids, on the growth and survival of swallowtail larvae. Field experiments were designed to detect the presence of parasitoid-mediated competition, as well: we recorded parasitism of swallowtail caterpillars placed in the field either where there were no gypsy moth larvae present, or where we had artificially created dense gypsy moth populations. We found evidence that swallowtails were negatively affected by gypsy moths in several ways: defoliation by gypsy moths depressed swallowtail growth rate and survival, whether leaves were sterilized or not; sterilization significantly reduced the effect of defoliation, and gypsy moth body fluids proved lethal; and swallowtail caterpillars suffered significantly increased rates of parasitism when they were placed in the field near gypsy moth infestations. PMID:24595833

  7. Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.

    PubMed

    Jones, G; Waters, D A

    2000-08-22

    We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing their frequency, and measured the auditory thresholds from the A1 cells of the moths. Knowing the auditory responses of the moth we tested three predictions. (i) The ranking of the audibility of unmanipulated calls to the moths should be predictable from their temporal and/or frequency structure. This was supported. (ii) Doubling the duration of the calls should increase their audibility by ca. 3 dB for all species. Their audibility did indeed increase by 2.1-3.5 dB. (iii) Reducing the frequency of the calls would increase their audibility for all species. Reducing the frequency had small effects for the two bat species which used short duration (2.7-3.6 ms) calls. However, the relatively long-duration (50 ms), largely constant-frequency calls of R. hipposideros increased in audibility by 21.6 dB when their frequency was halved. Time and frequency changes influence the audibility of calls to tympanate moths in different ways according to call design. Large changes in frequency and time had relatively small changes on the audibility of calls for short, largely broadband calls. Channelling energy into the second harmonic of the call substantially decreased the audibility of calls for bats which use long-duration, constant-frequency components in echolocation calls. We discuss our findings in the contexts of the evolution of both bat echolocation call design and the potential responses of insects which hear ultrasound. PMID:11467425

  8. Mechanical tuning of the moth ear: distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and tympanal vibrations.

    PubMed

    Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Pérez, Martha; Nowotny, Manuela; Kössl, Manfred

    2013-10-15

    The mechanical tuning of the ear in the moth Empyreuma pugione was investigated by distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). DPOAE audiograms were assessed using a novel protocol that may be advantageous for non-invasive auditory studies in insects. To evoke DPOAE, two-tone stimuli within frequency and level ranges that generated a large matrix of values (960 frequency-level combinations) were used to examine the acoustic space in which the moth tympanum shows its best mechanical and acoustical responses. The DPOAE tuning curve derived from the response matrix resembles that obtained previously by electrophysiology, and is V-shaped and tuned to frequencies between 25 and 45 kHz with low Q10dB values of 1.21±0.26. In addition, while using a comparable stimulation regime, mechanical distortion in the displacement of the moth's tympanal membrane at the stigma was recorded with a laser Doppler vibrometer. The corresponding mechanical vibration audiograms were compared with DPOAE audiograms. Both types of audiograms have comparable shape, but most of the mechanical response fields are shifted towards lower frequencies. We showed for the first time in moths that DPOAE have a pronounced analogy in the vibration of the tympanic membrane where they may originate. Our work supports previous studies that point to the stigma (and the internally associated transduction machinery) as an important place of sound amplification in the moth ear, but also suggests a complex mechanical role for the rest of the transparent zone. PMID:23868848

  9. MEASURED BEHAVIOURAL LATENCY IN RESPONSE TO SEX-PHEROMONE LOSS IN THE LARGE SILK MOTH ANTHERAEA POLYPHEMUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. BAKER

    1988-01-01

    Summary Males of the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) were video-recorded in a sustained-flight wind tunnel in a constant plume of sex pheromone. The plume was experimentally truncated, and the moths, on losing pheromone stimulus, rapidly changed their behaviour from up- tunnel zig-zag flight to lateral casting flight. The latency of this change was in the range

  10. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of moth, the light drawing them in from the surrounding landscape into sub-optimal urban habitats. PMID:24475197

  11. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    PubMed

    Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of moth, the light drawing them in from the surrounding landscape into sub-optimal urban habitats. PMID:24475197

  12. Change in the acid-base status of an appalachian mountain catchment following forest defoliation by the gypsy moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Webb; B. J. Cosby; F. A. Deviney; K. N. Eshleman; J. N. Galloway

    1995-01-01

    Infestation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) can alter biogeochemical conditions in affected catchments. Stream-water concentration data obtained over the period of 1980–1993 for White Oak Run, a stream in Shenandoah National Park, Va., indicate that change in catchment acid-base status is associated with forest defoliation by the moth larva. Stream-water concentration changes following defoliation included increasing concentrations of strong-acid

  13. Temperature/toxicity relationships of formulated permethrin (Pounce) and methamidophos (Monitor) with susceptible diamondback moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    E-print Network

    Magaro, Jude Joseph

    1994-01-01

    TEMPERATURE/TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS OF FORMULATED PERMETHRIN (POUNCE) AND METHAMIDOPHOS (MONITOR) WITH SUSCEPTIBLE DIAMONDBACK MOTH LARVAE (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE) A Thesis by JUDE JOSEPH MAGARO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...) WITH SUSCEPTIBLE DIAMONDBACK MOTH LARVAE (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE) A Thesis by JUDE JOSEPH MAGARO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: I / c...

  14. Molecular identification of the light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California using a polymerase chain reaction assay of the internal transcribed spacer 2 locus.

    PubMed

    Barr, N B; Ledezma, L A; Vasquez, J D; Epstein, M; Kerr, P H; Kinnee, S; Sage, O; Gilligan, T M

    2009-12-01

    A molecular protocol using a hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) is reported for the diagnosis of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. This protocol distinguishes the light brown apple moth from other moths in California based on size differences of PCR amplicons that are visualized on agarose gels. The molecular diagnostic tool generated no false negatives based on analysis of 337 light brown apple moths collected from California, Hawaii, England, New Zealand, and Australia. Analysis of a data set including 424 moths representing other tortricid species generated correct identification for >95% of the samples and only two false positives. Of the 761 moths tested only fourteen produced no PCR amplicons and five generated inconclusive data. PMID:20069865

  15. Development of high-throughput silicon lens and grism with moth-eye anti-reflection structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Imada, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Okada, Kazushi; Uchiyama, Masahito; Wada, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Anti-reflection (AR) is very important for high-throughput optical elements. The durability against cooling is required for the AR structure in the cryogenic optics used for mid-infrared astronomical instruments. Moth-eye structure is a promising AR technique strong against cooling. The silicon lens and grism with the moth-eye structure are being developed to make high-throughput elements for long-wavelength mid-infrared instruments. A double-sided moth-eye plano-convex lens (Effective diameter: 33 mm, Focal length: 188 mm) was fabricated. By the transmittance measurement, it was confirmed that its total throughput is 1.7+/- 0.1 times higher than bare silicon lenses in a wide wavelength range of 20{45 ?m. It suggests that the lens can achieve 83+/-5% throughput in the cryogenic temperature. It was also confirmed that the moth-eye processing on the lens does not modify the focal length. As for the grism, the homogeneous moth-eye processing on blaze pattern was realized by employing spray coating for the resist coating in EB lithography. The silicon grism with good surface roughness was also developed. The required techniques for completing moth-eye grisms have been established.

  16. Development of a binomial sampling plan for the carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California dates.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Joon; Perring, Thomas M

    2010-08-01

    The seasonal density fluctuations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were determined in a commercial date, Phoenix dactylifera L. garden. Four fruit categories (axil, ground, abscised green, and abscised brown) were sampled, and two carob moth life stages, eggs and immatures (larvae and pupae combined), were evaluated on these fruits. Based on the relative consistency of these eight sampling units (four fruit categories and two carob moth stages), four were used for the development of a binomial sampling plan. The average number of carob moth eggs and immatures on ground and abscised brown fruit was estimated from the proportion of infested fruit, and these binomial models were evaluated for model fitness and precision. These analyses suggested that the best sampling plan should consist of abscised brown dates and carob moth immatures by using a sample size of 100 dates. The performance of this binomial plan was evaluated further using a resampling protocol with 25 independent data sets at action thresholds of 7, 10, and 15% to represent light, medium and severe infestations, respectively. Results from the resampling program suggested that increasing sample size from 100 to 150 dates improved the precision of the binomial sampling plan. Use of this sampling plan will be the cornerstone of an integrated pest management program for carob moth in dates. PMID:20857763

  17. Influence of Applied NaCl on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism and Ionic Levels in a Cactus, Cereus validus1

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.; Lüttge, Ulrich; Heuer, Sabine; Ball, Erika

    1984-01-01

    To determine possible physiological responses to salinity, seedlings of Cereus validus Haworth, a cactus from Salinas Grandes, Argentina, were treated with up to 600 millimolar NaCl for up to 16 days when they were about 9 months old and 100 millimeters tall. Salt stress decreased stem biomass, e.g. it was 19.7 grams for controls and 11.4 grams for plants treated with 400 millimolar NaCl for 14 days. Nocturnal CO2 uptake in these obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants was inhibited 67% upon treatment with 400 millimolar NaCl for 14 days (controls, 181 millimoles CO2 per square meter), while nocturnal accumulation of malate was inhibited 49% (controls, 230 millimoles malate per square meter). The larger accumulation of malate as compared to uptake of atmospheric CO2 suggests that internal CO2 recycling occurred during the dark period. Such recycling was lower in the controls (?20%) than in the NaCl-treated plants (?50%). The nocturnal increase in malate and titratable acidity depended on the total daily photosynthetically active radiation available; measurements suggest a quantum requirment of 26 photons per malate. As NaCl in the medium was increased to 600 millimolar in daily increments of 50 millimolar, Na and Cl concentrations in the roots increased from about 7 to 100 millimolar, but K concentration in the cell sap remained near 26 millimolar. Concomitantly, concentrations of Na and Cl in the shoots increased from 8 to 17 millimolar and from 1 to 7 millimolar, respectively, while the K concentration increased about 16 to 60 millimolar. In plants maintained for 14 days at 500 millimolar NaCl, the root levels of Na and Cl increased to 260 millimolar, the shoot levels were about 60 millimolar, and the stem bases began to become necrotic. Such Na retention in the roots together with the special possibilities of carbon reutilization given by CAM are apparently survival mechanisms for the temporarily saline conditions experienced in its natural habitat. PMID:16663707

  18. No neural evidence for dynamic auditory tuning of the A1 receptor in the ear of the noctuid moth, Noctua pronuba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navdeep S. Asi; James Howard Fullard; Scott Whitehead; Jeff W. Dawson

    2009-01-01

    By examining the mechanical properties of the tympanum of the noctuid moth, Noctua pronuba, Windmill et al. (2006) suggested that this insect increases (up-tunes) the frequencies of its best hearing when exposed to high intensity sounds\\u000a (HIS) resembling the echolocation calls of attacking bats. We tested whether this biophysical phenomenon was encoded in the\\u000a neural responses of this moth’s most

  19. Vanessa cardui adipokinetic hormone (Vanca-AKH) in butterflies and a moth.

    PubMed

    Köllisch, Gabriele V; Verhaert, Peter D; Hoffmann, Klaus H

    2003-06-01

    Small neuropeptides of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family regulate energy metabolism in insects. Within lepidopterans, the nonapeptide Manduca sexta AKH (Manse-AKH) represents a widely occurring AKH, whereas the decapeptide Helze-HrTH (at first isolated from Heliothis zea) seems to be restricted to moths. Here we show that Vanca-AKH, a non-amidated undecapeptide which we recently found in the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui, is also present in the retrocerebral complex of several other butterflies (Danaus plexippus, Precis coenia, Aglais urticae) and a moth (Spodoptera frugiperda). This study also demonstrates the power of modern nano-electrospray-quadrupole TOF tandem mass spectrometry in the sequence confirmation of peptides from minute amounts of small neuropeptides. PMID:12781830

  20. Recovery of fertility by Mediterranean flour moths transferred from continuous light to light:dark

    SciTech Connect

    Riemann, J.G.; Johnson, M.; Thorson, B.

    1981-05-01

    Male Mediterranean flour moths, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller), placed in continuous light (LL) from the early pupal stage on were partially sterile as adults. When old adult moths were transferred to alternating light and dark (LD), fertility was not recovered, but fertility was recovered when fairly young males were similarly transferred. Multiple matings of males indicated that recovery was correlated with sperm in the testes at the LL to LD transfer becoming available for ejaculations. Few morphological abnormalities were found in the sperm of LL males, but there was less activity than in the sperm of LD males. At 1 week after eclosion, the testes of LL males contained more sperm bundles than did the testes of LD males, but the LL males had somewhat fewer bundles overall in their reproductive tracts. Disruption of the circadian rhythm regulating movement of sperm from the testes was suggested as the most probable cause of the sterility of LL males.

  1. Nanostructured biomimetic moth-eye arrays in silicon by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.

    2009-08-01

    The eyes and wings of some species of moth are covered in arrays of subwavelength pillars that have been tuned over millions of years of evolution to reflect as little sunlight as possible. We are investigating ways of exploiting this to reduce reflection from the surfaces of silicon solar cells. Here, we report on the experimental realization of biomimetic antireflective moth-eye arrays in silicon using a technique based on nanoimprint lithography and dry etching. Areas of 1cm x 1cm have been patterned and analysis of reflectance measurements predicts a loss in the performance of a solar cell of only 6.5% compared to an ideal antireflective coating. This compares well with an optimized single layer Si3N4 antireflective coating, for which an 8% loss is predicted.

  2. Do anthropogenic transports facilitate stored-product pest moth dispersal? A molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Ryne, Camilla; Bensch, Staffan

    2008-02-01

    Stored-product moths cause large economic damage in food processing industries and storage facilities. Control of indoor pests is currently dealt with locally, and control strategies seldom include different mills or cooperative industries in joint efforts to reduce infestations. In colder climates where conditions hinder flight dispersal of stored-product moths, we hypothesize that human transport between mills will facilitate dispersal. Albeit considered intuitive, this hypothesis has so far never been tested. Male moths from three mills (populations) in southern Sweden and Denmark were collected and by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) pair-wise F(st) values were calculated. Cluster (population) origins of the genotypes were computed by using a model-based method, structure. The results suggest that known transportation of flour between two mills generate genetically more similar populations of the economically important stored-product moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zell.) (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae), compared to the third mill, with another distribution area, but situated geographically in between the other mills. The structure model placed the sampled genotypes to belong to either two or five original populations, with a higher probability of two original populations. The third mill was consistently different from the other two mills independent of the models' calculated number of populations. Although the study was restricted to three mills and one transportation route, it highlights the possibility that transportation of food products promotes genetic mixing (i.e. dispersal) of insect pest populations. Including cooperating mills in control (or monitor) strategy schemes against stored-product pest insects would therefore be a more effective action, rather than to treat each mill separately. PMID:17713751

  3. Survival of indianmeal moth and navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A

    2007-08-01

    Concerns over insect resistance, regulatory action, and the needs of organic processors have generated renewed interest in developing nonchemical alternative postharvest treatments to fumigants used on dried fruits and nuts. Low-temperature storage has been identified as one alternative for the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), common postharvest pests in California dried fruits and nuts. The response of eggs, nondiapausing larvae, and pupae of both species to exposure to low temperatures (0, 5, and 10 degrees C) was evaluated. Eggs of both species were the least tolerant of low temperatures. At 0 and 5 degrees C, pupae were most tolerant, but at 10 degrees C, nondiapausing larvae of both species were most tolerant, with lethal time (LT)95 values of 127 and 100 d for Indianmeal moth and navel orangeworm, respectively. The response of diapausing Indianmeal moth larvae to subfreezing temperatures also was evaluated. Diapausing larvae were very cold tolerant at -10 degrees C, with LT95 values of 20 and 17 d for long-term laboratory and recently isolated cultures, respectively. Diapausing larvae were far less tolerant at lower temperatures. At -15 degrees C, LT95 values for both cultures were <23 h, and at -20 degrees C, LT95 values were <7 h. Refrigeration temperatures of 0-5 degrees C should be useful in disinfesting product contaminated with nondiapausing insects, with storage times of 3 wk needed for adequate control. Relatively brief storage in commercial freezers, provided that the temperature throughout the product was below -15 degrees C for at least 48 h, also shows potential as a disinfestation treatment, and it is necessary when diapausing Indianmeal moth larvae are present. PMID:17849906

  4. Identification and localization of visual pigments in the retina of the moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Insecta, Saturniidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Langer; Gudrun Schmeinck; Friederike Anton-Erxleben

    1986-01-01

    In the compound eye of the moth Antheraea polyphemus, three types of visual pigments were found in extracts from the retina and by microspectrophotometry in situ. The absorption maxima of the receptor pigment P and the metarhodopsin M are at (1) P 520–530 nm, M 480–490 nm; (2) P 460–480 nm, M 530–540 nm; (3) P 330–340 nm, M 460–470

  5. Discrimination of pheromone enantiomers by two pheromone binding proteins from the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Plettner, E; Lazar, J; Prestwich, E G; Prestwich, G D

    2000-08-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, uses (7R, 8S)-cis-2-methyl-7, 8-epoxyoctadecane, (+)-disparlure, as a sex pheromone. The (-) enantiomer of the pheromone is a strong behavioral antagonist. Specialized sensory hairs, sensillae, on the antennae of male moths detect the pheromone. Once the pheromone enters a sensillum, the very abundant pheromone binding protein (PBP) transports the odorant to the sensory neuron. We have expressed the two PBPs found in gypsy moth antennae, PBP1 and PBP2, and we have studied the affinity of these recombinant PBPs for the enantiomers of disparlure. To study pheromone binding under equilibrium conditions, we developed and validated a binding assay. We have addressed the two major problems with hydrophobic ligands in aqueous solution: (1) concentration-dependent adsorption of the ligand on vial surfaces and (2) separation of the protein-bound ligand from the material remaining free in solution. We used this assay to demonstrate for the first time that pheromone binding to PBP is reversible and that the two PBPs from L. dispar differ in their enantiomer binding preference. PBP1 has a higher affinity for the (-) enantiomer, while PBP2 has a higher affinity for the (+) enantiomer. The PBP from the wild silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Apol-3) bound the disparlure enantiomers more weakly than either of the L. dispar PBPs, but Apol-3 was also able to discriminate the enantiomers. We have observed extensive aggregation of both L. dispar PBPs and an increase in pheromone binding at high (>2 microM) PBP concentrations. We present a model of disparlure binding to the two PBPs. PMID:10913308

  6. Radio frequency treatments to control codling moth in in-shell walnuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Wang; J. N. Ikediala; J. Tang; J. D. Hansen; E. Mitcham; R. Maoa; B. Swanson

    2001-01-01

    ‘Diamond’ Walnuts (Juglansregia L.) in the shell were treated with radio frequency (RF) energy in a 27 MHz pilot-scale system to determine the treatment effect on third- and fourth-instar codling moth, Cydiapomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), mortality and walnut quality. After 2 and 3 min of RF treatments, infested in-shell walnuts were heated to 43 and 53°C. The corresponding insect mortality

  7. The Adaptation of the Moth Pheromone Receptor Neuron to its Natural Stimulus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubomir Kostal; Petr Lansky; Jean-Pierre Rospars

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the first phase of information transduction in the model of the olfactory receptor neuron of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus. We predict such stimulus characteristics that enable the system to perform optimally, i.e., to transfer as much information as possible. Few a priori constraints on the nature of stimulus and stimulus-to-signal transduction are assumed. The results are given

  8. Effects of three neem-based insecticides on diamondback moth (lepidoptera: plutellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge-Mei Liang; Wen Chen; Tong-Xian Liu

    2003-01-01

    Three commercial neem-based insecticides, Agroneem™, Ecozin™, and Neemix™, were evaluated for oviposition deterrence, antifeedant effect to larvae, and toxicity to eggs of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., in the laboratory. All three neem-based insecticides did not exhibit significant oviposition deterrence on P. xylostella. When cabbage leaves were used as an egg-laying substrate, numbers of eggs oviposited by P. xylostella

  9. Using Yellow Rocket as a Trap Crop for Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco R. Badenes-perez; Anthony M. Shelton; Brian A. Nault

    2005-01-01

    Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata, was evaluated as a trap crop for diamondback moth,Plutellaxylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in cabbage,Brassicaoleracea L. variety capitata, in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae found in Þeld plots of cabbage alone were 5.2Ð11.3 times higher than those on cabbage plants in plots that included cabbage and several

  10. A Saponin Correlated with Variable Resistance of Barbarea vulgaris to the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Agerbirk; Carl E. Olsen; Bo M. Bibby; Hanne O. Frandsen; Lea D. Brown; Jens K. Nielsen; J. Alan A. Renwick

    2003-01-01

    Two types of Barbarea vulgaris var. arcuata, the G-type and the P-type, differed in resistance to larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella. Rosette plants of the G-type were fully resistant to the DBM when grown in a greenhouse or collected in the summer season, but leaves collected during the late fall were less resistant, as previously found for

  11. Sequence variability in the fibroin-H intron of domesticated and wild silk moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laisel Martinez; Juan C. Almagro; Jose L. Coll; Rene J. Herrera

    2004-01-01

    The single intron of the heavy-chain fibroin gene in domesticated (Bombyxmori) and wild (B.mandarina) silk moths has a length of approximately 1000 nucleotides. It is located only 57 bp from the gene’s core promoter and harbors multiple AT-rich regulatory elements that have been found to enhance the basal level of transcription in vitro. In this work, the intronic nucleotide variability

  12. Molecular Evolution of Lepidopteran Silk Proteins: Insights from the Ghost Moth, Hepialus californicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Collin; Kazuei Mita; Frantisek Sehnal; Cheryl Y. Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    Silk production has independently evolved in numerous arthropod lineages, such as Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies.\\u000a Lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars) synthesize silk proteins in modified salivary glands and spin silk fibers into protective\\u000a tunnels, escape lines, and pupation cocoons. Molecular sequence data for these proteins are necessary to determine critical\\u000a features of their function and evolution. To this end, we constructed

  13. Successional Stages of Faunal Regeneration — A Case Study on Megadiverse Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hilt; K. Fiedler

    So far, little is known about the impact of habitat disturbance and subsequent regeneration on mega-diverse insect assemblages\\u000a native to Andean mountain rainforests. The speciose insect order Lepidoptera provides an ideal target for such analysis. Butterflies\\u000a and moths are probably the taxonomically best known insects. Moreover, lepidopterans are functionally connected in two-fold\\u000a manner with the vegetation they inhabit: through the

  14. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2012-06-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors. PMID:22732619

  15. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan; Light, Douglas; Chebny, Vincent

    2012-04-01

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (PVC) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with PVC dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate-C Plus) loaded with codlemone. Evaluations were conducted in replicated plots (0.1-0.2 ha) in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen) during both generations of codling moth from 2007 to 2009. Dispensers were applied at 1,000 ha(-1). Male captures in traps baited with virgin female moths and codlemone lures were recorded. Residual analysis of field-aged dispensers over both moth generations was conducted. Dispensers exhibited linear declines in release rates of both attractants, and pear ester was released at a significantly higher rate than codlemone during both time periods. The proportion of virgin female-baited traps catching males was significantly lower with combo dispenser TRE24 (45/110, mg codlemone/mg pear ester) during the second generation in 2007 and the combo dispensers TRE144 (45/75) and TRE145 (75/45) during the first generation in 2008 compared with Isomate-C Plus. Similarly, male catches in female-baited traps in plots treated with the combo dispensers TRE144 during the first generation in 2008 and TRE23 (75/110) during the second generation, in 2007 were significantly lower than in plots treated with Isomate-C Plus. No significant differences were found for male catches in codlemone-baited traps in plots treated with Isomate-C Plus and any of the combo dispensers. However, male catches were significantly lower in plots treated with Cidetrak CM (codlemone-only dispenser) than the combo TRE144 dispenser during both generations in 2009. PMID:22507015

  16. Preference and performance linkage of a leaf-mining moth on different Salicaceae species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Kagata; Takayuki Ohgushi

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between oviposition prefer-ence and offspring performance of a leaf-mining moth (Paraleucoptera sinuella) on four Salicaceae species was investigated in 1997 and 1998. We observed the egg distribution pattern on different plant\\u000a species in the field and carried out oviposition experiments in the laboratory to determine the preference of ovipositing\\u000a females. We also examined larval survival, pupal mass, and

  17. Sex pheromones and reproductive isolation in four european small ermine moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Löfstedt; Jan N. C. Pers

    1985-01-01

    Reproductive isolation among four sympatric small ermine moths (Yponomeuta) is analyzed in terms of niches in the sexual communication channel. Potential pheromone components were identified from pheromone gland secretions ofY. evonymellus,Y. cagnagellus,Y. padelius, andY. vigintipunctatus by gas chromatography with flame ionization and electroantennographic detection and tested for behavioral activity in the field. The species were found to share (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate

  18. Reinvestigation of Female Sex Pheromone of Processionary Moth ( Thaumetopoea pityocampa ): No Evidence for Minor Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Quero; Edi A. Malo; Gemma Fabriàs; Francisco Camps; Philippe Lucas; Michel Renou; Angel Guerrero

    1997-01-01

    The female sex pheromone of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa has been reinvestigated to look for possible minor components. Examination by GC-MS and GC-EAD of the contents of virgin female glands, after stimulation with PBAN (pheromone-biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide), showed that the major component, (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate (1), appears to be the only pheromone compound present in the gland. Comparison of female attractivity

  19. Analogs of sex pheromone of processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa : Synthesis and biological activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Camps; Gemma Fabriàs; Vicens Gasol; Angel Guerrero; Rodolfo Hernández; Ramón Montoya

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis and biological activity of some analogs of (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate1, the major component of the sex pheromone of the processionary mothThaumetopoea pityocampa is described. The analogs have been formally derived by structural modification of the enyne and acetate functions of the parent compound1. In field tests, trifluoroacetate ester16 and the analog,11, with fluorine substitution at the olefin site, decreased

  20. Molecular Characterization and Virulence of Beauveria spp. from the Pine Processionary Moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Sevim; Ismail Demir; Zihni Demirba?

    2010-01-01

    The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.) is one of the most harmful pests to pine species in Mediterranean countries including Turkey. Caterpillars\\u000a of T. pityocampa are not only significantly harmful to forest trees but also responsible for various allergic reactions in humans and animals.\\u000a In this study, in order to find a more effective and safe biological