Sample records for cactus moth cactoblastis

  1. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  2. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field populations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum were surveyed weekly beginning in July 2006. We sampled the native cactus, Opuntia stricta visually to determine the densities and development of immature stages. Adult males were collected using a synthetic pheromone and a sticky wing trap...

  3. Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

  4. VIRUSES IN LABORATORY-REARED CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful rearing of large numbers of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is vital to the success of a control program against this moth. Moths are partially sterilized by exposure to radiation and then released to mate with wild individuals. The progeny of wild and irradiated moths are sterile...

  5. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  6. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  7. Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  8. Trail marking by larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bio- assays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intra- specific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROL TACTICS AGAINST THE INVASIVE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biocontrol of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pears (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has invaded North America and its ability to control its host plant raises concerns for the safety and surviva...

  10. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  11. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of three constant temperatures (20°, 25° and 30°C) on the rate of development and life history of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). Results from these laboratory experiments were used to predict C. cactorum rate of development in the field during...

  12. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the number of times that males of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) mate under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were provided to each male at 24 h intervals until male death. Females removed from the containers were dissected to ascertain their mating ...

  13. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  14. Influence of radiation dose on the level of F1 sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined inherited sterility effects on the F1 and F2 generations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), in order to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would fully sterilize F1-generation moths, which would result in no viable offspring when F1 males were inbred- or out-crossed ...

  15. THE RENOWNED CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE): ITS NATURAL HISTORY AND THREAT TO NATIVE OPUNTIA FLORAS IN MEXICO AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Z IMMERMANN; V. C. M ORAN; J. H. H OFFMANN

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Phycitidae) is native to South America. It was released as a biological control agent against alien Opuntia- cacti in Australia in the 1920s, then in southern Africa, and latterly on several islands, including those in the Carib- bean. In 1989, the cactus moth was discovered in Florida, in the United States of America, where

  16. The renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: its natural history and threat to native Opuntia floras in Mexico and the United States of America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Zimmermann; V. C. Moran; J. H. Hoffmann

    2000-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Phycitidae) is native to South America. It was released as a biological control agent against alien Opuntia -cacti in Australia in the 1920s, then in southern Africa, and latterly on several islands, including those in the Caribbean. In 1989, the cactus moth was discovered in Florida, in the United States of America, where it

  17. An international cooperative effort to protect Opuntia cactus resources in the American Southwest and Mexico from the South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American Cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was intentionally introduced to an island in the Caribbean in the 1950’s and eventually made its way to the Florida peninsula by 1989. In 2004, the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APH...

  18. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Laboratory, PO Box 748, Tifton, GA 31794 (United States); Styer, E.L. [University of Georgia, Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, PO Box 1389, Tifton, GA 31794 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  19. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  20. Trail marking by the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to t...

  1. External morphology of the egg of the native (Melitara prodenialis) and exotic (Cactoblastis cactorum) cactus moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the chorionic surface of two pyralids that feed on Opuntia cactus. The chorionic surface of Cactoblastis cactorum has a reticulate pattern due to the ridges on the surface and aeropyles. The surface has a granular appearance at low m...

  2. Extended geographical distribution and host range of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera Pyralidae)in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field exploration was conducted to confirm the southernmost distribution of Cactoblastis cactorum in Argentina. The distribution of the moth was extended to the south (40° 10´S) and west (66° 56´W). The native Opuntia penicilligera was recorded as a host for the first time. These findings should ...

  3. COMPARATIVE PHENOLOGY OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM AND MELITARA PRODENIALIS (LEPIDOPTERA): PESTS OF CACTUS IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta) at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL from September 2006 – September 2007 for the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum and the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis. Every week, we visually counted the numbers and reco...

  4. DON'T LET CACTO BLAST US: DEVELOPMENT OF A BINATIONAL PLAN TO STOP THE SPREAD OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its detection in south Florida in 1989, the cactus moth has expanded its range north along the Atlantic Coast as far as Bull Island near Charleston, South Carolina, and west along the Gulf Coast as far as Dauphin Island, Alabama. Although prickly pear cactus has minor value as a food crop in ...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  6. The Multiple 'Personalities' of Cactoblastis cactorum: A Multi-Disciplinary Response to the Biological Impacts of the Moth's Geographical Wanderings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus feeding pyralid Cactoblastis cactorum is perhaps the most well know successful classical biological control agent against weeds when attacking non-native prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.). However, the moth has become a pest in North America where it attacks native Opuntia spp.; threat...

  7. Cactoblastis cactorum Sterile Insect Technique Validation Study Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically cont...

  8. CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE VALIDATION STUDY RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, in 1989 this moth was detected in the Florida Keys and has now become an invasive pest in the southea...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A TRAPPING SYSTEM FOR THE CACTUS MOTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests have demonstrated that virgin cactus moth females are very effective at attracting conspecific males. Research was conducted to isolate and identify volatile compounds released by cactus moth females. The behavioural activities of 3 putative compounds isolated by various methods are being d...

  10. Targets of an invasive species: Oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum on 14 North American Opuntioid cacti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent for cactus species of the genus Opuntia. The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North Americ...

  11. Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) as a possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern United States as we...

  12. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  13. LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS FOR CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IMMATURES AND ADULTS UNDER FIVE DIFFERENT CONSTANT TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported in Florida in 1989, and is expanding its geographical range in the United States to threaten Opuntia cactus in the southwestern states and Mexico where it is an important economic crop. Laboratory life history studie...

  14. PHEROMONE-BASED ATTRACTANT FOR MALES OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), is an invasive pest of Opuntia spp. Since its arrival in the Florida Keys in 1989, it has moved rapidly up the east and west coasts of Florida, threatening to invade the southwestern United States and Mexico. Female moths produce a sex pheromone that ...

  15. EXPANDING GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observational surveys and virgin female-baited traps have identified the continued spread of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The moth is infesting native and ornamental cacti north to Charleston, SC and west to St. George Island, FL. ...

  16. SURVEY FOR EGG PARASITOIDS ATTACKING CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NORTH FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the natural enemies of Cactoblastis cactorum, a cactus moth native from Argentina, has increased since its accidental introduction to Bahia Honda Key, Florida, in October 1989. In 1957, C. cactorum was introduced onto the Caribbean islands of the Greater Antilles to manage the invasive p...

  17. Rearing Cactoblastis cactorum on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum Berg, is an invasive species that threatens economically and ecologically important native cacti in Mexico and the U.S. southwest. The insect presently occurs along the coastal U.S. from Charleston, SC, to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL, and in the interi...

  18. Life table analysis for Cactoblastis cactorum immatures and female adults under five constant temperatures:Implications for pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported in Florida in 1989, and is expanding its geographical range in the United States to threaten Opuntia cactus in the southwestern states and Mexico where it is an important economic crop. Laboratory life history studie...

  19. Effect of temperature and length of exposure time on percent egg hatch of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oligophagous cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), has been recognized as a serious and immediate threat to Opuntia cacti in Florida and the southeastern United States. The moth has successfully colonized new geographical ranges with lower annual temperatures north of the Florida Keys wher...

  20. Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...

  1. A CHARACTER DEMONSTRATING THE OCCURRENCE OF MATING IN MALE CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small footb...

  2. LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS FOR CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IMMATURES AND ADULTS UNDER FIVE DIFFERENT CONSTANT TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory life history studies of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, were conducted at 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34 ºC. Duration of immature stages was generally longest at 18, declining significantly at 22 and shortest at 26, 30 and 34 ºC. Total immature development time from eggs to pupae was about...

  3. CASE HISTORY: CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM ON OPUNTIA SPP. IN THE U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, in Florida in 1989, following its release against Opuntia species on several Caribbean islands in 1957-1960, has raised concerns for the safety of native and rare Opuntia species in the Florida Keys and the potential spread of C. c...

  4. Laboratory evaluation of insecticides for control of the invasive Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: We conducted laboratory assays of nine products registered for use on ornamental plants in Florida for their ovicidal and larvicidal activity against the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. One-hundred percent mortality (or 0% survival) of 1-day-old eggs was obtained when...

  5. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  6. Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for the Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A CLIMEX was developed for the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records, and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX “growth indices” against field measur...

  7. Laboratory Performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on South and North American Opuntia Species Occurring in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is native to South America. Since the insects’ unintentional arrival to the US in 1989 and to Mexican islands in 2006, it has become a serious threat to the diversity of Opuntia species in North America and to the wild and cultivated species of Opuntia. The na...

  8. Artificial diets for classical weed biocontrol agents-it's been done. The Cactoblastis cactorum story in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp., but its unintentional arrival in North America represents an economic and ecological threat to native Opuntia spp. in the U. S. and ...

  9. Diversity in Control and Management Techniques for Cactoblastis cactorum and Its Response in its Adventive North American Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp. However, multiple unintentional arrivals of C. cactorum in North America represent an economical and ecological threat to native Opun...

  10. Diet flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: The influence of age, gender, mating status and body size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to the rich diversity of Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring an...

  11. The evolution of obligate pollination mutualisms: senita cactus and senita moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore H. Fleming; J. Nathaniel Holland

    1998-01-01

    We report a new obligate pollination mutualism involving the senita cactus, Lophocereus schottii (Cactaceae, Pachyceereae), and the senita moth, Upiga virescens (Pyralidae, Glaphyriinae) in the Sonoran Desert and discuss the evolution of specialized pollination mutualisms. L. schottii is a night-blooming, self-incompatible columnar cactus. Beginning at sunset, its flowers are visited by U. virescens females, which collect pollen on specialized abdominal

  12. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...foreign countries. The pest attacks various cactus genera. The species that are most threatened in the United States belong to the genus Opuntia, also known as the prickly pear cactus. Opuntia cactus is valued as an ornamental plant...

  13. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Service, P.O. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  14. Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Grasela, James J; McIntosh, Arthur H; Ringbauer, Joseph; Goodman, Cynthia L; Carpenter, James E; Popham, Holly J R

    2012-05-01

    The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) in Australia, Hawaii, South Africa, and various Caribbean islands, has posed great concern as to the possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern USA as well as with the potential to cause a major infestation of commercial and agricultural cactus crops in Mexico. A number of control measures have been investigated with varying degrees of success including, field exploration for cactus moth-specific parasitoids, insecticides, fungal, bacterial, and nematode agents. Current tactics used by the USA-Mexico binational program to eradicate cactus moth from Mexico and mitigate its westward movement in the USA include host plant removal, the manual removal and destruction of egg sticks and infected cacti stems, and the Sterile Insect Technique. One other approach not taken until now is the development of a cactus moth cell line as a tool to facilitate the investigation of baculoviruses as an alternative biocontrol method for the cactus moth. Consequently, we established C. cactorum cell lines derived from adult ovarian tissue designated as BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG. The mean cell population doubling time was 204.3 and 112 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with weekly medium change, while the doubling time was 176.6 and 192.6 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with a daily change of medium. In addition, the daily versus weekly change in medium was reflected in the percentage viability with both cell lines showing higher levels with a daily medium change. Of the three baculoviruses tested, only the recombinant AcMNPV-hsp70Red and GmMNPV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0 were able to demonstrate significant production of extracellular virus (ECV) in each of the cell lines, whereas both cell lines were refractive to an HzSNPV challenge at an MOI of 10. In this study, we have demonstrated both the successful development of a C. cactorum cell line and its ability to support a complete baculovirus infection. The potential is also there to pursue further investigations to determine the susceptibility of the cactus moth cell line to other viruses. Additionally, the availability of a cactus moth cell line will facilitate the analysis of viruses prior to using the more expensive bioassay test. Finally, it is hoped with the knowledge presented here that baculoviruses may also be considered as an alternative biocontrol method for the cactus moth. PMID:22580906

  15. Rearing a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes: Preliminary comparisons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared several biological parameters of native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, reared on an artificial versus the natural diet of Opuntia spp. cladodes. Results suggest that the current artificial diet developed for mass rearing C. cactorum can provide nutritional value for the rear...

  16. Cactus

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, R.L.

    1983-03-01

    The CACTUS project (computer-aided control, tracking, and updating system) was initiated by the Bendix Kansas City Division to address specific work-in-process problems encountered in a cable department. Since then, the project has been expanded to additional electrical manufacturing departments because of potential productivity gains from the system. The philosophy of CACTUS is to add an element of distributed data proessing to the centralized data processing system currently in use for control of work in process. Under this system, the existing chain of communications between the host computer and the CRT terminals in a department is severed. A mini-computer established in the department communicates directly with the central system, and departmental communication is then established with the mini-computer. The advantages, disadvantages, operation performance, and economics of the system are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  18. 75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ...Information Collection; South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY...to prevent the spread of South American cactus moth. DATES: We will consider all comments...to prevent the spread of South American cactus moth, contact Dr. Robyn Rose,...

  19. Control and persistence of native Opntia on Nevis and St. Kitts, fity years after the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since Cactoblastis cactorum appeared in Florida in 1989, via importation of infested horticultural Opuntia plants and/or natural spread from the Caribbean, there has been a concern about the moth’s threat to native and economic North American and Mexican Opuntia. The moth’s occurrence in the Caribbe...

  20. Targets of an invasive species: oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on 14 North American opuntioid cacti.

    PubMed

    Jezorek, Heather A; Stiling, Peter D; Carpenter, James E

    2010-12-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent of prickly pear cactus (Cactaceae: Opuntia Miller). The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North America. Of particular concern are the ecological and economic impacts the moth could have in the southwestern United States and Mexico, where both native and cultivated Opuntia species are important resources. It is unknown which species would best support larval development if the moth were to spread further westward in North America. This study aimed to determine if ovipositing females demonstrate preferences for any of 14 common opuntioids native to or naturalized in Mexico and the southwestern United States; which of these opuntioids best support larval development; and if oviposition preference correlates with larval performance, as predicted by simple adaptive models. Results from a field experiment showed that female moths preferred O. engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann variety linguiformis (Griffiths) Parfitt and Pinkava and O. engelmannii variety engelmannii for oviposition. A generalized linear model showed number of cladodes and degree of spininess to be significant predictors of oviposition activity. Results from a no-choice larval survival experiment showed Consolea rubescens (Salm-Dyck ex de Candolle.) Lemaire and O. streptacantha Lemaire to be the best hosts. Epidermal toughness was a significant predictor of most larval fitness parameters. In general, oviposition preference was not correlated with larval performance. A lack of co-evolutionary history between C. cactorum and North American opuntioid species may help explain this disconnect. PMID:22182554

  1. UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NON-NATIVE HABITATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its role as a highly successful biological control agent for weedy Opuntia cactus, but more recently it is notorious as an invasive pest in North America. Interestingly, historical accounts of the geographical expansion of C. cactorum when deployed as a biologi...

  2. Flight phenology of male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different latitudes in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term trapping studies of the invasive moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) were conducted at various latitudes from Puerto Rico to South Carolina. Three flight periods per year were identified at the five temperate sties studied, which covered the majority of the insects’ mainland United States i...

  3. Identification of factors influencing flight performance of field-collected and laboratory-reared, overwintered, and nonoverwintered cactus moths fed with field-collected host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental conditions during egg and larval development may influence the dispersal ability of insect pests, thus requiring seasonal adjustment of control strategies. We studied the longest single flight, total distance flown and the number of flights initiated by wild Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg...

  4. Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates.

    PubMed

    Legaspi, Benjamin C; Legaspi, Jesusa Crisostomo

    2010-04-01

    Invasive pests, such as the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), have not reached equilibrium distributions and present unique opportunities to validate models by comparing predicted distributions with eventual realized geographic ranges. A CLIMEX model was developed for C. cactorum. Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX "growth indices" against field measurements of larval growth. Globally, CLIMEX predicted limited potential distribution in North America (from the Caribbean Islands to Florida, Texas, and Mexico), Africa (South Africa and parts of the eastern coast), southern India, parts of Southeast Asia, and the northeastern coast of Australia. Actual records indicate the moth has been found in the Caribbean (Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands), Cuba, Bahamas, Puerto Rico, southern Africa, Kenya, Mexico, and Australia. However, the model did not predict that distribution would extend from India to the west into Pakistan. In the United States, comparison of the predicted and actual distribution patterns suggests that the moth may be close to its predicted northern range along the Atlantic coast. Parts of Texas and most of Mexico may be vulnerable to geographic range expansion of C. cactorum. Larval growth rates in the field were estimated by measuring differences in head capsules and body lengths of larval cohorts at weekly intervals. Growth indices plotted against measures of larval growth rates compared poorly when CLIMEX was run using the default historical weather data. CLIMEX predicted a single period conducive to insect development, in contrast to the three generations observed in the field. Only time and more complete records will tell whether C. cactorum will extend its geographical distribution to regions predicted by the CLIMEX model. In terms of small scale temporal predictions, this study suggests that CLIMEX indices may agree with field-specific population dynamics, provided an adequate metric for insect growth rate is used and weather data are location and time specific. PMID:20388265

  5. Cholla Cactus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Cholla cactus growing in Pine Creek Canyon. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of the Mojave Desert....

  6. The Brownian cactus I Scaling limits of discrete cactuses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Brownian cactus I Scaling limits of discrete cactuses Nicolas Curien, Jean-Fran¸cois Le Gall, Gr´egory Miermont February 20, 2011 Abstract The cactus of a pointed graph is a discrete tree-tree called the contin- uous cactus of E. We prove under general assumptions that the cactus of random planar

  7. The Brownian cactus I Scaling limits of discrete cactuses

    E-print Network

    Le Gall, Jean-François

    The Brownian cactus I Scaling limits of discrete cactuses Nicolas Curien, Jean-Fran¸cois Le Gall, Gr´egory Miermont February 19, 2011 Abstract The cactus of a pointed graph is a discrete tree-tree called the contin- uous cactus of E. We prove under general assumptions that the cactus of random planar

  8. TURNING THE TIDE – USING THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MITIGATE AN UNWANTED WEED BIOCONTROL AGENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically contr...

  9. Bird's Nest in Cactus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A bird's nest in a cholla cactus in Pine Creek Canyon. The bird is likely a cactus wren, a species that nests specifically in cacti. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Can...

  10. The Brownian Cactus I. Scaling limits of discrete cactuses

    E-print Network

    Curien, Nicolas; Miermont, Grégory

    2011-01-01

    The cactus of a pointed graph is a discrete tree associated with this graph. Similarly, with every pointed geodesic metric space $E$, one can associate an $\\R$-tree called the continuous cactus of $E$. We prove under general assumptions that the cactus of random planar maps distributed according to Boltzmann weights and conditioned to have a fixed large number of vertices converges in distribution to a limiting space called the Brownian cactus, in the Gromov-Hausdorff sense. Moreover, the Brownian cactus can be interpreted as the continuous cactus of the so-called Brownian map.

  11. Yeast communities of the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae and associated insects in the Sandy Coastal Plains of Southeastern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Rosa; Paula B. Morais; Allen N. Hagler; Leda C. Mendonça-Hagler; Ricardo F. Monteiro

    1994-01-01

    The yeast communities from necrotic tissues, decaying flowers and fruits, and from larval feeding sites of the mothSigelgaita sp. in the cactusPilosocereus arrabidae were surveyed in three restinga ecosystems in Southeastern Brazil. Insects associated with these substrates were sampled to verify the vectoring of yeasts. The cactusPilosocereus arrabidae was shown to have four different yeast communities associated with it. Necrotic

  12. Cactus Tools for Grid Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabrielle Allen; Werner Benger; Thomas Dramlitsch; Tom Goodale; Hans-christian Hege; Gerd Lanfermann; André Merzky; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel; John Shalf

    2001-01-01

    Cactus is an open source problem solving environment designed for scientists and engineers... portals, such as those already developed for Cactus, will open the door to global computing resources for scientific users.

  13. Luna moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shawn Hanrahan (None; )

    2004-01-01

    One reason why the luna moth is considered to be an insect is because its body is divided into three parts-the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Luna moths undergo complete metamorphosis, meaning that their offspring look very different from the adults until they actually reach adulthood.

  14. UK Moths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ian Kimber

    Comprehensive guide to the moths of Great Britain and Ireland, with photographs of live specimens, common and scientific names, and notes on biology. The aim of the site is to illustrate as many species of British moths as possible and to provide this information in an accessible format.

  15. The Cactus Framework & Numerical Relativity

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    The Cactus Framework & Numerical Relativity: Petascale Requirements and Science Drivers Gabrielle Ott (U. Arizona) et al #12;4/8/07 #12;4/8/07 Cactus Code · Freely available, modular, portable and AEI. · Open source, documentation, etc #12;4/8/07 Cactus Structure Core "flesh" with plug-in "thorns

  16. Identifying the C. cactorum Pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), is an invasive pest of Opuntia spp. Since its arrival in the Florida Keys in 1989, it has moved rapidly up the east and west coasts of Florida, threatening to invade the southwestern United States and Mexico. Female moths produce a sex pheromone that ...

  17. Performance Profiling with Cactus Sasanka Madiraju

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    Performance Profiling with Cactus Benchmarks Sasanka Madiraju April 6th, 2006 System Science Master.3 Contributions and People Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Cactus Toolkit: Benchmarks 6 2.1 Cactus Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2 Types

  18. Cactus Graphs for Genome Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paten, Benedict; Diekhans, Mark; Earl, Dent; St. John, John; Ma, Jian; Suh, Bernard; Haussler, David

    We introduce a data structure, analysis and visualization scheme called a cactus graph for comparing sets of related genomes. Cactus graphs capture some of the advantages of de Bruijn and breakpoint graphs in one unified framework. They naturally decompose the common substructures in a set of related genomes into a hierarchy of chains that can be visualized as multiple alignments and nets that can be visualized in circular genome plots.

  19. The Cactus Framework: Design, Applications and

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    1 The Cactus Framework: Design, Applications and Future Directions Gabrielle Allen gallen 7/22/06 Cactus Code · Freely available, modular, portable and manageable environment/22/06 Cactus User Community Goddard Penn State Wash UAEI TACTuebingen Southampton SISSA Thessaloniki Earth

  20. Cactus: HPC infrastructure and programming tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    Cactus provides computational scientists and engineers with a collaborative, modular and portable programming environment for parallel high performance computing. Cactus can make use of many other technologies for HPC, such as Samrai, HDF5, PETSc and PAPI, and several application domains such as numerical relativity, computational fluid dynamics and quantum gravity are developing open community toolkits for Cactus.

  1. Component Specification in the Cactus Framework: The Cactus Configuration Language

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle; Löffler, Frank; Rideout, David; Schnetter, Erik; Seidel, Eric L

    2010-01-01

    Component frameworks are complex systems that rely on many layers of abstraction to function properly. One essential requirement is a consistent means of describing each individual component and how it relates to both other components and the whole framework. As component frameworks are designed to be flexible by nature, the description method should be simultaneously powerful, lead to efficient code, and be easy to use, so that new users can quickly adapt their own code to work with the framework. In this paper, we discuss the Cactus Configuration Language (CCL) which is used to describe components ("thorns'') in the Cactus Framework. The CCL provides a description language for the variables, parameters, functions, scheduling and compilation of a component and includes concepts such as interface and implementation which allow thorns providing the same capabilities to be easily interchanged. We include several application examples which illustrate how community toolkits use the CCL and Cactus and identify nee...

  2. Rearing the oligophagous Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepideptera: Pyralidae) on meridic diets without host plant materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), an oligophagous Opuntia spp. herbivore from South America, has been used successfully as a biological control agent for several invasive Opuntia species around the world. However, its unintentional arrival in Florida raised serious concern over its possible effect on n...

  3. CACTUS-Clustering Categorical Data Using Summaries Venkatesh Ganti* Johannes Gehrket Raghu Ramakrishnant

    E-print Network

    Hinneburg, Alexander

    CACTUS-Clustering Categorical Data Using Summaries Venkatesh Ganti* Johannes Gehrket Raghu calledCACTUS thatdiscoversexactly suchclusters in the data. CACTUS hastwo important characteristics.Our experimentson avariety of datasetsshowthat CACTUS outperformspreviouswork by afactorof 3 to 10. Second, CACTUS

  4. Cactus seed germination: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Rojas-Aréchiga; Carlos Vázquez-Yanes

    2000-01-01

    The present review tries to give a general overview of the available information on cactus seed germination. First, information about the family Cactaceae is discussed, concerning aspects such as distribution and general characteristics. Seed distinctive features are mentioned, such as colour, form, and size. Aspects of seed physiology, such as germination and dormancy, as well as seed dynamics including dispersal,

  5. Cactus Grid Computing: Review of Current Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabrielle Allen; Werner Benger; Thomas Dramlitsch; Tom Goodale; Hans-christian Hege; Gerd Lanfermann; André Merzky; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel

    2001-01-01

    Cactus is an open source problem solving environment designed for scientists and engineers. Its modular structure facilitates parallel computation across di erent architectures and collaborative code development between different groups. Here we detail some of the various Grid Tools which have been developed around the Cactus Code, and describe the Grid experiments which have been performed to test their application.

  6. Cactus Application: Performance Predictions in Grid Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matei Ripeanu; Adriana Iamnitchi; Ian T. Foster

    2001-01-01

    The Cactus software is representative for a whole class of scientific applications; typically those that are tightly coupled, have reg- ular space decomposition, and huge memory and processor time require- ments. Cactus proved to be a valuable tool for astrophysicists, who first initiated its development. However, today's fastest supercomputers are not powerful enough to perform realistically large astrophysics simula- tions

  7. An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Hee Park; Ja-Hoon Kahng; Sang Hyun Lee; Kuk-Hyun Shin

    2001-01-01

    In previous studies, the ethanol extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) showed potent anti-inflammatory action. In the present study, following fractionation of the methanol extract of cactus stems guided by adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation model in mice, an active anti-inflammatory principle has been isolated and identified as ?-sitosterol.

  8. Cactus and Alkalinity By Elton Roberts Ripon, CA

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Cactus and Alkalinity By ­ Elton Roberts ­ Ripon, CA 1cactus1@verizon.net Malcolm Burleigh ­ St but increased alkalinity is a serious problem that then gets the cactus grower into a losing situation practice ­ There are few references to suggest that cactus growers ought to use a low pH water

  9. Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu Implementation of Level Set Methods in Cactus Framework By Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu #12;Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu be a powerful tool to handle such problems computationally #12;Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan

  10. DOES URBANIZATION AFFECT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CACTUS WREN ROOST NESTS? Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) are a common bird native to

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    DOES URBANIZATION AFFECT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CACTUS WREN ROOST NESTS? Cactus Wrens in the urban environment. A characteristic behavior of Cactus Wrens is they build and maintain roost nests. This was a preliminary investigation to determine if Cactus Wren roost nests serve to maintain an internal microclimate

  11. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  12. Use of cactus in mortars and concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eklund, L. [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Villarreal, R.R. [Univ. of Nuevo Leon, Monterry (Mexico)] [Univ. of Nuevo Leon, Monterry (Mexico)

    1998-01-01

    Natural polymers have been used in ancient times to improve the durability of lime-based mortars and concretes. The natural polymers used were locally available. In this work, cactus extract from Mexico has been tested in a Portland cement mortar. It is seen that cactus extract increases the plasticity of the mortar and improves water absorption and freeze-salt resistance. Calcium hydroxide produced by Portland cement hydration interacts with the components of cactus extract, polysaccharides or proteins, and forms complexes. It affects the crystallization process. Painting of the concrete with this extract has also shown improved water resistance.

  13. Fertilisation by Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Marshall

    1872-01-01

    IT has recently been suggested to me that the following note on the readiness with which moths wander, and their efficiency in fertilising orchids, is worth publication; I therefore forward it to you.

  14. Cholla cactus from the Sonora desert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-13

    Cacti have few leaves and waxy skin to reduce water loss, shallow root systems, and the ability to store water. The cholla cactus has thousands of spines for shade and to keep predators from eating it.

  15. A cactus theorem for end cuts

    E-print Network

    Evangelidou, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Dinits-Karzanov-Lomonosov showed that it is possible to encode all minimal edge cuts of a graph by a tree-like structure called a cactus. We show here that minimal edge cuts separating ends of the graph rather than vertices can be `encoded' also by a cactus. We apply our methods to finite graphs as well and we show that several types of cuts can be encoded by cacti.

  16. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O'Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. (US Geological Survey (US)); Kreidler, T.J. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

  17. Life of a Gypsy Moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

  18. Cactus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of data from one part of a computer to another has always been a complex task in which speed is traded against accuracy and the time required for error correction. Much more complex therefore is the transfer of information from one machine to another of a different type. Difficulties arise when machines are updated, when file formats…

  19. Cactus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2005-07-17

    Cacti are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Cacti use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce.

  20. CACTUS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes LOGO to teach the concept of inequalities by programing the turtle to take random walks in the coordinate plane restricted to predetermined regions defined by inequalities. The students task is to discover the inequalities that define the illegal areas into which the turtle must not move. Provides examples and corresponding computer…

  1. Laboratory biological parameters of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre was identified attacking Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), a serious pest of Opuntia spp. in North America, raising the possibility of using this egg parasitoid as an inundative biological control agent. Studies were conducted to assess the biological parameters of this para...

  2. Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  3. "Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  4. Supporting Efficient Execution in Heterogeneous Distributed Computing Environments with Cactus

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Supporting Efficient Execution in Heterogeneous Distributed Computing Environments with Cactus-enabled computational framework based on Cactus, the MPICH-G2 Grid-enabled message-passing library, and a variety

  5. Parca: A Paramesh-Based Driver for Cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiske, David; Schnetter, Erik; Tiglio, Manuel

    2007-04-01

    The talk will introduce the Parca software, which allows the Paramesh AMR libraries to be used as a Cactus driver thorn. Both Paramesh and Cactus have become fixtures in the numerical relativity community, but until the development of the Parca software Paramesh-based codes were completely incompatible with Cactus-based codes and vice-versa. Preliminary results demonstrating the interoperability of the Parca driver with existing Cactus thorns will be shown.

  6. Implementation of a Binary Tree Driver (OAKc) in Cactus

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    Implementation of a Binary Tree Driver (OAKc) in Cactus Jeff DeReus Center for Computation requirements #12;Cactus Code Framework · http://www.cactuscode.org · Open source development designed primarily Allen ­ Assistant Director for Computing Applications · Tom Goodale ­ Chief Architect of the Cactus Code

  7. The Cactus Worm: Experiments with Dynamic Resource Discovery and Allocation

    E-print Network

    Angulo, Dave

    The Cactus Worm: Experiments with Dynamic Resource Discovery and Allocation in a Grid Environment an experimental framework, called Cactus, that incorporates both adaptive application structures for dealing suggest that this "Cactus Worm" is an interesting challenge problem for Grid computing. 1 Introduction

  8. Bibliography of the Almond Moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Bibliographic references to the almond moth (known outside of North America as the cocoa moth or tropical warehouse moth). This moth is a pest of stored foods such as grain, nuts, and dried fruit. Includes references from 1883 (when the moth was described) to 1981. There are 626 references in this bibliography. It is somewhat dated (although a revision through 1995 is being prepared), but is an extremely comprhensive collection of references up to 1981. This resource will probably be of little use to undergraduate students but of significant value to graduate students working in stored product entomology.

  9. Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    GM-1-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology THE GYPSY MOTH IN INDIANA Clifford S. Sadof food, but gypsy moth caterpillars can eat the foliage of 500 species of trees and plants. While most in Indiana -- GM-1-W GYPSY MOTH BIOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION The gypsy moth goes through four developmental

  10. Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of the sunflower heads. Larvae feed and develop within the heads from mid-July to mid-September feeding initially on the bracts, pollen and the disk flowers and finally the immature and ma...

  11. An action of the cactus group

    E-print Network

    Henriques, Andre

    2007-01-01

    We construct an action of the big cactus group (the fundamental group of the Deligne-Mumford compactification of the moduli space of real curves of genus zero with n undistinguished marked points) on Fock-Goncharov's SL_m analog of the decorated Teichmuller space of ideal n-gons.

  12. Phytochemical and nutritional significance of cactus pear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; R. Carle

    2001-01-01

    This review discusses cactus pear fruit with special emphasis on its functional components. Besides their nutritional importance, their significance in plant physiology is also described. Opuntia sp. is characterized by high levels of amino acids, especially proline and taurine. The latter was recently re-evaluated in nutritional science as a conditional amino acid and was hitherto virtually unknown in plant tissues.

  13. Genetic differentiation, speciation, and phylogeography of cactus flies (Diptera: Neriidae: Odontoloxozus) from

    E-print Network

    Markow, Therese

    Genetic differentiation, speciation, and phylogeography of cactus flies (Diptera: Neriidae differentiation, systematics, and population structure of cactus flies (Diptera: Neriidae: Odontoloxozus) from', are common inhabitants of Sonoran Desert cactus necroses, and indepth studies on these species have provided

  14. Red clover with moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sage Ross (None; )

    2007-09-23

    Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

  15. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought-and

    E-print Network

    Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Cactus Mucilage Nanofibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanay Pais

    2011-01-01

    This work seeks to fabricate, optimize, and characterize nanofibers of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage and Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by electrospinning. Mucilage is a neutral mixture of sugars produced by cactus and PVA is a non-toxic, water-soluble, synthetic polymer, which is widely used as a co-spinning agent for polymers. Mucilage was extracted from the cactus pad and prepared for electrospinning

  17. Annealing a Magnetic Cactus into Phyllotaxis

    E-print Network

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Lammert, Paul E; Maynard, J D; Crespi, Vincent H

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by 2-D Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental "magnetic cactus" precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single spiral) phyllotaxis.

  18. Annealing a Magnetic Cactus into Phyllotaxis

    E-print Network

    Cristiano Nisoli; Nathaniel M. Gabor; Paul E. Lammert; J. D. Maynard; Vincent H. Crespi

    2010-02-03

    The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by 2-D Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental "magnetic cactus" precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single spiral) phyllotaxis.

  19. Annealing a magnetic cactus into phyllotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Gabor, Nathaniel M.; Lammert, Paul E.; Maynard, J. D.; Crespi, Vincent H.

    2010-04-01

    The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone, and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental “magnetic cactus” precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single-spiral) phyllotaxis.

  20. Doing numerical cosmology with the Cactus code

    E-print Network

    D. N. Vulcanov

    2002-10-02

    The article presents some aspects concerning the construction of a new thorn for the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. This thorn is completely dedicated to numerical simulations in cosmology, that means it can provide evolutions of different cosmological models, mainly based on Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric. Some numerical results are presented, testing the convergence, stability and the applicability of the code.

  1. Doing numerical cosmology with the Cactus code

    E-print Network

    Vulcanov, D N

    2002-01-01

    The article presents some aspects concerning the construction of a new thorn for the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. This thorn is completely dedicated to numerical simulations in cosmology, that means it can provide evolutions of different cosmological models, mainly based on Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric. Some numerical results are presented, testing the convergence, stability and the applicability of the code.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus Wren

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  3. The Cactus Framework and Toolkit: Design and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Goodale; Gabrielle Allen; Gerd Lanfermann; Joan Massó; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel; John Shalf

    2002-01-01

    We describe Cactus, a framework for building a variety of computing applications in science and engineering, including astrophysics, relativity and chemical engineering. We first motivate by example the need for such frameworks to support multi-platform, high performance applications across diverse communities. We then describe the design of the latest release of Cactus (Version 4.0) a complete rewrite of earlier versions,

  4. The Cactus Code: A Problem Solving Environment for the Grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabrielle Allen; Werner Benger; Tom Goodale; Hans-christian Hege; Gerd Lanfermann; André Merzky; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel; John Shalf

    2000-01-01

    Cactus is an open source problem solving environment designed for scientists and engineers. Its modular structure facilitates parallel computation across different architectures and collaborative code development between different groups. The Cactus Code originated in the academic research community, where it has been developed and used over many years by a large international collaboration of physicists and computational scientists. We discuss

  5. Using Memory Mapping to Support Cactus Stacks in WorkStealing Runtime Systems

    E-print Network

    Leiserson, Charles E.

    Using Memory Mapping to Support Cactus Stacks in Work­Stealing Runtime Systems I­Ting Angelina Lee a ``cactus stack,'' wherein a function's accesses to stack variables properly respect the func­ tion, and . bounded and efficient use of memory for the cactus stack. We have addressed this cactus­stack problem

  6. Using Memory Mapping to Support Cactus Stacks in Work-Stealing Runtime Systems

    E-print Network

    Huang, Zhiyi

    Using Memory Mapping to Support Cactus Stacks in Work-Stealing Runtime Systems I-Ting Angelina Lee a "cactus stack," wherein a function's accesses to stack variables properly respect the func- tion's calling, and · bounded and efficient use of memory for the cactus stack. We have addressed this cactus-stack problem

  7. Evaluation of Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) as a Biological Control Agent of Opuntia stricta(Cactaceae) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Hoffmann; V. C. Moran; D. A. Zeller

    1998-01-01

    Opuntia strictais an increasing problem in South Africa's premier wildlife reserve, the Kruger National Park, where the weed continues to disperse and has formed many dense, impenetrable thickets, some of which extend over several hectares. Although herbicidal control measures are being used to help control the weed, a biological control program was initiated in 1988 whenCactoblastis cactorumwas introduced into the

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHEROMONE-BASED SYNTHETIC ATTRACTANT FOR THE CACTUS MOTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical components of the female-produced pheromone were determined by extracting abdominal glands and by collecting volatile chemicals from calling females. Laboratory bioassays using olfactometers and flight tunnels determined that a three component blend was effective in producing a response in...

  9. 75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...wingspan of 22 to 35 millimeters (approximately 0.86 to 1.4 inches) that is indigenous to Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It is a serious quarantine pest of Opuntia spp., and an occasional pest of Nopalea spp.,...

  10. 76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...In support of our sterile insect program and domestic...name and origin of all fruits and vegetables authorized...proposing to amend the fruits and vegetables manuals...from the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization...Importation of Fruits and Vegetables The...

  11. Introduction The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    . Pupa. Pupation occurs in a loose silk cocoon usually formed on the lower or outer leaves. The pupa moth pupa. Adult. The DBM adult is a 6 mm long, slender, grayish-brown moth with pronounced antennae

  12. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  13. Exploitation of Opuntia cactus by birds on the Galápagos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Grant; P. R. Grant

    1981-01-01

    (1)There is a close association between Opuntia helleri (cactus) and Geospiza conirostris (cactus finch) on Isla Genovesa, and between Opuntia echios and Geospiza scandens on Isla Daphne Major. The two finch species consume nectar and pollen, pollinate the obligatorily out-crossing flowers, consume the aril around the seeds, crack the seeds and occasionally disperse them.(2)In the dry season the two finch

  14. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  15. Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

    2014-01-01

    A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails. PMID:24473133

  16. GYPSY MOTH MATING DISRUPTION RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2000, 82% of the nearly 2.9 million acres treated in the federal Slow-the-Spread of the Gypsy Moth Program (STS) used mating disruption. It is a preferred tactic because it is target specific, inexpensive, and effective. To date the program has exceeded its spread rate reduction goals, resul...

  17. Static and Dynamical Phyllotaxis in a Magnetic Cactus Cristiano Nisoli,1,3

    E-print Network

    Static and Dynamical Phyllotaxis in a Magnetic Cactus Cristiano Nisoli,1,3 Nathaniel M. Gabor,2- pearance of the Fibonacci sequence and golden mean in the disposition of spines on a cactus is replicated

  18. Cactus and Visapult: An Ultra-High Performance Grid-Distributed Visualization Architecture

    E-print Network

    1 Cactus and Visapult: An Ultra-High Performance Grid-Distributed Visualization Architecture Using to study gravitational waveforms of colliding black holes; The Cactus code. These improvements have boosted

  19. Evolutionary consequences of dispersal ability in cactus-feeding insects Christopher Irwin Smith1,2,

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Brian D.

    Evolutionary consequences of dispersal ability in cactus-feeding insects Christopher Irwin Smith1 and macroevolutionary patterns; this prediction is borne out by comparisons of species diversity in cactus

  20. 126 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal RooT GoRELICK

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    126 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal RooT GoRELICK Special Issue: Eastern Brazil Brasilicereus­6 meters tall, looking like an Amedeo Modigliani version of an organ pipe cactus. The primary trunks with watery, translucent pulp2, a somewhat useful character if you like to snack on cactus fruits in the field

  1. RealTime Issues in Cactus \\Lambda Matti A. Hiltunen, Xiaonan Han, and Richard D. Schlichting

    E-print Network

    Schlichting, Richard D.

    Real­Time Issues in Cactus \\Lambda Matti A. Hiltunen, Xiaonan Han, and Richard D. Schlichting­configurable real­time channel abstraction built using this approach is also given. This work is part of the Cactus­time operating system [16] on a cluster of Pentium PCs. 2 Configurable Real­Time Services The focus of the Cactus

  2. Aerodynamic loads on cactus-shaped cylinders at low Reynolds numbers Pradeep Babu and Krishnan Mahesha

    E-print Network

    Mahesh, Krishnan

    Aerodynamic loads on cactus-shaped cylinders at low Reynolds numbers Pradeep Babu and Krishnan numerical simulations of flow past cactus-shaped cylinders are performed at Reynolds numbers of 20, 100. The cavities in the cactus-shaped cylinders are seen to reduce the forces acting on them. At Reynolds number

  3. 244 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal Root GoRelick

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    244 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal Root GoRelick Euphorbia antiquorum and James Bond W hile in Thailand, but he only lists one-quarter of these as being "succulent, spiny, cactus-like". Of these seven a cactus-like Euphorbia in the islands of peninsular Thailand probably should have comes as a surprise. I

  4. Optimal Data Structures for Farthest-Point1 eries in Cactus Networks2

    E-print Network

    Smid, Michiel

    Optimal Data Structures for Farthest-Point1 eries in Cactus Networks2 Prosenjit Bose Jean-Lou De, cycles, uni-cyclic networks, and cactus networks.11 1 Introduction12 Consider the continuum of points, and cactus networks. We begin with data structures for simple22 networks and then use them as building blocks

  5. Plant Science Bulletin 53(2) 2007 The Organ Pipe Cactus. Yetman, David A. 2006.

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    74 Plant Science Bulletin 53(2) 2007 The Organ Pipe Cactus. Yetman, David A. 2006. University and succinct account of the organ pipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi), especially its interactions with humans this charismatic cactus species as though he knows it personally, which ­ after almost a half century acquaintance

  6. Demography of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia macrocephala: a comparative approach using population projection matrices

    E-print Network

    Banuet, Alfonso Valiente

    Demography of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia macrocephala: a comparative approach using is a long-lived columnar cactus endemic to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley in south-central Mexico. This plant predation could be some factors that limit the distribution and abun- dance of this columnar cactus

  7. The Brownian cactus II. Upcrossings and local times of super-Brownian motion

    E-print Network

    Le Gall, Jean-François

    The Brownian cactus II. Upcrossings and local times of super-Brownian motion Jean-François Le Gall the density at r of the profile of distances from the root. In terms of the Brownian cactus, this gives be reformulated in terms of the Brownian cactus discussed in [5]. Recall that, with any pointed geodesic compact

  8. Compact Cactus-Shaped Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) Monopole on Organic Symeon Nikolaou*(1)

    E-print Network

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Compact Cactus-Shaped Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) Monopole on Organic Substrate Symeon Nikolaou*(1, U.S.A. simos@ece.gatech.edu Abstract: The implementation of a novel cactus-shaped monopole antenna-segments broadband antennas proposed in [4-5] do not cover the whole UWB range. In this paper, a compact cactus

  9. Que savons-nous de la mousse cactus (Campylopus introflexus), exotique

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Que savons-nous de la mousse cactus (Campylopus introflexus), exotique envahissante ? Synthèse bibliographique a mousse cactus, Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.). Brid fait partie de la vingtaine d cactus ». Y.Dumas,Cemagref B C D E G H I J LL M N O Q R S T V W X Y 1 hyalin(e) : qui a la transparence

  10. International Association for Ecology Seasonal Patterns of Acid Fluctuations and Resource Storage in the Arborescent Cactus

    E-print Network

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    in the Arborescent Cactus Opuntia excelsa in Relation to Light Availability and Size Author(s): Manuel T. Lerdau, N of acid fluctuations and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia excelsa in relation to light light availability, diel acid fluctuation, and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia

  11. The Cactus Approach to Building Configurable Middleware Services Matti A. Hiltunen and Richard D. Schlichting

    E-print Network

    Schlichting, Richard D.

    The Cactus Approach to Building Configurable Middleware Services Matti A. Hiltunen and Richard D describe Cactus, a system that realizes this approach, and discuss some of the challenges in providing a number of different middleware services imple- mented using Cactus and outline some of the on-going work

  12. Efficient algorithms for generating all minimum cuts and the cactus representation of a graph

    E-print Network

    Prasad, Sanjiva

    Efficient algorithms for generating all minimum cuts and the cactus representation of a graph() time, where is the size of any min-cut. We discuss various properties of the cactus, and the algorithm by Karzanov and Timofeev to construct the cactus of an unweighted, undirected graph in O(n2 ) time. Here we

  13. Phylogeographic Structure in the Bogus Yucca Moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): Comparisons with Coexisting Pollinator Yucca Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Althoff; Joshua D. Groman; Kari A. Segraves; Olle Pellmyr

    2001-01-01

    The pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas highlights the potential importance of host plant specificity in insect diversification. Historically, one pollinator moth species, Tegeticula yuccasella, was believed to pollinate most yuccas. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that it is a complex of at least 13 distinct species, eight of which are specific to one yucca species. Moths in the

  14. Implementing Integrated FineGrain Customizable QoS using Cactus Matti A. Hiltunen, Richard D. Schlichting, and Gary Wong

    E-print Network

    Schlichting, Richard D.

    Implementing Integrated Fine­Grain Customizable QoS using Cactus Matti A. Hiltunen, Richard D attributes in tradeoff situa­ tions. 2. The Cactus approach The Cactus approach to constructing highly of prototypes of the Cactus model have been implemen

  15. EGRES Quick-Proof No. 2009-03 1 A quick proof for the cactus representation of

    E-print Network

    Frank, András

    EGRES Quick-Proof No. 2009-03 1 A quick proof for the cactus representation of mincuts Tam by a cactus, a graph built up from edge-disjoint circuits in a tree-like manner. Keywords: minimum cut, cactus-mail: frank@cs.elte.hu April 2009 #12;T. Fleiner and A. Frank: A quick proof for the cactus representation

  16. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  17. The flow past a cactus-inspired grooved cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Makdah, Adnan M.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2013-02-01

    The star-shaped cross section of giant cylindrical cactus plants is thought to be aerodynamically favorable for protection against toppling by strong winds. Particle image velocimetry is used to investigate the flow details within the surface grooves and in the immediate wake of a cactus-inspired model cylinder with eight longitudinal grooves, at biologically relevant Reynolds numbers between 50 × 103 and 170 × 103. The wake flow is analyzed and compared to a similarly sized circular cylinder. At the lowest Re tested, the wakes from the two geometries are similar. At higher Re, the cactus wake exhibits superior behavior as seen from the mean and turbulent velocities, suggesting that the flow mechanisms are Re dependent. The flow within the surface grooves reveals counter rotating rollers, while the geometrical ridges act as vortex generators known to help with the surface flow attachment. Lastly, a simplistic analysis is described to recover, qualitatively, certain time-dependent flow features from the randomly acquired PIV realizations.

  18. Reproductive biology of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Mexico and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apanteles opuntiarum, a parasitoid of cactus-feeding lepidopteran larvae, was incorrectly identified as A. alexanderi during the last 50 years. The discovery of A. opuntiarum as a new and separate species was followed by studies of its native host range. These studies revealed that the host range o...

  19. Cactus pear: a natural product in cancer chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Da-ming; Brewer, Molly; Garcia, Francisco; Feugang, Jean M; Wang, Jian; Zang, Roungyu; Liu, Huaguang; Zou, Changping

    2005-01-01

    Background Cancer chemoprevention is a new approach in cancer prevention, in which chemical agents are used to prevent cancer in normal and/or high-risk populations. Although chemoprevention has shown promise in some epithelial cancers, currently available preventive agents are limited and the agents are costly, generally with side effects. Natural products, such as grape seed, green tea, and certain herbs have demonstrated anti-cancer effects. To find a natural product that can be used in chemoprevention of cancer, we tested Arizona cactus fruit solution, the aqueous extracts of cactus pear, for its anti-cancer effects in cultured cells and in an animal model. Method Aqueous extracts of cactus pear were used to treat immortalized ovarian and cervical epithelial cells, as well as ovarian, cervical, and bladder cancer cells. Aqueous extracts of cactus pear were used at six concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 or 25%) to treat cells for 1, 3, or 5 days. Growth inhibition, apoptosis induction, and cell cycle changes were analyzed in the cultured cells; the suppression of tumor growth in nude mice was evaluated and compared with the effect of a synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphernyl) retinamide (4-HPR), which is currently used as a chemoprevention agent. Immunohistochemistry staining of tissue samples from animal tumors was performed to examine the gene expression. Results Cells exposed to cactus pear extracts had a significant increase in apoptosis and growth inhibition in both immortalized epithelial cells and cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also affected cell cycle of cancer cells by increasing G1 and decreasing G2 and S phases. Both 4-HPR and cactus pear extracts significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice, increased annexin IV expression, and decreased VEGF expression. Conclusion Arizona cactus pear extracts effectively inhibited cell growth in several different immortalized and cancer cell cultures, suppressed tumor growth in nude mice, and modulated expression of tumor-related genes. These effects were comparable with those caused by a synthetic retinoid currently used in chemoprevention trials. The mechanism of the anti-cancer effects of cactus pear extracts needs to be further studied. PMID:16150152

  20. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  1. BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG CACTUS WRENS AND CURVE-BILLED THRASHERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT E. RICKLEFS

    HILE studying the growth of nestling Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) and Curve-billed Thrashers (Toxostoma curvirostre) near Tucson, Arizona, during the late spring and summer of 1964, I made incidental observations on their behavior. A nestling of each species was removed to be raised in an artificial environment. The wren was 12 days old, the thrasher, 9. Both birds, but especially

  2. Exploration of Constantly Connected Dynamic Graphs Based on Cactuses

    E-print Network

    Ilcinkas, David

    Exploration of Constantly Connected Dynamic Graphs Based on Cactuses David Ilcinkas, Ralf Klasing study the problem of exploration by a mobile entity (agent) of a class of dynamic networks, namely knows the dynamics of the graph and the underlying graph is a ring of n vertices [5]. In this paper, we

  3. Cactus pear fruit: a new source for a natural sweetner.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, C; Estévez, A M; Sepúlveda, E; Mecklenburg, P

    1998-01-01

    The use of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.) to obtain a new natural liquid sweetener was studied. The juice of the fruit (16.5 degrees Brix) was clarified with enzymes, treated with active carbon to take out the color and vacuum concentrated to obtain a 60 degrees Brix syrup or liquid sweetener. Physical and chemical characteristics determined included: a(w); reducing sugars (as inverted sugar); glucose (%); ash content (%); sugar composition by TLC; OD (420 nm) and Y, x, y chromaticity coordinates; viscosity (cps) and density (g/ml). Sensory analyses to determine the relative sweetness were also conducted. Cactus pear syrup contained 52.38% reducing sugar. The syrup had a pH of 4.31, a viscosity of 27.05 cps, an Aw of 0.83, a density of 1.2900 g/ml, an acidity (as citric acid) of 0.74% and an ash content of 1.4%. Compared with traditional sweeteners such as fructose and glucose syrup, the acidity was greater than that of HFCS (high fructose corn syrup) of 0.035%, and the ash values were considered a little high compared to glucose syrup which is 1.0%; these disparities can be attributed to the different processing conditions employed. Sensory evaluation revealed the same relative sweetness for cactus pear syrup and glucose, but lower than fructose; cactus pear syrup had a relative sweetness value of 67 with respect to sucrose (100). PMID:9839813

  4. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

  5. CACTUS: Automated Tutorial Course Generation for Software Applications

    E-print Network

    (Spain) Phone: +34 91 348 22 91 Federico.Garcia@ii.uam.es ABSTRACT Novice users often face many adequate and more dynamical explanations than currently existing teaching components, since they are task of view of the tutorial courses generation, CACTUS offers a framework for the development of teaching

  6. Cactus pear fruit: A new source for a natural sweetener

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sáenz; A. M. Estévez; E. Sepúlveda; P. Mecklenburg

    1998-01-01

    The use of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus indica L.) to obtain a new natural liquid sweetener was studied. The juice of the fruit (16.5 ° Brix) was clarified with enzymes, treated with active carbon to take out the color and vacuum concentrated to obtain a 60 °Brix syrup or liquid sweetener. Physical and chemical characteristics determined included: aw; reducing

  7. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, J. R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation, CACTUS, that was developed in the United Kingdom to help police with command and control training for large crowd control incidents. Use of the simulation for pre-event planning and decision making is discussed, debriefing is described, and the role of the trainer is considered. (LRW)

  8. Mating system of Pachycereus pringlei: an autotetraploid cactus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darlyne A Murawski; Theodore H Fleming; Kermit Ritland; J L Hamrick

    1994-01-01

    The mating system of the Mexican subdioecious columnar cactus, Pachycereus pringlei (Cardón), was examined by allozyme analysis. Tetrasomic patterns of inheritance were found for all polymorphic loci, indicating that the species is an autotetraploid. A model is presented that expands Ritland's (1990a) mixed mating model for autotetraploids to incorporate an arbitrary number of alleles per locus. This model is applied

  9. The pollination spectrum in the southwestern American cactus flora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verne Grant; Karen A. Grant

    1979-01-01

    The cacti of the American Southwest, defined as the region from southern California to Texas, are surveyed for types of pollination systems and their frequencies. Four types of pollination systems are known to occur in the southwestern cactus flora: bee, hummingbird, hawkmoth, and bat pollination. Two other modes are suspected but not documented: miscellaneous smallinsect pollination and autogamy.—Bee flowers comprise

  10. Prickly pear desert cactus flower in the Mojave desert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-13

    The prickly pear cactus is a desirable meal for many desert organisms because of its water storing capability. Cacti have no leaves which reduces water loss. However, it has many spines and thorns for shade and to keep predators from eating it.

  11. Extreme variation in floral characters and its consequences for pollinator attraction among populations of an Andean cactus

    PubMed Central

    Schlumpberger, Boris O.; Cocucci, Andrea A.; Moré, Marcela; Sérsic, Alicia N.; Raguso, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims A South American cactus species, Echinopsis ancistrophora (Cactaceae), with dramatic among-population variation in floral traits is presented. Methods Eleven populations of E. ancistrophora were studied in their habitats in northern Argentina, and comparisons were made of relevant floral traits such as depth, stigma position, nectar volume and sugar concentration, and anthesis time. Diurnal and nocturnal pollinator assemblages were evaluated for populations with different floral trait combinations. Key Results Remarkable geographical variations in floral traits were recorded among the 11 populations throughout the distribution range of E. ancistrophora, with flower lengths ranging from 4·5 to 24·1 cm. Other floral traits associated with pollinator attraction also varied in a population-specific manner, in concert with floral depth. Populations with the shortest flowers showed morning anthesis and those with the longest flowers opened at dusk, whereas those with flowers of intermediate length opened at unusual times (2300–0600 h). Nectar production varied non-linearly with floral length; it was absent to low (population means up to 15 µL) in short- to intermediate-length flowers, but was high (population means up to 170 µL) in the longest tubed flowers. Evidence from light-trapping of moths, pollen carriage on their bodies and moth scale deposition on stigmas suggests that sphingid pollination is prevalent only in the four populations with the longest flowers, in which floral morphological traits and nectar volumes match the classic expectations for the hawkmoth pollination syndrome. All other populations, with flowers 4·5–15 cm long, were pollinated exclusively by solitary bees. Conclusions The results suggest incipient differentiation at the population level and local adaptation to either bee or hawkmoth (potentially plus bee) pollination. PMID:19342397

  12. La complmentation azote du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    La complémentation azotée du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote A Nefzaoui1 H ARIANA, Tunisie 2Direction des Ressources Alimentaires, OEP, rue Alain Savary - TUNIS, Tunisie Le cactus cactus et de comparer l'effet de différentes sources d'azote (urée, tourteau de soja, Atriplex halimus

  13. Valeur alimentaire de rgimes base de cactus inerme (Opunfia ficus indica var. Inermis) et

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Valeur alimentaire de régimes à base de cactus inerme (Opunfia ficus indica var. Inermis) et d régimes à base de cactus inerme (Opuntia ficus indica, var. Inermis) et d'Atriplex nummularia. Quinze aléatoire en trois lots de cinq têtes chacun. Chaque lot a reçu un régime composé d'atriplex et de cactus en

  14. 76 FR 30089 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...Inspection Service Title: South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations. OMB...interstate movement of South American cactus moth host material including nursery stock...the artificial spread of South American cactus moth into non-infested areas of...

  15. Kinks and Rotons in a Magnetic Cactus: Dynamical Phyllotaxis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Monroe Gabor, Nathaniel; Crespi, Vincent Henry; Decatur Maynard, Julian

    2004-03-01

    The disposition of the leaves on a stem, spines on a cactus, seeds in a sunflower and other self-organized arrangements of repeated units in plant morphology, are denoted as phyllotaxis. Phyllotactic patterns are also found in polypeptide chains, cells of Bernard convection, and flux lattices in layered superconductors. Here we describe a "magnetic cactus," a model of interacting magnetic dipoles disposed along a cylindrical stem, based on the mechanical theory of phyllotaxis proposed by S. L. Levitov (1991). While the appearance of phyllotactic patterns in the static properties is well predicted by current theory, the dynamics bring new physics beyond that possible in biological systems: we demonstrate the formation and propagation of domain walls between stable structures, the number-theoretical properties that regulate their vibrational spectra, and show the appearence of what to our knowledge is the first example of classical rotons.

  16. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M. [Deptartment of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-07-11

    CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

  17. How important is clonal recruitment for population maintenance in rare plant species?: The case of the narrow endemic cactus,

    E-print Network

    Mandujano, María del Carmen

    of the narrow endemic cactus, Stenocereus eruca, in Baja California, Me´xico Ricardo Clark-Tapia a , Maria C, Mexico Received 12 February 2004 Abstract Stenocereus eruca is a postrate columnar cactus whose

  18. 77 FR 26000 - Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1604-000] Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Cactus Energy LLC's application for market-based rate...

  19. Antioxidant compounds from four Opuntia cactus pear fruit varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph O Kuti

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant compounds in extracts from four cactus (Opuntia species) fruit varieties were investigated. Conjugated flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin), ascorbic acid, and carotenoids were isolated from the extracts. Quercetin was the most abundant in all varieties [O. ficus-indica (green-skinned), O. lindheimeri (purple-skinned), O. streptacantha (red-skinned), and O. stricta var. stricta (yellow-skinned)] examined. Kaempferol was found in green-skinned, purple-skinned and

  20. Randomized Online File Allocation on Uniform Cactus Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yasuyuki; Matsubayashi, Akira

    We study the online file allocation problem on ring networks. In this paper, we present a 7-competitive randomized algorithm against an adaptive online adversary on uniform cactus graphs. The algorithm is deterministic if the file size is 1. Moreover, we obtain lower bounds of 4.25 and 3.833 for a deterministic algorithm and a randomized algorithm against an adaptive online adversary, respectively, on ring networks.

  1. Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario

    2010-09-01

    An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food. PMID:20811778

  2. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development. PMID:25366556

  3. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the Corrective Action Unit No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action. The scope of this investigation will include drilling and collecting subsurface samples from within and below the trenches. Sampling locations will be biased toward the areas most likely to be contaminated. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Site is identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. This test was the first of four storage-transportation tests conducted in 1963 as part of Operation Roller Coaster. The experiment involved the use of live animals to assess the inhalation intake of a plutonium aerosol.

  4. arXiv:1110.2197v2[math.AG]25Oct2011 THE CACTUS RANK OF CUBIC FORMS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    arXiv:1110.2197v2[math.AG]25Oct2011 THE CACTUS RANK OF CUBIC FORMS ALESSANDRA BERNARDI, KRISTIAN notions of rank, such as cactus rank and border rank, appear in the study of higher secant varieties and are closely related to the rank. The cactus rank is the minimal length of an apolar subscheme to F, while

  5. Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science DMTCS vol. 12:3, 2010, 3540 The Laplacian spread of Cactuses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    spread of Cactuses Ying Liu College of Mathematics and Information, Shanghai Lixin University of Commerce one common vertex are called cactuses. In this paper, we continue the work on Laplacian spread of graphs, and determine the graph with maximal Laplacian spread in all cactuses with n vertices. Keywords

  6. CCCG 2013, Waterloo, Ontario, August 810, 2013 Optimal Data Structures for Farthest-Point Queries in Cactus Networks

    E-print Network

    Smid, Michiel

    in Cactus Networks Prosenjit Bose Jean-Lou De Carufel Carsten Grimm Anil Maheshwari Michiel Smid Abstract and the farthest points on trees, cycles, uni-cyclic networks and cactus networks. 1 Introduction 1.1 Problem = u + (1 - )v. We study trees, cycles, uni-cyclic networks and cactus networks. A uni-cyclic network

  7. Building Chain and Cactus Representations of All Minimum Cuts from Hao-Orlin in the Same Asymptotic Run Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Fleischer

    1998-01-01

    A cactus is a simple data structure that represents all minimum cuts of a weighted, undirectedgraph in linear space. We describe the first algorithm that can build a cactus from theasymptotically fastest deterministic algorithm that finds all minimum cuts in a weighted graph--- the Hao-Orlin minimum cut algorithm. This improves the time to construct the cactus ingraphs with n vertices

  8. Building Chain and Cactus Representations of All Minimum Cuts from Hao-Orlin in the Same Asymptotic Run Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Fleischer

    1999-01-01

    A cactus is a simple data structure that represents all minimum cuts of a weighted, undirected graph in linear space. We describe the first algorithm that can build a cactus from the asymptotically fastest deterministic algorithm that finds all minimum cuts in a weighted graph—the Hao–Orlin minimum cut algorithm. This improves the deterministic time to construct the cactus in graphs

  9. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...enforcement purposes from localities where South American cactus moth has been found...prevent the interstate spread of the South American cactus moth. ...Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South...

  10. Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant–bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock. This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic bacteria, the seedlings grow in pulverized rock for at least a

  11. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in the Clover Improved Lattice Formulation of QCD

    E-print Network

    H. Panagopoulos; E. Vicari

    1998-09-02

    We extend to the clover improved lattice formulation of QCD the resummation of cactus diagrams, i.e. a certain class of tadpole-like gauge invariant diagrams. Cactus resummation yields an improved perturbative expansion. We apply it to the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators improving their one-loop perturbative estimates.

  12. 22 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal ROOT GORELICK

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    22 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal ROOT GORELICK After a few wet yearsin southern New Mexico L iving;24 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal S ummer 2005 brought sufficient flooding along the Rio Grande, and FEMA

  13. Cactus, Pixies, 04 Sept 09 Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor

    E-print Network

    Reiners, Peter W.

    Cactus, Pixies, 04 Sept 09 Em Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor G Em just wishin' that I had something you wore G Em G Em Bloody your hands on a cactus tree Am C D Em Wipe em on your dress, and send

  14. 204 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal n the CSSA's 2007 post-conven-

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    204 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal O n the CSSA's 2007 post-conven- tion tour of Baja California, Jon floral throat character specified in Henrickson's monograph. 65 3 4 #12;206 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal

  15. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in the Clover Improved Lattice Formulation of QCD

    E-print Network

    Panagopoulos, H

    1999-01-01

    We extend to the clover improved lattice formulation of QCD the resummation of cactus diagrams, i.e. a certain class of tadpole-like gauge invariant diagrams. Cactus resummation yields an improved perturbative expansion. We apply it to the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators improving their one-loop perturbative estimates.

  16. Developmental changes in composition and quality of prickly pear cactus cladodes (nopalitos)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armida Rodriguez-Felix; Marita Cantwell

    1988-01-01

    The composition and quality of edible tender stems or cladodes of 3 Prickly Pear Cactus species (Opuntia amyclaea, O. ficus-indica, and O. inermis) were studied at different stages of development. This traditional Mexican vegetable is called “nopalitos” in Spanish and “cactus leaves” in English. Cladodes harvested when 20 cm in length have the following average composition per 100 g: 91.7

  17. Processing technologies: an alternative for cactus pear ( Opuntia spp.) fruits and cladodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Saenz

    2000-01-01

    The cactus pear has become an important fruit crop in many semi-arid lands of the world. The fruit and the young cladodes (‘nopalitos’) have commonly been consumed fresh, but the last decade's research studies on cactus pear processing have produced another alternative which prevents damage to the fruit and, in spite of technological characteristics that make processing a challenge (high

  18. Physical properties of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus india L.) grown wild in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Onder Kabas; Aziz Ozmerzi; Ibrahim Akinci

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical properties of cactus pear, which is grown wild in Turkey, is necessary for the design of equipment for harvesting, transporting, cleaning, packing, storing, processing etc. of the fruit. In this study, some physical properties of cactus pears were determined, and the effects of different water contents on the properties were investigated. At water content levels from

  19. ADULT MOTOR PATTERNS PRODUCED BY MOTH PUPAE DURING DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANN E. KAMMER; MARY B. RHEUBEN

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY Muscle potentials were recorded extracellularly from developing pupae and adults of the saturniid moths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi and the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. During the week prior to the terminal ecdysis, developing moths still enclosed within the pupal cuticle produced motor patterns similar to those recorded from adults during flight and shivering. The pupal patterns had a

  20. Sex-biased predation on moths by insectivorous bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lalita Acharya

    1995-01-01

    Two species of insectivorous bats, Lasiurus cinereus and L. borealis, ate significantly more male than female moths in the wild. The observed bias was likely to be a consequence of sexual dimorphism in moth flight activity associated with sexual differences in mate acquiring mechanisms. Female moths flew less than males and their activity peaks occurred at different times. The peak

  1. Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth.

    PubMed

    Waage, J K; Montgomery, G G

    1976-07-01

    The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth. PMID:17759254

  2. Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey K. Waage; G. Gene Montgomery

    1976-01-01

    The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth. Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth.

  3. A diversity of moths (Lepidoptera) trapped with two feeding attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding attractants for moths are useful as survey tools to assess moth species diversity, and for monitoring of the relative abundance of certain pest species. We assessed the relative breadth of attractiveness of two such lures to moths, at sites with varied habitats during 2006. Eighty-six of the...

  4. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target ef...

  5. Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Miller, Terence Holland

    2008-10-31

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in the Enewetak Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The survey was strictly a visual survey, backed up by digital photos and a written description of the current condition.

  6. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their native range. These results suggest fairly robust correlates of invasiveness that can be used for proactive management and risk assessments. PMID:25471679

  7. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Robertson, Mark P; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion-in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their native range. These results suggest fairly robust correlates of invasiveness that can be used for proactive management and risk assessments. PMID:25471679

  8. Calpain A modulates Toll responses by limited Cactus/I?B proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Oliveira, Danielle; Buffolo, Márcio; Perlman, David H.; Schupbach, Trudi; Araujo, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent cysteine proteases of the calpain family are modulatory proteases that cleave their substrates in a limited manner. Among their substrates, calpains target vertebrate and invertebrate I?B proteins. Because proteolysis by calpains potentially generates novel protein functions, it is important to understand how this affects NF?B activity. We investigate the action of Calpain A (CalpA) on the Drosophila melanogaster I?B homologue Cactus in vivo. CalpA alters the absolute amounts of Cactus protein. Our data indicate, however, that CalpA uses additional mechanisms to regulate NF?B function. We provide evidence that CalpA interacts physically with Cactus, recognizing a Cactus pool that is not bound to Dorsal, a fly NF?B/Rel homologue. We show that proteolytic cleavage by CalpA generates Cactus fragments lacking an N-terminal region required for Toll responsiveness. These fragments are generated in vivo and display properties distinct from those of full-length Cactus. We propose that CalpA targets free Cactus, which is incorporated into and modulates Toll-responsive complexes in the embryo and immune system. PMID:23864715

  9. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a ?-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  10. Testing the Cactus code on exact solutions of the Einstein field equations

    E-print Network

    Dumitru N. Vulcanov; Miguel Alcubierre

    2002-03-04

    The article presents a series of numerical simulations of exact solutions of the Einstein equations performed using the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. We describe an application (``thorn'') for the Cactus code that can be used for evolving a variety of exact solutions, with and without matter, including solutions used in modern cosmology for modeling the early stages of the universe. Our main purpose has been to test the Cactus code on these well-known examples, focusing mainly on the stability and convergence of the code.

  11. Testing The Cactus code on exact solutions of the Einstein field equations

    E-print Network

    Vulcanov, D N; Vulcanov, Dumitru N.; Alcubierre, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a series of numerical simulations of exact solutions of the Einstein equations performed using the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. We describe an application (``thorn'') for the Cactus code that can be used for evolving a variety of exact solutions, with and without matter, including solutions used in modern cosmology for modelling the early stages of the universe. Our main purpose has been to test the Cactus code on these well-known examples, focusing mainly on the stability and convergence of the code.

  12. Examination of Gunnison River influences on Cactus Park Lake Beds using Heavy Mineral and Geochemical Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, S. D.; Benage, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Unaweep Canyon is an enigmatic wind gap across the Uncompahgre Plateau in western Colorado. It is widely accepted that the ancestral Gunnison River once flowed through Unaweep Canyon and Cactus Park, a tributary to Unaweep Canyon. Newly discovered lake deposits in Cactus Park raise several important questions regarding the timing of events leading to the abandonment of Unaweep Canyon by the ancestral Gunnison River. Heavy minerals and trace elements of Cactus Park lake beds and ancestral Gunnison River sediments were compared to determine whether or not the ancestral Gunnison River was present at the time the Cactus Park Lake was filling with sediment. It is possible that the formation of this lake facilitated the eventual abandonment of Cactus Park and Unaweep Canyon by the ancestral Gunnison River. Alternatively, abandonment could have preceded the formation of the lake. In the latter scenario, the composition of the lake beds should differ significantly from modern or ancient Gunnison River deposits. Results of the analyses show that the Gunnison River and Cactus Park Lake samples form two distinct groups based on differences in elemental concentrations and heavy mineral percentages. Gunnison River sediments associated with volcanic terrains contain elevated copper and manganese concentrations with 7.5 times more manganese and 4.5 times more copper normalized to aluminum compared to samples of Mancos Shale. Mancos Shale is a likely source for the Cactus Park lake beds . These values would require the Cactus Park lake beds to be composed of 70-92 percent Mancos material,. The Gunnison River heavy mineral percentages are: total weathered grains (16.94-18.75), augite plus hornblende (21.43-32.26%), ZTR (31.45-32.14), hornblende (16.07-17.74%) and tourmaline (26.79-29.84%). Cactus Park lake bed samples have more weathered grains (26.56-46.83%), less augite plus hornblende (5.47-17.50), lower ZTR values (15.63-22.67), less hornblende (1.48-9.33%) and less tourmaline (11.11-16.00%). In conclusion, the results suggest that the provenance of the Cactus Park lake beds was not primarily the Gunnison River, which suggests that the Cactus Park Lake could have formed after the abandonment of Cactus Park and Unaweep Canyon.

  13. Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    for oaks and other common trees. Gypsy moth caterpillars, which grow up to 2 inches long, can strip trees to the programs and facilities without regard to race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, marital status, parental status, sexual orientation, or disability. Purdue University is an Affirmative Action institution

  14. Codling Moth has a New Calendar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in 10 apple orchards in Washington State from 2003-2006 to characterize the seasonal cumulative curves of codling moth flight and the occurrence of fruit injury. Data from each generation were fit to logistic curves and these data were compared to a current widely-used model. ...

  15. Evolution of Moth Sex Pheromone Desaturases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moth sex pheromone communication has evolved to make use of complex blends of relatively simple long-chain fatty acid precursors. Species specificity is derived from the unique stereochemistry of double bonds introduced into exact locations along the hydrocarbon backbone of fatty acids, which are r...

  16. Parsnip moth established in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Patrick

    a larva of the parsnip moth Depressaria pastinacella Retzius 1783 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae) that had been discovered feeding in late January on cow parsnip (Apiaceae: Heracleum sphondylium) in Port Chalmers, Dunedin City, eastern Otago by a local resident (Otago Regional Council 2004). By mid-February larvae had been detected on parsnip (Apiaceae: Pastinaca sativa) in the same area. MAF provisionally identified the

  17. PARASITES AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PSYCHID MOTHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomi Kumpulainen; Alessandro Grapputo; Johanna Mappes

    2004-01-01

    Persistence of sexual reproduction among coexisting asexual competitors has been a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The number of empirical studies is still very limited, as few systems with coexisting sexual and strictly asexual lineages have been found. We studied the ecological mechanisms behind the simultaneous coexistence of a sexually and an asexually reproducing closely related species of psychid moth

  18. Antennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Tom

    vibrations are transduced by individual units of Johnston's organs at the base of their antennae of the flagellum restored their flight control. The antennae thus play a crucial role in maintaining flightAntennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths Sanjay P. Sane,1 * Alexandre Dieudonné,1

  19. Codling moth granulovirus: a comprehensive review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Lacey; Donald Thomson; Charles Vincent; Steven P. Arthurs

    2008-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L), is regarded as the most serious insect pest of apple worldwide. A variety of problems associated with the traditional use of non-selective insecticides for its control include: untoward environmental effects, insecticide resistance, negative impacts on natural enemies, and safety for pesticide applicators and the food supply. Concerns about these consequences have increased the interest

  20. Drain Flies (Moth Flies or Filter Flies)

    E-print Network

    Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

    2003-07-21

    Drain Flies (Moth Flies or Filter Flies) E-184 7-03 Chris Sansone, Rick Minzenmayer and Bastiaan M. Drees* S mall flies in the home can be a common problem. Scientifically, the word ?fly? refers to insects in the order Diptera, which typi- cally...

  1. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  2. A near-linear time algorithm for constructing a cactus representation of minimum cuts

    E-print Network

    Panigrahi, Debmalya

    We present an Õ(m) (near-linear) time Monte Carlo algorithm for constructing the cactus data structure, a useful representation of all the global minimum edge cuts of an undirected graph. Our algorithm represents a fundamental ...

  3. Using memory mapping to support cactus stacks in work-stealing runtime systems

    E-print Network

    Lee, I-Ting Angelina

    Many multithreaded concurrency platforms that use a work-stealing runtime system incorporate a "cactus stack," wherein a function's accesses to stack variables properly respect the function's calling ancestry, even when ...

  4. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought-and

    E-print Network

    Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought winter rainfall, and drought conditions, which reduce leach- ing of salts away from the root zone. Across

  5. Identity of cactus and lettuce spiroplasmas with Spiroplasma citri as determined by DNA-DNA hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus Christiansen; E. A. Freundt; K. Maramorosch

    1980-01-01

    The isolation of spiroplasma strains from the cactusOpuntia tuna monstrosa and from aster yellows-diseased lettuce is described. DNA from these strains (ATCC 29594 and ATCC 29747) is compared with\\u000a DNA fromSpiroplasma citri, and from the corn stunt and suckling mouse cataract spiroplasmas. The cactus and the lettuce isolates are found to be identical\\u000a withS. citri by this method.

  6. Cactus Framework: Black Holes to Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Schnetter, Erik; Allen, Gabrielle; Diener, Peter; Goodale, Tom; Radke, Thomas; Seidel, Edward; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are intense narrowly-beamed flashes of gamma-rays of cosmological origin. They are among the most scientifically interesting astrophysical systems, and the riddle concerning their central engines and emission mechanisms is one of the most complex and challenging problems of astrophysics today. In this article we outline our petascale approach to the GRB problem and discuss the computational toolkits and numerical codes that are currently in use and that will be scaled up to run on emerging petaflop scale computing platforms in the near future. Petascale computing will require additional ingredients over conventional parallelism. We consider some of the challenges which will be caused by future petascale architectures, and discuss our plans for the future development of the Cactus framework and its applications to meet these challenges in order to profit from these new architectures.

  7. Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

  8. Planarity of the 2-level Cactus Model Sabine Cornelsen 1 , Ye m Dinitz 2 , and Dorothea Wagner 1

    E-print Network

    Brandes, Ulrik

    Planarity of the 2-level Cactus Model Sabine Cornelsen 1 , Ye#12;m Dinitz 2 , and Dorothea Wagner 1.Cornelsen,Dorothea.Wagner}@uni-konstanz.de 2 Ben-Gurion University, Dept. of Computer Science dinitz@cs.bgu.ac.il Abstract. The 2-level cactus of the 2-level cactus, which can be used, e.g., in graph drawing. We give a new suÃ?cient planarity

  9. Growth performance of lambs in Phangrang, Vietnam: effects of a dietary supplement containing prickly-pear cactus.

    PubMed

    Tien, D V; Beynen, A C

    2005-04-01

    In Phanrang, Vietnam, sheep production is limited by the sparse availability of green roughage. Although prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia elator) is abundant in the area, it is not used. It was considered relevant therefore to test whether prickly-pear cactus could be used a component of feed supplements. With the use of the cactus and other local products--namely groundnut cake, fish sauce by-product, molasses, rice bran and cassava flour--two supplements were prepared. The level of cactus in the two supplements was 670 g/kg product (320 g/kg dry matter). The cactus was burned to remove the spines, chopped and sun-dried before use. The cactus preparation contained only 12 g crude protein/kg (68 g/ kg dry matter). The protein content of the two supplements was raised with either groundnut cake or fish sauce by-product. Sheep that were grazing during the day were offered either no supplement or one of the supplements when confined during the night. During a period of 3 months, non-supplemented control sheep gained 98 +/- 10.5 g/day (mean +/- SD, n=10). Sheep supplemented with cactus and groundnut gained 145 +/- 12.3 g/day, and those given cactus and fish sauce gained 130 +/- 11.7 g/day. It is concluded that prickly-pear cactus has potential as component of feed supplements for sheep. PMID:15747860

  10. Anthropogenic drivers of gypsy moth spread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Bigsby; Patrick C. Tobin; Erin O. Sills

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is a polyphagous defoliator introduced to Medford, Massachusetts in 1869. It has spread to over 860,000 km2 in North America, but this still only represents ¼ of its susceptible host range in the United States. To delay defoliation\\u000a in the remaining susceptible host range, the government maintains a barrier zone and a quarantine, reflecting a

  11. Pheromone binding and inactivation by moth antennae.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M

    The antennae of male silk moths are extremely sensitive to the female sex pheromone such that a male moth can find a female up to 4.5 km away. This remarkable sensitivity is due to both the morphological and biochemical design of these antennae. Along the branches of the plumose antennae are the sensilla trichodea, each consisting of a hollow cuticular hair containing two unbranched dendrites bathed in a fluid, the receptor lymph ,3. The dendrites and receptor lymph are isolated from the haemolymph by a barrier of epidermal cells which secreted the cuticular hair. Pheromone molecules are thought to diffuse down 100 A-wide pore tubules through the cuticular wall and across the receptor lymph space to receptors located in the dendritic membrane. To prevent the accumulation of residual stimulant and hence sensory adaptation, the pheromone molecules are subsequently inactivated in an apparent two-step process of rapid 'early inactivation' followed by much slower enzymatic degradation. The biochemistry involved in this sequence of events is largely unknown. We report here the identification of three proteins which interact with the pheromone of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus: a pheromone-binding protein and a pheromone-degrading esterase, both uniquely located in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla; and a second esterase common to all cuticular tissues except the sensilla. PMID:18074618

  12. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

  13. IMPACT OF PINE TIP MOTH ATTACK ON LOBLOLLY PINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Hedden

    Data on the impact of Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana, attack on the height of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, in the first three growing seasons after planting from three locations in eastern North Carolina (U.S.A.) was used to develop multiple linear regression models relating tree height to tip moth infestation level in each growing season. These models were used

  14. ANOTHER TOOL TO MANAGE CODLING MOTH: ULV GROUND PHEROMONE SPRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of a microencapsulated formulation of codling moth’s sex pheromone in a low-pressure ultra low volume (ULV) application (1.25 gallons per acre) versus with the standard air blast method was found to deposit 6-10 times more capsules in the canopy and to significantly improve the perfo...

  15. Silvicultural Guidelines for Forest Stands Threatened by the Gypsy Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    Abstract Silvicultural treatments that may minimize gypsy moth impacts on host hardwood stands are recommended,based on ecological and silvicultural information. Decision charts are presented that match the proper prescription to existing stand and insect population conditions. Preoutbreak prescriptions focus on reducing stand susceptibility and vulnerability by increasing stand vigor, removing trees most likely to die, reducing gypsy moth habitat, reducing

  16. MANAGING THE ZIMMERMAN PINE MOTH Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    April, this caterpillar crawls out of its resting place along the exposed bark surface to where the pine under bark flakes near wounds. #12;Managing The Zimmerman Pine Moth -- E-40-W 2 Sap oozing from wounds no spines. It is found at the end of a tunnel just beneath the bark. TREES ATTACKED The Zimmerman pine moth

  17. First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

  18. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ?47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  19. Monitoring and Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in two ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with sex pheromone in southern Oregon to implement the use of site-specific management practices for codling moth. The density of monitoring traps was increased and insecticide sprays were applied based on moth catch thresholds. Only porti...

  20. Enum eration et g en eration al eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet , Cedric Chauve y , Gilles Schae er z

    E-print Network

    Schaeffer, Gilles

    Enum#19;eration et g#19;en#19;eration al#19;eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet #3; , Cedric multidimensionnelle pour donner une explication combinatoire de deux formules d'#19;enum#19;eration de cactus m algorithme de g#19;en#19;eration al#19;eatoire pour ces structures. 1 Introduction Un m-cactus est un graphe

  1. Enum eration et g en eration al eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet 1 , Cedric Chauve 2 , Gilles Schae er 3

    E-print Network

    Chauve, Cedric

    Enum#19;eration et g#19;en#19;eration al#19;eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet 1 , Cedric;eration al#19;eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet 1 , Cedric Chauve 2 , Gilles Schae#11;er 3 1 La;eration de cactus m-aires, selon la distribution des couleurs et selon la distribution des degr#19;es

  2. Impact of Kairomones on Moth Pest Management: Pear Ester and the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is the major pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Our focus is to develop novel, species-specific monitoring and control systems based on host-plant odors, kairomones. In 1998 ‘pear ester’ (PE), ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, was identified as a powerful kairomonal attra...

  3. Identification of leek-moth and diamondback-moth frass volatiles that stimulate parasitoid, Diadromus pulchellus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Auger; Chantal Lecomte; Jacky Paris; Eric Thibout

    1989-01-01

    Acrolepiopsis assectella andPlutella xylostella frass volatiles, trapped on Tenax GC, were examined by capillary gas chromatography. In both moths, the same three disulfides, dimethyl, dipropyl, and methyl propyl, were the most abundant substances, but in different proportions. The synthetic disulfides elicited the same behavioral response by the parasitoid,Diadromus pulchellus as frass. The plant origin of these substances is discussed.

  4. Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats

    E-print Network

    Hoy, Ronald R.

    Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats John M. Ratcliffe1 bats. During such encounters, the toxic dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera uses the received intensity, noctuoid moths' auditory systems evoke evasive flight [1] and, in many tiger moths, also defensive sound

  5. Behaviors of Western Spruce Budworm Moths ( Choristoneura occidentalis ) as Defences Against Bat Predation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha Lloyd; Joanna M. Wilson; Robert M. R. Barclay

    2006-01-01

    We investigated potential defense behaviors of adult western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis), a non-auditive lepidopteran, against bat predation. Although western spruce budworm moths started to fly before sunset, earlier than many species of moths, temporal isolation of flying moths from foraging bats was incomplete as moths were most active after sunset once bats were foraging. Flying C. occidentalis were most

  6. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section...Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring...and otherwise governing the movement of, live gypsy moths in interstate or foreign...

  7. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. PMID:23545106

  8. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combination of sex pheromones, host plant volatiles, and food baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  9. Compatibility of codling moths Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa with codling moths shipped from Canada.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successfully applied against codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), in British Columbia since 1992. The mass-rearing facility located in Osoyoos, BC produces between 15-16M moths per week. Due to the seasonality of this pest, the facility in Cana...

  10. CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN APPLES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are serious pests of apples grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where they do not appear, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the accidental introduction of these insects. The treatment consists of hot forced mo...

  11. Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

  12. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. PMID:24799205

  13. Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

  14. Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

  15. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2013-08-01

    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P? and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P? and S, the critical exponents ?k and ?k for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, ?k and ?k are the critical exponents for P? and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are ?2 = 1.79(3), ?2 = 0.88(1), ?3 = 1.35(5) and ?3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (?? = 1 and ?? = 1), we also find ?? < ?3 < ?2 and ?? > ?3 > ?2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

  16. Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

  17. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure-function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies. PMID:23212376

  18. Nutritional and medicinal use of Cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) cladodes and fruits.

    PubMed

    Feugang, Jean Magloire; Konarski, Patricia; Zou, Daming; Stintzing, Florian Conrad; Zou, Changping

    2006-01-01

    Natural products and health foods have recently received a lot of attention both by health professionals and the common population for improving overall well-being, as well as in the prevention of diseases including cancer. In this line, all types of fruits and vegetables have been re-evaluated and recognized as valuable sources of nutraceuticals. The great number of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) fruits and cladodes perfect candidates for the production of health-promoting food and food supplements. Although traditionally appreciated for its pharmacological properties by the Native Americans, cactus pear is still hardly recognized because of insufficient scientific information. However, recent studies on Opuntia spp. have demonstrated cactus pear fruit and vegetative cladodes to be excellent candidates for the development of healthy food. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the chemical composition of Opuntia cacti with particular emphasis in its use as food and medicine. PMID:16720335

  19. Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.

    PubMed Central

    Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

    1995-01-01

    The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity involved, it has been assumed that the association arose once, although it has been suggested that within the prodoxid moths as a whole, pollinators have arisen from seed predators more than once. We show, by using phylogenies generated from three molecular data sets, that the supposed restriction of the yucca moths and their allies to the Agavaceae is an artifact caused by an incorrect circumscription of this family. In addition we provide evidence that Yucca is not monophyletic, leading to the conclusion that the modern Yucca-yucca moth relationship developed independently more than once by colonization of a new host. PMID:7624333

  20. 'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

    PubMed

    Conner

    1999-07-01

    Tympanal sound receptors in moths evolved in response to selective pressures provided by echolocating insectivorous bats. The presence of these ultrasound detectors also set the stage for the later evolution of ultrasonic courtship signals in the tympanate moth families. Male moths have repeatedly exploited the bat-detection mechanisms in females for the purpose of finding, identifying and obtaining mates. Ultrasonic courtship has been described in several members of the moth families Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae, and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths including the Sphingidae, Lymantriidae, Notodontidae and Geometridae. Ultrasonic signals are involved in species recognition, in male-male competition for mates and in female mate-choice systems. Pre-existing motor systems, including those involved in bat defence, have also been exploited for the purpose of generating high-frequency courtship signals. Sound production mechanisms in moths include thoracic tymbals, tegular tymbals, alar castanets and genital stridulatory organs. Thus, in both their sensory and motor aspects, the weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems. PMID:10359675

  1. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2013-02-01

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold storage conditions and held under short day lengths could not break diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to establish a minimum viable population. This study expands the in-fruit work by examining the ability of codling moth to establish a laboratory population under a short photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, as compared with a long photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Codling moth larvae were collected from field infested fruits in 2010 and 2011. Moths were collected from the infested fruits and separated into two groups representing the two daylength conditions. In total, 1,004 larvae were monitored for adult emergence and ability to generate a subsequent population. Larvae held under the photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h generated only one moth in the 2 yr period, whereas larvae held under the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h generated 186 females and 179 males, that sustained subsequent generations on artificial diet under laboratory conditions. These results indicate that under controlled environmental conditions, codling moth cannot complete diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to sustain a viable population when held under a short photoperiod. PMID:23448069

  2. The moth as an allusion to (symbol of?) mother.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1996-07-01

    The meanings of the image of the moth are examined. The use of the moth as both victim and predator, with allusive and symbolic reference to parent and child, is elucidated. My emphasis is on the equation of the moth by children with their intrapsychic registration of a destructive yet vulnerable parent (usually mother) whom the child both wants to destroy and feels it cannot live without. This simple thesis is made use of chiefly to explicate aspects of the life and works of the great American writer, Elizabeth Bishop. PMID:8856822

  3. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths. PMID:22238600

  4. Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a cactus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Dong; Seong, Chi Nam

    2014-06-01

    A novel high G+C actinobacterium, designated strain OS1-21(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a cactus (Opuntia fiscus-indica var. sanboten) and the taxonomic status was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain OS1-21(T) were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming, non-motile rods; colonies of the cells were circular, translucent, smooth and moderate yellow in colour. LL-Diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C(16?:?0), iso-C(16?:?0) 2-OH, 10-methyl C(17?:?0), 10-methyl C(18?:?0) and C(17?:?1)cis9. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 73.7 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Nocardioides panacihumi Gsoil 616(T) (98.7% sequence similarity) and Nocardioides terrae VA15(T) (97.8%), followed by Nocardioides marinus CL-DD14(T) (97.1%). DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain OS1-21(T) with the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours were low (<16.0%). Combined data of polyphasic taxonomic analyses revealed that the organism could be assigned to a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OS1-21(T) (?=?KCTC 19804(T)?=?NBRC 107915(T)). PMID:24670898

  5. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

  6. Optimising the sampling window for moth indicator communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Scalercio; Marco Infusino; Ian P. Woiwod

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we establish the best period for sampling moth communities within the first half of the night. We stress the\\u000a importance of sampling duration in ecological studies that use moths as an indicator taxon, because sample composition changes\\u000a throughout the night due to individual species flight behaviour. A total of 20,744 individuals belonging to 562 species were\\u000a analysed

  7. Sex pheromone components of the omnivorous leafroller moth, Platynota stultana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ada S. Hill; Wendell L. Roelofs

    1975-01-01

    A mixture oftrans- andcis-11-tetradecenyl acetates have been found in omnivorous leafroller moth female tip extracts in a ratio of 88:12, respectively. In the field they are the most attractive to male omnivorous leafroller moths in a ratio of 94:6. Field attractancy can be increased by addition of small quantities (0.2–2.0%) of mixtures oftrans- andcis-11-tetradecenyl alcohols, indicated to be present in

  8. 1 Cactus Framework: Black Holes to Gamma Ray Bursts 7 Erik Schnetter1,2

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1.1 GRBs and petascale computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2 The Cactus framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1.6 Developing for petascale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.6.1 Physics: radiation.1 Left: Gravitational waves and horizons in a binary black hole inspiral simulation. Simulation by AEI

  9. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Fruit abortion in the Chihuahuan-Desert endemic cactus

    E-print Network

    Mandujano, María del Carmen

    ORIGINAL PAPER Fruit abortion in the Chihuahuan-Desert endemic cactus Opuntia microdasys Hugo H to explain fruit abortion. To assess whether abortion in Opuntia microdasys was due to resource and/or pollen treatments. On the other hand, to test whether fruit abortion was irreversible, due to pollen

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave D. Madsen

    1998-01-01

    This closure report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range,approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Madsen

    1998-01-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste

  13. 2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 1 ECOLOGY OF EASTERN PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS

    E-print Network

    Abella, Scott R.

    2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 1 ECOLOGY OF EASTERN PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS (OPUNTIA HUMIFUSA) IN OAK and Oakville soil series on sites that had been cleared before the 1940s during failed agricultural attempts organizations containing O. humifusa or providing suitable habitat is consistent with the perpetuation

  14. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber. PMID:22899620

  15. Population structure in the coral Pavona cactus : clonal genotypes show little phenotypic plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Ayre; B. L. Willis

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretic data were used to examine the relationship between genotype and growth form, and to assess the contribution of asexual reproduction to recruitment within six local populations of the agaricid coral Pavona cactus from the central and northern Great Barrier Reef. The data revealed the presence of highly replicated clonal genotypes in the five densest populations. In three cases, samples

  16. Supporting efficient execution in heterogeneous distributed computing environments with cactus and globus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabrielle Allen; Thomas Dramlitsch; Ian T. Foster; Nicholas T. Karonis; Matei Ripeanu; Edward Seidel; Brian R. Toonen

    2001-01-01

    Improvements in the performance of processors and networks make it both feasible and interesting to treat collections of workstations, servers, clusters, and supercomputers as integrated computational resources, or Grids. However, the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of such Grids can make application development difficult. Here we describe an architecture and prototype implementation for a Grid-enabled computational framework based on Cactus,

  17. Thermal energy exchange model and water loss of a barrel cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Lewis; P. S. Nobel

    1977-01-01

    The influences of various diurnal stomatal opening patterns, spines, and ribs on the stem surface temperature and water economy of a CAM succulent, the barrel cactus Ferocactus acanthodes, were examined using an energy budget model. To incorporate energy exchanges by shortwave and longwave irradiation, latent heat, conduction, and convection as well as the heat storage in the massive stem, the

  18. Seasonal temperature acclimation of a prickly-pear cactus in south-central Arizona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Nisbet; Duncan T. Patten

    1974-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange patterns of prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata) were studied throughout the year to determine temperature influences on and seasonal responses of the process. Cacti exhibit CAM which permits nighttime carboxylation of CO2 to malate and daytime decarboxylation of malate to CO2. The gas exchange studies were done on plants harvested near Mesa, Arizona, and placed in

  19. Changes in ascorbic acid, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in minimally processed cactus pear fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Piga; A. Del Caro; I Pinna; M Agabbio

    2003-01-01

    Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cv. ‘Gialla’) were manually peeled, then placed in plastic boxes sealed with a film with high permeability to gases, and kept at 4°C for 9 days. After 3, 6 and 9 days, chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters, total phenols, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity were determined. In-package gas concentrations were measured almost

  20. Demographic analysis of a rare columnar cactus ( Neobuxbaumia macrocephala) in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ligia Esparza-Olgu??n; Teresa Valverde; Elena Vilchis-Anaya

    2002-01-01

    In this study we used population projection matrices to evaluate the conservation status of Neobuxbaumia macrocephala, a columnar cactus endemic to a small region in the Tehuacan Valley, in central Mexico. Demographic data included 2-year observations on growth, fecundity and survival of individuals classified by size. Our results indicate that the population is comprised of 70% juveniles. Population growth rate

  1. Reproductive behavior of the cactus fly, Odontoloxozus longicornis , male territoriality and female guarding as adaptive strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Mangan

    1979-01-01

    1.Mating behavior in the cactus fly, Odontoloxozus longicornis Bigot, is investigated using a model modified from Parker (1974). Male territoriality at oviposition sites, repeated matings, and postcopulatory guarding behaviors are described for a population utilizing giant saguaro cacti (Carnega gigantea) in Pima County, Arizona. Observations of flies under varying physical conditions indicate that the males follow two general copulatory patterns.

  2. A purified extract from prickly pear cactus ( Opuntia fuliginosa) controls experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Augusto Trejo-González; Genaro Gabriel-Ortiz; Ana María Puebla-Pérez; María Dolores Huízar-Contreras; María del Rosario Munguía-Mazariegos; Silvia Mejía-Arreguín; Edmundo Calva

    1996-01-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of a purified extract from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fuliginosa Griffiths) was evaluated on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced to normal values by a combined treatment of insulin and Opuntia extract. When insulin was withdrawn from the combined treatment, the prickly pear extract alone maintained normoglycemic state in the diabetic rats.

  3. Water relations and photosynthesis of a barrel cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes , in the Colorado desert

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Park S. Nobel

    1977-01-01

    The structural characteristics, water relations, and photosynthesis of Ferocactus acanthodes (Lemaire) Britton and Rose, a barrel cactus exhibiting Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), were examined in its native habitat in the western Colorado desert. Water storage in its succulent stem permitted nighttime stomatal opening ot continue for about 40 days after the soil water potential became less than that of the

  4. Evaluation of colour properties and chemical quality parameters of cactus juices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; Reinhold Carle

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition and visual appearance of cactus fruits from the genera Opuntia and Hylocereus were investigated. Colour properties were assessed in solutions with pH ranging from 1 to 8 and expressed as chroma, hue and colour shade. Between pH 3 and 7, all samples were stable as indicated by hue and chroma values. The colour shade of the red

  5. Effect of temperature on shelf life and microbial population of lightly processed cactus pear fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R Corbo; C Altieri; D D’Amato; D Campaniello; M. A Del Nobile; M Sinigaglia

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of using cactus pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cv. Gialla) to produce ready-to-eat fruit was investigated. Changes in sensory quality and proliferation of spoilage microorganisms on lightly processed and packaged fruit as a function of storage temperature and modified atmosphere packaging were measured. The shelf life of the samples was kinetically modelled in order to check the

  6. BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 56 A Magical Cactus Trip

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 56 A Magical Cactus Trip Michael Cera clutches a San director and the winner of two Sundance Film Festival awards, one for his 2009 film "La Nana Chilean traveling companions or the other people he meets along the way. Jamie's refusal to eat home

  7. Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5?Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded. PMID:24651317

  8. Abstract Chronic herbivory by the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella) alters the sexual expression of a

    E-print Network

    Gehring, Catherine "Kitty"

    biomass (female stems >non-reproductive stems >male stems). Moth attack also increased conelet abortion than moth-resistant trees, frequency- dependent selection may counteract selection against susceptible

  9. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    PubMed

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts. PMID:25232708

  10. Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Naomi E.

    Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria Research Foundation, Washington; Pitkin, L.M., 1993. Neotropical emerald moths of the genera Nemoria

  11. A 1-mW vibration energy harvesting system for moth flight-control applications

    E-print Network

    Chang, Samuel C

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the approach and methodologies required to build a 1-mW energy-harvesting system for moth flight control applications. The crepuscular hawk moth Manduca sexta is the chosen test subject. This project ...

  12. A gradient of cytoplasmic Cactus degradation establishes the nuclear localization gradient of the dorsal morphogen in Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Bergmann; David Stein; Robert Geisler; Susanne Hagenmaier; Bettina Schmid; Nielsen Fernandez; Beate Schnell; Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

    1996-01-01

    Dorsoventral axis formation in the Drosophila embryo is established by a signal transduction pathway that comprises the products of at least 12 maternal genes. Two of these genes, dorsal and cactus, show homology to the mammalian transcription factor NF-?B and its inhibitor I?B, respectively. As in the case for I?B and NF-?B, Cactus inhibits Dorsal by retaining it in the

  13. Successes in conserving the Barberry Carpet moth Pareulype berberata (D. & S.) (Geometridae) in England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Waring

    2004-01-01

    Since the end of the 19th century the Barberry Carpet moth (Pareulype berberata) has declined from being widespread and fairly well distributed in England to highly localised and endangered, due mainly to large-scale removal of the sole larval foodplant Berberis vulgaris. In the 1980s the moth appeared to be restricted to a single site. Since 1987 the moth has been

  14. agronomie: plant genetics and breeding A melanic form of the European grape vine moth,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    agronomie: plant genetics and breeding A melanic form of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia) Summary — A melanic form of the European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, is described from INTRODUCTION The grape vine moth Lobesia botrana Den and Schiff is known as the most important grape pest

  15. COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH URBAN GYPSY MOTH CONTROL BY ARBORISTS: A CASE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D. Vaughn; Thomas J. Straka; Donald L. Ham; Roy L. Hedden

    1997-01-01

    The European gypsy moth, (Lymantria dispart.) is an introduced forest pest that has significantly impacted hardwood forests and urban environments in the northeastern United States. In urban settings, homeowners allocate significant financial resources to mitigate gypsy moth damage. The objective of this study was to assess the costs of gypsy moth control-related services provided by arborists to homeowners. At present,

  16. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

    E-print Network

    1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

  17. Antennal-specific Pheromone-degrading Aldehyde Oxidases from the Moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rybczynski; R. G. Vogt; M. R. LernerS

    Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating be- haviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concen- tration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone con- centration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths

  18. Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Fullard

    1984-01-01

    Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

  19. Effect of Insecticides on the Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Its Parasitoid Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis A. Hill; Rick E. Foster

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of insecticides to adult Diadegma insulare (Cresson) and its host the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Leaf-dip and direct- dip bioassays for diamondback moth larvae and residual bioassays for adults of diamondback moth and D. insulare were used to assess mortalities. Larval mortalities at field rates were significantly higher with carbaryl, permethrin, spinosad,

  20. Type 3 functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing?

    E-print Network

    Type 3 functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing? Eric M. Schauber functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing? Á/ Oikos 107: 592Á/602. We conducted (Peromyscus leucopus) to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) pupae is decelerating (e.g. type 2) or accelerating (e

  1. WHAT CAUSES MALE-BIASED SEX RATIOS IN THE GYPSY MOTH PARASITOID GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (Marsh) is an oligophagous, gregarious larval parasitoid of the Indian gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA OBFUSCATA (Walker), that readily attacks the European gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA DISPAR (L.). This species is believed to have potential for inundative releases against gypsy moth popu...

  2. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR DEPLOYING FEMALE GYPSY MOTHS TO EVALUATE MATING DISRUPTION TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gypsy moth is a major pest of forest and shade trees in the northeastern United States. Under the National Slow-the-Spread of the Gypsy Moth Project (STS), over 288,000 acres were treated in 2005 with the gypsy moth sex pheromone, disparlure, to disrupt mating and slow the advance of population...

  3. COMPARATIVE ACTIVITY OF THE CODLING MOTH GRANULOVIRUS AGAINST GRAPHOLITA MOLESTA AND CYDIA POMONELLA (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The granulovirus of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is highly virulent and now commercialized for codling moth control in pome fruit in the USA and Canada. Comparative assays of the Cyd-X formulation of this virus against another introduced tortricid pest, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta,...

  4. ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND SYNTHESIS OF SEX PHEROMONE COMPONENTS OF THE CAROB MOTH, ECTOHYELOIS CERATOSIAE

    E-print Network

    ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND SYNTHESIS OF SEX PHEROMONE COMPONENTS OF THE CAROB MOTH, ECTOHYELOIS/OSU, Booster, Ohio, USA Summary: The sex pheromone of females of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae)-9-tetradecenal in the ratio of 10:l:l. A synthetic blend proved to be attractive. The carob moth, Ectomyelois

  5. Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

    2005-09-27

    We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 microM) in the sensillar lymph is approximately 20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths. PMID:16172410

  6. Dating Cactus: Annual and Sub-annual Variations of Oxygen-18, Carbon-13 and Radiocarbon in Spines of a Columnar Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettman, D. L.; English, N. B.; Sandquist, D. R.; Williams, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    We measured ?18O, ?13C and F14C of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro), to resolve a record of plant physiological responses to annual and sub-annual climate variation in the eastern Sonoran Desert. Spines grow from the apex of the cactus and are arranged serially along the side of the cactus oldest at the base, youngest at the apex. To establish the age of the spine series, we measured F14C of spines collected at 8 different heights from the apex (3.77 m) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. These spines yielded fractions of modern carbon (F14C) from 0.9679 and 1.5537, indicating the presence of carbon in spine tissue derived from atmospheric nuclear testing. We used the F14C of spine tissue to calculate the year of spine emergence for each of the 11 spines, assuming minimal re-allocation of stored carbon to growing spines. At the same 8 heights, we interpolated the date of spine emergence from observed height measurements made between 1964 and 2002. A very strong positive correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001) between the F14C age of spines and ages determined from direct height measurements was observed, with a two year offset suggesting incorporation of carbon from fossil fuel combustion sources in the Tucson basin. Additionally, spine tips from 97 spines collected serially from the top half of the same saguaro (between 1.77 and 3.50 m) and representing ~15 years of growth, yielded ?18O variations in spine bulk organic material from 38° to 50° (VSMOW) and in ?13C from ° to 11.5° (VPDB). The ?18O and ?13C values were positively correlated over the entire record (linear regression, r2 = 0.22, P < 0.0001). These variations occurred at or near an annual frequency. The most negative ?18O and ?13C values in bulk spine organic material from the naturally occurring cactus were observed in spines grown shortly following the 1983 and 1993 strong El Niño winter precipitation events in Tucson, suggesting that isotopes in spine tissue are a good proxy of these climate anomalies. We found similar ?18O, ?13C and F14C variations and relationships in a longer record (172 spines) from a 4.1 m tall saguaro 30 km distant. Temporal isotopic records from saguaro and potentially other long-lived succulent plants may provide useful high-frequency records of ecological responses to climate variation in desert environments where other such records are lacking.

  7. Divergence in Olfactory Host Plant Preference in D. mojavensis in Response to Cactus Host Use

    PubMed Central

    Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S.; Rollmann, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

  8. The effect of variety and location on cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit quality.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Maryna; Nel, Philip; Osthoff, Gernot; Labuschagne, Maryke T

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the performance of South African cactus pear varieties in different agro-ecological regions. Effects of locality on internal quality parameters of available cactus pear varieties were examined. With only one exception, no significant differences among the mean replication values for the different parameters between the different locations were observed. The differences between mean values for most individual parameters at the three localities were highly significant. Highly significant differences between the mean values for the measured characteristics were observed, not only among the locations (except for the pulp glucose values), but also for the influences of genotype and interaction between locality and genotype. Significant variations existed between mean values of the different characteristics between localities. Genotype x environmental interactions were noted. It was concluded that Meyers is the most appropriate cultivar for economical purposes in South Africa. PMID:20464635

  9. Fish and wildlife to determine endangered status of San Rafael Cactus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed to determine the endangered status of the San Rafael Cactus. Although the only known occurrences of the species do not appear to fall within the boundaries of the San Rafael Swell Special Tar Sands Area, nearby combined hydrocarbon leasing could be impacted. There are two known populations of Pediocactus despainii, about 25 miles apart and each containing 2000 to 3000 individuals. Both occur in central Utah (Emery County), mainly in areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management. This rare species is being sought be cactus collectors, one population is heavily impacted by recreational off-road vehicles, and approximately one-half of each population is in areas covered by oil and gas leases and/or mining claims for gypsum. If the species is determined to be endangered, then the Fish and Wildlife Service could define a critical habitat for its preservation.

  10. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-10-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable. PMID:17066791

  11. Color, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones.

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian C; Herbach, Kirsten M; Mosshammer, Markus R; Carle, Reinhold; Yi, Weiguang; Sellappan, Subramani; Akoh, Casimir C; Bunch, Ron; Felker, Peter

    2005-01-26

    Total phenolics, ascorbic acid, and betalain contents of differently colored cactus pear clones (nine Opuntia ficus-indica [L.] Mill. clones and one O. robusta Wendl. clone) were investigated and related to their respective antioxidant potential assessed by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TEAC and ORAC values were very highly correlated with each other and also with values for total phenolics, betalain contents, and ascorbic acid concentrations. Total phenolics had the greatest contribution to ORAC and TEAC values. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) measurements of cactus pear juices permitted the differentiation of the clones based on variations in pigment patterns and betalain concentrations. The red and yellow betalains were absent in lime green colored cactus fruits. The ratio and concentration of these pigments were responsible for the yellow, orange, red, and purple colors in the other clones. Progeny of purple and lime green colored parents were characterized by 12% and 88% of plants bearing lime green and purple fruit, respectively. This implies that the genes for betalain production were lacking in the lime green fruits but could be provided by a parent with a complete set of genes, that is, purple fruits. Besides known pigments typical of Cactaceae, two unexpected betalains were identified. Whereas gomphrenin I was found for the first time in tissues of cactus plants, methionine-betaxanthin has never been described before as a genuine betalain. In addition to their alleged health-promoting properties, various combinations of yellow betaxanthins and red-purple betacyanins may allow the development of new food products without using artificial colorants. PMID:15656686

  12. Intestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of pulp and seeds of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Moreno, E; Hervert-Hernández, D; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Díez-Marqués, C; Goñi, I

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the intestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of cactus pear using an in vitro gastrointestinal model. The amount of polyphenols released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes was about 69-83% in pulp and 0-14% in seeds. The rest of polyphenols was associated with indigestible compounds conferring antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that these compounds could reach the colon and induce healthy effects. PMID:22013923

  13. Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1981-02-18

    Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

  14. A membrane-based process for the clarification and the concentration of the cactus pear juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cassano; C. Conidi; R. Timpone; M. D’Avella; E. Drioli

    2007-01-01

    Cactus pear fruit is a food of nutraceutical and functional importance. Unfortunately, the low acidity and the high soluble solids content make the pulp of this fruit a very attractive media for growth of microorganisms requiring a thermal treatment (115.5°C or higher) to obtain a good control of the microbial invasion. A relatively long thermal treatment (100°C for 20min) can

  15. A Gradient of Cactus Protein Degradation Establishes Dorsoventral Polarity in the DrosophilaEmbryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Reach; Rene L. Galindo; Par Towb; Jerry L. Allen; Michael Karin; Steven A. Wasserman

    1996-01-01

    Dorsoventral polarity in theDrosophilaembryo is established by a signaling pathway active on the ventral and ventrolateral surfaces of the embryo. Signal transduction via the protein kinase Pelle frees the Rel-related protein Dorsal from its cytoplasmic inhibitor Cactus, allowing Dorsal to translocate into ventral and ventrolateral nuclei and direct gene expression. Here, we show by immunochemical analyses that Pelle-mediated signaling induces

  16. Dipodascus stamen' sp. nov., a New Species of Yeast Occurring in Cactus Necroses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HERMAN J. PHAFF; JOHN BLUE; ALLEN N. HAGLER; CLETUS P. KURTZMAN

    1997-01-01

    In a previous publication describing the geographic distribution of yeasts associated with cactus necroses (W. T. Starmer, M.-A. Lachance, H. J. Phaff, and W. B. Heed, Evol. Biol. 24:253-296, 1990), 127 isolates were identified as strains of Candida ingens van der Walt et van Kerken on the basis of morphology and certain phenotypic characteristics. Here we show by using DNA

  17. Rheology and Aggregation of Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) Mucilage in Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cárdenas; I. Higuera-Ciapara; F. M. Goycoolea

    1997-01-01

    The mucilage obtained from cactus is commonly described as water-soluble pectin-like polysaccharide. Although few potential uses of this material have been described, it is not an industrial hydrocolloid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rheological behavior of the polysaccharide isolated from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica. The polymer had a weight average molecular mass (Mw) of 3

  18. A Linear Algorithm for the Pos\\/Neg-Weighted 1Median Problem on a Cactus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer E. Burkard; Jakob Krarup

    1998-01-01

    The 1-median problem on a network asks for a vertex minimizing the sum of the weighted shortest path distances from itself\\u000a to all other vertices, each associated with a certain positive weight. We allow fornegative weights as well and devise an exact algorithm for the resulting ‘pos\\/neg-weighted’ problem defined on a cactus. The algorithm\\u000a visits every vertex just once and

  19. Fruit quality and production of cactus pear ( Opuntia spp.) fruit clones selected for increased frost hardiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Parish; Peter Felker

    1997-01-01

    The principal limitation to cultivation of cactus for fruit in the south-western United States is lack of hardiness to freezing weather. This field trial compared 22Opuntiaclones selected for increased cold hardiness, fruit yield, and fruit quality, i.e. pH, sugar content and seed content. Mexican accessions 1380, 1277, 1281 and 1300 had the highest yields averaging between 2·5 and 5·2 kg

  20. Dark Matter and Gamma-Rays From Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    E-print Network

    Lars Bergstrom; Dan Hooper

    2006-01-03

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma-rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma-rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to non-thermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  1. Protective effect of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Najla; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Zourgui, Lazhar; Croute, Françoise

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily, for 10 days, with either NiCl(2) solution (4mg (30micromol)/kg body weight) or with the same volume of saline solution (300mM NaCl). Significant increases of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activities and of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were observed in blood of nickel-treated rats. In the liver, nickel chloride was found to induce an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidant enzymes activities. Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity was found to be increased whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased. These changes did not occur in animals previously given cactus juice, demonstrating a protective effect of this vegetal extract. PMID:18950672

  2. Dark matter and gamma rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstroem, Lars [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Particle Astrophysics Center, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to nonthermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  3. Dark matter and gamma-rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, Lars; /Stockholm U.; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma-rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma-rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to non-thermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  4. The biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst)

    E-print Network

    Baxter, Michael Celus

    1976-01-01

    in Texas. Bird and Allen (1936) identified the sunflower moth as a pest of sunflowers in Manitoba. Most of the research on the control of the sunflower moth has been conducted during the past several years. Muma et al. (1950) concluded that a principal.... An insect injuring sunflowers in Manitoba. Can. Entomol. 68:93-94. Bird, F. T. 1953. The use of virus disease in the biolo- gical control of the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffr. ). Ibid. 85:436-37. Brazzel, J. R. , T. B. Davich, and K...

  5. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  6. The evolution of sperm length in moths.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, E H; Gage, M J

    2000-01-01

    Sperm form and function remain poorly understood despite being of fundamental biological importance. An instructive approach has been to examine evolutionary associations across comparable taxa between sperm characters and other, potentially selective reproductive traits. We adopt this approach here in a comparative study examining how sperm lengths are associated with male and female reproductive characters across moths. Primary data have revealed Lepidoptera to be an ideal order for examination: there is profound variation in the dimensions (but not organization) of the reproductive traits between closely related species which all share a monophyletic ancestry, for example, eupyrene sperm length varies from 110 to 12,675 microm. Eupyrene (normal fertilizing) and apyrene (anucleate and non-fertile) sperm lengths are positively correlated across taxa and both sperm types show positive associations with mating pattern (as measured by the residual testis size). At fertilization, eupyrene sperm must migrate down the often elongated female spermathecal duct from storage to unite with the ovum. Across taxa, the elongation of this duct is associated with increased eupyrene sperm length, suggesting a positive female influence on sperm size since longer, more powerful sperm may be selected to migrate and/or compete successfully down greater ductal lengths. Apyrene sperm length is not associated with female reproductive tract dimensions. However, we found a positive relationship between the residual testis volume and spermathecal volume, suggesting coevolution between male investment in spermatogenesis and the extent of the female sperm storage capacity. Within males, there is a positive association between the two organs which form the ejaculate-containing spermatophore: the testes and the accessory gland. The 'trade-up' in investment to these components is discussed in relation to paternal investment and mating patterns. PMID:10714886

  7. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  8. Mass Rearing of the Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    E-print Network

    ),was reared on modifications of a previously developed small lima bean diet Initial experiments showed that different types of beans substituted for lima beans produced similar yields of oriental fruit moth pupae, formulated diet, legume diet YOKOYAMAET AL (1987)developed a formulated diet using small lima beans

  9. Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

  10. Paternal inheritance of a female moth's mating preference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikram K. Iyengar; H. Kern Reeve; Thomas Eisner

    2002-01-01

    Females of the arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix mate preferentially with larger males, receiving both direct phenotypic and indirect genetic benefits. Here we demonstrate that the female's mating preference is inherited through the father rather than the mother, indicating that the preference gene or genes lie mostly or exclusively on the Z sex chromosome, which is strictly paternally inherited by daughters.

  11. Trans-2-hexenal: mating stimulant for polyphemus moths.

    PubMed

    Riddiford, L M

    1967-10-01

    The volatile compound from oak leaves which stimulates the female polyphemus moth to release her sex pheromone has been isolated and identified as trans-2-hexenal. Although leaves of other food plants contain trans-2-hexenal, they also release masking odors which block the activity of the hexenal. PMID:6054815

  12. Olfactory Perireceptor and Receptor Events in Moths: A Kinetic Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Ernst Kaissling

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model of perireceptor and receptor events has been developed for olfactory sensilla on the antennae of the moth Antheraea polyphemus. The model includes the adsorptive uptake of pheromone molecules by the olfactory hair, their transport on and within the hair by diffusion, the formation of a complex of pheromone and the extracellular pheromone-binding protein (PBP), the interaction of

  13. Adult motor patterns produced by moth pupae during development.

    PubMed

    Kammer, A E; Rheuben, M B

    1976-08-01

    Muscle potentials were recorded extracellularly from developing pupae and adults of the saturniid moths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi and the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. During the week prior to the terminal ecdysis, developing moths still enclosed within the pupal cuticle produced motor patterns similar to those recorded from adults during flight and shivering. The pupal patterns had a longer cycle time and were more variable than the adult motor patterns. Characteristic inter-family differences in adult motor patterns were apparent in pupal motor patterns. Development of motor patterns was followed over several days by observing individuals with chronically implanted leads. Early in the pupal period potentials were small and infrequent. The amount of activity gradually increased and became more patterned. As development proceeded adult patterns were produced for increasing lengths of time, although the patterns changed quickly and spontaneously. Restricting the wing movements of A. polyphemus adults increased the cycle time, increased the number of spikes per burst in muscles opposing the restraint, and did not alter the interspike interval within a burst. The flight patterns produced by pharate moths, in which the wings are also immobile, also have a longer cycle time than that of adult flight, but the number of spikes per burst the same and the interspike interval is longer than in adult flight. These observations suggest that the differences between pupal and adult patterns are not necessarily due to the confinement of the wings by the pupal cuticle. PMID:993706

  14. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  15. Bin sterilization to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine efficacious temperatures of hot water baths to prevent adult emergence, found baths at 80°C for > ...

  16. Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

  17. Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed Central

    Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times. PMID:10787157

  18. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  19. MVP, a Novel Bioinsecticide for the Control of Diamondback Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George G. Soares; Thomas C. Quick

    MVP bioinsecticide is the first in a new class of biopesticide products based on Mycogen Corporation's novel CellCap bioencapsulation technology. MVP contains a selected endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki that is highly active against diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.). Using the CellCap system, this toxin is encapsulated and stabilized within dead bacterial cells that are killed and fixed

  20. Use of Low Temperature to Control Postharvest Indianmeal Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The restrictions on the use of fumigants for product disinfestation due to worker safety or environmental concerns has increased interest in non-chemical alternatives. The Indianmeal moth is often the most serious pest of postharvest tree nuts, and has been the target of numerous studies examining t...

  1. Mechanics of a 'simple' ear: tympanal vibrations in noctuid moths.

    PubMed

    Windmill, J F C; Fullard, J H; Robert, D

    2007-08-01

    Anatomically, the ears of moths are considered to be among the simplest ears found in animals. Microscanning laser vibrometry was used to examine the surface vibrations of the entire tympanal region of the ears of the noctuid moths Agrotis exclamationis, Noctua pronuba, Xestia c-nigrum and Xestia triangulum. During stimulation with ultrasound at intensities known to activate receptor neurones, the tympanum vibrates with maximum deflection amplitudes at the location where the receptor cells attach. In the reportedly heterogeneous tympana of noctuid moths, this attachment site is an opaque zone that is surrounded by a transparent, thinner cuticular region. In response to sound pressure, this region moves relatively little compared with the opaque zone. Thus, the deflections of the moth tympanic membrane are not those of a simple circular drum. The acoustic sensitivity of the ear of N. pronuba, as measured on the attachment site, is 100+/-14 nm Pa(-1) (N=10), corresponding to tympanal motion of a mere 200 pm at sound pressure levels near the neural threshold. PMID:17644678

  2. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  3. Olfactory coding in five moth species from two families.

    PubMed

    Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Carlsson, Mikael A; Sugimoto, Yuki; Schubert, Marco; Mißbach, Christine; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine what impact phylogeny and life history might have on the coding of odours in the brain. Using three species of hawk moths (Sphingidae) and two species of owlet moths (Noctuidae), we visualized neural activity patterns in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory neuropil in insects, evoked by a set of ecologically relevant plant volatiles. Our results suggest that even between the two phylogenetically distant moth families, basic olfactory coding features are similar. But we also found different coding strategies in the moths' antennal lobe; namely, more specific patterns for chemically similar odorants in the two noctuid species than in the three sphingid species tested. This difference demonstrates the impact of the phylogenetic distance between species from different families despite some parallel life history traits found in both families. Furthermore, pronounced differences in larval and adult diet among the sphingids did not translate into differences in the olfactory code; instead, the three species had almost identical coding patterns. PMID:22496291

  4. EFFECT OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH, PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-eight strains of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for toxicity against the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. Bt strains were cultured on agar plates, examined for the presence of crystals and then harvested in water. Samples of Bt spore/crystal preparations...

  5. MICROBIAL CONTROL OF THE POTATO TUBER MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber moth (PTM) is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Pathogens that are specific to insects offer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. A diverse spectrum of microscopic and multicellular organisms (bact...

  6. Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

  7. Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared polyphagous, known to feed on more than 70 plant species from 22 families. Caterpillars prefer to feed/pheronet/ins/mamesbrass.html). Control measures include autumn plowing, eradication of weeds, release of Trichogramma parasitoids

  8. SURVIVAL OF INDIANMEAL MOTH AND NAVEL ORANGEWORM AT LOW TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella, and Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, are important postharvest insect pests of California dried fruits and nuts. These insects are unable to feed, develop or reproduce below developmental thresholds of about 14C. Extended exposure to temperatures ...

  9. Recent History of Melanism in American Peppered Moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Grant; L. L. Wiseman

    2002-01-01

    Industrial melanism in peppered moths has been studied most intensively in Britain. The first melanic phenotype (effectively solid black) was recorded near Manchester in 1848. By 1895 about 98% of the specimens near Manchester were melanic, and this once rare phenotype had spread across regions of the country blackened by industrial soot. In rural, unpolluted regions, well away from in-

  10. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  11. Bin sanitizer - An effective way to reduce codling moth and fungal decay sporesation to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Blue mold caused by Penicillum spp. is a major postharvest disease of apples and pears. An applied test conducted at a commercial packing h...

  12. Moths Caught in Pheromone Traps for American White Moth (Hyphantria Cunea Dr.) (Arctiidae, Lepidoptera) in Lithuania During 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrikas Ostrauskas

    2004-01-01

    In Lithuania, the quarantine species Hyphantria cunea was not caught in pheromone traps during investigations in 2001. Moths of 80 species belonging to 16 families were caught in pheromone traps for H. cunea. One new for Lithuania species Elachista unifasciella was recorded. Some rare for Lithuania species (Denisia luticiliella, Cnephasia pasiuana, Eana incanana, Cnephasia incertana, Scoparia basistrigalis, Eupithecia denotata, and

  13. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...enforcement purposes from localities where South American cactus moth has been found...prevent the interstate spread of the South American cactus moth. ...Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. [74 FR 27073, June 8,...

  14. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...enforcement purposes from localities where South American cactus moth has been found...prevent the interstate spread of the South American cactus moth. ...Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. [74 FR 27073, June 8,...

  15. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...enforcement purposes from localities where South American cactus moth has been found...prevent the interstate spread of the South American cactus moth. ...Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. [74 FR 27073, June 8,...

  16. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...enforcement purposes from localities where South American cactus moth has been found...prevent the interstate spread of the South American cactus moth. ...Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. [74 FR 27073, June 8,...

  17. Validation of CME Detection Software (CACTus) by Means of Simulated Data, and Analysis of Projection Effects on CME Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonte, K.; Jacobs, C.; Robbrecht, E.; de Groof, A.; Berghmans, D.; Poedts, S.

    2011-05-01

    In the context of space weather forecasting, an automated detection of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) becomes more and more important for efficiently handling a large data flow which is expected from recently-launched and future solar missions. In this paper we validate the detection software package "CACTus" by applying the program to synthetic data from our 3D time-dependent CME simulations instead of observational data. The main strength of this study is that we know in advance what should be detected. We describe the sensitivities and strengths of automated detection, more specific for the CACTus program, resulting in a better understanding of CME detection on one hand and the calibration of the CACTus software on the other hand, suggesting possible improvements of the package. In addition, the simulation is an ideal tool to investigate projection effects on CME velocity measurements.

  18. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. II. Growth promotion of cactus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Li, C Y; Bashan, Y

    2004-09-01

    Four bacterial species isolated from the rhizoplane of cacti growing in bare lava rocks were assessed for growth promotion of giant cardon cactus seedlings (Pachycereus pringlei). These bacteria fixed N(2), dissolved P, weathered extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone, and significantly mobilized useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in rock minerals. Cardon cactus seeds inoculated with these bacteria were able to sprout and grow normally without added nutrients for at least 12 months in pulverized extrusive igneous rock (ancient lava flows) mixed with perlite. Cacti that were not inoculated grew less vigorously and some died. The amount of useful minerals (P, K, Fe, Mg) for plant growth extracted from the pulverized lava, measured after cultivation of inoculated plants, was significant. This study shows that rhizoplane bacteria isolated from rock-growing cacti promote growth of a cactus species, and can help supply essential minerals for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375736

  19. CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN PEACHES AND NECTARINES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two high-temperature, forced air treatments under controlled atmosphere conditions, were developed for control of all life stages of codling moth and oriental fruit moth infesting peaches and nectarines. These treatments were used in efficacy and confirmation tests to kill over 5,000 4th instar ori...

  20. TIMING OF EGG HATCH BY EARLY-SEASON CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) PREDICTED BY MOTH CATCH IN PEAR ESTER AND CODLEMONE-BAITED TRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timing of moth catch in traps to predict the start of egg hatch by first generation codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosaceae) was evaluated with ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadieonate (pear ester) and (E, E)-8,10- dodecadien-1-ol (codlemon...

  1. Innervation and Neural Regulation of the Sex Pheromone Gland in Female Heliothis Moths TA Christensen, H Itagaki, PEA Teal, RD Jasensky, JH Tumlinson, and JG Hildebrand

    E-print Network

    Itagaki, Haruhiko

    Innervation and Neural Regulation of the Sex Pheromone Gland in Female Heliothis Moths TA pheromone gland in female Heliothis moths (electrophysiology/octopamine/pheromone biosynthesis activating Heliothis moths normally produce their species-specific male attractant (sex pheromone blend) during

  2. Biocontrol Characteristics of Bacillus Species in Suppressing Stem Rot of Grafted Cactus Caused by Bipolaris cactivora.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sooil; Kim, Sang Gyu; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-03-01

    One of the most important limiting factors for the production of the grafted cactus in Korea is the qualitative and quantitative yield loss derived from stem rots especially caused by Bipolaris cactivora. This study is aimed to develop microbial control agents useful for the control of the bipolaris stem rot. Two bacteria (GA1-23 and GA4-4) selected out of 943 microbial isolates because of their strong antibiotic activity against B. cactivora were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, respectively, by the cultural characteristics, Biolog program and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. Both bacterial isolates significantly inhibited the conidial germination and mycelial growth of the pathogen with no significant difference between the two, of which the inhibitory efficacies varied depending on the cultural conditions such as temperature, nutritional compositions and concentrations. Light and electron microscopy of the pathogen treated with the bacterial isolates showed the inhibition of spore germination with initial malformation of germ tubes and later formation of circle-like vesicles with no hyphal growth and hyphal disruption sometimes accompanied by hyphal swellings and shrinkages adjacent to the bacteria, suggesting their antibiotic mode of antagonistic activity. Control efficacy of B. subtilis GA1-23 and B. amyloliquefaciens GA4-4 on the cactus stem rot were not as high as but comparable to that of fungicide difenoconazole when they were treated simultaneously at the time of pathogen inoculation. All of these results suggest the two bacterial isolates have a good potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for the bipolaris stem rot of the grafted cactus. PMID:25288927

  3. Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids

    PubMed Central

    Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K.; Spalding, Adrian; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations. PMID:23720524

  4. The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

  5. The evolutionary arms race between insectivorous echolocating bats and moths has long fascinated biologists

    E-print Network

    Fullard, James H.

    4689 The evolutionary arms race between insectivorous echolocating bats and moths has long insectivorous bat communities and inform the central nervous system to initiate erratic flight behaviours and

  6. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

  7. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and...shadehouse or greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises...shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and larval damage;...

  8. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and...shadehouse or greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises...shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and larval damage;...

  9. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

  10. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

  11. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

  12. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and...shadehouse or greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises...shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and larval damage;...

  13. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

  14. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and...shadehouse or greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises...shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and larval damage;...

  15. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and...shadehouse or greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises...shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and larval damage;...

  16. Antennal carboxylesterases in a moth, structural and functional diversity

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nicolas; Chertemps, Thomas; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone-degrading enzymes (PDEs) are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly degrading pheromone molecules. Because esters are widespread insect pheromone components, PDEs belonging to the carboxylesterase (CCE) family have been the most studied. However, only two CCEs were both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized as PDEs until recently. In the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis, we have identified an unsuspected diversity of antennal CCEs, with a total number of 30 genes. Two CCEs, enriched in antennae and belonging to distinct clades, were shown to present different substrate specificities toward pheromone and plant compounds. A same CCE was also shown to efficiently degrade both pheromone and plant components. Our results suggest that the structural evolution of antennal CCEs reflects their functional diversity and that a complex set of CCE-mediated reactions take place is the olfactory organs of moths. PMID:22896794

  17. Sex pheromone of the fall webworm moth,Hyphantria cunea.

    PubMed

    Hill, A S; Kovalev, B G; Nikolaeva, L N; Roelofs, W L

    1982-02-01

    Three compounds have been identified as sex pheromone components produced by female fall webworm moths,Hyphantria cunea (Drury). These compounds are: (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienal (I), (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienal (II), and (Z,Z)-3,6-cis-9,10-epoxyheneicosadiene (III). The ratio of these compounds was approximately 5?6?13, respectively, in female tip extracts prepared from U.S.S.R, insects and approximately 1?8?21, respectively, in extracts from U.S. insects. The ratio in female effluvia trapped from U.S. insects was 1?6?27, respectively. Compound III plus either I or II is effective in eliciting upwind flight in a wind tunnel. Compounds I, II, and III are also components of the sex pheromone system of the saltmarsh caterpillar moth,Estigmene acrea (Drury). PMID:24414950

  18. Immunocytochemical localization of pheromone-binding protein in moth antennae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Steinbrecht; M. Ozaki; G. Ziegelberger

    1992-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins are supposed to play an important role in stimulus transport and\\/or inactivation in olfactory sense organs. In an attempt to precisely localize pheromone-binding protein in the antenna of moths, post-embedding immunocytochemistry was performed using an antiserum against purified pheromone-binding protein of Antheraea polyphemus. In immunoblots of antennal homogenates, the antiserum reacted exclusively with pheromone-binding protein of A. polyphemus,

  19. Detection of certain African, insectivorous bats by sympatric, tympanate moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Fullard; Donald W. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    The tympanic organs of moths we studied in Zimbabwe responded differentially to the echolocation\\/hunting signals of sympatric, insectivorous bats. Bats employing very high frequencies (> 110 kHz) and\\/or low intensity cries tend to be first detected by tympanal preparations at distances considerably less than those with more intense, mid-frequency (20–60 kHz) cries. There appears to be some positive correlation between

  20. Quantifying an anti-bat flight response by eared moths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Fullard; K. E. Muma; J. W. Dawson

    2003-01-01

    Using near-infrared videotaping we measured the nocturnal flight times of six species of eared moths (Amphipyra pyramidoidesGuenée, Caenurgina erechtea (Cramer), Feltia jaculifera (Guenée), Phlogophora periculosa Guenée, Lymantria dispar (Linné), and Ennomos magnaria Guenée) in cages in which they flew, under randomized conditions, fo r3hi n theabsence an d3hi n thepresence of simulated bat-attack sounds. When exposed to the ultra- sound,

  1. Dark Matter and the CACTUS Gamma-Ray Excess from Draco

    E-print Network

    Profumo, S; Kamionkowski, Marc; Profumo, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The CACTUS atmospheric Cherenkov telescope collaboration recently reported a gamma-ray excess from the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Draco features a very low gas content and a large mass-to-light ratio, suggesting as a possible explanation annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Draco dark-matter halo. We show that with improved angular resolution, future measurements can determine whether the halo is cored or cuspy, as well as its scale radius. We find the relevant WIMP masses and annihilation cross sections and show that supersymmetric models can account for the required gamma-ray flux. We compute for these supersymmetric models the resulting Draco gamma-ray flux in the GLAST energy range and the rates for direct neutralino detection and for the flux of neutrinos from neutralino annihilation in the Sun. We also discuss the possibility that the bulk of the signal detected by CACTUS comes from direct WIMP annihilation to two photons and point out that a decaying-dark-matter scena...

  2. Dark Matter and the CACTUS Gamma-Ray Excess from Draco

    E-print Network

    Stefano Profumo; Marc Kamionkowski

    2006-02-16

    The CACTUS atmospheric Cherenkov telescope collaboration recently reported a gamma-ray excess from the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Draco features a very low gas content and a large mass-to-light ratio, suggesting as a possible explanation annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Draco dark-matter halo. We show that with improved angular resolution, future measurements can determine whether the halo is cored or cuspy, as well as its scale radius. We find the relevant WIMP masses and annihilation cross sections and show that supersymmetric models can account for the required gamma-ray flux. The annihilation cross section range is found to be not compatible with a standard thermal relic dark-matter production. We compute for these supersymmetric models the resulting Draco gamma-ray flux in the GLAST energy range and the rates for direct neutralino detection and for the flux of neutrinos from neutralino annihilation in the Sun. We also discuss the possibility that the bulk of the signal detected by CACTUS comes from direct WIMP annihilation to two photons and point out that a decaying-dark-matter scenario for Draco is not compatible with the gamma-ray flux from the Galactic center and in the diffuse gamma-ray background.

  3. Avalanche dynamics of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus graph

    E-print Network

    Gregory Gauthier

    2012-04-29

    We investigate the avalanche dynamics of the abelian sandpile model on arbitrarily large balls of the expanded cactus graph (the Cayley graph of the free product $\\mathbb{Z}_3 * \\mathbb{Z}_2$). We follow the approach of Dhar and Majumdar (1990) to enumerate the number of recurrent configurations. We also propose the filling method of enumerating all the recurrent configurations in which adding a grain to a designated origin vertex (far enough away from the boundary vertices) causes topplings to occur in a specific cluster (a connected subgraph that is the union of cells, or copies of the 3-cycle) within the first wave of an avalanche. This filling method lends itself to combinatorial evaluation of the number of positions in which a certain number of cells topple in an avalanche starting at the origin, which are amenable to analysis using well-known recurrences and corresponding generating functions. We show that, when counting cells that topple in the avalanche, the cell-wise first-wave critical exponent of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus is 3/2.

  4. Postharvest heat and cold treatment to control Ceratitis capitata on cactus pear fruit.

    PubMed

    D'Hallewin, G; Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; Serusi, A

    2005-01-01

    In order to work out a quarantine treatment for cactus pear fruit a factorial experimental plan was carried combining postharvest water dips at 20, 50, 54, 58 and 60 degrees C and storage at 1 degrees C for 3, 6 and 10 days. Cactus pear fruit cv 'Rossa' were artificially infested with Med. fly eggs (at least 20 eggs per fruit) then left in the lab at 25 degrees C for 4 days. Treatments took place by dipping the fruit at each water temperature for 2 mm. At each established time fruit was picked and checked for vital larvae and degree of chilling injury (CI). Probit 9 requirements were achieved in all cases when fruit was cold-stored for 10 days. When fruit was kept for 6 days the quarantine requirement was achieved only by dipping the fruit at 58 and 60 degrees C while none dip treatment was effective if fruit was stored for 3 days at 1 degrees C. All Fruit stored for 10 days at 1 degrees C showed severe CI symptoms and when kept for 6 days the same degree of CI was found on fruit dipped in water at 20, 58 and 60 degrees C. No CI was observed after 3 days at 1 degrees C. In conclusion only when fruit was dipped at 50-54 degrees C and stored for 10 days at 1 degrees C the probit 9 condition was attained with acceptable CI symptoms. PMID:16628910

  5. Marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear as affected by temperature and modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cefola, Maria; Renna, Massimiliano; Pace, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the diffusion of cactus pear fruits, in this study, the proper maturity index for peeling and processing them as ready-to-eat product was evaluated and characterized. Thereafter, the effects of different storage temperatures and modified atmosphere conditions on the marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear were studied. The storage of ready-to-eat fruits at 4 °C in both passive (air) and semi-active (10 kPa O2 and 10 kPa CO2) modified atmosphere improved the marketability by 30%, whereas the storage at 8 °C caused a dangerous reduction in O2 partial pressure inside modified atmosphere packages, due to fruits' increased metabolic activity. A very low level of initial microbial growth was detected, while a severe increase in mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria was shown in control samples at both temperatures during storage; an inhibitory effect of modified atmosphere on microbial growth was also observed. In conclusion, modified atmosphere improved only the marketability of fruits stored at 4 °C; whereas the storage at 8 °C resulted in deleterious effects on the ready-to-eat fruits, whether stored in air or in modified atmosphere. PMID:24426044

  6. Are cactus growth forms related to germination responses to light? A test using Echinopsis species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Aparicio-González, Mónica; Galíndez, Guadalupe; del Fueyo, Patricia; Sühring, Silvia; Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of light regimen (white light vs. darkness) on the germination of 12 species of the Echinopsis genus (tribe Trichocereeae, Cactaceae). This genus presents a variety of growth forms and relatively small and uniform seed size. These traits allowed us to test, within the same linage and removing seed mass effect, the hypothesis that the germination response to light (indifferent to light or positive photoblastic) is related to growth form. Our results reject this hypothesis since no seeds germinated in darkness, so all of the species can be classified as being positively photoblastic. The proportion of seed germination with white light was significantly different among cactus growth forms. Columnar cacti (arborescent, creeping and short) showed a greater proportion of seed germination than barrel and globose cacti. The germination rate differed among growth forms and species. At constant temperatures, creeping columnar cacti presented a significantly higher germination rate than the other growth forms. With alternating temperatures, columnar cacti showed higher germination rates than the other growth forms. The low proportion of seeds that germinated for some species indicates that they show seed dormancy. Our results suggest that germination responses to light in the cactus family could be related to seed mass and phylogenetic constraints.

  7. The cactus worm : experiments with dynamic resource discovery and allocation in a grid environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.; Angulo, D.; Foster, I.; Lanfermann, G.; Liu, C.; Radke, T.; Seidel, E.; Shalf, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Albert-Einstein-Inst.; Univ. of Chicago; LBNL

    2001-01-01

    The ability to harness heterogeneous, dynamically available grid resources is attractive to typically resource-starved computational scientists and engineers, as in principle it can increase, by significant factors, the number of cycles that can be delivered to applications. However, new adaptive application structures and dynamic runtime system mechanisms are required if we are to operate effectively in grid environments. To explore some of these issues in a practical setting, the authors are developing an experimental framework, called Cactus, that incorporates both adaptive application structures for dealing with changing resource characteristics and adaptive resource selection mechanisms that allow applications to change their resource allocations (e.g., via migration) when performance falls outside specified limits. The authors describe the adaptive resource selection mechanisms and describe how they are used to achieve automatic application migration to 'better' resources following performance degradation. The results provide insights into the architectural structures required to support adaptive resource selection. In addition, the authors suggest that the Cactus Worm affords many opportunities for grid computing.

  8. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids ( E)-?-caryophyllene, ( E)-?-farnesene and ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

  9. Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

  10. Growing Opuntia (cactus) and Brassica species for the long-term remediation of selenium-contaminated soil under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying alternative crops for planting in Se-containing agricultural soils of western central California will depend upon the plants’ ability to tolerate high salt and boron (B) conditions. Multi-year field studies were conducted on Se-laden soils with different cactus clones (Opuntia-ficus indi...

  11. Indirect versus direct effects of grasses on growth of a cactus ( Opuntia fragilis ): insect herbivory versus competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta C. Burger; Svata M. Louda

    1994-01-01

    Variation in plant performance between microhabitats is usually attributed to direct mechanisms, such as plant physiological tolerances or competitive interactions. However, indirect mechanisms, such as differences in herbivore pressure mediated by microhabitat differences, could create the same pattern of variation. In this study, we investigated the effect of insect herbivore pressure on the growth of the grassland cactus Opuntia fragilis

  12. Evaluation of the conservation status of a rare cactus ( Mammillaria crucigera) through the analysis of its population dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cinthya Contreras; Teresa Valverde

    2002-01-01

    We used population projection matrices to analyse the demography of Mammillaria crucigera, a rare cactus endemic to a small region in Central Mexico. Matrices were based on a 2-year period of observations on survival, growth and reproduction. No seed germination or seedling survival were observed; thus, these matrix entries were experimentally estimated. Population growth rate (?) was lower than unity

  13. Asexual reproduction and genetic determination of growth form in the coral Pavona cactus : biochemical genetic and immunogenic evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bette L. Willis; David J. Ayre

    1985-01-01

    Tissue grafting and electrophoresis were used to study the genotypic structure of a population of the scleractinian coral, Pavona cactus. Three growth forms were distinguished within one continuous population of this morphologically variable species. Both techniques provided evidence of localized asexual reproduction within each growth form, a result consistent with numerous field observations of naturally occurring fragments. A perfect association

  14. Analysis of factors that affect the potential of star fruit (Averhoa Bilimbi) and cactus (Gymnocalycium Hossei) extracts as alternative battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, Sitti; Agnesstacia

    2014-03-01

    This research analyzes the factors that affect the work of the battery from the star fruit extract and the cactus extract. The value voltage and current generated are measure the work of the battery. Voltage measurement based on the electrode distance function, and electrode surface area. Voltage as a surface area electrode function and electrode distance function determined the current density and the voltage generated. From the experimental results obtained that the battery voltage is large enough, it is about 1.8 V for the extract of star fruit, and 1.7 V for the extract of cactus, which means that the juice extract from star fruit and the juice extract of cactus can become an alternative as battery replacement. The measurements with different electrode surface area on the star fruit and cactus extract which has the depth of the electrode 0.5 cm to 4 cm causes a decrease in the electric current generated from 12.5 mA to 1.0 mA, but obtained the same voltage.

  15. FURTHER EVALUATION OF MATING DISRUPTION AS A PEST MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR INDIANMEAL MOTH IN ORGANIC DRIED BEANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous data indicated that mating disruption could be efficacious for prevention of Indianmeal moth infestation of some commodities. In this progress report data on Indianmeal moth prevalence, pheromone response, mating, and reproductive activity are presented for a commercial warehouse containin...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  17. Insecticidal action of Annona coriacea lectin against the flour moth Anagasta kuehniella and the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirela B. Coelho; Sérgio Marangoni; Maria Lígia R. Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Annona coriacea lectin (ACLEC) was tested for insecticidal activity against larvae of two pyralid moths, Anagasta kuehniella and Corcyra cephalonica. ACLEC produced ?50% mortality and mass loss in A. kuehniella larvae when incorporated into an artificial diet at levels of 1.5% and 1.0% (w\\/w), respectively. In contrast, the inclusion of up to 2% ACLEC in the diet did not significantly

  18. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths. PMID:23913945

  19. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

  4. Lack of strong induced or maternal effects in tussock moths ( Orgyia vetusta ) on bush lupine ( Lupinus arboreus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Harrison

    1995-01-01

    Both induced and maternal effects may create delayed negative feedback on the population growth of herbivorous insects. I tested for these effects in a chronically dense population of tussock moths (Orgyia vetusta) feeding on bush lupines (Lupinus arboreus). Experimental bushes received different realistic levels of defoliation by tussock moths in the preceding year, and experimental moth larvae came from mothers

  5. Positive Interaction of a Feeding Attractant and a Host Kairomone for Trapping the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moths are attracted to acetic acid, and to ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester. Acetic acid is a product of microbial fermentation of sugars, and ethyl (E,Z)-decadienoate is an odorant of pear, which is a host of codling moth larvae. Many more male and female codlling moths were att...

  6. Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Fullard

    2001-01-01

    The islands of Hawaii o¡er a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving

  7. Masting and trophic cascades: interplay between rowan trees, apple fruit moth, and their parasitoid in southern Norway

    E-print Network

    Masting and trophic cascades: interplay between rowan trees, apple fruit moth, and their parasitoid. 2004. Masting and trophic cascades: interplay between rowan trees, apple fruit moth of the dominant seed predator and its parasitoid. The apple fruit moth, Argyresthia conjugella Zeller, is a pre

  8. Cryptically Patterned Moths Perceive Bark Structure When Choosing Body Orientations That Match Wing Color Pattern to the Bark Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang-ku; Moon, Jong-yeol; Lee, Sang-im; Jablonski, Piotr G.

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths’ behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

  9. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

  10. Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

  11. EFFECTS OF PARENTAL AGE AT MATING ON THE REPRODUCTIVE RESPONSE OF THE GYPSY MOTH PARASITOID GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (Marsh) is an oligophagous, gregarious, larval parasitoid of the Indian gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA OBFUSCATA (Walker), which readily attacks the European gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA DISPAR (L.). This species is believed to have potential for inundative releases against gypsy moth pop...

  12. Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The light brown apple moth and agricultural commodities. Michigan risk maps for exotic plant pests. Other common names apple leafroller

  13. DISRUPTION OF MATING IN CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) BY AN ANTHRANILAMID INSECTICIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of the anthranilamid insecticide, DPX-E2Y45, was evaluated against the adult stage of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Insecticide residues sprayed in plastic cups had a minimal effect on adult survivorship or fecundity, however, significantly fewer female moths were mated in treated v...

  14. Resistance, Cross-resistance and Chemical Control of Diamondback Moth in Taiwan: Recent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Developments E. Y. Cheng; Ching-hua Kao; Chi-sung Chiu

    Except for the chlorinated insecticides, all traditional insecticides and newly introduced IGR-type compounds have been investigated for their modes of action in respect to the resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in Taiwan. Diamondback moth has a very active, efficient, and inducible mixed function oxidases (MFO) system\\/ complex, which is responsible for the high level of resistance to carbamates,

  15. CLOTHES MOTHS AND CARPET BEETLES Gary W. Bennett and Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologists

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    and feathers. Damage done will depend upon the type of item being fed upon and the species of clothes moth will not be routinely cleaned. MOTH-PROOFING CLOSETS Each spring and fall, remove all garments from closets kind of box or bag makes a satisfactory storage container if it is tight enough (or is taped) to keep

  16. Minutes of the Meeting of the Oak Processionary Moth Outbreak Management Team

    E-print Network

    Minutes of the Meeting of the Oak Processionary Moth Outbreak Management Team 13 June 2007 of the Oak Processionary Moth Outbreak Management Team and asked everyone to introduce themselves. Update found in around 45 trees, including rare species of oak. 5. Responding to Shaun's question on feeding

  17. CHEMICAL ATTRACTANTS FOR MOTHS, U.S. PATENT NO. 6.344.191

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositions and lures are described which provide synthetic chemical attractants which function as highly effective attractants for male and female moths, primarily moths of the family Noctuidae. In one aspect, the attractants provide an effective attractant amount of vapor of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3...

  18. Effectiveness of tiger moth (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae) chemical defenses against an insectivorous bat ( Eptesicus fuscus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nickolay Hristov; William E. Conner

    2005-01-01

    Summary. Adult tiger moths exhibit a wide range of palatabilities to the insectivorous big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus. Much of this variation is due to plant allelochemics ingested and sequestered from their larval food. By using a comparative approach involving 15 species from six tribes and two subfamilies of the Arctiidae we have shown that tiger moths feeding on cardiac

  19. GRIZZLY BEAR USE OF ARMY CUTWORM MOTHS IN THE YELLOWSTONE ECOSYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN P. FRENCH; MARILYNN G. FRENCH; RICHARD R. KNIGHT

    The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they

  20. Moth pollination of Metaplexis japonica (Apocynaceae): pollinaria transfer on the tip of the proboscis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Sugiura; Kazuo Yamazaki

    2005-01-01

    Asclepiad pollinaria (including pollen masses) attach to diverse body parts of flower visitors in many ways. In this paper, we observed nocturnal moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Noctuidae) transporting the pollinaria of the Japanese species Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) on the tip of the proboscis. Flowers of this species may induce nectar-feeding moths to pull out the proboscis along

  1. Attractiveness of binary blends of floral odorant compounds to moths in Florida, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Meagher; Peter J. Landolt

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several compounds that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to the key floral odorant PAA. The floral odorants cis -jasmone, linalool, benzyl acetate, limonene, ? -myrcene, methyl salicylate, and methyl 2- methoxybenzoate all increased captures

  2. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more p...

  3. Codling moth resistance and associated pytochemical variation in fruit of Malus tschonoskii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Work is ongoing to evaluate the potential for host plant resistance to codling moth and other apple pests among the diverse Malus germplasm housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PRGU) in Geneva, NY. Significant resistance to larval feeding from codling moth has been observed in fruit fro...

  4. Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America

    E-print Network

    Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America Masha to Biological invasions Gypsy moth- biology and formulation of mathematical model SI model results Predator prey model results Time delay models- introduction and results #12;Biological invasions #12;Biological

  5. Infection density of Wolbachia and level of cytoplasmic incompatibility in the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ikeda; Hajime Ishikawa; Tetsuhiko Sasaki

    2003-01-01

    Wolbachia, a causative agent of various reproductive changes in arthropods, induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella. Two strains of E. kuehniella, Yokohama and Tsuchiura, harbor closely related Wolbachia, but the Yokohama strain expresses stronger CI than the Tsuchiura strain. A transinfected E. kuehniella strain that harbors the Wolbachia derived from the almond moth Cadra cautella,

  6. Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport Endophytic Fungi and Mycoparasitic Antagonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy S. Feldman; Heath E. O’Brien; A. Elizabeth Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Claviceps paspali, a common fungal pathogen of Paspalum grasses, attracts moth vectors by producing sugary exudates in the grass florets it infects. These exudates also support\\u000a mycoparasitic Fusarium species that may negatively influence C. paspali fitness. We examined the potential for moths on which C. paspali depends to also transmit mycoparasitic Fusarium and fungal endophytes, which inhabit asymptomatic plant tissue

  7. An Antennal Circadian Clock and Circadian Rhythms in Peripheral Pheromone Reception in the Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Merlin; Philippe Lucas; Didier Rochat; Marie-Christine François; Martine Maïbèche-Coisne; Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly

    2007-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are observed in mating behaviors in moths: females emit sex pheromones and males are attracted by these pheromones in rhythmic fashions. In the moth Spodoptera littoralis, we demonstrated the occurrence of a circadian oscillator in the antenna, the peripheral olfactory organ. We identified different clock genes, period (per), cryptochrome1 (cry1) and cryptochrome2 (cry2), in this organ. Using quantitative

  8. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF GYPSY MOTH MATING SUCCESS AT LOW POPULATION DENSITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important but largely unstudied aspect of gypsy moth population dynamics at low densities is the relationship between population density, moth capture in pheromone-baited traps, and mating success. Studies designed to investigate these relationships across both space and time were conducted duri...

  9. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    E-print Network

    Hargrove, William W.

    Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth Accepted 18 September 2010 Keywords: MODIS NDVI time series data Gypsy moth Regional forest defoliation and image thresholding of maximum value normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) datasets computed

  10. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; Kenton Ross; Donald Prados; Jeffrey Russell; Gerald Gasser; Rodney McKellip; William Hargrove

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation detection products and methods that could be applied in near real time

  11. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  12. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  13. Feeding attractant lures to trap moths under the Alaska midnight sun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling moths in Alaska can be difficult due to the long days and short nights that might affect noctuid activity and capture. This trial was established to study noctuid activity in interior Alaska (20:04, light:dark cycle). Universal moth traps (UniTrap®, white bucket, yellow cone, green lid) wer...

  14. Colorado Exotic Insect Detection and Identification Fact Sheet Series Gypsy Moth in Colorado -Identification of

    E-print Network

    to internal quarantines in the United States. The very presence of established gypsy moth in Colorado could moth infested states. There is in place an extensive effort by the United States Department America. Caterpillars chew leaves of a very wide range of trees and shrubs and sustained defoliation

  15. Revisiting an old question: Is the natural blend best for disruption of pheromone communication in moths?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-lived microlepidoptera must, by force, be very good at finding their mate and reproducing. Insects are very good at this and moths, in particular, are highly evolved to use volatile signals (pheromones) to communicate and locate conspecifics. The chemical structures of many pheromones of moths...

  16. Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-01-01

    Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%. PMID:22096534

  17. Limiting the costs of mutalism: multiple modes of interaction between yuccas and yucca moths

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, J. F.; Bao, T.

    1999-01-01

    In pollination–seed predation mutualisms between yuccas and yucca moths, conflicts of interest exist for yuccas, because benefits of increased pollination may be outweighed by increased seed consumption. These conflicts raise the problem of what limits seed consumption, and ultimately what limits or regulates moth populations. Although the current hypothesis is that yuccas should selectively abscise flowers with high numbers of yucca-moth eggs, within-inflorescence selective abscission occurs in only one of the three moth–yucca systems that we studied. It occurs only when oviposition directly damages developing ovules, and does not, therefore, provide a general explanation for the resolution of moth–yucca conflicts. Within-locule egg mortality provides an alternative and stronger mechanism for limiting seed damage, and generating density-dependent mortality for yucca-moth populations. However, the most important feature of moth–yucca systems is that they are diverse, encompassing multiple modes of interaction, each with different consequences for limiting and regulating yucca moths.

  18. Forty million years of mutualism: Evidence for Eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, Olle; Leebens-Mack, James

    1999-01-01

    The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 ± 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0–6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 ± 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 ± 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available. PMID:10430916

  19. Parasitoid complex of the bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus, in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid complex of Yponomeuta evonymellus L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the bird cherry ermine moth, was sought in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) with the goal of identifying potential biological controls of the moth. 13 primary and two secondary parasitoids were found. Diadegma armil...

  20. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jia; Zhang, Ziang; Weng, Zhankun [CNM and JR3CN, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Zuobin, E-mail: wangz@cust.edu.cn; Wang, Dapeng [CNM and JR3CN, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC, University of Bedfordshire, Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-28

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  1. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments. PMID:25675276

  2. Interspecific Competitor Reduces Intraspecific Competition: Intraspecific Competition of Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with and without Rice Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Yoon; M. I. Ryoo; W. I. Choi; J. Y. Lee; M. H. Choi

    2001-01-01

    Intraspecific competition among larvae of the indianmeal moth suggested a scramble-like competition. The number of female moth progeny was inversely proportional to the female moth introduced. When the moth occurred together with the rice weevil, significantly more female progenies were produced, suggesting that severity of the larval competition be reduced by the rice weevil. The impacts of the rice weevil

  3. Supplementation with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit decreases oxidative stress in healthy humans: a comparative study with vitamin C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Tesoriere; Daniela Butera; Anna Maria Pintaudi; Mario Allegra; Maria A Livrea

    ABSTRACT Background: Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit contains vi- tamin C and characteristic betalain pigments, the radical-scavenging properties and antioxidant activities of which have been shown,in vitro. Objective: We investigated the effects of short-term supplementa- tion with cactus pear fruit compared,with vitamin C alone on total- body oxidative status in healthy humans. Design: In a randomized, crossover, double-treatment study, 18

  4. Corrective action plan for CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) verbally requested approval for the schedule to be accelerated from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1997. Currently, field closure activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963.

  5. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive. PMID:24650181

  6. Genetic variability of Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera, Dactylopiidae) on forage cactus in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, D M P; do E S Mergulhão, A C; de Medeiros, L V; Figueiredo, M V B; Burity, H A

    2013-01-01

    The carmine cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae is a key pest in productive fields of forage cactus in Pernambuco, Brazil. Species identification by means of molecular markers assists in understanding the genetic profile, underpins morphological characterization, and supports the monitoring of populations in integrated management programs designed to control this pest. We evaluated the genetic variability of natural populations of D. opuntiae. Genetic variability was analyzed with ISSR and RAPD primers in 24 populations from 12 municipalities of Pernambuco State in Brazil. Morphological characterization confirmed that D. opuntiae was the only cochineal species present in all samples. Nine ISSR primers and six RAPD produced a total of 62 and 58 polymorphic fragments, respectively. Both types of markers showed an average genetic similarity of 80% regardless of the geographic origin of samples. The low genetic variability demonstrates a high degree of relatedness among these D. opuntiae populations. PMID:24301784

  7. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

    2002-05-07

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

  8. A unique cactus with scented and possibly bat-dispersed fruits: Rhipsalis juengeri.

    PubMed

    Schlumpberger, B O; Clery, R A; Barthlott, W

    2006-03-01

    Rhipsalis juengeri was described in 1995 as an unusual representative of epiphytic cacti, forming more than 3 m long curtains, hanging from the canopy of the Atlantic Rainforest in eastern Brazil. At the apex of thin, pendant shoots, green-brownish berries are formed. We report here as a novelty for the Cactaceae that these berries are strongly scented, and present an odour analysis along with an olfactoric survey of fruits of about 50 species and varieties of the cactus tribe Rhipsalideae. The volatile blend of berries of R. juengeri is dominated by ketones, some of which are responsible for the characteristic blackcurrant-like scent, as is shown by GC-olfactometry. The odour and inconspicuous colour stand out among fruits of other epiphytic cacti that are thought to be consumed by birds. Fruit characters of R. juengeri and the flagellicarpic presentation indicate adaptation to chiropterochory. PMID:16547872

  9. The effects of cactus inspired spines on the aerodynamics of a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Benjamin; Liu, Yingzheng

    2013-05-01

    The effect of cactus-like spines on the topology and the dynamics of the flow past a stationary or pivoted cylinder are experimentally studied. The experiments are performed either in a water channel or a wind tunnel at low to moderate Reynolds number (390-12 500). The instantaneous velocity field is recorded using TR-PIV and investigated for three different configurations: no spines, short spines (0.1D) and long spines (0.2D). The results show how the spines are able to slow the flow past the cylinder and then increase the recirculation area by up to 128% while the maximum fluctuating kinetic energy intensity is decreased by up to 35%. Moreover, the spines have a significant effect on the vortex shedding and the dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder, thus significantly reducing both the amplitude and the frequency at which a pivoted cylinder oscillates.

  10. Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

  11. Chlorantraniliprole resistance in the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Yan, Hui-Hui; Gao, Li; Guo, Yun-Yun; Xue, Chao-Bin

    2014-04-01

    The wide application of chlorantraniliprole, which selectively targets insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has led to increasingly prominent development of resistance to this insecticide. Although much work has been carried out on the structure and function of RyR, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to chlorantraniliprole in diamondback moth still needs further investigation. P. xylostella strains with medium and high resistance to chlorantraniliprole were obtained by laboratory selection and field collection. The biological activity of chlorantraniliprole against the third-instar larvae of susceptible and resistant strains was tested, and resistance development and biological fitness were investigated. The realized heritability (h2) of resistance showed the diamondback moth has a high risk of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. RyR transcript levels were lower in resistant strains than in susceptible strains, indicating that decreased expression of PxRyR may be associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. A 4,400 bp fragment of the RyR cDNA, which encodes most of the functional domains of RyR, was cloned and characterized from four strains (S, F18, BY, and ZC). A 14 amino acid (Q4546-S4559) deletion was found in three resistant strains (F18, BY, and ZC). A point mutation resulting in a glycine to glutamate substitution, as reported in a previously published article, was also found in the carboxyl-terminal region of two resistant strains (BY and ZC). These results indicated that decreased transcriptional level of RyR mRNA and combined with the site mutation might be related to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:24772564

  12. Differences in Tolerance to Host Cactus Alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ignacio M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M.; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  13. Sex pheromone of the saltmarsh caterpillar moth, Estigmene acrea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ada S. Hill; Wendell L. Roelofs

    1981-01-01

    Three compounds have been identified as components of the sex pheromone emitted by females of the saltmarsh caterpillar moth,Estigmene acrea (Drury). These are (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienal (I), (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienal (II), and (Z,Z)-3,6-cis-9,10-epoxyheneicosadiene (III). In female tip extract they were found in a ratio of 1:6:25, respectively, and in trapped female effluvia the ratio was 1:6:27, respectively. Combinations of III with either I or

  14. Sex pheromone of the fall webworm moth, Hyphantria cunea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Hill; B. G. Kovalev; L. N. Nikolaeva; W. L. Roelofs

    1982-01-01

    Three compounds have been identified as sex pheromone components produced by female fall webworm moths,Hyphantria cunea (Drury). These compounds are: (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienal (I), (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienal (II), and (Z,Z)-3,6-cis-9,10-epoxyheneicosadiene (III). The ratio of these compounds was approximately 5:6:13, respectively, in female tip extracts prepared from U.S.S.R, insects and approximately 1:8:21, respectively, in extracts from U.S. insects. The ratio in female effluvia trapped from

  15. Floral CO2 reveals flower profitability to moths.

    PubMed

    Thom, Corinna; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Mechaber, Wendy L; Hildebrand, John G

    2004-06-01

    The hawkmoth Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), an experimentally favorable Lepidopteran that is highly sensitive to carbon dioxide (CO2), feeds on the nectar of a range of flowering plants, such as Datura wrightii (Solanaceae). Newly opened Datura flowers give off dramatically elevated levels of CO2 and offer ample nectar. Thus, floral CO2 emission could indicate food-source profitability. This study documents that foraging Manduca moths prefer surrogate flowers that emit high levels of CO2, characteristic of newly opened Datura flowers. We show for the first time that CO2 may play an important role in the foraging behavior of nectar-feeding insects. PMID:15303329

  16. Cactus Wheel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-17

    In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners explore the concept of population density. Using a simple hunt-and-walk technique, learners will count several kinds of desert plants and compare their population densities. This activity is designed for desert areas but can be adapted to other ecosystems. Also, check your local botanical gardens, they may have a desert plant section.

  17. The echolocation calls of the spotted bat Euderma maculatum are relatively inaudible to moths

    PubMed

    Fullard; Dawson

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies of the spotted bat Euderma maculatum have demonstrated that this bat emits echolocation calls that are lower in frequency, shorter in duration and fainter in intensity compared with those of most other insectivorous bats, acoustic characteristics which should render it less conspicuous to eared moths. We tested this prediction by monitoring electrophysiologically the ears of sympatric noctuoid (noctuid, arctiid and notodontid) moths in a site in western Canada. Auditory threshold curves demonstrate that most of the moths tested are less responsive to the calls of Eu. maculatum than to those of another sympatric bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Playbacks to moth ears of pre-recorded search- and approach-phase echolocation calls of Eu. maculatum and Ep. fuscus further demonstrate that the calls of Eu. maculatum are poorly detectable to moths and, in some cases, completely inaudible. We estimate that, in the wild, an average noctuoid moth would detect the calls of Eu. maculatum at distances of less than 1 m as opposed to the calls of Ep. fuscus which should be first heard at distances of 20­25 m. Although most moths are unable to adequately hear Eu. maculatum, the observation that two individuals possessed ears sensitive to this bat's calls suggests the existence of auditory pre-adaptation to this type of echolocation. PMID:9317482

  18. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    PubMed

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. PMID:22775528

  19. Can sunspot activity and ultraviolet-B radiation explain cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species?

    PubMed Central

    Selås, Vidar; Hogstad, Olav; Kobro, Sverre; Rafoss, Trond

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species have long remained a puzzle for foresters and ecologists. This paper presents time-series exhibiting a strong negative relationship between sunspot numbers and population indices of autumnal and winter moths, both in a mountain birch forest in central Norway and in a mixed lowland forest in southern Norway. In the latter area, also the population level of a moth species feeding entirely on lichens was negatively related to sunspot numbers. Low sunspot activity leads to a thinner ozone layer and thus higher surface ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. As winter moth larvae prefer leaves subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation, we suggest that the causal relationship between sunspots and moths is that the metabolic costs of producing UV-B-protective pigments during periods of low sunspot activity reduce trees' and lichens' resistance to herbivores, and thus increase the survival of moth larvae. Higher peak densities of moth cycles in mountain forests could be explained by the general higher UV-B radiation at higher altitudes. PMID:15347511

  20. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

  1. Peripheral and Central Olfactory Tuning in a Moth

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Rose C.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

  2. Extracellular transduction events under pulsed stimulation in moth olfactory sensilla.

    PubMed

    Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lánský, Petr; Krivan, Vlastimil

    2003-07-01

    In natural conditions, pheromones released continuously by female moths are broken in discontinuous clumps and filaments. These discontinuities are perceived by flying male moths as periodic variations in the concentration of the stimulus, which have been shown to be essential for location of females. We study analytically and numerically the evolution in time of the activated pheromone-receptor (signaling) complex in response to periodic pulses of pheromone. The 13-reaction model considered takes into account the transport of pheromone molecules by pheromone binding proteins (PBP), their enzymatic deactivation in the perireceptor space and their interaction with receptors at the dendritic membrane of neurons in Antheraea polyphemus sensitive to the main pheromone component. The time-averaged and periodic properties of the temporal evolution of the signaling complex are presented, in both transient and steady states. The same time-averaged response is shown to result from many different pulse trains and to depend hyperbolically on the time-averaged pheromone concentration in air. The dependency of the amplitude of the oscillations of the signaling complex on pulse characteristics, especially frequency, suggests that the model can account for the ability of the studied type of neuron to resolve repetitive pulses up to 2 Hz, as experimentally observed. Modifications of the model for resolving pulses up to 10 Hz, as found in other neuron types sensitive to the minor pheromone components, are discussed. PMID:12907588

  3. Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests. PMID:24662468

  4. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  5. The Dorsoventral Regulatory Gene Cassette spätzle\\/Toll\\/cactus Controls the Potent Antifungal Response in Drosophila Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Lemaitre; Emmanuelle Nicolas; Lydia Michaut; Jean-Marc Reichhart; Jules A Hoffmann

    1996-01-01

    The cytokine-induced activation cascade of NF-?B in mammals and the activation of the morphogen dorsal in Drosophila embryos show striking structural and functional similarities (Toll\\/IL-1, Cactus\\/I-?B, and dorsal\\/NF-?B). Here we demonstrate that these parallels extend to the immune response of Drosophila. In particular, the intracellular components of the dorsoventral signaling pathway (except for dorsal) and the extracellular Toll ligand, spätzle,

  6. Daily to decadal patterns of precipitation, humidity, and photosynthetic physiology recorded in the spines of the columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Nathan B.; Dettman, David L.; Sandquist, Darren R.; Williams, David G.

    2010-06-01

    Isotopic analyses of cactus spines grown serially from the apex of long-lived columnar cactuses may be useful for climatological and ecological studies if time series can be reliably determined from spines. To characterize the timescales over which spines may record this information, we measured spine growth in saguaro cactus over days, months, and years with time-lapse photography, periodic marking, and postbomb radiocarbon dating and then analyzed isotopic variability over these same timescales and compared these measurements to local climate. We used daily increments of growth, visible as transverse bands of light and dark tissue in spines, as chronometers to develop diurnally resolved ?13C and ?18O records from three spines grown in series over a 70 day period. We also constructed a 22 year record of ?13C variations from spine tips arranged in chronological sequence along the side of a 4 m tall, single-stemmed saguaro. We evaluated two mechanisms potentially responsible for daily, weekly, and annual variability in ?13C values of spines; both related to vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Our data suggest that stomatal conductance is unlikely to be the determinant of ?13C variation in spines. We suggest that either VPD-induced changes in the balance of nighttime- and daytime-assimilated CO2 or mesophyll-limited diffusion of CO2 at night are the most likely determinant of ?13C variation in spines. Intra-annual and interannual variability of ?18O in spine tissue appears to be controlled by the mass balance of 18O-depleted water taken up after rain events and evaporative enrichment of 18O in tissue water between rains. We were able to estimate the annual growth and areole generation rate of a saguaro cactus from its 22 yearlong isotopic record because VPD, rainfall, and evaporation exhibit strong annual cycles in the Sonoran Desert and these variations are recorded in the oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of spines.

  7. Spray-Drying of Cactus Pear Juice (Opuntia streptacantha): Effect on the Physicochemical Properties of Powder and Reconstituted Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Rodríguez-Hernández; R. González-García; A. Grajales-Lagunes; M. A. Ruiz-Cabrera; M. Abud-Archila

    2005-01-01

    A D-optimal experimental design with three center points was used to evaluate the influence of spray-drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of a powdered product obtained by drying cactus pear juice. Drying was performed in a laboratory spray-dryer (Pulvis GB 22 model) at two inlet air temperatures (205 and 225°C), and two compressor air pressures (0.10 and 0.20 MPa). Commercial

  8. Salt stress increases the expression of p5cs gene and induces proline accumulation in cactus pear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia O. Silva-Ortega; Ana E. Ochoa-Alfaro; Juan A. Reyes-Agüero; Gerardo A. Aguado-Santacruz; Juan F. Jiménez-Bremont

    2008-01-01

    Proline (Pro) is one of the most accumulated osmolytes in salinity and water deficit conditions in plants. In the present study, we measured the Pro content, the activity and the expression level of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS: ?-glutamyl kinase, EC 2.7.2.11 and glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, EC 1.2.1.41), a key regulatory enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of Pro, in cactus pear (Opuntia

  9. Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-06-01

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P<0.01) decreased the body, testis, and accessory sex organ weights, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, histological analysis revealed pronounced morphological alterations with tubular necrosis and reduction in the number of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of sodium dichromate-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, exposure to sodium dichromate significantly (P<0.01) increased LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testis. Interestingly, pretreatment with CCE significantly (P<0.01) restored the serum testosterone level, sperm count, and motility to the levels of the control group. Moreover, CCE administration was capable of reducing the elevated level of LPO and significantly (P<0.01) increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in testis. Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis. PMID:24752970

  10. Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

    2014-10-01

    Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84 days in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P?cactus-Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P?cactus could be used to improve poor quality roughage intakes in goats, and therefore, there is need to promote its use in periods of feed deficit especially in smallholder sector. PMID:25023231

  11. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Uebelhack, Ralf; Busch, Regina; Alt, Felix; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Chong, Pee-Win

    2014-01-01

    Background Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) fiber was shown to promote weight loss in a 3-month clinical investigation. As demonstrated by in vitro studies, cactus fiber binds to dietary fat and its use results in reduced absorption, which in turn leads to reduced energy absorption and ultimately the reduction of body weight. Objective The objective of our study was to elucidate the dietary fat binding capacity of cactus fiber through determination of fecal fat excretion in healthy volunteers. Subjects and Methods This clinical investigation was performed as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects for a period of approximately 45 days. Twenty healthy volunteer subjects were randomized to receive cactus fiber or placebo, 2 tablets thrice daily with main meals. All subjects were provided with meals during the study period (except washout) according to a standardized meal plan, with 35% of daily energy need coming from fat. Two 24-hour feces samples were collected during both the baseline and treatment periods for analysis of the fat content. Results Cactus fiber showed an increased fecal fat excretion compared with placebo (mean [SD] = 15.79% [5.79%] vs 4.56% [3.09%]; P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported throughout the study period. Conclusions Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667. PMID:25067985

  12. Regulation of Wolbachia density in the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, and the almond moth, Cadra cautella.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Sasaki, Tetsuhiko

    2003-02-01

    The Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, is infected with A-group Wolbachia (wKue), and the almond moth, Cadra cautella, is doubly infected with A- and B-group Wolbachia, which are designated as wCauA and wCauB, respectively. In both insects, the Wolbachia populations increased greatly during embryonic and larval stages. The Wolbachia population doubled every 3.6 days on average in E. kuehniella larvae, whereas those of wCauA and wCauB doubled every 2.1 days in C. cautella larvae. The populations of wCauA and wCauB that had been transferred into the E. kuehniella background increased at similar rates to that of wKue in the natural host E. kuehniella, suggesting that the host genetic background influences Wolbachia proliferation. To examine whether the populations of the two Wolbachia variants in double infection is regulated collectively or independently, we measured the infection load in the ovaries of three transfected E. kuehniella lines in different infection states: single infection with wCauA, single infection with wCauB, and double infection. The density of each Wolbachia variant did not differ significantly between the singly and doubly transfected hosts, suggesting independent regulation. PMID:12655178

  13. Field and Laboratory Responses of Male Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to a Pheromone-Based

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    that combines the primary component of codling moth sex pheromone with the insecticide permethrin. Studies- with the insecticide permethrin has been developed. ment strategy, the behaviors in question should be This technology

  14. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  15. Selective flower abortion maintains moth cooperation in a newly discovered pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Kiers, E Toby; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    The evolutionary stability of mutualisms is enhanced when partners possess mechanisms to prevent overexploitation by one another. In obligate pollination-seed consumption mutualisms, selective abortion of flowers containing excessive eggs represents one such mechanism, but empirical tests have long been limited to the yucca-yucca moth mutualism. We present evidence for selective abortion in the recently discovered mutualism between Glochidion trees and Epicephala moths. In Glochidion acuminatum, proportion of aborted flowers progressively increased both with higher egg load and increased ovule damage. Selective abortion resulted in a 16% seed production increase compared with expectations under random abortion, and moths suffered fitness losses as high as 62% when ovipositing into pre-infested flowers. Moth eggs were laid singly more often than expected under random oviposition, thus avoiding potential disadvantages from multiple infestations. As new pollination mutualisms are being discovered, selective abortion mechanisms may prove to be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:20113331

  16. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl ?11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  17. Susceptibility of Apple Clearwing Moth Larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Beauveria basiana and Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple clearwing moth larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sessidae) collected from orchards in British Columbia, Canada, were naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). In laboratory bioassays, larvae were susceptible to infection and dose related mo...

  18. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE INDIANMEAL MOTH ON FINISHED STORED-PRODUCTS USING EGG AND LARVAL PARASITOIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control using hymenopteran parasitoids presents an attractive alternative to insecticides for reducing infestations and damage from the Indianmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella) in retail and warehouse environments. We examined the potential for using combinations of the egg parasitoid Tric...

  19. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth Derek M. Johnson1

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    - systems1 and cause substantial economic losses2 . A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth locally, but a few seed new colonies by long-range movement)5 can explain the invasion pulses. Our results

  20. Plum fruit moth Cydia funebrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    caterpillar exits the fruit. Pupation occurs in a cocoon spun in various settings such as dead wood, under al. 2003). In Europe, sex pheromones have been used for mating disruption of plum fruit moth (Venette

  1. 76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...foliage, often resulting in heavy damage to trees. The damage can have long-lasting effects...exploit more areas and cause more damage than the European gypsy moth...be correctly identified through DNA analysis. (Since the...

  2. Phylogeny and life history evolution of Prodoxus yucca moths (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLLE P ELLMYR; M ANUEL; B ALCAZAR-LARA; J AMES L EEBENS-MACK

    Yucca moths (Lep., Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate pollination mutualism with yuccas. In addition to the pollinators, yuccas also host many non-pollinating yucca moths. Here the genus Prodoxus, the non- pollinating sister group of the pollinators, is revised using morphological and molecular data, their phylogenetic relationships are analysed, and the evolution of host tissue specialization explored. Twenty-two species are

  3. Increased moth herbivory associated with environmental stress of pinyon pine at local and regional levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Cobb; Susan Mopper; Catherine A. Gehring; Matt Caouette; Kerry M. Christensen; Thomas G. Whitham

    1997-01-01

    Using 6 years of observational and experimental data, we examined the hypothesis that water and nutrient stress increase\\u000a the susceptibility of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) to the stem- and cone-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella). At two geographic levels, a local scale of 550 km2 and a regional scale of 10,000 km2, moth herbivory was strongly correlated with an edaphic stress gradient.

  4. Sex or Food? Appetetive Learning of Sex Odors in a Male Moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke Hartlieb; Bill S. Hansson; Peter Anderson

    1999-01-01

    Moths learn to associate a flower odor with a food reward after a few learning trials. Can a hungry, male moth learn to associate\\u000a a sex attractant with food instead of with sex? We provided a hungry male with odors of single female sex pheromone components,\\u000a of the full sex pheromone blend or of a flower odor component as cues

  5. Prospects of monosodium glutamate use for enhancement of spinosad toxicity against codling moth neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maciej A. Pszczolkowski; John J. Brown

    2002-01-01

    It was demonstrated that neonates of the codling moth,Cydia pomonella (L.), feed on ‘Red Delicious’ apple leaves and successfully molt to the second instar. Next, using a non-choice bioassay,\\u000a we targeted codling moth neonates feeding on apple leaves, with standard concentrations of a culinary taste enhancer, monosodium\\u000a glutamate (MSG), and Success®, which contains 22.8% spinosad as its active ingredient. The

  6. Gypsy moth in the United States: An atlas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Luzader, E.R.; Mason, D.A.; Bush, R.

    1997-02-01

    This atlas includes 52 maps that doucment the historical spread of gypsy moth from 1900 to the present, historical forest defoliation in the Northeast from 1984 to the present, and the distribution of susceptible forests in the conterminous United States. These maps should be useful for planning activities to limit the spread of gypsy moth and mitigate the effects of this forest insect pest in areas that have not yet been invaded.

  7. Ejaculate economics: an experimental test in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that spermatogenesis is costly. As a consequence, males should optimize the use of their sperm to maximize their reproductive outputs in their lifetime. However, experimental evidence on this prediction is largely lacking. Here, we examine how a male moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) responds to the presence of rivals or additional mates and how such response influences his lifetime reproductive fitness. We show that when rival males are present around a copulating pair, the male ejaculates more sperm to win a sperm competition battle but in such an environment he inseminates fewer females, sires fewer offspring and lives shorter. The opposite is the case when additional females are present during copulation. These findings reveal that elevated reproductive expenditure owing to sperm competition intensity is made at the expense of longevity and future reproduction. PMID:24429687

  8. Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

  9. Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

  10. Acoustic orientation via sequential comparison in an ultrasonic moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Michael; Tourtellot, Michael; Tillberg, Chad; Bell, William; Prins, Nicolaas

    2002-07-01

    Orientation of female lesser wax moths (Achroia grisella) to male calling song was tested on a locomotion-compensator device that withheld all inter-aural acoustic differences from the insect. Under these circumstances, females remained longer in the vicinity of the sound source if they experienced a variable sound level that increased when approaching the source rather than a level that remained constant at all times. Analyses of orientation paths revealed that greater retention near the source was achieved by enhanced turning when the perceived sound level remained unchanged or decreased but retaining the previous heading when the level increased. These findings suggest that acoustic orientation can be supplemented by mechanisms based on sequential, as opposed to instantaneous, comparison of auditory input. Such mechanisms may be valuable when binaural hearing is impaired or asymmetric or in environments where acoustic differences at the two ears are unreliable indications of direction to the sound source.

  11. Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection on moth pheromone communication

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Astrid T.; Horovitz, Joy L.; Hamilton, Jennifer; Santangelo, Richard G.; Schal, Coby; Gould, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the sexual communication signals of female moths is thought to be under strong stabilizing selection, because females that produce atypical pheromone blends suffer lower success in finding mates. This intraspecific selection pressure cannot explain the high diversity of moth pheromone blends found in nature. We conducted experiments to determine whether communication interference from males of closely related species could exert strong enough directional selection to cause evolution of these signals. Attraction and mating success of Heliothis subflexa (Hs) females with a normal quantitative trait locus for production of acetate pheromone components (norm-OAc) were compared with Hs females with an introgressed quantitative trait locus from Heliothis virescens (Hv) that dramatically decreased the amount of acetate esters in their pheromone glands (low-OAc). In field experiments with natural Hv and Hs populations, 10 times more Hv males were captured in traps baited with live low-OAc Hs females than in traps with norm-OAc Hs females. This pattern was confirmed in mate-choice assays in cages. Hybrids resulting from Hv–Hs matings have effectively zero fitness in the field. Combining our results with the extensive data set gathered in the past 40 years on the reproductive biology of Hv, we can quantitatively estimate that the directional selection exerted by Hv males on Hs females to produce relatively high amounts (>5%) of acetates can range from 0.135 to 0.231. Such intense interspecific selection may counteract intraspecific stabilizing selection that impedes evolutionary changes in pheromone blends and could lead to diversification of sexual signals. PMID:16585529

  12. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

  13. Adjusting the phenology model of codling moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) in Washington State apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2007-12-01

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., to fit cumulative curves for the occurrence of injured fruits and male moth catches in sex pheromone-baited traps as a function of accumulated degree-days after the start of moth flight. Twelve data sets were collected from seven apple, Malus domestica Bordhausen, orchards in Washington State from 2003 to 2006. Cumulative data were grouped across years for orchards either treated with sex pheromone dispensers or untreated and fit to logistic equations for both the first and second generation. No significant differences were found for the cumulative curves of moth flight or egg hatch between pheromone-treated and untreated orchards; thus, these data were combined. These new logistic models for moth flight and egg hatch were compared with a widely used distributed-delay model originally developed in Michigan. The cumulative flight curves for the logistic and distributed-delay models were statistically different (slopes) for the first but not the second generation. Cumulative egg hatch in the logistic model was significantly different from the distributed-delay model (intercepts and slopes) for both generations. Most strikingly, the timing of 50% egg hatch during the first generation was delayed 100 DD in the logistic model. The potential impact of this change in the characterization of codling moth's phenology on the effectiveness of insecticide programs targeting eggs and newly eclosed larvae was examined. Possible explanations for this significant difference between the models are discussed. PMID:18284777

  14. Beware of bats, beware of birds: the auditory responses of eared moths to bat and bird predation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Jacobs; John M. Ratcliffe; James H. Fullard

    2008-01-01

    The allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH) proposes that the preponderance of moths in the diets of some bats (e.g., Rhinolophidae) is the result of these bats echolocating at allotonic frequencies, that is, outside of the typical hearing range of most moths (ca., 20--60 kHz). The broader hearing range of African moths (5--110 kHz) suggests that their ears may function at frequencies

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dave D. Madsen

    1998-08-08

    This closure report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range,approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol) (DOE, 1996). The remedial alternative proposed Nevada Division of Environmental Protection proposed the capping method. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the ar ea of the trenches, constructing/planning a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a post-closure monitoring plan. Closure activities for CAU 426 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan as documented in this Closure Report.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  17. Entropy Crisis, Ideal Glass Transition and Polymer Melting: Exact Solution on a Husimi Cactus

    E-print Network

    Andrea Corsi; P. D. Gujrati

    2003-08-27

    We introduce an extension of the lattice model of melting of semiflexible polymers originally proposed by Flory. Along with a bending penalty, present in the original model and involving three sites of the lattice, we introduce an interaction energy that corresponds to the presence of a pair of parallel bonds and a second interaction energy associated with the presence of a hairpin turn. Both these new terms represent four-site interactions. The model is solved exactly on a Husimi cactus, which approximates a square lattice. We study the phase diagram of the system as a function of the energies. For a proper choice of the interaction energies, the model exhibits a first-order melting transition between a liquid and a crystalline phase. The continuation of the liquid phase below this temperature gives rise to a supercooled liquid, which turns continuously into a new low-temperature phase, called metastable liquid. This liquid-liquid transition seems to have some features that are characteristic of the critical transition predicted by the mode-coupling theory.

  18. Avalanche dynamics of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus graph

    E-print Network

    Gauthier, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the avalanche dynamics of the abelian sandpile model on arbitrarily large balls of the expanded cactus graph (the Cayley graph of the free product $\\mathbb{Z}_3 * \\mathbb{Z}_2$). I follow the approach of Dhar and Majumdar (1990) to enumerate the number of recurrent configurations. I also propose the substitution method of enumerating all the recurrent configurations in which adding a grain to a designated origin vertex (far enough away from the boundary vertices) causes topplings to occur in a specific cluster (a connected subgraph that is the union of cells, or copies of the 3-cycle). This substitution method lends itself to combinatorial evaluation of the number of positions in which a certain number of cells topple in an avalanche starting at the origin, which are amenable to analysis using well-known recurrences and corresponding generating functions. Using asymptotic methods, I show that, when counting cells that topple in the avalanche, the critical exponent of the Abelian sandpile model o...

  19. Insectivorous bat pollinates columnar cactus more effectively per visit than specialized nectar bat.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Price, Ryan D; Heady, Paul A; Kay, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions are great model systems to investigate mutualistic relationships. We compared pollinator effectiveness between facultative and obligate nectar-feeding bats to determine how foraging specialization influences mutualistic interactions in a bat-adapted cactus. We predicted that a specialized nectarivorous bat would deliver more pollen than an opportunistic nectar-feeding bat because of specialized adaptations to nectar feeding that indicate close association with their food plants. Counter to our predictions, the opportunistic Antrozous pallidus delivered significantly more pollen grains per visit than the specialized Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. Higher pollinator effectiveness, based on visitation rates and pollen deposition levels, varied between species by site, and although A. pallidus visits flowers much less frequently than L. yerbabuenae over all sites, it is likely an effective and reliable pollinator of Pachycereus pringlei in Baja, Mexico. Our results suggest that morphological adaptations and dietary specialization on nectar do not necessarily confer advantages for pollination over less specialized plant visitors and highlight the reciprocally exploitative nature of mutualisms. PMID:23234851

  20. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. PMID:24210248