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1

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field populations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum were surveyed weekly beginning in July 2006. We sampled the native cactus, Opuntia stricta visually to determine the densities and development of immature stages. Adult males were collected using a synthetic pheromone and a sticky wing trap...

2

Preventive Programme Against the Cactus Moth Cactoblastis cactorum in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) as a successful biological control agent against ten Opuntia invaders in 20 countries is widely documented. Nevertheless, this species has also become a serious threat to the high diversity\\u000a of both native and cultivated Opuntia species in many regions of the world. In particular its presence in the Caribbean islands, and

J. Hernández; H. Sánchez; A. Bello; G. González

3

Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

4

Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

5

Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

6

The invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Host plant testing, species interactions, and effects on local Opuntia populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, poses a threat to opunitoid cacti species of North America. The following work contains four separate studies investigating C. cactorum host plant preference and performance, predation and parastitism of C. cactorum, effects of C. cactorum on local Opuntia populations, and associational effects of host and non-host plants on C. cactorum and native Opuntia-feeding herbivores.

Heather Jezorek

2011-01-01

7

The renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: its natural history and threat to native Opuntia floras in Mexico and the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Phycitidae) is native to South America. It was released as a biological control agent against alien Opuntia -cacti in Australia in the 1920s, then in southern Africa, and latterly on several islands, including those in the Caribbean. In 1989, the cactus moth was discovered in Florida, in the United States of America, where it

H. G. Zimmermann; V. C. Moran; J. H. Hoffmann

2000-01-01

8

Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

9

Comparing the effects of the exotic cactus-feeding moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and a native cactus-feeding moth, Melitara prodenialis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on two species of Florida Opuntia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic species are a great concern because of the possibility of negative effects once they become established. The exotic cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum has a reputation for being detrimental to Opuntia populations throughout Florida and the southeastern United States. Multiple projects are currently underway to attempt to contain and eradicate this species before it can migrate to the Opuntia-rich desert

Amanda J Baker

2006-01-01

10

Don't Let Cacto Blast Us: Development of a BiNational Plan to Stop the Spread of the Cactus Moth Cactoblastis cactorum in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South American cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) was first detected in the continental USA on Big Pine Key in southern Florida in 1989. Although it was recognized\\u000a as a potential threat to Opuntia-rich areas in the south-western USA and Mexico, actions were not taken to manage its spread because there are relatively\\u000a few cactus plants in Florida and the

K. Bloem; S. Bloem; J. Carpenter; S. Hight; J. Floyd; H. Zimmermann

11

External morphology of the egg of the native (Melitara prodenialis) and exotic (Cactoblastis cactorum) cactus moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the chorionic surface of two pyralids that feed on Opuntia cactus. The chorionic surface of Cactoblastis cactorum has a reticulate pattern due to the ridges on the surface and aeropyles. The surface has a granular appearance at low m...

12

COMPARATIVE PHENOLOGY OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM AND MELITARA PRODENIALIS (LEPIDOPTERA): PESTS OF CACTUS IN FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We surveyed native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta) at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL from September 2006 – September 2007 for the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum and the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis. Every week, we visually counted the numbers and reco...

13

The Multiple 'Personalities' of Cactoblastis cactorum: A Multi-Disciplinary Response to the Biological Impacts of the Moth's Geographical Wanderings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus feeding pyralid Cactoblastis cactorum is perhaps the most well know successful classical biological control agent against weeds when attacking non-native prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.). However, the moth has become a pest in North America where it attacks native Opuntia spp.; threat...

14

The CO 2 sense of the moth Cactoblastis cactorum and its probable role in the biological control of the CAM plant Opuntia stricta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, and the cactus, Opuntia stricta, is used as a model to examine the question of whether the CO2 sense of a herbivorous insect can detect the CO2 gradients associated with a plant's metabolic activity. Both the anatomical and the electrophysiological characteristics of CO2-sensitive receptor neurons in C. cactorum indicate an adaptation to the

G. Stange; J. Monro; S. Stowe; C. B. Osmond

1995-01-01

15

Egg clumping, host plant selection and population regulation in Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the successful control of prickly pear cactus by Cactoblastis cactorum in Australia, populations of plants and moths have persisted at low densities in open woodland sites. A contagious egg distribution causes overcrowding of larvae on some plants but insures low levels or no attack of other plants. This prevents extinction of plants and insects. Cactoblastis moths choose plants with

Judith H. Myers; John Monro; Neil Murray

1981-01-01

16

CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE VALIDATION STUDY RESULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, in 1989 this moth was detected in the Florida Keys and has now become an invasive pest in the southea...

17

Life Table Analysis for Cactoblastis cactorum Immatures and Female Adults under Five Constant Temperatures: Implications for Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was reported in Florida in 1989, and it is expanding its geographical range to threaten Opuntia cactus (Cactaceae) in the southwestern United States, into Mexico, where it is an important economic crop. Laboratory life history studies were conducted at 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34C to understand cactus moth biology and to

Jesusa Crisostomo Legaspi; Benjamin C. Legaspi

2007-01-01

18

Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

19

Reproduction, Longevity, and Survival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 102(3): 445Ð449 (2009) ABSTRACT Screened potted cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., plants containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus Þeld in St. Marks, FL, to measure oviposition patterns under ambient conditions. Results showed a narrow window for oviposition during third and sixth day of

Jesusa Crisostomo Legaspi; Ignacio Baez; Benjamin C. Legaspi

2009-01-01

20

EXPANDING GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Observational surveys and virgin female-baited traps have identified the continued spread of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The moth is infesting native and ornamental cacti north to Charleston, SC and west to St. George Island, FL. ...

21

Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

22

Effect of temperature and length of exposure time on percent egg hatch of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The oligophagous cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), has been recognized as a serious and immediate threat to Opuntia cacti in Florida and the southeastern United States. The moth has successfully colonized new geographical ranges with lower annual temperatures north of the Florida Keys wher...

23

A CHARACTER DEMONSTRATING THE OCCURRENCE OF MATING IN MALE CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arrival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), in the southeastern United States in 1989 (Mahr 2001), and its steady progress westward to the Opuntia -growing re- gions of Mexico and the southwestern United States have resulted in research on the develop- ment of control measures to halt or slow the movement of the insect. The most promising con-

G. M ARTI; J AMES

24

Geographic patterns of genetic diversity from the native range of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) support the documented history of invasion and multiple introductions for invasive populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spread of the invasive cactus-feeding moth Cactoblastis cactorum has been well documented since its export from Argentina to Australia as a biocontrol agent, and records suggest that all\\u000a non-native populations are derived from a single collection in the moth’s native range. The subsequent global spread of the\\u000a moth has been complex, and previous research has suggested multiple introductions into North

Travis D. MarsicoLisa; Lisa E. Wallace; Gary N. Ervin; Christopher P. Brooks; Jessica E. McClure; Mark E. Welch

2011-01-01

25

Host range and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

26

A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 μm in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex

O. G. Marti; J. E. Carpenter

2007-01-01

27

The evolution of obligate pollination mutualisms: senita cactus and senita moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new obligate pollination mutualism involving the senita cactus, Lophocereus schottii (Cactaceae, Pachyceereae), and the senita moth, Upiga virescens (Pyralidae, Glaphyriinae) in the Sonoran Desert and discuss the evolution of specialized pollination mutualisms. L. schottii is a night-blooming, self-incompatible columnar cactus. Beginning at sunset, its flowers are visited by U. virescens females, which collect pollen on specialized abdominal

Theodore H. Fleming; J. Nathaniel Holland

1998-01-01

28

Identification of factors influencing flight performance of field-collected and laboratory-reared, overwintered, and nonoverwintered cactus moths fed with field-collected host plants.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions during egg and larval development may influence the dispersal ability of insect pests, thus requiring seasonal adjustment of control strategies. We studied the longest single flight, total distance flown, and the number of flights initiated by wild Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to determine whether the flight performance of overwintered cactus moths with a prolonged feeding phase during development differs from nonoverwintered cactus moths. Pupae of field-collected and laboratory-reared moths were transported together from the United States to Switzerland, and flight mills were used to characterize the flight capacity of 24- to 48-h-old adults during their most active period of the diel cycle. The lack of seasonal variation in flight performance of those moths that developed under controlled environment but were fed with field-collected Opuntia cacti showed that seasonal changes in host plant quality did not affect flight. This consistent flight performance in the mass-reared laboratory population throughout the year is beneficial for sterile insect technique programs, which aim to limit the dispersal of this pest. For field-collected C. cactorum, the larger overwintered females performed similarly to nonoverwintered females, indicating that longer feeding time at lower temperature increases body size but does not influence female flight capacity. Young mated females had a similar flight capacity to unmated ones, suggesting that gravid females may play an important role in invading new habitats. For males, overwintering increased the proportion of long-distance flyers, suggesting that they are well-adapted to locate the more sparsely dispersed females in the spring. PMID:19036209

Sarvary, Mark A; Hight, Stephen D; Carpenter, James E; Bloem, Stephanie; Bloem, Kenneth A; Dorn, Silvia

2008-10-01

29

75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the interstate movement of regulated articles from Louisiana is restricted. This action...it out and killing the plant. Within a short period of time, the South American cactus...restrict the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas to prevent...

2010-07-15

30

Phylogenetic origins of Lophocereus (Cactaceae) and the senita cactus-senita moth pollination mutualism.  

PubMed

Recent ecological research has revealed that the Sonoran Desert columnar cactus Lophocereus and the pyralid moth Upiga virescens form an obligate pollination mutualism, a rare but important case of coevolution. To investigate the phylogenetic origins of this unusual pollination system, we used molecular sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny of the four taxa within the genus Lophocereus and to determine the phylogenetic position of Lophocereus within the North American columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereeae). Our analysis included Lophocereus, six Pachycereus species, Carnegiea gigantea, and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo within the subtribe Pachycereinae, and Stenocereus thurberi as an outgroup within the Stenocereinae. Extensive screening of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes failed to reveal sequence variation within Lophocereus. At a deeper phylogenetic level, however, we found strong support for the placement of Lophocereus within Pachycereus as sister group to the hummingbird-pollinated P. marginatus. We discuss possible hypotheses that may explain the transition from bat pollination (ancestral) to moth and hummingbird pollination in Lophocereus and P. marginatus, respectively. Additional phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Pachycereus should be expanded to include Lophocereus, Carnegiea, Neobuxbaumia, and perhaps other species, whereas P. hollianus may need to be excluded from this clade. Future study will be needed to test taxonomic distinctions within Lophocereus, to test for parallel cladogenesis between phylogroups within Lophocereus and Upiga, and to fully delineate the genus Pachycereus and relationships among genera in the Pachycereinae. PMID:21665708

Hartmann, Stefanie; Nason, John D; Bhattacharya, Debashish

2002-07-01

31

Effects of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide on the location of hosts by the moth, Cactoblastis cactorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory organs that detect CO2 are common in herbivorous moths and butterflies, but their function has been unclear until now. As the CO2 gradients in the vicinity of a host plant depend on its physiological condition, CO2 could provide a sensory cue for the suitability of the plant as a larval food source. This study investigated whether changing\\u000a the atmospheric

Gert Stange

1997-01-01

32

Potential Nontarget Effects of a Biological Control Agent, Prickly Pear Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in North America, and Possible Management Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the poster child of biological control, has recently invaded the United States. The first US record was at Big Pine Key, Florida, in 1989. Since then it has moved rapidly northward into South Carolina. Fears are high that it will disperse, either on its own, or with human help, into the US desert southwest and

Peter Stiling

2002-01-01

33

POTENTIAL AND RISKS OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactoblastis cactorum Berg, an invasive moth and famous biological control of weeds agent, threatens numerous native and economic prickly pear cacti ( Opuntia ) in the United States and Mexico. Biological control of the moth, using a variety of approaches, is considered in- cluding: introduction of parasitoids and pathogens from the moth's native home in South America, introduction of parasitoids

R OBERT W. P EMBERTON

34

Volatile Organic Compounds as Signals in a Plant-Herbivore System: Electrophysiological Responses in Olfactory Sensilla of the Moth Cactoblastis cactorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological sensillum types on the antennae of male and female Cactoblastis cactorum were visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Electrophysiological recordings were performed for the first time on single olfactory sensilla of C. cactorum. The male sensilla trichodea house a receptor cell responding to the putative pheromone component (9Z,12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate. The sensilla trichodea of the females were much shorter than

Blanka Pophof; Gert Stange; Leif Abrell

2005-01-01

35

Diel flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: influence of age, gender, mating status, and body size.  

PubMed

Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring and control. We used computer-linked flight mills to investigate diel flight activity and flight performance in relation to gender, age, mating status, and body size. Maximal flight activity for both mated and unmated moths occurred during twilight, whereas flight activity was low during photophase. The total distance flown and the number of initiated flights within a diel cycle were higher in both unmated and mated females than in males, but the longest single flight was similar in both genders. These findings suggest that pheromone trap captures of males likely indicate the simultaneous presence of females and that mated females might even be in areas where males are not detected yet. Flight performance heterogeneity was large, with a small portion of the population (both males and females) performing long unbroken flights, whereas the majority made short flights. Females had higher pupal and adult body size and shorter longevity than males. A few individuals, particularly young mated females, flying long distances may be important for active spread of a population and the colonization of new habitats. Implications of this study in the control of the cactus moth by using the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:18459394

Sarvary, Mark A; Bloem, Kenneth A; Bloem, Stephanie; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Dorn, Silvia

2008-04-01

36

75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...restricted the interstate movement of regulated articles from areas in the State of Louisiana...it out and killing the plant. Within a short period of time, the South American cactus...restrict the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas to prevent...

2010-12-27

37

Targets of an invasive species: oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on 14 North American opuntioid cacti.  

PubMed

Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent of prickly pear cactus (Cactaceae: Opuntia Miller). The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North America. Of particular concern are the ecological and economic impacts the moth could have in the southwestern United States and Mexico, where both native and cultivated Opuntia species are important resources. It is unknown which species would best support larval development if the moth were to spread further westward in North America. This study aimed to determine if ovipositing females demonstrate preferences for any of 14 common opuntioids native to or naturalized in Mexico and the southwestern United States; which of these opuntioids best support larval development; and if oviposition preference correlates with larval performance, as predicted by simple adaptive models. Results from a field experiment showed that female moths preferred O. engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann variety linguiformis (Griffiths) Parfitt and Pinkava and O. engelmannii variety engelmannii for oviposition. A generalized linear model showed number of cladodes and degree of spininess to be significant predictors of oviposition activity. Results from a no-choice larval survival experiment showed Consolea rubescens (Salm-Dyck ex de Candolle.) Lemaire and O. streptacantha Lemaire to be the best hosts. Epidermal toughness was a significant predictor of most larval fitness parameters. In general, oviposition preference was not correlated with larval performance. A lack of co-evolutionary history between C. cactorum and North American opuntioid species may help explain this disconnect. PMID:22182554

Jezorek, Heather A; Stiling, Peter D; Carpenter, James E

2010-12-01

38

Volatile organic compounds as signals in a plant-herbivore system: electrophysiological responses in olfactory sensilla of the moth Cactoblastis cactorum.  

PubMed

The morphological sensillum types on the antennae of male and female Cactoblastis cactorum were visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Electrophysiological recordings were performed for the first time on single olfactory sensilla of C. cactorum. The male sensilla trichodea house a receptor cell responding to the putative pheromone component (9Z,12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate. The sensilla trichodea of the females were much shorter than those of the males and contained specialized receptor cells responding to certain terpenoids, the most frequent being the nerolidol-sensitive cell. The sensilla auricillica and sensilla basiconica of both sexes contained cells responding less specifically to terpenoid compounds as well as to green leaf volatiles. Cells of the sensilla coeloconica responded to aliphatic aldehydes and acids. Eight volatile organic compounds emitted by Opuntia stricta, a host plant of C. cactorum, were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, beta-caryophyllene being the major compound. Five compounds identified by gas chromatography in the headspace of O. stricta elicited responses in olfactory receptor cells of C. cactorum, nonanal being the most active compound and therefore a candidate attractant of C. cactorum. PMID:15647464

Pophof, Blanka; Stange, Gert; Abrell, Leif

2005-01-01

39

Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) : Observations of courtship and mating behaviors at two locations on the gulf of Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) has become an invasive pest of Opuntia spp. along the coastal areas of southeastern United States from the panhandle of Florida to South Carolina. Spread of this insect into cactus dominated natural areas of the United States and Mexico and into agricultural opuntia fiel...

40

Clavispora opuntiae and other yeasts associated with the moth Sigelgaita sp. in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Clavispora opuntiae was the prevalent yeast associated with the feeding sites of Sigelgaita sp. larvae in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae. Also associated with this habitat were Candida sonorensis, Pichia cactophila, Pichia barkeri, Candida sp. A, Geotrichum sp., Geotrichum sericeum and the yeast like organisms Prototheca zopfii and Acremonium sp. Atypical yeast biotypes that may represent new species of Pichia, Sporopachydermia and Candida were isolated. Mating types of Clavispora opuntiae were at a ratio 70 h- to 3 h- and reduced levels of sporulation suggested low pressure for sexual reproduction in this habitat. Sigelgaita sp. probably was not an important vector for Clavispora opuntiae because it was not isolated from an adult or eggs of this moth. PMID:1285643

Rosa, C A; Hagler, A N; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; de Morais, P B; Gomes, C M; Monteiro, R F

1992-11-01

41

The introduction of Mimorista pulchellalis [ Lepidoptera: Pyraustidae ] into South Africa for the biological control of jointed cactus, Opuntia aurantiaca . 2. Field evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mothMimorista pulchellalis was monitored over 2 years after liberation in a jointed cactus (Opuntia aurantiaca) infestation in South Africa. Moth and cactus densities were estimated using a system of randomly-assigned quadrats and the\\u000a impact of the moth on the cactus population quantified. Moths appeared adapted to survive on the etiolated form of jointed\\u000a cactus plants, killing approximately 1% of

E. Nieman

1991-01-01

42

Clavispora opuntiae and other yeasts associated with the moth Sigelgaita sp. in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavispora opuntiae was the prevalent yeast associated with the feeding sites ofSigelgaita sp. larvae in the cactusPilosocereus arrabidae. Also associated with this habitat wereCandida sonorensis, Pichia cactophila, Pichia barkeri, Candida sp. A,Geotrichum sp.,Geotrichum sericeum and the yeast like organismsPrototheca zopfii andAcremonium sp. Atypical yeast biotypes that may represent new species ofPichia, Sporopachydermia andCandida were isolated. Mating types ofClavispora opuntiae were

Carlos Augusto Rosa; Allen Norton Hagler; Leda Cristina S. Mendonça-Hagler; Paula Benevides Morais; Newton Carlos Marcial Gomes; Ricardo F. Monteiro

1992-01-01

43

75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...movement of regulated articles to prevent the spread of South American cactus moth. DATES...movement of regulated articles to prevent the spread of South American cactus moth, contact...suppress, control, prevent, or retard the spread of plant pests that are new to or...

2010-11-19

44

The difficulties of single factor thinking in restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida Semaphore cactus, Opuntia corallicola, is a rare species with a distribution currently limited to one island in the Florida Keys. The only 12 mature, flowering individuals known to exist in 1989 were threatened by the arrival of an exotic cactus feeding moth, Cactoblastis cactorum. Cages were erected in 1990 around these cacti to protect them from Cactoblastis. From

Peter Stiling; Anthony Rossi; Doria Gordon

2000-01-01

45

The introduction of Mimorista pulchellalis [ Lepidoptera: Pyraustidae ] into South Africa for the biological control of jointed cactus, Opuntia aurantiaca 1. Biology and mass-rearing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory investigation was conducted on a pyraustid moth imported from South America for jointed cactus control. It was\\u000a found that the moths were crepuscular, with females laying an average of 48±3.5 eggs over a period of 4–8 days. Larvae hatched\\u000a out at night and usually tunnelled into the terminal ends of cactus cladodes at a site where young cactus

E. Nieman

1991-01-01

46

Cactus: a medicinal food.  

PubMed

With excellent quality and flavour of fresh fruits, young leaves of cactus serve as nutritious vegetable and salad dish and the immature fruits for making mock-gherkins. Cactus, with high water use efficiency produce forage for animals, vegetables, and fruits with 14% glucose. Traditionally cactus used as a valuable health supporting nutrient and it also has applications in pharmaceutical industries. Cactus with number of uses has immense potential to be the food of future. PMID:24082263

Shetty, Anoop A; Rana, M K; Preetham, S P

2011-07-16

47

CACTUS: System Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems documentation is provided for the Client Action, Characteristics, Tracking and Record Updating System (CACTUS), which was transferred from Kansas City, Missouri, to assist managers and planners of youth service programs in Los Angeles County, Cali...

1975-01-01

48

Cactus Pear Sheet and Pasteurized and Sterilized Cactus Pear Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orange-yellow cactus pear pulp was evaluated for some technological and chemical characteristics. The pulp was used to produce dehydrated cactus pulp sheet and pasteurized and sterilized cactus pear juices. A preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the effects of drying temperature (60 and 70ºC) and pulp thickness (5, 10, and 15mm) on the dehydration rate of cactus pear pulp.

S. K. El-Samahy; E. A. Abd El-Hady; R. A. Habiba; T. E. Moussa-Ayoub

49

UK Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprehensive guide to the moths of Great Britain and Ireland, with photographs of live specimens, common and scientific names, and notes on biology. The aim of the site is to illustrate as many species of British moths as possible and to provide this information in an accessible format.

Kimber, Ian

50

Luna moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One reason why the luna moth is considered to be an insect is because its body is divided into three parts-the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Luna moths undergo complete metamorphosis, meaning that their offspring look very different from the adults until they actually reach adulthood.

Shawn Hanrahan (None;)

2004-01-01

51

Waxworm moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waxworm moths emerge from the silk cocoon and are able to mate. The females lay eggs. A female moth can invade a weak honeybee hive and lay her eggs there. After they hatch, the larvae will eat the honey and the hive wax, destroying the hive.

T. W. Davies (California Academy of Sciences;)

2005-01-01

52

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. Müller (None;)

2002-05-18

53

Betalains from Christmas cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of 14 betalain pigments have been detected by their characteristic spectral properties in flower petals of Christmas cactus (Schlumbergera x buckleyi). Along with the known vulgaxanthin I, betalamic acid, betanin and phyllocactin (6?-O-malonylbetanin), the structure of a new phyllocactin-derived betacyanin was elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques and carbohydrate analyses as betanidin 5-O-(2?-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-6?-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside. Among the more complex betacyanins occurring

Naoko Kobayashi; Jürgen Schmidt; Manfred Nimtz; Victor Wray; Willibald Schliemann

2000-01-01

54

Pollination biology of Oreocereus celsianus (Cactaceae), a columnar cactus inhabiting the high subtropical Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographical dichotomy hypothesis suggests that columnar cacti in the tropics depend primarily on bats for pollination.\\u000a This dependence may to be less in the outer tropics where many columnar cactus species (or their populations) show a relatively\\u000a generalized pollination system with both nocturnal (moths and bats) and diurnal pollinators (bees and hummingbirds) (geographical\\u000a dichotomy hypothesis). This hypothesis has been

Daniel M. Larrea-AlcazarRamiro; Ramiro P. López

2011-01-01

55

Betalains from Christmas cactus.  

PubMed

The presence of 14 betalain pigments have been detected by their characteristic spectral properties in flower petals of Christmas cactus (Schlumbergera x buckleyi). Along with the known vulgaxanthin I, betalamic acid, betanin and phyllocactin (6'-O-malonylbetanin), the structure of a new phyllocactin-derived betacyanin was elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques and carbohydrate analyses as betanidin 5-O-(2'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-6'-O-malonyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosid e. Among the more complex betacyanins occurring in trace amounts, the presence of a new diacylated betacyanin ¿betanidin 5-O-[(5"-O-E-feruloyl)-2'-O-beta-D- apiofuranosyl-6'-O-malonyl)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside¿ has been ascertained. Furthermore, the accumulation of betalains during flower development and their pattern in different organs of the flower has been examined. PMID:10897484

Kobayashi, N; Schmidt, J; Nimtz, M; Wray, V; Schliemann, W

2000-06-01

56

PERFORMANCE OF STERILE CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) FEMALES IN LURING MALES TO TRAPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is renown for its control of invasive cacti (Opuntia spp.). Its accidental arrival in Florida and its rapidly expanding range along the Gulf coast pose an imminent threat to native Opuntia spp., especially in the southwestern U.S. and Mexico. Ade...

57

Cactus: Algorithms for genome multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Much attention has been given to the problem of creating reliable multiple sequence alignments in a model incorporating substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Far less attention has been paid to the problem of optimizing alignments in the presence of more general rearrangement and copy number variation. Using Cactus graphs, recently introduced for representing sequence alignments, we describe two complementary algorithms for creating genomic alignments. We have implemented these algorithms in the new “Cactus” alignment program. We test Cactus using the Evolver genome evolution simulator, a comprehensive new tool for simulation, and show using these and existing simulations that Cactus significantly outperforms all of its peers. Finally, we make an empirical assessment of Cactus's ability to properly align genes and find interesting cases of intra-gene duplication within the primates.

Paten, Benedict; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Diekhans, Mark; Zerbino, Daniel; Haussler, David

2011-01-01

58

Use of cactus in mortars and concrete  

SciTech Connect

Natural polymers have been used in ancient times to improve the durability of lime-based mortars and concretes. The natural polymers used were locally available. In this work, cactus extract from Mexico has been tested in a Portland cement mortar. It is seen that cactus extract increases the plasticity of the mortar and improves water absorption and freeze-salt resistance. Calcium hydroxide produced by Portland cement hydration interacts with the components of cactus extract, polysaccharides or proteins, and forms complexes. It affects the crystallization process. Painting of the concrete with this extract has also shown improved water resistance.

Chandra, S. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eklund, L. [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Villarreal, R.R. [Univ. of Nuevo Leon, Monterry (Mexico)

1998-01-01

59

Biological control of Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw. var. stricta using Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) in an area of New South Wales, Australia, where Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) is not a successful biological control agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dactylopius opuntiae reduced an Opuntia stricta var. stricta population in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, an area where Cactoblastis cactorum has little impact. Cactoblastis cactorum was bivoltine at the experi- mental site. The proportion of C. cactorum eggs hatching and larvae penetrating segments was much greater for the generation commencing between November and January compared with that commencing

J. R. Hosking; P. R. Sullivan; S. M. Welsby

1994-01-01

60

Cactus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The transfer of data from one part of a computer to another has always been a complex task in which speed is traded against accuracy and the time required for error correction. Much more complex therefore is the transfer of information from one machine to another of a different type. Difficulties arise when machines are updated, when file formats…

Hyde, Hartley

2007-01-01

61

Experimental test of biotic resistance to an invasive herbivore provided by potential plant mutualists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the influence of resident species on the success of invaders is a core objective in the study and management\\u000a of biological invasions. We asked whether facultative food-for-protection mutualism between resident, nectar-feeding ants\\u000a and extrafloral nectar-bearing plants confers biotic resistance to invasion by a specialist herbivore. Our research focused\\u000a on the South American cactus-feeding moth Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidopetra: Pyralidae)

Tom E. X. MillerJesusa; Jesusa C. Legaspi; Benjamin Legaspi

2010-01-01

62

Life of a Gypsy Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

63

Banded Sunflower Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

64

Gypsy Moth Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

Hamel, Dennis R.

65

Banded Sunflower Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The banded sunflower moth is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of the sunflower heads. Larvae feed and develop within the heads from mid-July to mid-September feeding initially on the bracts, pollen and the disk flowers and finally the immature and ma...

66

Evaluation of Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) as a Biological Control Agent of Opuntia stricta(Cactaceae) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opuntia strictais an increasing problem in South Africa's premier wildlife reserve, the Kruger National Park, where the weed continues to disperse and has formed many dense, impenetrable thickets, some of which extend over several hectares. Although herbicidal control measures are being used to help control the weed, a biological control program was initiated in 1988 whenCactoblastis cactorumwas introduced into the

J. H. Hoffmann; V. C. Moran; D. A. Zeller

1998-01-01

67

Annealing a magnetic cactus into phyllotaxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone, and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental “magnetic cactus” precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single-spiral) phyllotaxis.

Nisoli, Cristiano; Gabor, Nathaniel M.; Lammert, Paul E.; Maynard, J. D.; Crespi, Vincent H.

2010-04-01

68

Betacyanins from vine cactus Hylocereus polyrhizus.  

PubMed

The presence of betacyanin pigments and their isoforms has been detected in the fruit of Hylocereus polyrhizus, a vine cactus native to South America. Along with the known betanin and phyllocactin (6'-O-malonylbetanin), a new betacyanin was structurally elucidated as betanidin 5-O-[6'-O-(3"-hydroxy-3"-methyl-glutaryl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (proposed trivial name hylocerenin) by means of electrospray MS/MS, HPLC, and NMR techniques. PMID:11738409

Wybraniec, S; Platzner, I; Geresh, S; Gottlieb, H E; Haimberg, M; Mogilnitzki, M; Mizrahi, Y

2001-12-01

69

Pheromone Transduction in Moths  

PubMed Central

Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30?Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLC?-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth's physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors.

Stengl, Monika

2010-01-01

70

Smell and Hearing in Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

``J. C.'' seems to draw inferences that moths have not the power of smell but have that of hearing. I feel quite certain they possess the former, but am in doubt about the latter. For the purpose of catching moths I use a preparation of beer and sugar boiled together, to which (after boiling) is added a little spirit, placing

K. E. H

1877-01-01

71

IMPROVEMENTS IN MONITORING CODLING MOTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three types of experiments were conducted this year that relate to improving the monitoring of codling moth in apple and pear orchards. The Biolure 10X lure was found to catch more moths than the Superlure (Bubble lure) in orchards treated with either 200 or 400 Isomate C+ dispensers or 100 or 200 I...

72

Yeast communities of the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae and associated insects in the Sandy coastal plains of southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The yeast communities from necrotic tissues, decaying flowers and fruits, and from larval feeding sites of the moth Sigelgaita sp. in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae were surveyed in three restinga ecosystems in Southeastern Brazil. Insects associated with these substrates were sampled to verify the vectoring of yeasts. The cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae was shown to have four different yeast communities associated with it. Necrotic stems had a diverse yeast community with the prevalent species Pichia barkeri, Candida sonorensis, Pichia cactophila, Geotrichum sp., Myxozyma mucilagina and Sporopachydermia sp. A, representing about 80% of the total isolates. Pichia sp. A and a Candida domercqii-like species represented more than 90% of the yeast isolates from decaying flowers. Fruits had a heterogeneous yeast community with typical fruit yeasts of the genus Kloeckera, basidiomicetous anamorphs of the genus Cryptococcus, the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia sp. A, a Candida domercqii-like species, and some cactophilic yeasts, especially Clavispora opuntiae. The feeding site of Sigelgaita sp. larvae had Clavispora opuntiae as the prevalent species. Insect vectors are suggested as one the most important factors influencing the composition of these yeast communities. PMID:8060124

Rosa, C A; Morais, P B; Hagler, A N; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; Monteiro, R F

1994-01-01

73

76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...S.C. 3501 et seq.). List of Subjects 7 CFR Part 318 Cotton, Cottonseeds, Fruits, Guam, Hawaii, Plant diseases and...Transportation, Vegetables, Virgin Islands. 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases...

2011-02-23

74

Data Acquisition System and Trigger Electronics for Cactus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope located at the Solar 2 facility in California, and operated by UC, Davis. It uses an array of 168 heliostats and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes to detect Cherenkov radiation produced by air showers. CACTUS incorporates novel techniques of time projection imaging and pattern triggering, implemented in FPGAs, thus improving upon the first generation sampling ACTs. Here we describe the telescope and its readout and triggering electronics.

Lizarazo, J.; Afonso, P.; Chertok, M.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M.

2006-04-01

75

Exploitation of Opuntia cactus by birds on the Galápagos  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1)There is a close association between Opuntia helleri (cactus) and Geospiza conirostris (cactus finch) on Isla Genovesa, and between Opuntia echios and Geospiza scandens on Isla Daphne Major. The two finch species consume nectar and pollen, pollinate the obligatorily out-crossing flowers, consume the aril around the seeds, crack the seeds and occasionally disperse them.(2)In the dry season the two finch

B. R. Grant; P. R. Grant

1981-01-01

76

Male Oriental Fruit Moth Response to a Combined Pheromone-Based Attracticide Formulation Targeting Both Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined attracticide formulations targeting Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in a Þeld trapping experiment. Capture of male codling moths in traps baited with the combined formulation was reduced compared with traps baited with the codling moth formulation alone, whereas capture of male Oriental fruit moth was increased compared with traps baited

Maya L. Evenden; John R. McClaughlin

2005-01-01

77

Comparative cactus architecture and par interception  

SciTech Connect

Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1987-07-01

78

Changes in Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) During Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and chemical changes of cactus pear grown wild in the Bozön-Mersin (Turkey) area during the period of ripening were investigated. The cactus pear fruits were collected weekly for 15 weeks starting at the end of June 2000. The cactus pear collected reached full maturity 98 to 112 days after flowering and showed a sigmoidal growth pattern. The pulp

Berat DURU; Nuzhet TURKER

79

Bacteria Associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) Larvae and Their Cactus Host Isolatocereus dumortieri  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus

Ana Paola Martínez-Falcón; Ana Durbán; Amparo Latorre; Josefa Antón

2011-01-01

80

The inhibitor kappaB-ortholog Cactus is necessary for normal neuromuscular function in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The Drosophila inhibitor-kappaB ortholog Cactus acts as an inhibitor of the Rel-transcription factors Dorsal and Dif. In blastoderm cells and immune competent cells, Cactus inhibits Dorsal and Dif by preventing their nuclear localization. Cactus, Dorsal and Dif are also expressed in somatic muscles, where Cactus and Dorsal, but not Dif, are enriched at the neuromuscular junction. Mutations in dorsal cause neuromuscular defects and mislocalization of Cactus. Here, we investigated whether mutations in cactus affect the neuromuscular system and subcellular localization of Dorsal and Dif. Using locomotion assays, as well as physiological and immunochemical methods, we found that wild type Cactus is necessary for the normal function of the larval neuromuscular system. The phenotype comprises i) altered bouton numbers and impaired neurotransmitter release in the neuromuscular junctions in the abdominal segments, ii) muscular weakness and iii) poor locomotion performance, probably reflecting a general neuromuscular impairment. Interestingly, in cactus mutants the subcellular localization of Dorsal and Dif in muscle is not affected, whereas cactus protein is not detected in the nucleus. This suggests, together with the similarities between the phenotypes induced by cactus and dorsal mutations, that in larval muscles the function of Cactus might be cooperation to the transcriptional activity of Rel proteins more than their cytoplasmic retention. The similarities with inhibitor-kappaB/nuclear factor kappaB interactions and muscle pathology in mammals point to Drosophila as a suitable experimental system to clarify the complex interactions of these proteins in muscle postembryonic development and activity. PMID:15975723

Beramendi, A; Peron, S; Megighian, A; Reggiani, C; Cantera, R

2005-01-01

81

Cactus thorn arthritis: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Synovitis secondary to penetrating plant thorn injuries is an infrequently reported event. Despite its wide geographic distribution, thorns from the prickly pear cactus (Optunia ficusindica) are a rare source of this type of inflammatory arthritis. We hereby present an unusual case of an individual who developed an acute monoarthritis of the knee shortly after sustaining a penetrating cactus thorn injury. The clinical and pathophysiologic features of cactus thorn arthritis are reviewed and the unusual features present in this individual are highlighted. Treatment options, with an emphasis on rapid diagnosis and therapeutic interventions, are discussed. Increased physician awareness and recognition of this unusual but not rare entity are essential as a means of improving clinical outcome. PMID:11147764

Miller, E B; Gilad, A; Schattner, A

2000-01-01

82

The flow past a cactus-inspired grooved cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The star-shaped cross section of giant cylindrical cactus plants is thought to be aerodynamically favorable for protection against toppling by strong winds. Particle image velocimetry is used to investigate the flow details within the surface grooves and in the immediate wake of a cactus-inspired model cylinder with eight longitudinal grooves, at biologically relevant Reynolds numbers between 50 × 103 and 170 × 103. The wake flow is analyzed and compared to a similarly sized circular cylinder. At the lowest Re tested, the wakes from the two geometries are similar. At higher Re, the cactus wake exhibits superior behavior as seen from the mean and turbulent velocities, suggesting that the flow mechanisms are Re dependent. The flow within the surface grooves reveals counter rotating rollers, while the geometrical ridges act as vortex generators known to help with the surface flow attachment. Lastly, a simplistic analysis is described to recover, qualitatively, certain time-dependent flow features from the randomly acquired PIV realizations.

El-Makdah, Adnan M.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

2013-02-01

83

HISTORICAL GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION FREQUENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These da...

84

GYPSY MOTH MATING DISRUPTION RESEARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 2000, 82% of the nearly 2.9 million acres treated in the federal Slow-the-Spread of the Gypsy Moth Program (STS) used mating disruption. It is a preferred tactic because it is target specific, inexpensive, and effective. To date the program has exceeded its spread rate reduction goals, resul...

85

78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0113] Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY...environmental impact statement for the Gypsy Moth Program. DATES: Effective Date...of treatments for the control of gypsy moth. In addition to the proposal...

2013-04-22

86

The Nantucket pine tip moth: old problems, new research ...  

Treesearch

The Pine Tip Moth Research Consortium was formed in 1995 to increase ... tip moth damage, interactions of the moth with different forest management ... However it is a larger file size and some people may experience long download times.

87

Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow

Sophia Cleland; Gregory D. Hocutt; Christopher M. Breitmeyer; Therese A. Markow; Edward Pfeiler

1996-01-01

88

Functional genomics of cactus host shifts in Drosophila mojavensis.  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to novel environments remains one of the major challenges confronting evolutionary biologists. While newly developed genomic approaches hold considerable promise for addressing this overall question, the relevant tools have not often been available in the most ecologically interesting organisms. Our study organism, Drosophila mojavensis, is a cactophilic Sonoran Desert endemic utilizing four different cactus hosts across its geographical range. Its well-known ecology makes it an attractive system in which to study the evolution of gene expression during adaptation. As a cactophile, D. mojavensis oviposits in the necrotic tissues of cacti, therefore exposing larvae and even adults to the varied and toxic compounds of rotting cacti. We have developed a cDNA microarray of D. mojavensis to examine gene expression associated with cactus host use. Using a population from the Baja California population we examined gene expression differences of third instar larvae when reared in two chemically distinct cactus hosts, agria (Stenocereus gummosus, native host) vs. organpipe (Stenocereus thurberi, alternative host). We have observed differential gene expression associated with cactus host use in genes involved in metabolism and detoxification. PMID:17107489

Matzkin, Luciano M; Watts, Thomas D; Bitler, Benjamin G; Machado, Carlos A; Markow, Therese A

2006-12-01

89

CALCIUM AVAILABILITY IN THE PADS OF THE PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pads (nopales) of the prickly pear cactus are considered a good source of minerals and other nutrients based on compositional analysis. In this study, we take this analysis a step further by assessing the availability of selected minerals in nopales using an in vitro digestion and dialysis metho...

90

Prickly Pear Cactus Responses to Summer and Winter Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed fire is used to reduce size and density of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) in many rangeland ecosystems. However, effects of dormant season fires (i.e., winter fires) are inconsistent. Thus, there is increasing interest in use of growing season (summer) fires. Our objective was to evaluate effects of fire season and fire intensity on mortality and individual plant (i.e.,

R. James Ansley; Michael J. Castellano

2007-01-01

91

Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Prickly Pear Cactus Stems ( Opuntia spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The young, rapidly growing flattened stems or cladodes of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.), known in Spanish as ‘nopalitos’, are commonly consumed in Mexico as a vegetable, and are shown to reduce blood glucose levels. Nopalitos are very perishable with a storage life of 1 day at room temperature and 6 days when packaged in polyethylene bags and stored

J. C. Guevara; E. M. Yahia; E. Brito de la Fuente

2001-01-01

92

Cactus pear fruit: a new source for a natural sweetner.  

PubMed

The use of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.) to obtain a new natural liquid sweetener was studied. The juice of the fruit (16.5 degrees Brix) was clarified with enzymes, treated with active carbon to take out the color and vacuum concentrated to obtain a 60 degrees Brix syrup or liquid sweetener. Physical and chemical characteristics determined included: a(w); reducing sugars (as inverted sugar); glucose (%); ash content (%); sugar composition by TLC; OD (420 nm) and Y, x, y chromaticity coordinates; viscosity (cps) and density (g/ml). Sensory analyses to determine the relative sweetness were also conducted. Cactus pear syrup contained 52.38% reducing sugar. The syrup had a pH of 4.31, a viscosity of 27.05 cps, an Aw of 0.83, a density of 1.2900 g/ml, an acidity (as citric acid) of 0.74% and an ash content of 1.4%. Compared with traditional sweeteners such as fructose and glucose syrup, the acidity was greater than that of HFCS (high fructose corn syrup) of 0.035%, and the ash values were considered a little high compared to glucose syrup which is 1.0%; these disparities can be attributed to the different processing conditions employed. Sensory evaluation revealed the same relative sweetness for cactus pear syrup and glucose, but lower than fructose; cactus pear syrup had a relative sweetness value of 67 with respect to sucrose (100). PMID:9839813

Sáenz, C; Estévez, A M; Sepúlveda, E; Mecklenburg, P

1998-01-01

93

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1...a specified regulated article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved interstate... Infestation. The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

2013-01-01

94

7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2...following are regulated articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage...requirements for the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained...

2013-01-01

95

7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined...State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector...believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

2010-01-01

96

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions...article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved interstate to...presence of the South American cactus moth or the existence of...

2010-01-01

97

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions...prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the quarantined...prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

2010-01-01

98

Gypsy moth mating disruption: Dosage effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small (1-hectare) plots in a dense gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) infestation were treated with 5, 50, or 500 g racemic disparlure, and effects on male trap catch and mating behavior were studied. Capture of males in traps baited with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 µg (+)-disparlure declined as disruptant dosages increased. Traps with high levels of attractant caught moths when

Charles P. Schwalbe; Victor C. Mastro

1988-01-01

99

Explosives detection with hard-wired moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype system that uses moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of moths trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as bombs or landmines, are present. The device was designed to be portable by making it lightweight, battery-powered,

T. L. King; Frank Moore Horine; K. C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

2003-01-01

100

Native ecotypic variation and the role of host identity in the spread of an invasive herbivore, Cactoblastis cactorum.  

PubMed

Environmental niche models (ENMs) have gained enormous popularity as tools to investigate potential changes in species distributions resulting from climate change and species introductions. Despite recognition that species interactions can influence the dynamics of invasion spread, most implementations of ENMs focus on abiotic factors as the sole predictors of potential range limits. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that biotic interactions are relatively unimportant, either because of scaling issues, or because fundamental and realized niches are equivalent in a species' native range. When species are introduced into exotic landscapes, changes in biotic interactions relative to the native range can lead to occupation of different regions of niche space and apparent shifts in physiological tolerances. We use an escaped biological control organism, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.), to assess the role of the environmental envelope as compared with patterns of host-herbivore associations based on collections made in the native range. Because all nonnative populations are derived from a single C. cactorum ecotype, we hypothesize that biotic interactions associated with this ecotype are driving the species' invasion dynamics. Environmental niche models constructed from known native populations perform poorly in predicting nonnative distributions of this species, except where there is an overlap in niche space. In contrast, genetic isolation in the native range is concordant with the observed pattern of host use, and strong host association has been noted in nonnative landscapes. Our results support the hypothesis that the apparent shift in niche space from the native to the exotic ranges results from a shift in biotic interactions, and demonstrate the importance of considering biotic interactions in assessing the risk of future spread for species whose native range is highly constrained by biotic interactions. PMID:22624321

Brooks, Christopher P; Ervin, Gary N; Varone, Laura; Logarzo, Guillermo A

2012-02-01

101

Nutrient intake and utilisation in sheep fed with prickly pear cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritive value of prickly pear cactus (Opuntiaspp.) was assessed on 18 adult rams divided into three equal groups fed either (i)Cenchrus ciliarishay to appetite plus 200 g concentrate (G1), (ii) chopped cactus andCenchrus ciliaris(G2), and (iii) chopped cactus andSorghum helepense(G3in a cafeteria system.Opuntia-fed groups G2and G3consumed 6·31 and 4·21 kg fresh cactus daily, amounting to 79 and 54% of

S. K. Sirohi; S. A. Karim; A. K. Misra

1997-01-01

102

USDA Forest Service: Gypsy Moth Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Forest Service compiled information from its gypsy moth suppression, eradication, and slow-the-spread projects to provide you with a comprehensive informational website on gypsy moths. Information on the gypsy moth is organized here by state, and year. You can also browse topics using the menu on the right side of the page, which offers selections like, "Defoliation," "Maps and Charts," "Eradication," "Online Resources," and "Photo Gallery" among others. The gypsy moth has become a problem in 19 states so far, destroying oak, poplar, and birch trees among others. Resources on this site are geared toward students, professionals, homeowners and anyone else seeking information on gypsy moths, and range from basic introductory information to specific problems and topics.

1969-12-31

103

Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M.

2006-07-01

104

Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M. [Deptartment of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2006-07-11

105

Oil cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds and pulp of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins and ?-carotene. Total lipids (TL) in lyophilised seeds and pulp were 98.8 (dry weight) and 8.70 g\\/kg, respectively. High amounts of neutral lipids were found (87.0% of TL) in seed oil, while glycolipids and phospholipids occurred at high levels

Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Jörg-Thomas Mörsel

2003-01-01

106

Storage response of cactus pear fruit following hot water brushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage response of cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] following hot water brushing was investigated. Fruit were simultaneously brushed for spine removal and sprayed with water. Ranges of temperature (60–70°C) and treatment time intervals (10–30s) were evaluated. All tested treatments were found not to significantly affect respiration rate, total soluble solids or acid concentrations. Treatments at 60 and 65°C

Lydakis Dimitris; N. Pompodakis; E. Markellou; S. M. Lionakis

2005-01-01

107

Antioxidant compounds from four Opuntia cactus pear fruit varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant compounds in extracts from four cactus (Opuntia species) fruit varieties were investigated. Conjugated flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin), ascorbic acid, and carotenoids were isolated from the extracts. Quercetin was the most abundant in all varieties [O. ficus-indica (green-skinned), O. lindheimeri (purple-skinned), O. streptacantha (red-skinned), and O. stricta var. stricta (yellow-skinned)] examined. Kaempferol was found in green-skinned, purple-skinned and

Joseph O Kuti

2004-01-01

108

Male oriental fruit moth response to a combined pheromone-based attracticide formulation targeting both oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Combined attracticide formulations targeting Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in a field trapping experiment. Capture of male codling moths in traps baited with the combined formulation was reduced compared with traps baited with the codling moth formulation alone, whereas capture of male Oriental fruit moth was increased compared with traps baited with the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. Subsequent wind tunnel experiments showed that a single locus of the mixed attracticide formulation or close parallel presentation of the two formulations enhanced source contact by male Oriental fruit moths but did not influence earlier behaviors. However, the two formulations presented in a serial arrangement to Oriental fruit moth males in the wind tunnel resulted in enhanced lock-on, upwind flight, and source contact behaviors. In addition, male Oriental fruit moths remained on mixed pheromone droplets of the paste matrix longer than on droplets of the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. The increased time spent on the mixed droplet was correlated with a more rapid poisoning and a greater proportion of poisoned males compared with males exposed to the Oriental fruit moth attracticide alone. These results demonstrate that a combined attracticide formulation will have different effects on each of the targeted species. It is anticipated that, due to decreased attractiveness, a combined formulation would be less effective against the codling moth. However, a mixed formulation, due to increased attractiveness and toxicity, could be more effective against the Oriental fruit moth under field conditions. PMID:15889719

Evenden, Maya L; McClaughlin, John R

2005-04-01

109

A Tale of Two Cacti The Complex Relationship between Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and Endangered Star Cactus (Astrophytum asterias)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrophytum asterias, commonly called star cactus, is a federally listed endangered cactus endemic to the Tamaulipan thornscrub ecoregion of extreme southern Texas, USA, and Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Only three metapopulations totaling less than 4000 plants are presently known in Texas. Star cactus, known locally as \\

M. TERRY; D. PRICE; J. POOLE

110

Growth Performance of Lambs in Phangrang, Vietnam: Effects of a Dietary Supplement Containing Prickly-Pear Cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Phanrang, Vietnam, sheep production is limited by the sparse availability of green roughage. Although prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia elator) is abundant in the area, it is not used. It was considered relevant therefore to test whether prickly-pear cactus could be used a component of feed supplements. With the use of the cactus and other local products – namely groundnut cake,

D. V. Tien; A. C. Beynen

2005-01-01

111

Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.  

PubMed

An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food. PMID:20811778

Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario

2010-09-01

112

Physical properties of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus india L.) grown wild in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the physical properties of cactus pear, which is grown wild in Turkey, is necessary for the design of equipment for harvesting, transporting, cleaning, packing, storing, processing etc. of the fruit. In this study, some physical properties of cactus pears were determined, and the effects of different water contents on the properties were investigated. At water content levels from

Onder Kabas; Aziz Ozmerzi; Ibrahim Akinci

2006-01-01

113

Developmental changes in composition and quality of prickly pear cactus cladodes (nopalitos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and quality of edible tender stems or cladodes of 3 Prickly Pear Cactus species (Opuntia amyclaea, O. ficus-indica, and O. inermis) were studied at different stages of development. This traditional Mexican vegetable is called “nopalitos” in Spanish and “cactus leaves” in English. Cladodes harvested when 20 cm in length have the following average composition per 100 g: 91.7

Armida Rodriguez-Felix; Marita Cantwell

1988-01-01

114

Physicochemical parameters of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica) juice clarified by microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health-promoting capacity of cactus pear fruit is highly attractive for the development of nutraceutical foods. The increasing market demand towards this fruit and products, which combine added value with a fresher taste, has challenged researchers to develop procedures to lengthen storage life. In addition, the possibility to obtain natural colorants from the cactus pear fruit rather than synthetic colorants

Alfredo Cassano; Carmela Conidi; Enrico Drioli

2010-01-01

115

Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant-bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock. This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic bacteria, the seedlings grow in pulverized rock for at least a

M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Lib; Yoav Bashan

116

Pollination of two species of Ferocactus: interactions between cactus-specialist bees and their host plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Resolving the controversy over the prevalence of generalization in plant-pollinator interactions requires field studies characterizing the pollination effectiveness of all a plant's floral visitors. Herein, the pollination effectiveness of all visitors to two species of barrel cactus ( Ferocactus ) was quantified. 2. Flowers of both species were pollinated almost exclusively by cactus-specialist bees: 99% ( F. cylindraceus

M. E. MCINTOSH

2005-01-01

117

A critical role for Copestylum larvae (Diptera, Syrphidae) in the decomposition of cactus forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a field experiment during the rainy seasons of 2008 and 2009 to determine the role of insects in the decomposition of Isolatocereus dumortieri (Scheidweiler) Backeberg (Cactaceae), an endemic columnar cactus from semi-arid scrublands of central México. In both years, after 120 and 95 days respectively, uncovered cactus sections were all colonized by insects. Apart from a few

A. P. Martínez-Falcón; M. Á. Marcos-García; C. E. Moreno; G. E. Rotheray

118

Processing technologies: an alternative for cactus pear ( Opuntia spp.) fruits and cladodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cactus pear has become an important fruit crop in many semi-arid lands of the world. The fruit and the young cladodes (‘nopalitos’) have commonly been consumed fresh, but the last decade's research studies on cactus pear processing have produced another alternative which prevents damage to the fruit and, in spite of technological characteristics that make processing a challenge (high

Carmen Saenz

2000-01-01

119

FUTURE RISK OF GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from the suitable habitit combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation....

120

Russian and Ukrainian literature on the gypsy moth: an annotated ...  

Treesearch

Description: This bibliography contains 1185 references to literature on the gypsy moth ... moth ecology, physiology, biochemistry, distribution, behavior, and control. ... in libraries of the former U.S.S.R., bibliographic styles used in the U.S.S.R., ...

121

Gypsy moth impacts on oak acorn production - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Description: Gypsy moth outbreaks can have drastic effects on many f a s t resources and uses. ... indirect effects of gypsy moth defoliation may result in large-scale reductions in wildlife habitat and food sources. ... Continent: North America.

122

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

123

Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in the Enewetak Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The survey was strictly a visual survey, backed up by digital photos and a written description of the current condition.

Douglas Miller, Terence Holland

2008-10-31

124

Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.  

PubMed

Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a ?-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

2011-09-28

125

An ant (Crematogaster opuntiae) visits an extrafloral nectary of a fishhook barrel cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni).  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An ant (Crematogaster opuntiae) visits an extrafloral nectary of a fishhook barrel cactus (Ferocactus wislizeni). In many mutualistic species interactions, a suite of species in one guild exchanges resources or services with another guild. In this example, at least 14 species of ants feed from extrafloral nectaries of the fishhook barrel cactus and in exchange protect it from herbivores. Ant species compete to dominate individual cactus plants, with one ant species (Crematogaster opuntiae) dominating a higher proportion of the cacti in winter/spring and the other (Solenopsis aurea) dominating more in summer/fall. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (86:12) in December of 2005.

Wilson, William

2010-02-16

126

Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

2010-01-01

127

Identification and ecology of bacterial communities associated with necroses of three cactus species.  

PubMed Central

To compare the bacterial communities residing in necrotic tissues of columnar cacti of the Sonoran Desert, isolates from 39 organ pipe, 19 saguaro, and 16 senita cacti were obtained. The isolates were clustered into 28 conspecific groups on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The distributions of the individual bacterial isolates varied among cactus species. Seven of the 28 species groups were unique to a particular cactus species, whereas 8 species groups were found in all three cacti. The effective number of bacterial species for each cactus species was positively correlated with both the chemical complexity and glucose concentration of the plant tissues. The effective number of bacterial species and bacterial distribution patterns were compared with those known for communities of cactophilic yeasts. The observed bacterial distribution patterns are most likely due to differences in the chemical compositions of the three cactus species.

Foster, J L; Fogleman, J C

1993-01-01

128

Candida orba sp. nov., a new cactus-specific yeast species from Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of yeast from decaying cladodes of Opuntia cactus, Candida orba, is described. This species is a member of a four-species clade of cactophilic yeasts. The new species has only been found in one region of Queensland, Australia, where it was presumably introduced during attempts to eradicate prickly pear cactus. DNA-DNA relatedness, phylogenetic analysis, physiological differences, killer-sensitivity profiles

William T. Starmer; Herman J. Phaff; Philip F. Ganter; M. A. Lachance

2001-01-01

129

The Effect of Variety and Location on Cactus Pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) Fruit Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the performance of South African cactus pear varieties in different agro-ecological regions. Effects\\u000a of locality on internal quality parameters of available cactus pear varieties were examined. With only one exception, no significant\\u000a differences among the mean replication values for the different parameters between the different locations were observed.\\u000a The differences between mean values for most individual

Maryna de Wit; Philip Nel; Gernot Osthoff; Maryke T. Labuschagne

2010-01-01

130

Genetic variation and population structure of the mixed-mating cactus, Melocactus curvispinus (Cactaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity was measured in the mixed-mating cactus, Melocactus curvispinus, in Venezuela. Allozyme diversity was surveyed in 19 putative loci over 18 populations. Compared to other plant taxa, this cactus is rich in polymorphic loci (Ps=89.5%), with high numbers of alleles per polymorphic locus (APs=3.82), but moderate levels of heterozygosity (Hes=0.145). Substantial levels of inbreeding were detected across loci and

Jafet M Nassar; J L Hamrick; Theodore H Fleming

2001-01-01

131

"From freeze with moths": first discovery of a habitat in Andean salars for noctuid moths.  

PubMed

Noctuid moths flutter in the high Andes nights at 4,000 m. s. n. m. Their larvae feed on aerial or underground parts of succulent plants. Many of these species are new to science. Strategies and adaptations of the moths for survival in the high Andes mountains are: a circulatory system that includes an abdominal thoracic countercurrent heat exchanger, and they are insulated from the environment by a coat of dense hair like scales. Recently, during January and July 2004, in the northern desert of Chile, called Salar de Punta Negra, under the salt crust we found a large number of pupae and larvae that correspond to three new species of noctuid moth - this pupation site is located in a 10 m wide area surrounding a water body; the mean observed density is 13 to 15 pupae per 100 cm(2). This is a new extreme habitat conquered by noctuid moths. PMID:17061807

Angulo, Andrés O; Camaño, Andrés; Angulo, Gino A

132

Identification and quantification of flavonol aglycons in cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus indica) fruit using a commercial pectinase and cellulase preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of pectinases and cellulases as soft hydrolysing agents on flavonol glycosides was investigated for identification and quantification of flavonol aglycons in cactus pear fruit. Freeze-dried samples of cactus pear fruit’s peel (cactus pear peels) and onions were treated with commercial pectinase and cellulase preparations at 50°C for different time periods (up to 16h). Additionally isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3,4?-O-diglucoside were

Tamer E. Moussa-Ayoub; Salah K. El-Samahy; Lothar W. Kroh; Sascha Rohn

2011-01-01

133

Functional characterization of a cactus homolog from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding an IkappaB family protein was identified and the full nucleotide sequence was determined in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The IkappaB gene, designated BmCactus, was constitutively expressed mainly in the fat body and hemocytes. Transfection experiments on a B. mori cell line, NIAS-Bm-aff3, with expression vectors containing BmCactus, BmRelA, BmRelB, or the active portion of BmRelish1 showed that activation of the CecB1 gene promoter by either BmRelA or BmRelB, but not the active portion of BmRelish1, was strongly inhibited by BmCactus. In addition, activation of CecB1 gene by autoclaved E. coli in the cultured cells was observed regardless of the presence or absence of BmCactus. A glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay and analysis using a yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated that BmCactus interacted with the BmRel Rel homology domain, but not with the BmRelish Rel homology domain. These results suggest that BmCactus is involved in the Toll signal transduction pathway in B. mori. PMID:19966488

Furukawa, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Ishibashi, Jun; Imanishi, Shigeo; Yamakawa, Minoru

2009-12-07

134

Growth performance of lambs in Phangrang, Vietnam: effects of a dietary supplement containing prickly-pear cactus.  

PubMed

In Phanrang, Vietnam, sheep production is limited by the sparse availability of green roughage. Although prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia elator) is abundant in the area, it is not used. It was considered relevant therefore to test whether prickly-pear cactus could be used a component of feed supplements. With the use of the cactus and other local products--namely groundnut cake, fish sauce by-product, molasses, rice bran and cassava flour--two supplements were prepared. The level of cactus in the two supplements was 670 g/kg product (320 g/kg dry matter). The cactus was burned to remove the spines, chopped and sun-dried before use. The cactus preparation contained only 12 g crude protein/kg (68 g/ kg dry matter). The protein content of the two supplements was raised with either groundnut cake or fish sauce by-product. Sheep that were grazing during the day were offered either no supplement or one of the supplements when confined during the night. During a period of 3 months, non-supplemented control sheep gained 98 +/- 10.5 g/day (mean +/- SD, n=10). Sheep supplemented with cactus and groundnut gained 145 +/- 12.3 g/day, and those given cactus and fish sauce gained 130 +/- 11.7 g/day. It is concluded that prickly-pear cactus has potential as component of feed supplements for sheep. PMID:15747860

Tien, D V; Beynen, A C

2005-04-01

135

Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis.  

PubMed

Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow allele was 0.448 in flies from Agua Caliente and 0.659 in flies from the Grand Canyon. These frequencies were intermediate to those of the low (Baja California peninsula, Mexico) and high (Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona) frequency Adh-2S populations of D. mojavensis that utilize different species of host cacti. PMID:8765684

Cleland, S; Hocutt, G D; Breitmeyer, C M; Markow, T A; Pfeiler, E

1996-07-01

136

Chemical ecology of the luna moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of food plant on larval performance and midgut detoxification enzymes were investigated in larvae of the luna moth,Actias luna. Neonate larvae were fed leaves of black cherry, cottonwood, quaking aspen, white willow, red oak, white oak, tulip tree, paper birch, black walnut, butternut, or shagbark hickory. First instar survival, larval duration, and pupal weights were monitored as indices

Richard L. Lindroth

1989-01-01

137

7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada....

2013-01-01

138

7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada....

2010-01-01

139

7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada....

2009-01-01

140

76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet AGENCY...information collection associated with the gypsy moth program. DATES: We will consider...CONTACT: For information on the gypsy moth program, contact Mr. Paul...

2011-04-04

141

Dif and cactus are colocalized in the larval nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The Rel protein Dif is a transcription factor suggested to control part of the immune response in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In uninfected animals, Dif is normally located in the cytoplasm, most likely in a complex with an IkappaB molecule such as Cactus. Upon infection, Dif is enriched in the nucleus of immunoresponsive tissues such as fat body and blood cells. Rel proteins in mammals not only participate in the control of the immune response, but are also thought to play important roles in the function of the nervous system. Here, we demonstrate that both Dif and Cactus are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila. Interestingly, Dif and Cactus colocalize in their distribution, suggesting a functional link between these proteins in the CNS. In the larval CNS, both Dif and Cactus are expressed at relatively low levels in most cells and at high levels in the mushroom bodies and in small subsets of neurosecretory cells. The cytoplasmic localization of Dif and Cactus in the CNS cells is not affected by bacterial challenge. Instead, we observed changes in nuclear versus cytoplasmic localization of Cactus (but not Dif) along the dark-light cycle, with a strong nuclear localization in perineurial glia toward the end of the dark period. In the CNS of the prepupa, the intensity of the immunostaining for both Dif and Cactus is higher than in the larva. Interestingly, in fat body of uninfected prepupae, the Dif localization was mainly nuclear, suggesting a function for Dif during the process of pupariation. PMID:10027560

Cantera, R; Roos, E; Engström, Y

1999-01-01

142

North American Eradications of Asian and European Gypsy Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) is established in the northeastern and northern midwestern parts of North America, members of the three subspecies of gypsy\\u000a moth are constantly being introduced into new locations. Between 1980 and 2007, multiple eradication efforts targeting gypsy\\u000a moth populations were conducted in 24 states in the US. In more recent years, eradication efforts have

Ann E. Hajek; Patrick C. Tobin

143

Synaptic activity modifies the levels of Dorsal and Cactus at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila.  

PubMed

The Drosophila Rel transcription factor Dorsal and its inhibitor Cactus participate in a signal transduction pathway involved in several biologic processes, including embryonic pattern formation, immunity, and muscle development. In contrast with embryonic muscle, where Dorsal is reportedly absent, this protein and Cactus accumulates in the neuromuscular junctions in the muscle of both larvae and adults. The phenotype of homozygous dorsal mutant larvae suggested that Dorsal and Cactus maybe necessary for normal function and maintenance of the neuromuscular system. Here we investigate if these proteins can respond to synaptic activity. Using larval body wall preparations and antibodies specific for Dorsal or Cactus we show that the amount of these proteins at the neuromuscular junction is substantially decreased after electrical stimulation of the nerves or incubation in glutamate, the principal transmitter in this type of synapse. The specificity of the response was tested with a glutamate receptor antagonist (argiotoxin 636). Because the effect can be reproduced using a calcium ionophore (ionomycin treatment) as well as blocked by the inhibition of the muscle ryanodine receptor (tetracaine treatment), the involvement of calcium in this process seems likely. We also observed that the inhibition of the calcium dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin prevents the effect of glutamate on the fluorescence for Dorsal and Cactus, suggesting its participation in a signal transduction cascade that may activate Dorsal in the muscle independently of Toll. Our results are consistent with a novel function of the Rel factor Dorsal in a molecular pathway turned on by neural activity and/or contractile activity. PMID:12532402

Bolatto, Carmen; Chifflet, Silvia; Megighian, Aram; Cantera, Rafael

2003-02-15

144

Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions  

PubMed Central

Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as combinatorial signals and use the integrated floral traits from their memory traces to mediate future foraging decisions.

Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcon, Ruben

2013-01-01

145

A flux capacitor for moth pheromones.  

PubMed

In this issue of Chemical Senses, Baker et al. propose a provocative and intriguing explanation for a commonly observed phenomenon in moth chemocommunication. Sex pheromones in moths typically consist of mixtures of long-chain unsaturated compounds in specific ratios. These ratios are correspondingly detected by male moths using separate olfactory sensory neurons for each pheromone component housed singly or multiply in long trichoid sensilla on the antennal surface. These neurons are often present in different proportions, typically with the neuron responding to the highest ratio component present in greatest abundance or with the largest dendritic diameter. In their article, Baker et al. postulate that these physical differences in neuron magnitudes arise to compensate for the higher molecular flux present with the most abundant pheromone components. Such a suggestion raises several questions concerning the physiological and behavioral nature of pheromone communication. Specifically, is the flux in a natural pheromone plume high enough to warrant increased flux detection for the most abundant components? Second, how can changes in neuronal number or size lead to increased flux detection? And finally, how would this increased flux detection be accomplished at molecular, cellular, and ultimately network scales? We address each of these questions and propose future experiments that could offer insight into the stimulating proposition raised by Baker et al. PMID:22334600

Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

2012-02-14

146

A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus.  

PubMed

Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure-function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies. PMID:23212376

Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

2012-01-01

147

Extracellular Transduction Events Under Pulsed Stimulation in Moth Olfactory Sensilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural conditions, pheromones released continuously by female moths are broken in discontinuous clumps and filaments. These discontinuities are perceived by flying male moths as periodic variations in the concentration of the stimulus, which have been shown to be essential for location of females. We study analytically and numerically the evolution in time of the activated pheromone-receptor (signaling) complex in

Jean-Pierre Rospars; Petr Lánský; Vlastimil Krivan

2003-01-01

148

First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

149

INJURY OF EUROPEAN SUNFLOWER MOTH (HOMOEOSOMA NEBULELLUM DENIS ET SCHIFFERMÜLLER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nyírség is the most important production area of confectionary sunflower for browning purpose. Kisvárdai cultivar, applied most frequently for this purpose, has no shield achene containing phytomelane layer) to protect the seed against chewing of moth larva. Therefore the sunflower moth is an important quality and quantity influencing factor in confectionary sunflower production. Kisvárdai cultivar developed from local varieties in

Béla SZABÓ; Ferenc TÓTH; Sándor VÁGVÖLGYI

150

Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)|

Hershkowitz, Gerald

1979-01-01

151

Silvicultural Guidelines for Forest Stands Threatened by the Gypsy Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Silvicultural treatments that may minimize gypsy moth impacts on host hardwood stands are recommended,based on ecological and silvicultural information. Decision charts are presented that match the proper prescription to existing stand and insect population conditions. Preoutbreak prescriptions focus on reducing stand susceptibility and vulnerability by increasing stand vigor, removing trees most likely to die, reducing gypsy moth habitat, reducing

Kurt W. Gottschalk

152

Codling moth ( Cydia pomonella ): Disruptants of sex pheromonal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a small section of an apple orchard, six traps were placed each in control and test areas and baited with live virgin female codling moths. Gray elastomer septa were used to dispense communication disruptants around the traps. Dyed male codling moths were released in control and test areas, and the numbers of males captured in control and test traps

L. M. McDonough; H. G. Davis; P. S. Chapman; C. L. Smithhisler

1994-01-01

153

Insect migration: do migrant moths know where they are heading?  

PubMed

Moth migration has been assumed to involve hitching a ride in favorable winds. A new study has shown that silver Y moths migrate only on nights when winds would displace them southward, implying that they detect their direction of movement while airborne, likely by a magnetic sense. PMID:18522818

Cardé, Ring T

2008-06-01

154

IMPROVEMENTS IN FEEDING ATTRACTANTS FOR NOCTUID MOTH PESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of moths, including pest moths of tree fruit crops, are attracted to fermented sweet baits. These baits have included various concoctions of brown sugar, fruit mashes, molasses, beer, and yeast. Although attractive, these baits are extremely variable in attractiveness, both in time and from batch to batch. The combination of acetic acid and 3- methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), isolated

Peter J. Landolt

155

Sex Attractant of the Codling: Moth: Characterization with Electroantennogram Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

trans-8, trans-10-Dodecadien-1-ol is a sex attractant of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella. Antennal responses (electroantennograms) to a series of monounsaturated compounds were used in determining the location and configuration of the two double bonds. The synthetic compound is very attractive to male codling moths in the field.

Wendell Roelofs; Andre Comeau; Ada Hill; G. Milicevic

1971-01-01

156

Auditory encoding during the last moment of a moth's life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simple auditory system of noctuoid moths has long been a model for anti-predator studies in neuroethology, although these ears have rarely been experimentally stimulated by the sounds they would encounter from naturally attacking bats. We exposed the ears of five noctuoid moth species to the pre-recorded echolocation calls of an attacking bat (Eptesicus fuscus) to observe the acoustic encoding

James H. Fullard; Jeff W. Dawson; David S. Jacobs

2003-01-01

157

Female pheromonal chorusing in an arctiid moth, Utetheisa ornatrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an unusual case of communal sexual display in the arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix that we designate ''female pheromonal chorusing.'' As in most moths, female U. ornatrix release a long-distance sexual advertisement pheromone during a nightly activity period. We arranged U. ornatrix females in 2 types of signaling conditions: grouped and solitary. When the females were grouped with neighboring

Hangkyo Lim; Michael D. Greenfield

2006-01-01

158

Comparative Activity of the Codling Moth Granulovirus Against Grapholita molesta and Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granulovirus of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., CpGV, is now com- mercialized for codling moth control in pome fruit in the USA and Canada. It is highly spe- cific for codling moth and related species. Comparative assays of CpGV against neonate larvae of another introduced tortricid pest, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, revealed a 557 and 589

LAWRENCE A. LACEY; STEVEN P. ARTHURS; HEATHER HEADRICK

159

Compatibility of codling moths Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa with codling moths shipped from Canada.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successfully applied against codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), in British Columbia since 1992. The mass-rearing facility located in Osoyoos, BC produces between 15-16M moths per week. Due to the seasonality of this pest, the facility in Cana...

160

CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN APPLES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are serious pests of apples grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where they do not appear, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the accidental introduction of these insects. The treatment consists of hot forced mo...

161

Confirmation and Efficacy Tests Against Codling Moth and Oriental Fruit Moth in Apples Using Combination Heat and Controlled Atmosphere Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with

Lisa G. Neven; Linda M. Rehfield-ray; David Obenland

2006-01-01

162

Effects of Fire on Kuenzler's Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus Fendleri Var. Kuenzleri).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kuenzlers cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri (Castetter, Pierce and Schwerin) L. Benson) is a federally- and state-listed endangered species that is known to occur in pinyon-juniper habitat in the mountains of south central New Mexico in Lincoln...

C. M. Britton D. B. Webster

2007-01-01

163

Reproductive ecology of the rare clonal cactus Stenocereus eruca in the Sonoran desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenocereus erucais a clonal cactus with an extremely narrow distribution in Baja California, in which seedling recruitment has rarely been observed. Low seedling recruitment in clonal plants may be caused by low seed production as a consequence of pollinator limitation or if seed input is sufficient, by lack of favorable conditions or microsites for seedling establishment. In this paper, we

R. Clark-Tapia; F. Molina-Freaner

2004-01-01

164

Evaluation of colour properties and chemical quality parameters of cactus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and visual appearance of cactus fruits from the genera Opuntia and Hylocereus were investigated. Colour properties were assessed in solutions with pH ranging from 1 to 8 and expressed as chroma, hue and colour shade. Between pH 3 and 7, all samples were stable as indicated by hue and chroma values. The colour shade of the red

Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; Reinhold Carle

2003-01-01

165

THE USE OF PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS AS NESTING COVER BY NORTHERN BOBWHITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Years of research on the nesting ecology of the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianu s) have documente d the use of bunchgrasses as common nesting cover. However, in the Rolling Plains of Texas, recent studies indicate a relatively high use of prickly pear cactus (Opunti aspp.) as suitable nesting cover. To explain this previously unreporte d use of prickly pear, we

FIDEL HERNÁNDEZ; Caesar Kleberg; SCOTT E. HENKE; NOVA J. SILVY; DALE ROLLINS

166

Seasonal temperature acclimation of a prickly-pear cactus in south-central Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide exchange patterns of prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata) were studied throughout the year to determine temperature influences on and seasonal responses of the process. Cacti exhibit CAM which permits nighttime carboxylation of CO2 to malate and daytime decarboxylation of malate to CO2. The gas exchange studies were done on plants harvested near Mesa, Arizona, and placed in

Robert A. Nisbet; Duncan T. Patten

1974-01-01

167

Population structure in the coral Pavona cactus : clonal genotypes show little phenotypic plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic data were used to examine the relationship between genotype and growth form, and to assess the contribution of asexual reproduction to recruitment within six local populations of the agaricid coral Pavona cactus from the central and northern Great Barrier Reef. The data revealed the presence of highly replicated clonal genotypes in the five densest populations. In three cases, samples

D. J. Ayre; B. L. Willis

1988-01-01

168

THE ORIGINS OF AN IMPORTANT CACTUS CROP, OPUNTIA FICUS INDICA (CACTACEAE): NEW MOLECULAR EVIDENCE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opuntia ficus -indica is a long-domesticated cactus crop that is important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. The biogeographic and evolutionary origins of this species have been obscured through ancient and widespread cultivation and naturalization. The origin of O. ficus -indica is investigated through the use of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nrITS DNA sequences. These

M. PATRICK GRIFFITH

169

A greenhouse study on root dynamics of cactus pears, Opuntia ficus-indica and O. robusta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 10 years a great interest in spineless cactus pear was shown in the drier areas in terms of both fresh fruit and fodder production. However, there is a lack of knowledge on quantitative data on root dynamics of these plants needed to fully understand its potential under water limiting conditions. This study aimed at quantifying the effects

H. A. Snyman

2006-01-01

170

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste

Dave Madsen

1998-01-01

171

Preliminary genetic studies on cactus pear (Opuntia spp. Cactaceae) germplasm from Central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear is the fruit crop of choice for the semiarid highlands of Central Mexico due to its drought tolerance. Growers completely depend on native varieties which do not have acceptance in the emerging international markets due to their low quality. New cultivars must be developed to meet the demand, therefore sound management of the germplasm base is a primary

Candelario Mondragon Jacobo

1999-01-01

172

Obtention of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Product from Cactus (Opuntia boldinghii Britton and Rose) Cladodes Whole Flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to obtain an enzymatically hydrolyzed product from cactus cladodes whole flour (Opuntia boldinghii Britton and Rose). The whole flour was subjected to the action of th e commercially prepared enzymes Pectinex® Ultra SP-L and Cellubrix® L (1:1 ratio). The experiments were carried out under fixed conditions of temperature of 50 C ± 1 C

C. A. Padron Pereira; M. J. Moreno Alvarez; C. A. Medina-Martinez; D. M. Garcia Pantaleon

2009-01-01

173

Water Diffusivity and Color of Cactus Pear Fruits (Opuntia Ficus Indica) Subjected to Osmotic Dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the results of a series of tests whose main purpose was to determinate how osmotic drying influences both water loss and color retention in cactus pear fruits. The dehydration process was performed using a 3 experimental design which involved three different sugar concentration levels (40, 50, and 608Brix) and three different temperatures (25, 40, and 558C). A

E. J. Moreno-Castillo; R. González-García; A. Grajales-Lagunes; M. A. Ruiz-Cabrera; M. Abud-Archila

2005-01-01

174

Phloem Water Transport Maintains Stem Growth in a Drought-stressed Crop Cactus (Hylocereus undatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hylocereus undatus ((Haworth) Britton and Rose) is a vine cactus from central America that has been estab- lished as a new fruit crop (pitaya) in many tropical and subtropical countries. In order to develop improved irrigation practices, the relationships between water parameters and growth were studied in rooted stem cuttings growing in pots with sandy soil under well-watered and drought-stressed

Avinoam Nerd; Peter M. Neumann

175

A purified extract from prickly pear cactus ( Opuntia fuliginosa) controls experimentally induced diabetes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypoglycemic activity of a purified extract from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fuliginosa Griffiths) was evaluated on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced to normal values by a combined treatment of insulin and Opuntia extract. When insulin was withdrawn from the combined treatment, the prickly pear extract alone maintained normoglycemic state in the diabetic rats.

Augusto Trejo-González; Genaro Gabriel-Ortiz; Ana María Puebla-Pérez; María Dolores Huízar-Contreras; María del Rosario Munguía-Mazariegos; Silvia Mejía-Arreguín; Edmundo Calva

1996-01-01

176

Thermal energy exchange model and water loss of a barrel cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of various diurnal stomatal opening patterns, spines, and ribs on the stem surface temperature and water economy of a CAM succulent, the barrel cactus Ferocactus acanthodes, were examined using an energy budget model. To incorporate energy exchanges by shortwave and longwave irradiation, latent heat, conduction, and convection as well as the heat storage in the massive stem, the

D. A. Lewis; P. S. Nobel

1977-01-01

177

Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.  

PubMed Central

The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity involved, it has been assumed that the association arose once, although it has been suggested that within the prodoxid moths as a whole, pollinators have arisen from seed predators more than once. We show, by using phylogenies generated from three molecular data sets, that the supposed restriction of the yucca moths and their allies to the Agavaceae is an artifact caused by an incorrect circumscription of this family. In addition we provide evidence that Yucca is not monophyletic, leading to the conclusion that the modern Yucca-yucca moth relationship developed independently more than once by colonization of a new host.

Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

1995-01-01

178

Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak intensity.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of many forest-defoliating insects are synchronous over broad geographic areas and occur with a period of approximately 10 years. Within the range of the gypsy moth in North America, however, there is considerable geographic heterogeneity in strength of periodicity and the frequency of outbreaks. Furthermore, gypsy moth outbreaks exhibit two significant periodicities: a dominant period of 8-10 years and a subdominant period of 4-5 years. In this study, we used a simulation model and spatially referenced time series of outbreak intensity data from the Northeastern United States to show that the bimodal periodicity in the intensity of gypsy moth outbreaks is largely a result of harmonic oscillations in gypsy moth abundance at and above a 4 km(2) scale of resolution. We also used geographically weighted regression models to explore the effects of gypsy moth host-tree abundance on the periodicity of gypsy moths. We found that the strength of 5-year cycles increased relative to the strength of 10-year cycles with increasing host tree abundance. We suggest that this pattern emerges because high host-tree availability enhances the growth rates of gypsy moth populations. PMID:18985391

Haynes, Kyle J; Liebhold, Andrew M; Johnson, Derek M

2008-11-05

179

Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

A series of studies were conducted to examine the residual activity and toxicity of the ecdysone agonists tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in North Carolina apple systems. Methoxyfenozide exhibited greater activity than tebufenozide against codling moth eggs in dose-response bioassays, with a 4.5- and 5.3-fold lower LC50 value to eggs laid on fruit treated before or after oviposition, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs were 57- and 12-fold less sensitive to methoxyfenozide than were codling moth eggs on fruit treated before and after oviposition, respectively. Methoxyfenozide was effective in reducing larval entries of both codling moth and oriental fruit moth in field residual activity bioassays, exhibiting activity for at least 28 d after application. Residue breakdown on fruit was approximately 80% at 28 d after treatment for both methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, with the most rapid residue decline (60%) occurring during the first 14 d after application. Two applications of methoxyfenozide applied at 14-d intervals provided better canopy coverage and higher residue levels than one application. Spray volume (683 versus 2,057 liters/ha) did not affect the efficacy of methoxyfenozide. Leaf and fruit expansion during the season was measured to determine potential plant-growth dilution effects on residual activity. There was very little increase in leaf area after mid May, but increase in fruit surface area over the season was described by a second order polynomial regression. Implications for codling moth and oriental fruit moth management programs are discussed. PMID:15384347

Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G; Long, John W

2004-08-01

180

Supplementation with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit decreases oxidative stress in healthy humans: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit contains vi- tamin C and characteristic betalain pigments, the radical-scavenging properties and antioxidant activities of which have been shown in vitro. Objective: We investigated the effects of short-term supplementa- tion with cactus pear fruit compared with vitamin C alone on total- body oxidative status in healthy humans. Design: In a randomized, crossover, double-treatment study,

Luisa Tesoriere; Daniela Butera; Anna Maria Pintaudi; Mario Allegra; Maria A Livre

181

Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak ...  

Treesearch

Title: Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak intensity ... geographic heterogeneity in strength of periodicity and the frequency of outbreaks. ... We suggest that this pattern emerges because high host-tree availability ...

182

Status and Trends in Gypsy Moth Defoliation Hazard in Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), a major defoilator of eastern hardwood forests, has become established in Virginia and is moving towards Tennessee. In preparation for its inevitable arrival, Tennessee's timberlands are hazard rated to identify thos...

D. M. May B. W. Kauffman

1990-01-01

183

The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)|

Briggs, James

1984-01-01

184

The potential for trichogramma releases to suppress tip moth ...  

Treesearch

Description: Because the Nantucket pine tip moth is a native pest, ... was significantly affected by microhabitat and by the length of time capsules were in the ... Consideration might be made of plantation management practices that result in ...

185

New Pheromone Components of the Grapevine Moth Lobesia botrana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid\\u000a moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to

Peter Witzgall; Marco Tasin; Hans-Ruedi Buser; Gertrud Wegner-Kiß; Vicente S. Marco Mancebón; Claudio Ioriatti; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Marie Bengtsson; Lutz Lehmann; Wittko Francke

2005-01-01

186

Behaviourally mediated crypsis in two nocturnal moths with contrasting appearance  

PubMed Central

The natural resting orientations of several species of nocturnal moth on tree trunks were recorded over a three-month period in eastern Ontario, Canada. Moths from certain genera exhibited resting orientation distributions that differed significantly from random, whereas others did not. In particular, Catocala spp. collectively tended to orient vertically, whereas subfamily Larentiinae representatives showed a variety of orientations that did not differ significantly from random. To understand why different moth species adopted different orientations, we presented human subjects with a computer-based detection task of finding and ‘attacking’ Catocala cerogama and Euphyia intermediata target images at different orientations when superimposed on images of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees. For both C. cerogama and E. intermediata, orientation had a significant effect on survivorship, although the effect was more pronounced in C. cerogama. When the tree background images were flipped horizontally the optimal orientation changed accordingly, indicating that the detection rates were dependent on the interaction between certain directional appearance features of the moth and its background. Collectively, our results suggest that the contrasting wing patterns of the moths are involved in background matching, and that the moths are able to improve their crypsis through appropriate behavioural orientation.

Webster, Richard J.; Callahan, Alison; Godin, Jean-Guy J.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

2008-01-01

187

Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) phenology and management with methoxyfenozide in North Carolina apples.  

PubMed

The phenology of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), on apple (Malus spp.) in North Carolina was studied using pheromone traps and egg sampling in abandoned and commercial orchards in 2000 and 2001, with subsequent development of an oviposition degree-day model and management studies in relation to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), phenology. Oriental fruit moth eggs were found in greater numbers on leaves early and on fruit later in the growing season, on the top versus the bottom of the leaf surface, and on the calyx area versus the side or stem end of the fruit. A degree-day (DD) model to predict oriental fruit moth oviposition was developed based on temperature accumulations from peak moth trap capture of the first (overwintering) generation, by using 7.2 and 32.2 degrees C as the temperature limits. The model predicted four ovipositing generations of oriental fruit moth with the second beginning 507 DD after peak moth catch. Using predictions of the oriental fruit moth and codling moth degree-day oviposition models, an experiment was conducted to determine the level of second generation oriental fruit moth control with methoxyfenozide applied under different scenarios for first generation codling moth. Methoxyfenozide was equally effective in managing codling moth and oriental fruit moth for all treatment timings. PMID:15384348

Borchert, Daniel M; Stinner, Ronald E; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

2004-08-01

188

Dating Cactus: Annual and Sub-annual Variations of Oxygen-18, Carbon-13 and Radiocarbon in Spines of a Columnar Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured ?18O, ?13C and F14C of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro), to resolve a record of plant physiological responses to annual and sub-annual climate variation in the eastern Sonoran Desert. Spines grow from the apex of the cactus and are arranged serially along the side of the cactus oldest at the base, youngest at the apex. To establish the age of the spine series, we measured F14C of spines collected at 8 different heights from the apex (3.77 m) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. These spines yielded fractions of modern carbon (F14C) from 0.9679 and 1.5537, indicating the presence of carbon in spine tissue derived from atmospheric nuclear testing. We used the F14C of spine tissue to calculate the year of spine emergence for each of the 11 spines, assuming minimal re-allocation of stored carbon to growing spines. At the same 8 heights, we interpolated the date of spine emergence from observed height measurements made between 1964 and 2002. A very strong positive correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001) between the F14C age of spines and ages determined from direct height measurements was observed, with a two year offset suggesting incorporation of carbon from fossil fuel combustion sources in the Tucson basin. Additionally, spine tips from 97 spines collected serially from the top half of the same saguaro (between 1.77 and 3.50 m) and representing ~15 years of growth, yielded ?18O variations in spine bulk organic material from 38° to 50° (VSMOW) and in ?13C from ° to 11.5° (VPDB). The ?18O and ?13C values were positively correlated over the entire record (linear regression, r2 = 0.22, P < 0.0001). These variations occurred at or near an annual frequency. The most negative ?18O and ?13C values in bulk spine organic material from the naturally occurring cactus were observed in spines grown shortly following the 1983 and 1993 strong El Niño winter precipitation events in Tucson, suggesting that isotopes in spine tissue are a good proxy of these climate anomalies. We found similar ?18O, ?13C and F14C variations and relationships in a longer record (172 spines) from a 4.1 m tall saguaro 30 km distant. Temporal isotopic records from saguaro and potentially other long-lived succulent plants may provide useful high-frequency records of ecological responses to climate variation in desert environments where other such records are lacking.

Dettman, D. L.; English, N. B.; Sandquist, D. R.; Williams, D. G.

2006-12-01

189

[Determination of trace elements in edible cactus by atomic absorption spectrometry].  

PubMed

The contents of 10 trace elements in edible cactus were determined by air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The sample was dissolved by ashing method. The experiment conditions were optimized by preparing mixed standard solution of these elements and adding LaCl3 and CsCl for interfering complements. The results show that the contents of following elements in the cactus are: 13-47 mg x g(-1) for Mg, K and Ca; 108-243 microg x g(-1) for Zn, Mn, Fe and Na; 34.8 microg x g(-1) for Cu, and 9.8-11.7 micro x g(-1) for Ni, Sr; and the contents of Mg, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Fe, Na and Cu are higher than those in carrot. PMID:16544511

Li, Gui-Hua; Liu, Jun-Shen; Wang, Yu-Bao; Chen, Yu-Jing

2005-12-01

190

The effect of variety and location on cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit quality.  

PubMed

Little is known about the performance of South African cactus pear varieties in different agro-ecological regions. Effects of locality on internal quality parameters of available cactus pear varieties were examined. With only one exception, no significant differences among the mean replication values for the different parameters between the different locations were observed. The differences between mean values for most individual parameters at the three localities were highly significant. Highly significant differences between the mean values for the measured characteristics were observed, not only among the locations (except for the pulp glucose values), but also for the influences of genotype and interaction between locality and genotype. Significant variations existed between mean values of the different characteristics between localities. Genotype x environmental interactions were noted. It was concluded that Meyers is the most appropriate cultivar for economical purposes in South Africa. PMID:20464635

de Wit, Maryna; Nel, Philip; Osthoff, Gernot; Labuschagne, Maryke T

2010-06-01

191

Control of Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth by Aerially Applied Dimilin (TH 6040).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were made in 1976 on epidemic Douglas-fir tussock moth populations in the North Thompson River Valley north of Kamloops, British Columbia, to determine the minimum effective amount of Dimilin required for tussock moth population control. Three dosag...

J. S. Hard J. D. Ward S. Linytzky

1978-01-01

192

Microencapsulation by spray drying of bioactive compounds from cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds of pulp (CP) and ethanolic (CE) extracts of the cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) were encapsulated with maltodextrin (MD) or inulin (I). A 22 statistical factorial design was then used to study the stability of the powders obtained at the optimal conditions for each system (CP–MD, CP–I, CE–MD and CE–I) at 60°C in the dark. The 3:1 ratio of

Carmen Saénz; Sandra Tapia; Jorge Chávez; Paz Robert

2009-01-01

193

An Overview of Research on Diseases of Cactus Pear in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, the primary objective of the New Crop Pathology Program at the University of the Free State has been to conduct a systematic survey of diseases occurring in cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) orchards throughout the country and to investigate possible relationships between disease-causing microorganisms and various insects, specifically Drosophila sp. Numerous fungal genera, of which the most prominent

Wijnand J. Swart; Vaughn R. Swart

194

Neuroprotective and Antioxidative Effect of Cactus Polysaccharides In Vivo and In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus polysaccharides (CP), some of the active components in Opuntia dillenii Haw have been reported to display neuroprotective effects in rat brain slices. In the present study, we investigated the\\u000a neuroprotective properties of CP and their potential mechanisms on brain ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and on oxidative\\u000a stress-induced damage in PC12 cells. Male Sprague–Dawley rats with ischemia following middle cerebral

Xianju Huang; Qin Li; Huige Li; Lianjun Guo

2009-01-01

195

Reproductive Consequences of Clonal Growth in Stenocereus eruca , a Rare Clonal Cactus of the Sonoran Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenocereus eruca is a prostrated, self-incompatible cactus endemic to the Sonoran Desert that regenerates primarily through clonal propagation.\\u000a Clonal growth is expected to affect mate availability by influencing the number and spatial distribution of mating types.\\u000a In this paper we examine the role of clonal growth on female fecundity through a series of pollination experiments in a population\\u000a of S.

Clark Tapia Ricardo; Cecilia Alfonso Corrado; María C. Mandujano; Francisco Molina-Freaner

2006-01-01

196

Yield and physiological traits of prickly pear cactus ‘nopal’ ( Opuntia spp.) cultivars under drip irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drip irrigation system was installed above ground at 30, 45, and 60% of the weekly-accumulated evaporation depth to evaluate productivity of harvested green cladodes (leaf-like stem segments) of the prickly pear cactus. Results showed that irrigating above 30% does not increase crop production. This percentage represents an annual irrigation depth of 0.74m, which is one of the lowest in

Arnoldo Flores-Hernández; Ignacio Orona-Castillo; Bernardo Murillo-Amador; Jose Luis Garcia-Hernandez; Enrique Troyo-Dieguez

2004-01-01

197

Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of ¹³⁷Cs, ⁹°Sr, \\/sup 239 +240\\/Pu and ²⁴¹Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island

W. L. Robison; V. E. Noshkin

1981-01-01

198

Color, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones.  

PubMed

Total phenolics, ascorbic acid, and betalain contents of differently colored cactus pear clones (nine Opuntia ficus-indica [L.] Mill. clones and one O. robusta Wendl. clone) were investigated and related to their respective antioxidant potential assessed by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TEAC and ORAC values were very highly correlated with each other and also with values for total phenolics, betalain contents, and ascorbic acid concentrations. Total phenolics had the greatest contribution to ORAC and TEAC values. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) measurements of cactus pear juices permitted the differentiation of the clones based on variations in pigment patterns and betalain concentrations. The red and yellow betalains were absent in lime green colored cactus fruits. The ratio and concentration of these pigments were responsible for the yellow, orange, red, and purple colors in the other clones. Progeny of purple and lime green colored parents were characterized by 12% and 88% of plants bearing lime green and purple fruit, respectively. This implies that the genes for betalain production were lacking in the lime green fruits but could be provided by a parent with a complete set of genes, that is, purple fruits. Besides known pigments typical of Cactaceae, two unexpected betalains were identified. Whereas gomphrenin I was found for the first time in tissues of cactus plants, methionine-betaxanthin has never been described before as a genuine betalain. In addition to their alleged health-promoting properties, various combinations of yellow betaxanthins and red-purple betacyanins may allow the development of new food products without using artificial colorants. PMID:15656686

Stintzing, Florian C; Herbach, Kirsten M; Mosshammer, Markus R; Carle, Reinhold; Yi, Weiguang; Sellappan, Subramani; Akoh, Casimir C; Bunch, Ron; Felker, Peter

2005-01-26

199

Genetic transformation of prickly-pear cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for genetic transformation of an elite prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica L., cultivar Villa Nueva) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens was developed. Beginning with direct bacterial infection by using a hypodermic syringe to the meristematic tissue termed areoles, transgenic plants were obtained by selection with 100 mg l?1 kanamycin. Transient and stable GUS activities were monitored on kanamycin-resistant shoots and regenerated plants,

H. Silos-Espino; A. Valdez-Ortiz; Q. Rascón-Cruz; E. Rodríguez-Salazar; O. Paredes-López

2006-01-01

200

A membrane-based process for the clarification and the concentration of the cactus pear juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear fruit is a food of nutraceutical and functional importance. Unfortunately, the low acidity and the high soluble solids content make the pulp of this fruit a very attractive media for growth of microorganisms requiring a thermal treatment (115.5°C or higher) to obtain a good control of the microbial invasion. A relatively long thermal treatment (100°C for 20min) can

A. Cassano; C. Conidi; R. Timpone; M. D’Avella; E. Drioli

2007-01-01

201

Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a Cactus virus X strain from Hylocereus undatus (Cactaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The complete nucleotide sequence of a strain of Cactus virus X (CVX-Hu) isolated from Hylocereus undatus (Cactaceae) has been determined. Excluding the poly(A) tail, the sequence is 6614 nucleotides in length and contains seven open reading frames (ORFs). The genome organization of CVX is similar to that of other potexviruses. ORF1 encodes the putative viral replicase with conserved methyltransferase,

M. R. Liou; Y. R. Chen; R. F. Liou

2004-01-01

202

The xanthophyll cycle and energy dissipation in differently oriented faces of the cactus Opuntia macrorhiza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal changes in titratable acidity, photosynthesis, energy dissipation activity, and the carotenoid composition of differently\\u000a oriented cladodes of the cactus Opuntia macrorhiza were characterized during exposure to full sunlight in the field. Four cladode faces were chosen such that each was exposed\\u000a to maximum photon flux densities (PFD) at different times of the day in addition to receiving different daily

D. H. Barker

1997-01-01

203

Rheology and Aggregation of Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) Mucilage in Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucilage obtained from cactus is commonly described as water-soluble pectin-like polysaccharide. Although few potential uses of this material have been described, it is not an industrial hydrocolloid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rheological behavior of the polysaccharide isolated from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica. The polymer had a weight average molecular mass (Mw) of 3

A. Cárdenas; I. Higuera-Ciapara; F. M. Goycoolea

1997-01-01

204

Fruit quality and production of cactus pear ( Opuntia spp.) fruit clones selected for increased frost hardiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal limitation to cultivation of cactus for fruit in the south-western United States is lack of hardiness to freezing weather. This field trial compared 22Opuntiaclones selected for increased cold hardiness, fruit yield, and fruit quality, i.e. pH, sugar content and seed content. Mexican accessions 1380, 1277, 1281 and 1300 had the highest yields averaging between 2·5 and 5·2 kg

John Parish; Peter Felker

1997-01-01

205

Chemical Interactions in the Cactus-Microorganism-Drosophila Model System of the Sonoran Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The Cactus-Microorganism-Drosophila Model System of the Sonoran De- sert represents an excellent paradigm of the role of chemistry in plant-animal inter- actions. In this system, four species of endemic Drosophila feed and reproduce in necrotic tissue of five species of columnar cacti. Studies over the past 35 yr have characterized a myriad of interactions between the three major components

James C. Fogleman; Phillip B. Danielson

2001-01-01

206

Protective effect of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily, for 10 days, with either NiCl(2) solution (4mg (30micromol)/kg body weight) or with the same volume of saline solution (300mM NaCl). Significant increases of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activities and of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were observed in blood of nickel-treated rats. In the liver, nickel chloride was found to induce an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidant enzymes activities. Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity was found to be increased whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased. These changes did not occur in animals previously given cactus juice, demonstrating a protective effect of this vegetal extract. PMID:18950672

Hfaiedh, Najla; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Zourgui, Lazhar; Croute, Françoise

2008-10-04

207

Bacteria Associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) Larvae and Their Cactus Host Isolatocereus dumortieri  

PubMed Central

We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity.

Martinez-Falcon, Ana Paola; Durban, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Anton, Josefa; Marcos-Garcia, Maria de los Angeles

2011-01-01

208

Bacteria associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) larvae and their cactus host Isolatocereus dumortieri.  

PubMed

We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31,079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity. PMID:22132101

Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durbán, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Antón, Josefa; Marcos-García, María de Los Ángeles

2011-11-23

209

Species-specificity of nurse plants for the establishment, survivorship, and growth of a columnar cactus.  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Seedling establishment and early survivorship are crucial steps for the regeneration of plant populations because both have long-lasting effects on plant population dynamics. For species recruiting through facilitation, species-specific facilitative effects might affect early fitness, an overlooked aspect in studies of facilitation considering groups of nurse species. • Methods: We experimentally evaluated the roles of 10 nurse species and open space on the early performance of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia mezcalaensis. We measured establishment, survivorship, and growth of individuals over 3 years. Moreover, to study an extended period of the ontogeny of the interaction between this cactus and its nurse plants, we also monitored survivorship and growth rates of individuals between 3 to 12 cm tall during a 3-year period. • Key results: Neobuxbaumia mezcalaensis performance varied significantly among nurse species, and only six yielded positive effects on early fitness. Densely canopied plants were the best nurses for this cactus. However, even among densely canopied species, some produced negative effects on the early fitness of N. mezcalaensis, indicating that similar nurse plants may elicit either facilitative or interference effects on beneficiary species. • Conclusions: Our results emphasize the importance of species-specific facilitative interactions in the crucial early stages in the life cycle of N. mezcalaensis and how different nurse species modify the effect of seed-rain and contribute significantly to the population dynamics of the species. PMID:21616881

Landero, Juan Pablo Castillo; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

2010-07-20

210

Chemical Mimicry: Bolas Spiders Emit Components of Moth Prey Species Sex Pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies have indicated that bolas spiders attract male moth prey, apparently by mimicking the odor of female moth sex pheromones. Three moth sex pheromone compounds, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenal, and (Z)-11-hexadecenal, were identified in volatile substances emitted by hunting adult female Mastophora cornigera spiders. These compounds are components of pheromone blends that attract some of this spider's moth prey species.

Mark K. Stowe; James H. Tumlinson; Robert R. Heath

1987-01-01

211

Bat-deafness in day-flying moths (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Dioptinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming that bat-detection is the primary function of moth ears, the ears of moths that are no longer exposed to bats should\\u000a be deaf to echolocation call frequencies. To test this, we compared the auditory threshold curves of 7 species of Venezuelan\\u000a day-flying moths (Notodontidae: Dioptinae) to those of 12 sympatric species of nocturnal moths (Notodontidae: Dudusinae, Noctuidae\\u000a and Arctiidae).

James H. Fullard; Jeff W. Dawson; L. Daniel Otero; Annemarie Surlykke

1997-01-01

212

Evaluation of Preventive Treatments in Low-Density Gypsy Moth Populations Using Pheromone Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromone traps can be used for evaluating the success of treatments that are applied to either eradicate or delay the growth of isolated low-density populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). We developed an index of treatment success, T, that measures the reduction in moth countsin the block treated adjusted by the change in moth countsin the reference area

Alexei A. Sharov; Donna Leonard; Andrew M. Liebhold; Nicholas S. Clemens

2002-01-01

213

The distance and nature of the light-trap response of moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

LIGHT TRAPS of various forms have been used to collect and study moths for well over 100 yr, but surprisingly little is known about how they attract moths. There has been some evaluation of the factors influencing the size of light trap catches1-5 and of the mechanics of the terminal phase of the moth's approach to a light6, but virtually

R. Robin Baker; Yvonne Sadovy

1978-01-01

214

78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas...infested areas to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth. In accordance with...adequate to prevent the artificial interstate spread of infestations of the gypsy moth....

2013-04-26

215

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR DEPLOYING FEMALE GYPSY MOTHS TO EVALUATE MATING DISRUPTION TREATMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The gypsy moth is a major pest of forest and shade trees in the northeastern United States. Under the National Slow-the-Spread of the Gypsy Moth Project (STS), over 288,000 acres were treated in 2005 with the gypsy moth sex pheromone, disparlure, to disrupt mating and slow the advance of population...

216

The population ecology of the Cinnabar Moth, Tyria jacobaeae L. (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a study of the factors determining the abundance and distribution of the Cinnabar Moth in Britain. The main part of the study was on a population of the moth at Weeting Heath in Norfolk. This is an area of sandy heath which is heavily overgrazed by rabbits. Here the moth fluctuates violently in number

J. P. Dempster

1971-01-01

217

THE POTENTIAL FOR TRICHOGRAMMA RELEASES TO SUPPRESS TIP MOTH POPULATIONS IN PINE PLANTATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the Nantucket pine tip moth is a native pest, augmentation (mass-release) of native natural enemies may be the most promising method of tip moth biocontrol. The tip moth has several important egg, larval, and pupal parasitoids. Egg parasitoids are most effective as biocontrol agents because they eliminate the host before it reaches a damaging stage. Trichogramma egg parasitoids are

David B. Orr; Charles P.-C. Suh; Michael Philip; Kenneth W. McCravy; Gary L. DeBarrl

218

Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and Du Site, CAS No. TA39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonapah Test Range, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium)

1998-01-01

219

Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?  

PubMed

Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

2013-02-01

220

Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone  

PubMed Central

We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 ?M) in the sensillar lymph is ?20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths.

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S.

2005-01-01

221

Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable. PMID:17066791

Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

2006-10-01

222

Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly  

PubMed Central

Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the “empty neuron” system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.

Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Kopp, Artyom; Kimbrell, Deborah A.; Leal, Walter S.

2010-01-01

223

Confirmation and Efficacy Tests Against Codling Moth and Oriental Fruit Moth in Peaches and Nectarines Using Combination Heat and Controlled Atmosphere Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two high-temperature, forced air treatments under controlled atmosphere conditions, called CATTS for controlled atmosphere\\/temperature treatment system, were developed for control of all life stages of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), infesting peaches and nectarines (both Prunus spp.). These treatments were used in efÞcacy and conÞrmation tests to kill5,000 fourth instar oriental fruit moths

LISA G. NEVEN; LINDA M. REHFIELD-RAY; DAVID OBENLAND

224

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4...woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through...woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within...

2013-01-01

225

7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3...or each portion of a State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by...Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present,...

2013-01-01

226

7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

2010-01-01

227

Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

2002-08-01

228

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

2010-12-01

229

Natural Hybridization between the Cholla Cactus Species Opuntia spinosior and Opuntia versicolor  

PubMed Central

The sexually reproducing cholla cactus species, Opuntia spinosior and O. versicolor, hybridize naturally in Arizona to produce hybrid swarms and segregating introgressive populations with a high degree of individual variation. The pattern of variation in these hybrid populations can be compared with that in populations derived from crossing of O. spinosior and O. fulgida, where the hybrids reproduce vegetatively rather than by seeds. The latter hybrid combination, in marked contrast to the former, results in clonal colonies with little or no observable individual variation. Images

Grant, Verne; Grant, Karen A.

1971-01-01

230

Effects of Laboratory Rearing on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The New Jersey Standard Strain (NJSS) accounts for about 90 percent of the laboratory-reared gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), used for research and development in the United States. The history and performance of NJSS since its establishment in the labo...

M. A. Keena T. M. Odell

1994-01-01

231

HOW WE CAN MAKE CODLING MOTH MATING DISRUPTION WORK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficacy of several approaches that use the sex pheromone of codling moth to manage this important pest in apple have been investigated over the past 14 years. These tactics include the use of hand-applied dispensers, microencapsulated sprayables, widely-spaced high emission sources such as puff...

232

Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

233

CONTROL OF INDIANMEAL MOTH USING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Indianmeal moth is an important economic pest in food storage facilities. Once the larva reaches the final stage, it will often wander in search of a pupation site. This stage is extremely difficult to kill with residual insecticides. Recent research with the insect growth regulators hydroprene...

234

PROTEIN UPTAKE IN THE OOCYTES OF THE CECROPIA MOTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of yolk spheres in the oocyte of the cecropia moth, Hyalophora cecropia (L.), is known immunologically to result largely from uptake of a sex-limited blood protein. Recent electron microscope analyses of insect and other animal oocytes have demonstrated fine structural configurations consistent with uptake of proteins by pinocytosis. An electron microscope analysis of the cecropia ovary confirms the

BARBARA STAY

2009-01-01

235

EFFECT OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH, PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-eight strains of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for toxicity against the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. Bt strains were cultured on agar plates, examined for the presence of crystals and then harvested in water. Samples of Bt spore/crystal preparations...

236

Integrated Pest Management of Diamondback Moth: Practical Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a serious and important pest of crucifers in many parts of the world, particularly in the tropics. Although many studies have been conducted oil this pest, the development of realistic integrated pest management (IPM) for it is not progressing as it should, and even less so on its practical implementation. The many reasons for

Lim Guan-Soon

237

Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

238

Carbon and nitrogen mineralization from decomposing gypsy moth frass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defoliation of forests by insects is often assumed to produce a pulse of available nitrogen (N) from the decomposition of frass pellets. In this study we measured rates of carbon (C) and N mineralization from gypsy moth frass incubated with and without soil, and for soil alone. Incubations were at constant temperature and soil moisture conditions and lasted for 120

Gary M. Lovett; Adriana E. Ruesink

1995-01-01

239

Evidence for short-range sonic communication in lymantriine moths.  

PubMed

Sexual communication of nun moth, Lymantria monacha (L.), pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura Moore, and fumida tussock moth, Lymantria fumida Butler (all Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Lymantriinae), is known to be mediated by pheromones. We now show that males are attracted by the sounds of conspecific females over short distances and that wing fanning male and female L. monacha, L. mathura and L. fumida produce species- and sex-specific wing beat and associated click sounds that could contribute to reproductive isolation. Evidence for short-range communication in these lymantriines includes (i) scanning electron micrographs revealing metathoracic tympanate ears, (ii) laser interferometry showing particular sensitivity of tympana tuned to frequency components of sound signals from conspecifics, and (iii) phonotaxis of male L. monacha and L. fumida to speakers playing back sound signals from conspecific females. We conclude that tympanate ears of these moths have evolved in response not only to bat predation, but also for short-range mate finding and possibly recognition. PMID:21115014

Rowland, E; Schaefer, P W; Belton, P; Gries, G

2010-11-27

240

Diamondback moth–host plant interactions: Implications for pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops with a cosmopolitan distribution. Its genetic elasticity has enabled it to develop resistance to almost every insecticide applied in the field. Its natural host range is limited to cultivated and wild Brassicaceae that are characterized by having glucosinolates, sulfur-containing secondary plant compounds. Adults utilize an

M. Sarfraz; L. M. Dosdall; B. A. Keddie

2006-01-01

241

Biological control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most destructive cosmopolitan insect pests of brassicaceous crops. It was the first crop insect reported to be resistant to DDT and now, in many crucifer producing regions, it has shown significant resistance to almost every synthetic insecticide applied in the field. In certain parts of the world,

Muhammad Sarfraz; Andrew B Keddie; Lloyd M Dosdall

2005-01-01

242

Bin sterilization to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine efficacious temperatures of hot water baths to prevent adult emergence, found baths at 80°C for > ...

243

Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

244

Energetic cost of sexual attractiveness: ultrasonic advertisement in wax moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair formation in the lesser wax moth,Achroia grisella(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is initiated by male ultrasonic signals that attract receptive females. Individual males vary in attractiveness to females, and the most attractive males are distinguished by exaggeration of three signal characters: pulse rate, peak amplitude and asynchrony interval (temporal separation between pulses generated by movements of the left and right wings during

KLAUS REINHOLD; MICHAEL D. GREENFIELD; YIKWEON JANG; ALBERTO BROCE

1998-01-01

245

INTERACTION OF FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND TIP MOTH DAMAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive forest management practices have been shown to increase tree growth and shorten rotation time. However, they may also increase the need for insect pest management because of higher infestation levels and lower action thresholds. The Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock)) is one insect that is expected to become more important with more intensive forest management practices. Two

John T. Nowakl

246

CODLING MOTH GRANULOVIRUS AND INSECT-SPECIFIC NEMATODES FOR CONTROL OF CODLING MOTH IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent registration of commercial formulations of the codling moth granulovirus C. pomonella (CpGV) in the USA expands the options for control of neonate larvae in organic orchards and provides a biological alternative for conventional growers. Our results demonstrate that residual activity of a...

247

On the mechanical properties of the rare endemic cactus Stenocereus eruca and the related species S. gummosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the hypothesis that the procumbent growth habit of the rare, columnar cactus Stenocereus eruca is in part the result of a diminution of the mechanical properties of stem tissues by comparing the properties of S. eruca plants with those of the putatively closely related semi-erect shrub S. gummosus. Intact stems and surgically removed anatomically comparable regions of the

KARL J. NIKLAS; FRANCISCO MOLINA-FREANER; CLARA TINOCO-OJANGUREN; CHRISTOPHER J. HOGAN; DOMINICK J. PAOLILLO

2003-01-01

248

CLONAL DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION IN STENOCEREUS ERUCA (CACTACEAE), A NARROW ENDEMIC CACTUS OF THE SONORAN DESERT1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenocereus eruca (Cactaceae), a prostrate cactus endemic to the Sonoran Desert, is thought to be highly clonal. We examined its clonal diversity and distribution: (1) at the population level, in four distinct populations along its distribution range; and (2) at a micro scale level, within a single population. Our objective was to evaluate the importance of sexual versus clonal recruitment

RICARDO CLARK-TAPIA; CECILIA ALFONSO-CORRADO; LUIS E. EGUIARTE; FRANCISCO MOLINA-FREANER

249

The Role of Endangered Species Reintroduction in Ecosystem Restoration: Tortoise–Cactus Interactions on Española Island, Galápagos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the role that endangered species reintro- duction efforts can play in the larger context of ecosys- tem restoration. To do so, we examined interactions between endangered giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra hoodensis), currently being reintroduced to Isla Espano- la, Galapagos, and an arboreal cactus (Opuntia mega- sperma var. megasperma), which is itself endangered and a keystone resource for many

James P. Gibbs; Cruz Marquez; Eleanor J. Sterling

2008-01-01

250

Modeling the effects of temperature and relative humidity on gas exchange of prickly pear cactus ( Opuntia spp.) stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model to estimate gas profile of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) prickly pear cactus stems was developed and calibrated. The model describes the transient gas exchange taking in consideration the effect of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on film permeability (FPgas), respiration rate (Rx) and tissue permeance (TPgas). A closed system was used for respiration measurement, generating conditions of

Juan Carlos Guevara-Arauza; Elhadi M. Yahia; Luis Cedeño; L. M. M. Tijskens

2006-01-01

251

Asexual reproduction and genetic determination of growth form in the coral Pavona cactus : biochemical genetic and immunogenic evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue grafting and electrophoresis were used to study the genotypic structure of a population of the scleractinian coral, Pavona cactus. Three growth forms were distinguished within one continuous population of this morphologically variable species. Both techniques provided evidence of localized asexual reproduction within each growth form, a result consistent with numerous field observations of naturally occurring fragments. A perfect association

Bette L. Willis; David J. Ayre

1985-01-01

252

Luminescence dating of sand deposits related to late Pleistocene human occupation at the Cactus Hill Site, Virginia, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, obtained primarily using single grains, are reported for 13 sediment samples from the Cactus Hill site, a culturally stratified sand dune in Virginia. The site has drawn interest because of a blade level, potentially representing an early occupation of humans in North America, a few centimeters below a Clovis artifact layer. Pre-Clovis occupation in North

James K. Feathers; Edward J. Rhodes; Sébastien Huot; Joseph M. Mcavoy

2006-01-01

253

Indirect versus direct effects of grasses on growth of a cactus ( Opuntia fragilis ): insect herbivory versus competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in plant performance between microhabitats is usually attributed to direct mechanisms, such as plant physiological tolerances or competitive interactions. However, indirect mechanisms, such as differences in herbivore pressure mediated by microhabitat differences, could create the same pattern of variation. In this study, we investigated the effect of insect herbivore pressure on the growth of the grassland cactus Opuntia fragilis

Jutta C. Burger; Svata M. Louda

1994-01-01

254

Flat top decay syndrome of the giant cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei): description and distribution in Baja California Sur, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant columnar cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) appears to have an ailment(s) that is destroying a large number of plants. The causal agent(s), whether biotic or abiotic, has yet to be determined. Two forms of symptom development have been recorded. The first is a circular tissue decay on a branch leading to death of the growing tip. In this case,

Yoav Bashan; Gerardo Toledo; Gina Holguin

255

Improved establishment and development of three cactus species inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense transplanted into disturbed urban desert soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and development of cactus transplants in urban, disturbed areas of the desert near La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, was monitored. Young plants of three species of pachycereid cacti (Pachycereus pringlei, Stenocereus thurberi, and Lophocereus schottii) inoculated with the plant growth promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in an eroded area (a dirt road) had a high survival rate and developed

Yoav Bashan; Adriana Rojas; M. Esther Puente

1999-01-01

256

Candida orba sp. nov., a new cactus-specific yeast species from Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

A new species of yeast from decaying cladodes of Opuntia cactus, Candida orba, is described. This species is a member of a four-species clade of cactophilic yeasts. The new species has only been found in one region of Queensland, Australia, where it was presumably introduced during attempts to eradicate prickly pear cactus. DNA-DNA relatedness, phylogenetic analysis, physiological differences, killer-sensitivity profiles and mating reactions establish the distinctness of the taxon as a new species. C. orba is most closely related to Phaffomyces thermotolerans, a species found associated with columnar cacti in the North American Sonoran Desert. The type strain of C. orba, isolated from rotting cladodes of Opuntia stricta in the State of Queensland, Australia, is strain UCD-FST 84-833.1T (= CBS 8782T = NRRL Y-27336T = ATCC MYA-341). Only the h- mating type of the species has been recovered. The lack of the opposite mating type could be the result of a bottleneck during its introduction to Australia. The original geographic/host distribution of this species in the Americas is unknown. PMID:11321117

Starmer, W T; Phaff, H J; Ganter, P F; Lachance, M A

2001-03-01

257

A purified extract from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fuliginosa) controls experimentally induced diabetes in rats.  

PubMed

The hypoglycemic activity of a purified extract from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fuliginosa) was evaluated on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced to normal values by a combined treatment of insulin and Opuntia extract. When insulin was withdrawn from the combined treatment, the prickly pear extract alone maintained normoglycemic state in the diabetic rats. The blood glucose response to administered glucose also showed that the rats receiving the combination treatment of insulin and Opuntia extract for 7 weeks followed by Opuntia extract alone were capable of rapidly returning blood glucose to the levels of the nondiabetic rats. Although the mechanism of action is unknown, the magnitude of the glucose control by the small amount of Opuntia extract required (1 mg/kg body weight per day) preclude a predominant role for dietary fiber. These very encouraging results for diabetes control by the purified extract of this Opuntia cactus make the need for clinical studies in humans evident. PMID:9121164

Trejo-González, A; Gabriel-Ortiz, G; Puebla-Pérez, A M; Huízar-Contreras, M D; Munguía-Mazariegos, M R; Mejía-Arreguín, S; Calva, E

1996-12-01

258

Influence of abscisic acid and sucrose on somatic embryogenesis in Cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma mostruosa.  

PubMed

Having produced the embryos of cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma monstruosa at the globular stage and callus, we investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100? ? M on successive stages of direct (DSE) and indirect somatic embryogenesis (ISE). In the indirect somatic embryogenesis process we also investigated a combined effect of ABA (0, 0.1, 1? ? M) and sucrose (1, 3, 5%). The results showed that a low concentration of ABA (0-1? ? M) stimulates the elongation of embryos at the globular stage and the number of correct embryos in direct somatic embryogenesis, while a high ABA concentration (10-100? ? M) results in growth inhibition and turgor pressure loss of somatic embryos. The indirect somatic embryogenesis study in this cactus suggests that lower ABA concentrations enhance the increase in calli fresh weight, while a high concentration of 10? ? M ABA or more changes calli color and decreases its proliferation rate. However, in the case of indirect somatic embryogenesis, ABA had no effect on the number of somatic embryos and their maturation. Nevertheless, we found a positive effect of sucrose concentration for both the number of somatic embryos and the increase in calli fresh weight. PMID:23843737

Lema-Rumi?ska, J; Goncerzewicz, K; Gabriel, M

2013-06-12

259

Influence of Abscisic Acid and Sucrose on Somatic Embryogenesis in Cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma mostruosa  

PubMed Central

Having produced the embryos of cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma monstruosa at the globular stage and callus, we investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100??M on successive stages of direct (DSE) and indirect somatic embryogenesis (ISE). In the indirect somatic embryogenesis process we also investigated a combined effect of ABA (0, 0.1, 1??M) and sucrose (1, 3, 5%). The results showed that a low concentration of ABA (0-1??M) stimulates the elongation of embryos at the globular stage and the number of correct embryos in direct somatic embryogenesis, while a high ABA concentration (10–100??M) results in growth inhibition and turgor pressure loss of somatic embryos. The indirect somatic embryogenesis study in this cactus suggests that lower ABA concentrations enhance the increase in calli fresh weight, while a high concentration of 10??M ABA or more changes calli color and decreases its proliferation rate. However, in the case of indirect somatic embryogenesis, ABA had no effect on the number of somatic embryos and their maturation. Nevertheless, we found a positive effect of sucrose concentration for both the number of somatic embryos and the increase in calli fresh weight.

Lema-Ruminska, J.; Goncerzewicz, K.; Gabriel, M.

2013-01-01

260

Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids.  

PubMed

With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations. PMID:23720524

Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K; Spalding, Adrian; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H

2013-05-29

261

Impact of aerially applied Bacillus thuringiensis and carbaryl on gypsy moth [ Lep.: Lymantriidae ] and adult parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1973, Dipel® (Bacillus thuringiensis\\u000a Berliner) and Sevin® 4 oil (carbaryl) were applied aerially on a dense population of gypsy moths,Lymantria dispar (L.), to evaluate the effect of these biological and chemical insecticides on gypsy moth larvae and adult parasites. Both\\u000a insecticides provided excellent protection of foliage (29 % average defoliation) and gypsy moth population reduction (99 %).\\u000a Significantly fewerBrachymeria

R. Reardon; W. Metterhouse; R. Balaam

1979-01-01

262

Attraction of male gypsy and nun moths to disparlure and some of its chemical analogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractive power of disparlure—the sex attractant of the gypsy moth (Lymantria\\/Porthetria dispar)—vs. four synthetic analogous epoxides was tested in 1972 in a pine forest near Heidelberg. With two levels of concentration in the traps (2 and 20 µg), a total of 1112 nun moths (Lymantria\\/Porthetria monacha) and 257 gypsy moths were caught in 9 experiments. Approximately equal percentages of

D. Schneider; R. Lange; F. Schwarz; M. Beroza; B. A. Bierl

1974-01-01

263

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused ...

G. S. Banuelos S. C. Fakra S. S. Walse

2011-01-01

264

Study on the optimal level of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus- indica) supplementation to sheep and its contribution as source of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 90-day experiment using a randomised complete block design with eight sheep per treatment was conducted to determine the optimum cactus pear supplementation level and its contribution as source of water. Cactus pear replaced 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of pasture hay (C0, C20, C40, C60 and C80, respectively), on dry matter (DM) basis. Total DM, nutrients and water

Firew Tegegne; C. Kijora; K. J. Peters

2007-01-01

265

Quality of cactus pear [ Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] fruit in relation to ripening time, CaCl 2 pre-harvest sprays and storage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-harvest behaviour of summer and autumn ripening cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cactaceae) fruit cv. Gialla was investigated in relation to pre-harvest growing conditions, and CaCl2 applications. Summer ripening cactus pear fruit were stored for 5 weeks at 6°C and 90–95% relative humidity (RH), and 3 days at 20°C, 75% RH to simulate a marketing period (SMP). Autumn ripening

Mario Schirra; Paolo Inglese; Tommaso La Mantia

1999-01-01

266

Physiological and Technical Aspects of Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Double Rellowering and Out-of-Season Winter Fruit Cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial cactus pear plantation in Sicily, Italy was manipulated to induce late cropping. The spring flush of flowers and cladodes were removed as was the second induced bloom of flowers and cladodes. The third induced bloom was harvested for a late out-of-season crop of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.). The double removal induced a third flush of flowers and

G. Liguori; C. Di Miceli; G. Gugliuzza; P. Inglese

2007-01-01

267

Supplementation with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit decreases oxidative stress in healthy humans: a comparative study with vitamin C  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Background: Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit contains vi- tamin C and characteristic betalain pigments, the radical-scavenging properties and antioxidant activities of which have been shown,in vitro. Objective: We investigated the effects of short-term supplementa- tion with cactus pear fruit compared,with vitamin C alone on total- body oxidative status in healthy humans. Design: In a randomized, crossover, double-treatment study, 18

Luisa Tesoriere; Daniela Butera; Anna Maria Pintaudi; Mario Allegra; Maria A Livrea

268

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

269

US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, AER-O-MATIC MOTH ...  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Page 1. Mr-~-"'at;c ... MOTH BALLS PfI'[CAUlJOfIIAU 51"'1[I'(N15 M'l'~~ to ~u~ar,· ,~~ st,: ~~l~~l~ I'\\dy bf- fat"J I~ lnt,.I~(!. l.IO r,"~ tlr!,o!!t'lE' w.pO"~. ...

2011-04-14

270

A new pheromone of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The female silkmoth Bombyx mori L. emits a second pheromone component bombykal (E-10, Z-12-hexade-cadien-1-al) in addition to the well-known sexual attractant bombykol (E-10, Z-12-hexadecadien-1-ol). Bombykal stimulates its own specialized and highly sensitive olfactory cells of the male moth. Surprisingly, the aldehyde inhibits the release of the male's wing-fluttering response to bombykol.

K. E. Kaissling; G. Kasang; H. J. Bestmann; W. Stransky; O. Vostrowsky

1978-01-01

271

Gypsy moth cell lines divergent in viral susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A series of cell lines unique in insect virus susceptibility pattern have been isolated from the ovaries of the gypsy moth\\u000a (Lymantria dispar: Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on a synthetic medium with mammalian and avian serum supplementation. Growth curves showed the\\u000a poorest growth occurring on peptone-based media with somewhat better growth on amino-acid-based media. The best growth was\\u000a obtained with combined media.

R. H. Goodwin; G. J. Tompkins; P. McCawley

1978-01-01

272

Pheromone-mediated behavior of the gypsy moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pheromone-mediated behavior of gypsy moth males was studied in both natural and simulated populations in central Pennsylvania. Feral males released into 50-m-diam plots, each with 2 feral females around the perimeter, oriented initially to trees and not to females. Neither exposure to virgin females nor exposure to wicks baited with approx 6 mg disparlure affected the subsequent sexual activity

J. V. Richerson

1977-01-01

273

What causes outbreaks of the gypsy moth in North America?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth has been present in North America for more than 100 years, and in many of the areas where it has become established\\u000a outbreaks occur with varying degrees of periodicity. There also exists extensive spatial synchrony in the onset of outbreaks\\u000a over large geographic regions. Density-dependent mortality clearly limits high-density populations, but there is little evidence\\u000a for strong

Andrew Liebhold; Joseph Elkinton; David Williams; Rose-Marie Muzika

2000-01-01

274

Diverse population trajectories among coexisting species of subarctic forest moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of 232 moth species spanning 26 years (total catch of ca. 230,000 specimens), obtained by continuous light-trapping\\u000a in Kevo, northernmost subarctic Finland, were used to examine the hypothesis that life-history traits and taxonomic position\\u000a contribute to both relative abundance and temporal variability of Lepidoptera. Species with detritophagous or moss-feeding\\u000a larvae, species hibernating in the larval stage, and species pupating during

Mikhail V. KozlovMark; Mark D. Hunter; Seppo Koponen; Jari Kouki; Pekka Niemelä; Peter W. Price

2010-01-01

275

Freeze fitness in alpine Tiger moth caterpillars and their parasitoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptive fitness of a freeze-tolerant insect may be mediated by both endogenous and exogenous interactions. The aim of\\u000a the study presented here was to characterize the freeze tolerance of alpine Tiger moth caterpillars (Metacrias huttoni) and highlight two poorly explored indices of the potential attrition of fitness: (1) downstream development and reproduction;\\u000a (2) parasitism. Caterpillars survived temperatures as low

T. C. Hawes; D. A. Wharton

276

The influence of moth hearing on bat echolocation strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ears of moths we tested in Canada and Côte d'Ivoire are most sensitive to sounds between 20 and 40 kHz, and much less sensitive to sound over 65 kHz. The insectivorous bats most commonly encountered in these (and other) locations use high intensity, frequency modulated echolocation calls with frequency components in the 20–40 kHz range, making them detectable by

M. Brock Fenton; James H. Fullard

1979-01-01

277

The neural mechanisms of antennal positioning in flying moths.  

PubMed

In diverse insects, the forward positioning of the antenna is often among the first behavioral indicators of the onset of flight. This behavior may be important for the proper acquisition of the mechanosensory and olfactory inputs by the antennae during flight. Here, we describe the neural mechanisms of antennal positioning in hawk moths from behavioral, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological perspectives. The behavioral experiments indicated that a set of sensory bristles called Böhm's bristles (or hair plates) mediate antennal positioning during flight. When these sensory structures were ablated from the basal segments of their antennae, moths were unable to bring their antennae into flight position, causing frequent collisions with the flapping wing. Fluorescent dye-fills of the underlying sensory and motor neurons revealed that the axonal arbors of the mechanosensory bristle neurons spatially overlapped with the dendritic arbors of the antennal motor neurons. Moreover, the latency between the activation of antennal muscles following stimulation of sensory bristles was also very short (<10 ms), indicating that the sensorimotor connections may be direct. Together, these data show that Böhm's bristles control antennal positioning in moths via a reflex mechanism. Because the sensory structures and motor organization are conserved across most Neoptera, the mechanisms underlying antennal positioning, as described here, are likely to be conserved in these diverse insects. PMID:22660776

Krishnan, Anand; Prabhakar, Sunil; Sudarsan, Subashini; Sane, Sanjay P

2012-06-01

278

Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth.  

PubMed

Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once "locked on" to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this "mental shortcut" may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to "evolve," even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant "gestalts." Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T; Dekker, Teun

2013-04-15

279

Hearing and bat defence in geometrid winter moths.  

PubMed

Audiograms and behavioural responses to ultrasound reveal that male geometrid winter moths (Agriopis and Erannis spp.; Ennominae, and Alsophila aescularia; Oenochrominae), which have large wings and a slow flight, have good, broadly tuned ultrasonic hearing with best frequencies at 25-40 kHz, coinciding with the frequencies used by most sympatric aerial-hawking bats. Ultrasonic pulses (27 kHz 110 dB at 1 m) delivered at distances of 1-12 m evoked consistent reactions of free flying, male A. marginaria in the lab as well as in the field; those at < 5 m resulted in the moth spiralling or diving towards the ground, those at 5-12 m resulted in one or several changes in the flight path, but did not end on the ground. The differential reaction probably reflects whether the moth is likely to have been detected by the bat or not. The micropterous (and flightless), and hence cryptic, females have strongly reduced tympanic organs and are virtually deaf. Sexual dimorphism in hearing and behavioural reactions to ultrasound reflect differential natural selection on males and females by bats. Natural selection on the hearing of the males thus seems to occur although they fly in late autumn and early spring, when bat activity is much reduced. PMID:9061963

Rydell, J; Skals, N; Surlykke, A; Svensson, M

1997-01-22

280

Hearing and bat defence in geometrid winter moths.  

PubMed Central

Audiograms and behavioural responses to ultrasound reveal that male geometrid winter moths (Agriopis and Erannis spp.; Ennominae, and Alsophila aescularia; Oenochrominae), which have large wings and a slow flight, have good, broadly tuned ultrasonic hearing with best frequencies at 25-40 kHz, coinciding with the frequencies used by most sympatric aerial-hawking bats. Ultrasonic pulses (27 kHz 110 dB at 1 m) delivered at distances of 1-12 m evoked consistent reactions of free flying, male A. marginaria in the lab as well as in the field; those at < 5 m resulted in the moth spiralling or diving towards the ground, those at 5-12 m resulted in one or several changes in the flight path, but did not end on the ground. The differential reaction probably reflects whether the moth is likely to have been detected by the bat or not. The micropterous (and flightless), and hence cryptic, females have strongly reduced tympanic organs and are virtually deaf. Sexual dimorphism in hearing and behavioural reactions to ultrasound reflect differential natural selection on males and females by bats. Natural selection on the hearing of the males thus seems to occur although they fly in late autumn and early spring, when bat activity is much reduced.

Rydell, J; Skals, N; Surlykke, A; Svensson, M

1997-01-01

281

The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.  

PubMed

Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths. PMID:23913945

Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-08-02

282

Purification and partial characterization of two lectins from the cactus Machaerocereus eruca.  

PubMed

Two lectins (MEAI and MEAII) were isolated from the cactus Machaerocereus eruca by affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose and partially characterized with respect to their biochemical and carbohydrate binding properties. Both are oligomeric glycoproteins consisting of 35 kDa monomers. Amino acid analysis indicates that both lectins have similar composition with high amounts of glycine, glutamic acid and serine. MEAI and MEAII contain approximately 36 and 24% (w/w) of carbohydrates, respectively. They agglutinate erythrocytes from several animal species. Binding specificity was directed to galactose-containing oligosaccharides and glycopeptides. The M. eruca lectins are the first lectins to be isolated from a species belonging to the plant family of Cactaceae. PMID:3169259

Zenteno, E; Debray, H; Montreuil, J

1988-09-26

283

Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols  

SciTech Connect

This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

2002-05-07

284

Chemical composition of sex pheromone of oriental fruit moth and rates of release by individual female moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex pheromone emitted by individual calling females of the oriental fruit moth,Grapholita molesta, was trapped within glass capillaries, and the composition and release rates were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aerial release of (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate ranged up to 25.3 ng\\/hr, while the mean release rate was 8.48 ± 7.26 ng\\/hr (±SD). The proportion of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate to (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate

M. J. Lacey; C. J. Sanders

1992-01-01

285

Summary of efficacy evaluations using aerially applied Gypchek against gypsy moth in the U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gypchek, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nucleopolyhedrosis virus product, is manufactured by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service under controlled conditions in a laboratory strain of gypsy moth larvae. Gypchek was registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1978 as a general use pesticide to control gypsy moth.

R. C. Reardon; J. D. Podgwaite

1994-01-01

286

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2013-07-01

287

Positive Interaction of a Feeding Attractant and a Host Kairomone for Trapping the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moths are attracted to acetic acid, and to ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester. Acetic acid is a product of microbial fermentation of sugars, and ethyl (E,Z)-decadienoate is an odorant of pear, which is a host of codling moth larvae. Many more male and female codlling moths were att...

288

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OP THE BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OP THE ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH, GRAPHOLITHA MOLESTA BUSCK, IN THE UNITED STATES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oriental fruit moth has caused considerable damage to fruit crops in the United States since its introduction from Japan about 1913. The greatest damage occurred dur- ing the period between 1930 and 1950, when fruit moth larvae damaged the tender shoots and fruit of peach and quince. Biological control, in the form of widespread releases of fruit-moth parasites imported

ROY W. RINGS

289

Tifton hay, soybean hulls, and whole cottonseed as fiber source in spineless cactus diets for sheep.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of three different sources of fiber (tifton hay, soybean hulls, and whole cottonseed) in spineless cactus diets for sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Twenty-one sheep in finishing phase with indeterminate breed, non-castrated, and with initial weight of 18.90 ± 1.07 kg were randomly distributed to individual stalls where they were confined for the duration of the experiment. The intakes of dry and organic matter, total carbohydrates, and total digestive nutrients were not influenced (P > 0.10) by the different fiber sources (1.10, 0.97, 0.73, and 0.80 kg/day, respectively). However, sheep which received the whole cottonseed diet were characterized by a lower (P < 0.10) intake of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber and greater (P < 0.10) intake of ether extract (0.11, 0.29, and 0.048 kg/day, respectively). The different sources of fiber resulted in similar times spent feeding (P > 0.10), although the rumination time was greater for tifton hay (P < 0.10) (429.05 min/day). The digestibility coefficient of dry and organic matter differed between the treatments (P < 0.10), with the soybean hull diet showing a higher level of digestion (83.23 and 86.72 %, respectively). The whole cottonseed diet gave the smallest digestibility coefficient of crude protein (68.95 %) and greatest for ether extract (85.94 %). The daily weight gain of animals fed on whole cottonseed was significantly lower (P < 0.10). On the basis of these findings, we recommend the use of tifton hay or soybean hulls as important additional source of fiber in forage spineless cactus diets for sheep in finishing phase. PMID:22618190

de Miranda Costa, Suellen Brandão; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Pessoa, Ricardo A Silva; Batista, Angela Maria Vieira; Ramos, Alenice Ozino; da Conceição, Maria Gabriela; dos Santos Gomes, Luiz Henrique

2012-05-23

290

IkB genes encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppress an antiviral response and enhance baculovirus pathogenicity against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.  

PubMed

An endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, parasitizes larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, with its symbiotic polydnavirus, C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV). This study analyzed the role of Inhibitor-kB (IkB)-like genes encoded in CpBV in suppressing host antiviral response. Identified eight CpBV-IkBs are scattered on different viral genome segments and showed high homologies with other bracoviral IkBs in their amino acid sequences. Compared to an insect ortholog (e.g., Cactus of Drosophila melanogaster), they possessed a shorter ankyrin repeat domain without any regulatory domains. The eight CpBV-IkBs are, however, different in their promoter components and expression patterns in the parasitized host. To test their inhibitory activity on host antiviral response, a midgut response of P. xylostella against baculovirus infection was used as a model reaction. When the larvae were orally fed the virus, they exhibited melanotic responses of midgut epithelium, which increased with baculovirus dose and incubation time. Parasitized larvae exhibited a significant reduction in the midgut melanotic response, compared to nonparasitized larvae. Micro-injection of each of the four CpBV genome segments containing CpBV-IkBs into the hemocoel of nonparasitized larvae showed the gene expressions of the encoded IkBs and suppressed the midgut melanotic response in response to the baculovirus treatment. When nonparasitized larvae were orally administered with a recombinant baculovirus containing CpBV-IkB, they showed a significant reduction in midgut melanotic response and an enhanced susceptibility to the baculovirus infectivity. PMID:19559708

Bae, Sungwoo; Kim, Yonggyun

2009-06-25

291

Forty million years of mutualism: Evidence for Eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association  

PubMed Central

The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 ± 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0–6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 ± 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 ± 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available.

Pellmyr, Olle; Leebens-Mack, James

1999-01-01

292

EFFECTS OF ASPEN PHENOLIC GLYCOSIDES ON GYPSY MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: LYMANTRIIDAE) SUSCEPTIBILITY TO BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western leading edge of the range of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., is now passing through the Great Lakes states. In Michigan, defo­ liation increased nearly 10-fold from 1988 to 1991, with over 600,000 acres affected in 1991 (F. Sapio, Michigan Dept. Natural Resources, pers. comm.). Widespread defoliation has not yet occurred in Wisconsin, but gypsy moth populations

Gavin E. Arteel; Richard L. Lindroth

293

Persistent effects of aerial applications of disparlure on gypsy moth: trap catch and mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forest plots treated aerially with a plastic laminated flake formulation (Disrupt® II) of the gypsy moth sex pheromone disparlure to disrupt gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), mating was monitored the year of treatment and 1-2 years after treatment to determine the effects of the treatment on suppression of trap catch and mating success. In the year of

Kevin W. Thorpe; Ksenia S. Tcheslavskaia; Patrick C. Tobin; Laura M. Blackburn; Donna S. Leonard; E. Anderson Roberts

2007-01-01

294

AN EVALUATION OF THE RESIDUAL ACTIVITY OF TRADITIONAL, SAFE, AND BIOLOGICAL INSECTICIDES AGAINST THE GYPSY MOTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the direct and the residual efficacy of selected traditional, safer, and biological insecticides that are either registered or are candidates for registration for use by arborists and nurserymen in Integrated Pest Manage- ment (IPM) programs for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar} management in urban settings. The study compared 5 biological insecticide treatments (1 Bacillus thuringiensis(Bf) and 4 gypsy moth

Ralph E. Webb; Randy Peiffer; Roger W. Fuester; Kevin W. Thorpe; Louis Calabrese; Joseph M. McLaughlin

295

CHEMICAL ATTRACTANTS FOR MOTHS, U.S. PATENT NO. 6.344.191  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Compositions and lures are described which provide synthetic chemical attractants which function as highly effective attractants for male and female moths, primarily moths of the family Noctuidae. In one aspect, the attractants provide an effective attractant amount of vapor of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3...

296

Synthesis of pheromone-oriented emergent behavior of a silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to clarify moth emergent behavior by synthesis with currently developed tools, including living sensors and recurrent neural networks. The antennae on a silkworm moth are very sensitive compared with artificial gas sensors. These living antennae can be used as living gas sensors that can detect pheromone molecules with high sensitivity. Recurrent artificial neural networks

Yoshihiko Kuwana; Isao Shimoyama; Yushi Sayama; Hirofumi Miura

1996-01-01

297

The influence of larval diet on adult feeding behaviour in the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lab-reared sphingid and noctuid moths appear to feed less than wild moths, and often are starved to enhance responsiveness in feeding assays. To measure the impact of larval nutrition on adult feeding, we raised a model sphingid species, Manduca sexta, on control or modified diets (reduced sugar, protein or water, supplemented ?-carotene) or cut tobacco leaves, then conducted feeding assays

Robert A. Raguso; Tamairé Ojeda-Avila; Sheetal Desai; Melissa A. Jurkiewicz; H. Arthur Woods

2007-01-01

298

Feeding attractant lures to trap moths under the Alaska midnight sun  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sampling moths in Alaska can be difficult due to the long days and short nights that might affect noctuid activity and capture. This trial was established to study noctuid activity in interior Alaska (20:04, light:dark cycle). Universal moth traps (UniTrap®, white bucket, yellow cone, green lid) wer...

299

Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decades, artificial night lighting has increased globally, which largely affected many plant and animal species. So far, current research highlights the importance of artificial light with smaller wavelengths in attracting moths, yet the effect of the spectral composition of artificial light on species richness and abundance of moths has not been studied systematically. Therefore, we tested the

Frank van Langevelde; Jody A. Ettema; Maurice Donners; Michiel F. WallisDeVries; Dick Groenendijk

2011-01-01

300

Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls  

PubMed Central

Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%.

Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

2011-01-01

301

Parasitoid complex of the bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus, in Korea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The parasitoid complex of Yponomeuta evonymellus L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the bird cherry ermine moth, was sought in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) with the goal of identifying potential biological controls of the moth. 13 primary and two secondary parasitoids were found. Diadegma armil...

302

EXTRACTION OF CODLING MOTH PUPAE FROM DIET TO FACILITATE HANDLING, SHIPMENT AND IRRADIATION OF INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The agar-free diet developed for the codling moth Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release (OKSIR) Program in British Columbia is economical and allows for the collection of adult moths with minimal labor input. While this diet and collection system have proven to be very efficient for the OKSIR Pr...

303

Detection Versus Perception: Physiological and Behavioral Analysis of Olfactory Sensitivity in the Moth (Manduca sexta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise relationship between olfactory transduction sensitivity and sensitivity at the level of sensory perception is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to correlate neurophysiological measures of sensory transduction and psychophysical measures of salient odor perception using the moth (Manduca sexta). Moths were conditioned to respond to a single monomolecular odor and then tested across a dilution series.

Kevin C. Daly; Lynnsey A. Carrell; Esther Mwilaria

2007-01-01

304

Transcriptome analysis of the sex pheromone gland of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The chemical components of sex pheromones have been determined for more than a thousand moth species, but so far only a handful of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of these compounds have been identified. For understanding the evolution of moth sexual communication, it is essential to know which genes are involved in the production of specific pheromone

Heiko Vogel; Andrew J Heidel; David G Heckel; Astrid T Groot

2010-01-01

305

A web-based expert system for gypsy moth risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth is one of North America's most devastating exotic forest pests because it can cause the loss of valuable oak species, degraded aesthetics, loss of wildlife habitat, and detrimental effects on watersheds. Due to the increasingly wide infestation of the gypsy moth, it is important to develop decision aids that help assess the risks of this pest to

W. D. Potter; X. Deng; J. Li; M. Xu; Y. Wei; I. Lappas; M. J Twery; D. J Bennett

2000-01-01

306

Attraction of the gypsy moth to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Dahurian larch.  

PubMed

Olfactory responses of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a major defoliator of deciduous trees, were examined in Inner Mongolia, China. We studied whether the gypsy moth adults are attracted by the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch) foliage and compared the attractiveness of the plant volatiles with that of the synthetic sex pheromone. Our results indicated that the VOCs of the Dahurian larch were effective in attracting gypsy moth males especially during the peak flight period. The VOCs also attracted moths significantly better than the sex pheromone of the moth. Our study is the first trial to show the responses of adult gypsy moths to volatile compounds emitted from a host plant. Electroantennogram responses of L. gmelinii volatiles on gypsy moths supported our field observations. A synergistic effect between host plant volatiles and sex pheromone was also obvious, and both can be jointly applied as a new attractant method or population management strategy of the gypsy moth. PMID:23016284

Li, Jing; Valimaki, Sanna; Shi, Juan; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Heliovaara, Kari

307

Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

Gottschalk, K.W.

1993-02-02

308

Stand structure and development after gypsy moth defoliation in the Appalachian Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation structures of Appalachian hardwood stands in southwestern Pennsylvania were examined before, and 4 years after, defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) on a range of site aspects. Gypsy moth-induced mortality of oaks (Quercus spp.) was associated with growth increases in subcanopy species such as Acer spp., regardless of aspect. Density of non-oak tree seedlings and other

Mary Ann Fajvan; John M. Wood

1996-01-01

309

EFFECTS OF INTENTIONAL GAPS IN SPRAY COVERAGE ON THE EFFICACY OF GYPSY MOTH MATING DISRUPTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forested plots in Virginia, USA were treated aerially with a gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), mating disruption formulation to determine if intentional gaps in coverage resulted in reduced efficacy. Capture of gypsy moth males in pheromone-baited traps and female mating...

310

Gypsy Moth Management in the United States: An Cooperative Approach. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Forest Service and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) propose to adopt a new comprehensive long-term national program to protect the forests and trees of the United States from the adverse effects of the gypsy moth. Gypsy moth manageme...

1995-01-01

311

Cost Analysis and Biological Ramifications for Implementing the Gypsy Moth Slow the Spread Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program is a joint U.S. Forest Service and state effort aimed at reducing the rate of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), spread into new areas in the United States. Between 2000 and 2007, federal ...

P. C. Tobin

2008-01-01

312

MATING DISRUPTION FOR CONTROL OF THE INDIANMEAL MOTH IN A WAREHOUSE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Timed release of (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate using Michigan State Microsprayer system was tested for control of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, in an organically certified dried bean warehouse. Moth prevalence was monitored by three methods: 1) pheromone baited flight traps; 2) o...

313

Receptor Neuron Discrimination of the Germacrene D Enantiomers in the Moth Helicoverpa armigera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants release complex mixtures of volatiles, including chiral constituents. In the search for the biologically relevant plant odorants, gas chromatography linked to electrophysiological recordings from single receptor neurons has been employed. In heliothine moths, including the females of the Eurasian cotton bollworm moth Helicoverpa armigera, a major type of receptor neurons is identified, showing high sensitivity and selectivity for the

M. Stranden; A.-K. Borg-Karlson; H. Mustaparta

2002-01-01

314

Monitoring and Temperature-Based Prediction of the Whitemarked Tussock Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Blueberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (J.E. Smith) (Lepidop- tera: Lymantriidae), defoliate and contaminate blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., in eastern North America, but infestations are often not detected until economic damage has been caused. To improve monitoring techniques and understand the phenology of the whitemarked tussock moth in blueberry, we compared four trap types and determined temperature-based phenology

Rufus Isaacs; Steven Van Timmeren

2009-01-01

315

Postharvest treatment to control codling moth in fresh apples using water assisted radio frequency heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apples destined for export to Japan and South Korea are currently disinfested for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), using methyl bromide fumigation. Restrictions and limitations imposed on the uses of methyl bromide have increased interest in developing alternative non-chemical quarantine treatments. It is imperative that the treatment is effective against codling moth yet maintains the quality of treated

S. Wang; S. L. Birla; J. Tanga; J. D. Hansen

2006-01-01

316

Extinction of the acoustic startle response in moths endemic to a bat-free habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most moths use ears solely to detect the echolocation calls of hunting, insectivorous bats and evoke evasive flight manoeuvres. This singularity of purpose predicts that this sensoribehavioural network will regress if the selective force that originally maintained it is removed. We tested this with noctuid moths from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, sites where bats have never existed and

J. H. Fullard; J. M. Ratcliffe; A. R. Soutar

2004-01-01

317

Revisiting an old question: Is the natural blend best for disruption of pheromone communication in moths?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Short-lived microlepidoptera must, by force, be very good at finding their mate and reproducing. Insects are very good at this and moths, in particular, are highly evolved to use volatile signals (pheromones) to communicate and locate conspecifics. The chemical structures of many pheromones of moths...

318

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A NEW FEMALE-BASED PHENOLOGY MODEL FOR CODLING MOTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of the DA lure to establish a female moth Biofix followed by 155 degree-days was found for a third year to be roughly equivalent to the current use of male catch in pheromone traps plus 250 degree-days to predict the beginning of codling moth egg hatch. A color-coded Biofix system based on t...

319

Reproductive decisions are sensitive to cues of life expectancy: the case of a moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history theory predicts that reproductive effort should increase as life expectancy decreases. Empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis is still fragmentary. We measured the effects of different potential indexes of mortality risk on oviposition in a geometrid moth Scotopteryx chenopodiata L. We conducted two experiments: in one we manipulated mortality risk by clipping wings or depriving the moths

Juhan Javoiš; Toomas Tammaru

2004-01-01

320

An Antennal Circadian Clock and Circadian Rhythms in Peripheral Pheromone Reception in the Moth Spodoptera littoralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circadian rhythms are observed in mating behaviors in moths: females emit sex pheromones and males are attracted by these pheromones in rhythmic fashions. In the moth Spodoptera littoralis, we demonstrated the occurrence of a circadian oscillator in the antenna, the peripheral olfactory organ. We identified different clock genes, period (per), cryptochrome1 (cry1) and cryptochrome2 (cry2), in this organ. Using quantitative

Christine Merlin; Philippe Lucas; Didier Rochat; Marie-Christine François; Martine Maïbèche-Coisne; Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly

2007-01-01

321

78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the regulations to add areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United...

2013-10-24

322

Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes prevent oxidative damage induced by the mycotoxin zearalenone in Balb/C mice.  

PubMed

Zearalenone (ZEN) is one of the most widely distributed fusarial mycotoxins which is encountered at high incidence in many foodstuffs. ZEN was associated with different reproductive disorders in animals. Several in vivo studies have shown that ZEN is hepatotoxic, haematotoxic and causes several alterations of immunological parameters. Furthermore, evidence of its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity has recently emerged from several reports. The aim of the current study was (i) to find out whether oxidative stress could be relevant for ZEN induced toxicity in vivo using Balb/c mice and (ii) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cactus cladodes Opuntia ficus to prevent the deleterious effects of ZEN. To this end, the effect of a single dose of ZEN (40 mg/kg b.w.) alone and with extract of cactus cladodes (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) on the induction of oxidative stress was monitored in kidney and liver by measuring the MDA level, the protein carbonyls generation, the catalase activity and the expression of the heat shock proteins (Hsp). Our results clearly showed that ZEN induced significant alterations in all tested oxidative stress markers. Oxidative damage seems to be a key determinant of ZEN induced toxicity in both liver and kidney of Balb/c mice. The combined treatment of ZEN with the lowest tested dose of cactus extracts (25 mg/kg b.w.) showed a total reduction of ZEN induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. It could be concluded that cactus cladodes extract was effective in the protection against ZEN hazards. This could be relevant, particularly with the emergent demand for natural products which may counteract the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and therefore prevent multiple human diseases. PMID:18313193

Zourgui, Lazhar; Golli, Emna El; Bouaziz, Chayma; Bacha, Hassen; Hassen, Wafa

2008-01-21

323

Effects of Bermudagrass hay and soybean hulls inclusion on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing corn with soybean hulls (SH) or Bermudagrass tifton hay (TH) on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets. Three ruminally fistulated sheep were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square experiment with 21-day periods. All diets contained 75% spineless cactus (dry matter basis, DM) and formulated to be isonitrogenous. Fiber source had no influence on nutrient intakes except for the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) which was lower (p<0.05) for animals fed corn relative to those fed SH or TH. Time expended in rumination and total chewing time were higher (p<0.05) for animals fed TH than those fed SH or corn. In vivo nutrient digestibilities were similar for all dietary treatments and averaged 69.6%, 74.8%, 69.9%, and 61.8% for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and NDF, respectively. Feeding SH relative to TH and corn decreased ruminal pH (p<0.05) and increased concentration of total volatile fatty acids (p<0.05). However, ruminal NH3-N concentration was higher (p<0.05) for animal fed TH than for those fed SH or corn. Abdominal distension and ruminal biofilm production were greater (p<0.05) in animals fed corn or SH than in those fed TH. It was concluded that replacing corn with SH or TH up to 15% of the diet DM in a cactus-based diet had no effect on nutrient intakes or total tract nutrient utilization. Changes in ruminal fermentation parameters reflected differences in ruminal degradability between the two fiber sources. Bermudagrass tifton hay was more effective than SH in reducing the risk of bloat associated with feeding high levels of spineless cactus to ruminants. PMID:19731062

Santos, A O A; Batista, Angela M V; Mustafa, Arif; Amorim, G L; Guim, A; Moraes, A C; de Lucena, R B; de Andrade, R

2009-09-03

324

In vitro micrografting and the histology of graft union formation of selected species of prickly pear cactus ( Opuntia spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal and wedge grafts were utilized with micropropagated prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) to determine the best method for in vitro micrografts. By frequent sampling of the developmental stages of the micrografts we characterized the histological events during graft union formation. Five Opuntia species (O.streptacantha Lemaire, O.robusta Wendland, O.cochinera Griffiths, O.leucotricha De Candolle, and O.ficus-indica Linné (Miller)) were used as

A. A. Estrada-Luna; C. López-Peralta; E. Cárdenas-Soriano

2002-01-01

325

MICROPROPAGATION OF CACTUS (Opuntia ficus-indica) AS STRATEGIC TOOL TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION IN ARID AND SEMI ARID REGIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khalafalla, M. M., Abdellatef, E., Mohameed Ahmed, M. M. and Osman, M. G. 2007. Micropropagation of Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as Strategic Tool to Combat Desertification in Arid and Semi Arid Regions. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 2(4):1-8 With aim of large production of plant material, a protocol for micropropagation of Opuntia ficus-indica was developed at the laboratory of plant tissue

M. M. KHALAFALLA; E. ABDELLATEF; M. M. MOHAMEED AHMED; M. G. OSMAN

326

Gall-like malformations in a columnar cactus Pachycereus pringlei in southern Baja California, their morphology and appearance in populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Cape Region of the Baja California peninsula of Mexico tumorous gall-like malformations (TGLMs) were found growing on the columnar cactusPachycereus pringlei. This malformation has not been previously described. These TGLMs varied in shape (ball-like to fragmented), surface texture (smooth to uneven rough surface with many cracks), and size (1–70 cm diam.). Morphological analysis demonstrated that differently sized TGLMs

J. G. Dubrovsky; J. L. L. Leon de la Luz

1996-01-01

327

Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1  

SciTech Connect

The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

NONE

1997-06-01

328

Spray-Drying of Cactus Pear Juice (Opuntia streptacantha): Effect on the Physicochemical Properties of Powder and Reconstituted Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

A D-optimal experimental design with three center points was used to evaluate the influence of spray-drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of a powdered product obtained by drying cactus pear juice. Drying was performed in a laboratory spray-dryer (Pulvis GB 22 model) at two inlet air temperatures (205 and 225°C), and two compressor air pressures (0.10 and 0.20 MPa). Commercial

G. R. Rodríguez-Hernández; R. González-García; A. Grajales-Lagunes; M. A. Ruiz-Cabrera; M. Abud-Archila

2005-01-01

329

Specificity determinants of the silkworm moth sex pheromone.  

PubMed

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1-C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M; Pickett, John A; Leal, Walter S

2012-09-05

330

Detection of Gypsy Moth Defoliation--Remote Sensing Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module uses satellite remote sensing images to identify the forest defoliation caused by Gypsy Moth Larva. The continued annual defoliation causes the trees to die and results in a significant loss in the value of the forests. The project study area covers the highland mountain areas of Virginia and West Virginia in the 2001 growing season, as both satellite images and other proof of defoliation are available for that year. The educational materials are available for download in PDF, ZIP and RAR format.

2012-03-09

331

Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.  

PubMed

Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. PMID:22775528

Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

2012-07-06

332

Evaluation of preventive treatments in low-density gypsy moth populations using pheromone traps.  

PubMed

Pheromone traps can be used for evaluating the success of treatments that are applied to either eradicate or delay the growth of isolated low-density populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). We developed an index of treatment success, T, that measures the reduction in moth counts in the block treated adjusted by the change in moth counts in the reference area around it. This index was used to analyze the effectiveness of treatments that were conducted as part of the USDA Forest Service Slow-the-Spread of the gypsy moth project from 1993 to 2001. Out of 556 treatments that were applied during this period, 266 (188,064 ha) were selected for the analysis based on several criteria. They included 173 blocks treated with Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) variety kurstaki and 93 blocks treated with racemic disparlure. Analysis using general linear models indicated that disparlure treatments were significantly more effective than B. thuringiensis treatments in reducing moth captures. The frequency of repeated treatments in the same area was higher after B. thuringiensis than after disparlure applications. Treatments were more successful if the pretreatment moth counts outside of the block treated were low compared with moth counts inside the block. PMID:12539833

Sharov, Alexei A; Leonard, Donna; Liebhold, Andrew M; Clemens, Nicholas S

2002-12-01

333

Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naïve big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

Hristov, Nickolay I.; Conner, William E.

2005-04-01

334

Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

2011-12-01

335

Can sunspot activity and ultraviolet-B radiation explain cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species?  

PubMed

Cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species have long remained a puzzle for foresters and ecologists. This paper presents time-series exhibiting a strong negative relationship between sunspot numbers and population indices of autumnal and winter moths, both in a mountain birch forest in central Norway and in a mixed lowland forest in southern Norway. In the latter area, also the population level of a moth species feeding entirely on lichens was negatively related to sunspot numbers. Low sunspot activity leads to a thinner ozone layer and thus higher surface ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. As winter moth larvae prefer leaves subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation, we suggest that the causal relationship between sunspots and moths is that the metabolic costs of producing UV-B-protective pigments during periods of low sunspot activity reduce trees' and lichens' resistance to herbivores, and thus increase the survival of moth larvae. Higher peak densities of moth cycles in mountain forests could be explained by the general higher UV-B radiation at higher altitudes. PMID:15347511

Selås, Vidar; Hogstad, Olav; Kobro, Sverre; Rafoss, Trond

2004-09-22

336

Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths  

PubMed Central

Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long–range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones.

Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

2011-01-01

337

Protein uptake in the oocytes of the cecropia moth.  

PubMed

The formation of yolk spheres in the oocyte of the cecropia moth, Hyalophora cecropia (L.), is known immunologically to result largely from uptake of a sex-limited blood protein. Recent electron microscope analyses of insect and other animal oocytes have demonstrated fine structural configurations consistent with uptake of proteins by pinocytosis. An electron microscope analysis of the cecropia ovary confirms the presence of similar structural modifications. With the exception of two apparently amorphous layers, the basement lamella on the outer surface of the follicular epithelium and the vitelline membrane on the inner, there is free access of blood to the oocyte surface between follicle cells. Dense material is found in the interfollicular cell space and adsorbed to the outer surface of the much folded oocyte membrane. Pits in the oocyte membrane and vesicles immediately under it are lined with the same dense material not unlike the yolk spheres in appearance. Introduction of ferritin into the blood of a developing cecropia moth and its localization adsorbed to the surface of the oocyte, and within the vesicles and yolk spheres of the oocyte cortex, is experimental evidence that the structural modifications of the oocyte cortex represent stages in the pinocytosis of blood proteins which arrive at the oocyte surface largely by an intercellular route. Small tubules attached to the yolk spheres are provisionally interpreted as a manifestation of oocyte-synthesized protein being contributed to the yolk spheres. PMID:5892960

Stay, B

1965-07-01

338

Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

339

Clonal diversity and distribution in Stenocereus eruca (Cactaceae), a narrow endemic cactus of the Sonoran Desert.  

PubMed

Stenocereus eruca (Cactaceae), a prostrate cactus endemic to the Sonoran Desert, is thought to be highly clonal. We examined its clonal diversity and distribution: (1) at the population level, in four distinct populations along its distribution range; and (2) at a micro scale level, within a single population. Our objective was to evaluate the importance of sexual versus clonal recruitment through the use of RAPD markers. Contrary to previous field observations, clonal diversity was relatively high across the distribution range. This finding suggests that sexual recruitment is an important regeneration mechanism. The proportions of distinguishable genotypes (G/N = 0.83) and genotypic diversity (D = 0.987) were greater than in other clonal cacti, suggesting that clonal propagation is not the major regeneration mechanism. Autocorrelation analyses revealed a spatial genetic structure that may be the result of restricted gene flow (via pollen or seeds) and clonal propagation. A molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) indicated that most of the variation (66.3%) was found within and not across populations. Future studies on pollen and seed dispersal are needed to understand the role of the clonal habit in the mating system of S. eruca. PMID:21652404

Clark-Tapia, Ricardo; Alfonso-Corrado, Cecilia; Eguiarte, Luis E; Molina-Freaner, Francisco

2005-02-01

340

Neuroprotective and antioxidative effect of cactus polysaccharides in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Cactus polysaccharides (CP), some of the active components in Opuntia dillenii Haw have been reported to display neuroprotective effects in rat brain slices. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of CP and their potential mechanisms on brain ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and on oxidative stress-induced damage in PC12 cells. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with ischemia following middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion were investigated. CP (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the neurological deficit score, reduced infarct volume, decreased neuronal loss in cerebral cortex, and remarkably reduced the protein synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase which were induced by ischemia and reperfusion. Otherwise, the protective effect of CP was confirmed in in vitro study. CP protected PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) insult. Pretreatment with CP prior to H(2)O(2) exposure significantly elevated cell viability, reduced H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, and decreased both intracellular and total accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, CP also reversed the upregulation of Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio, the downstream cascade following ROS. These results suggest that CP may be a candidate compound for the treatment of ischemia and oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative disease. PMID:19517228

Huang, Xianju; Li, Qin; Li, Huige; Guo, Lianjun

2009-12-01

341

Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

2007-01-01

342

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This closure report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range,approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol) (DOE, 1996). The remedial alternative proposed Nevada Division of Environmental Protection proposed the capping method. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the ar ea of the trenches, constructing/planning a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a post-closure monitoring plan. Closure activities for CAU 426 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan as documented in this Closure Report.

Dave D. Madsen

1998-08-08

343

Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a Cactus virus X strain from Hylocereus undatus (Cactaceae).  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of a strain of Cactus virus X (CVX-Hu) isolated from Hylocereus undatus (Cactaceae) has been determined. Excluding the poly(A) tail, the sequence is 6614 nucleotides in length and contains seven open reading frames (ORFs). The genome organization of CVX is similar to that of other potexviruses. ORF1 encodes the putative viral replicase with conserved methyltransferase, helicase, and polymerase motifs. Within ORF1, two other ORFs were located separately in the +2 reading frame, we call these ORF6 and ORF7. ORF2, 3, and 4, which form the "triple gene block" characteristic of the potexviruses, encode proteins with molecular mass of 25, 12, and 7 KDa, respectively. ORF5 encodes the coat protein with an estimated molecular mass of 24 KDa. Sequence analysis indicated that proteins encoded by ORF1-5 display certain degree of homology to the corresponding proteins of other potexviruses. Putative product of ORF6, however, shows no significant similarity to those of other potexviruses. Phylogenetic analyses based on the replicase (the methyltransferase, helicase, and polymerase domains) and coat protein demonstrated a closer relationship of CVX with Bamboo mosaic virus, Cassava common mosaic virus, Foxtail mosaic virus, Papaya mosaic virus, and Plantago asiatica mosaic virus. PMID:15098117

Liou, M R; Chen, Y R; Liou, R F

2003-12-23

344

The antigenotoxic activities of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes against the mycotoxin zearalenone in Balb/c mice: prevention of micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a potent estrogenic metabolite. Evidence of its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity has recently emerged from several reports. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes to protect Balb/c mice against ZEN induced genotoxicity. To this end, the effect of a single dose of ZEN (40 mg/kg b.w.) alone and with extract of cactus cladodes (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) was monitored by measuring: (i) micronuclei induction in bone marrow cells, (ii) chromosome aberrations mainly breaks and gaps in bone marrow cells also and finally and (iii) DNA fragmentation in liver and kidney. Our results clearly show that ZEN is genotoxic to Balb/c mice. It induces DNA damage as indicated by DNA fragmentation, micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. It is of note that cactus cladodes extract assayed alone at high dose (100 mg/kg b.w.) was found completely safe and did not induce any genotoxic effects. The simultaneous administration of cactus cladodes extract with ZEN resulted in an efficient prevention of micronuclei (the number of PCE MN decreased from 71.3+/-6.1 for animals treated with Zen to 32.6+/-15.5 for animals treated with cactus cladodes), chromosomal aberrations frequency (the % of chromosomal aberrations decreased from 38.3+/-3.0 to 18.6+/-1.1) in bone marrow cells and of DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with ZEN alone. It could be concluded that cactus cladodes extract was effective in the protection against ZEN genotoxicity. This could be relevant, particularly with the emergent demand for natural products which may neutralize the genotoxic effects of the multiple food contaminants. PMID:19152824

Zorgui, Lazhar; Ayed-Boussema, Imen; Ayed, Yosra; Bacha, Hassen; Hassen, Wafa

2008-12-27

345

Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Affects a Beneficial Insect, the Cinnabar Moth (Lepidoptera: Arctidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. Biological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jaco...

R. R. James J. C. Miller B. Lighthart

1993-01-01

346

Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Phenology and Timing of Insecticide Spray Applications in the Western Gulf Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a common pest of pine plantations throughout the Southern United States. The objectives of this study were to predict the phenology of R. Frustrana populations thr...

C. J. Fettig J. T. Nowak D. M. Grosman C. W. Berisford

2003-01-01

347

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE INDIANMEAL MOTH ON FINISHED STORED-PRODUCTS USING EGG AND LARVAL PARASITOIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biological control using hymenopteran parasitoids presents an attractive alternative to insecticides for reducing infestations and damage from the Indianmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella) in retail and warehouse environments. We examined the potential for using combinations of the egg parasitoid Tric...

348

Susceptibility of Apple Clearwing Moth Larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Beauveria basiana and Metarhizium brunneum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple clearwing moth larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sessidae) collected from orchards in British Columbia, Canada, were naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). In laboratory bioassays, larvae were susceptible to infection and dose related mo...

349

Light Brown Apple Moth National Survey Guidelines, 2010. Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) Tortricidae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first find of light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on the U.S. mainland occurred in California. On February 6, 2007, a private citizen near Berkeley in Alameda County, California, reported that two suspect mo...

C. Southwick J. Floyd R. Weeks T. Schroeder

2010-01-01

350

Effects of winter temperatures on gypsy moth egg masses in the ...  

Treesearch

... on gypsy moth egg masses in the Great Lakes region of the United States. ... internal temperatures of egg masses at three heights aboveground level and at the ... seasonal minimum water temperatures under snow cover as much as 7.1?

351

Inheritance of Resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1C in the Diamondback Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory selection increased resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1C in a strain of diamond- back moth (Plutella xylostella). The selected strain was derived from a field population that had evolved high levels of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and moderate resistance to Cry1C. Relative to the responses of a susceptible strain of diamondback moth, the resistance to Cry1C

YONG-BIAO LIU; BRUCE E. TABASHNIK

1997-01-01

352

Risk assessment of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth is a global pest that has not yet established in New Zealand despite individual moths having been discovered\\u000a near ports. A climate-driven phenology model previously used in North America was applied to New Zealand. Weather and elevation\\u000a data were used as inputs to predict where sustainable populations could potentially exist and predict the timing of hatch\\u000a and

Joel Peter William Pitt; Jacques Régnière; Sue Worner

2007-01-01

353

Control of Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar , in North America since 1878  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gypsy moth is an outbreak species that was introduced to North America from Europe in 1869, with disastrous consequences.\\u000a This species is a devastating defoliator in northeastern hardwood forests and continues to spread to the west and south. Four\\u000a different types of pathogens are of interest for gypsy moth control, making this the invasive arthropod with the greatest\\u000a diversity of

Leellen F. Solter; Ann E. Hajek

354

An Experimental Burn to Restore a Moth-Killed Boreal Conifer Forest, Krasnoyarsk Region, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical treatment and prescribed fire were used to restore a mixed conifer stand (Picea-Abies-Pinus) following mortality from an outbreak of Siberian moth (Dendrolimus superans sibiricus). Moth-killed stands often become dominated by Calamagrostis, a sod-forming grass. The large amount of woody debris and the sod hinder coniferous seedling establishment and development\\u000a as well as creating conditions favorable to the establishment and

E. N. Valendik; J. C. Brissette; Ye. K. Kisilyakhov; R. J. Lasko; S. V. Verkhovets; S. T. Eubanks; I. V. Kosov; A. Yu. Lantukh

2006-01-01

355

Communication Disruption of Guava Moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) Using a Pheromone Analog Based on Chain Length.  

PubMed

The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86 % disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99 % disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8?±?128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5?±?78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended. PMID:24026215

Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

2013-09-13

356

Gypsy moths: Geographic distribution and control. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the forest pest, Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth). The occurrence, population dynamics, reproduction, environmental impact, and controls of gypsy moths are considered. Methods of control include use of insecticide, natural predators, introduced diseases, and local trapping. Economic impacts as well as environmental disruption due to major infestation in hardwood forests by this introduced pest are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01

357

Moth-inspired plume tracing via multiple autonomous vehicles under formation control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moth-inspired plume-tracing strategies on a single REMUS underwater vehicle successfully tracked a Rhodamine dye plume over 100 m and declared its source location in near-shore ocean environments that are characterized by turbulence, tides, and waves. This paper expands moth-inspired plume tracing via a single vehicle to multiple vehicles. The new strategy includes a mechanism determining a leader vehicle to

Xiaodong Kang; Wei Li

2012-01-01

358

Moth sex-pheromone biosynthesis is inhibited by the herbicide diclofop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromones of nocturnal moths are derived from fatty acids produced as a result of the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. This timely production is initiated in nocturnal moths by a tropic peptide, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide released into the hemolymph. In monocotyledonous plants, specific plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase is inhibited by herbicides that target the eukaryotic form of the enzyme. We report

Dorit Eliyahu; Shalom Applebaum; Ada Rafaeli

2003-01-01

359

Caterpillar guts and ammonia volatilization: retention of nitrogen by gypsy moth larvae consuming oak foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), a major defoliator of hardwood forests in the eastern U.S., has a highly alkaline midgut pH. We hypothesized that the\\u000a high pH would cause high rates of ammonia (NH3) volatilization as larvae consumed foliage, leading to potentially large losses of N from the ecosystem to the atmosphere\\u000a during gypsy moth outbreaks. We measured NH3

Gary M. Lovett; Julie E. Hart; Lynn M. Christenson; Clive G. Jones

1998-01-01

360

Gypsy moth in the United States: An atlas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

This atlas includes 52 maps that doucment the historical spread of gypsy moth from 1900 to the present, historical forest defoliation in the Northeast from 1984 to the present, and the distribution of susceptible forests in the conterminous United States. These maps should be useful for planning activities to limit the spread of gypsy moth and mitigate the effects of this forest insect pest in areas that have not yet been invaded.

Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Luzader, E.R.; Mason, D.A.; Bush, R.

1997-02-01

361

Factors influencing the effectiveness of an attracticide formulation against the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attracticide formulation, LastCall™OFM, was tested against the Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in replicated small plot field trials in apple, Malus domes- tica (Borkhausen), orchards in South-eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Attracticide treatments were applied using a calibrated hand pump, and treated plots were compared to similar untreated plots. Male moth activity was monitored using virgin female-baited traps,

Maya L. Evenden; John R. McLaughlin

2004-01-01

362

Mechanisms of Resistance to Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides in Oriental Fruit Moth Populations ( Grapholita Molesta Busck)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of resistance to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides were investigated in larvae and adults of the oriental fruit moth,Grapholita molesta(Busck). Comparative studies with an N-methyl carbamate (carbofuran) tested with or without synergists indicated that more than one factor contributed to insecticide resistance in the oriental fruit moth. Increases in esterase activity in both larvae and adults of resistant strains toward

L. H. B Kanga; D. J Pree; J. L van Lier; K. J Whitty

1997-01-01

363

Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

2010-12-01

364

"This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.  

PubMed

The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control. PMID:22797850

Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

2012-07-14

365

Adjusting the phenology model of codling moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) in Washington State apple orchards.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., to fit cumulative curves for the occurrence of injured fruits and male moth catches in sex pheromone-baited traps as a function of accumulated degree-days after the start of moth flight. Twelve data sets were collected from seven apple, Malus domestica Bordhausen, orchards in Washington State from 2003 to 2006. Cumulative data were grouped across years for orchards either treated with sex pheromone dispensers or untreated and fit to logistic equations for both the first and second generation. No significant differences were found for the cumulative curves of moth flight or egg hatch between pheromone-treated and untreated orchards; thus, these data were combined. These new logistic models for moth flight and egg hatch were compared with a widely used distributed-delay model originally developed in Michigan. The cumulative flight curves for the logistic and distributed-delay models were statistically different (slopes) for the first but not the second generation. Cumulative egg hatch in the logistic model was significantly different from the distributed-delay model (intercepts and slopes) for both generations. Most strikingly, the timing of 50% egg hatch during the first generation was delayed 100 DD in the logistic model. The potential impact of this change in the characterization of codling moth's phenology on the effectiveness of insecticide programs targeting eggs and newly eclosed larvae was examined. Possible explanations for this significant difference between the models are discussed. PMID:18284777

Knight, A L

2007-12-01

366

Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

1988-07-01

367

Sex-related differences in the tolerance of Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta) to organophosphate insecticides.  

PubMed

In vivo toxicity assays have shown that organophosphate insecticides are less toxic to male than to female Oriental fruit moths Grapholita molesta. While male moths have higher levels of acetylcholinesterase and general esterase activities, female moth acetylcholinesterase enzymes are less sensitive to aromatic and aliphatic organophosphates than male enzymes. Elevated esterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in male moths explain their greater tolerance to aromatic and aliphatic organophosphates. Male and female acetylcholinesterase enzymes are equally tolerant to heteroaromatic organophosphates, the most widely used of this class of insecticides in G molesta control. This observation, in contrast to the greater sensitivity of male acetylcholinesterases to aromatic and aliphatic organophosphates, shows the potential for the evolution of insensitive target sites in male moths, which would increase male G molesta tolerance to these insecticides. Significant sex-linked differences in insecticide tolerance have not been reported previously in lepidopterans. The practical implications of the observed differences in tolerance in male and female G molesta question the practice of using pheromone traps to monitor populations of these moths in orchards. PMID:11561409

de Lame, F M; Hong, J J; Shearer, P W; Brattsten, L B

2001-09-01

368

(9 Z)-9,13-Tetradecadien-11-ynal, the sex pheromone of the avocado seed moth, Stenoma catenifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly unsaturated aldehyde (9Z)-9,13-tetradecadien-11-ynal and the corresponding alcohol were identified as possible sex pheromone components of the avocado seed moth, Stenoma catenifer. The aldehyde as a single component attracted more male moths than caged virgin female moths, and addition of the analogous alcohol and\\/or acetate decreased attraction. A stereospecific synthesis of the pheromone is described.

Jocelyn G. Millar; Mark Hoddle; J. Stephen McElfresh; Yunfan Zou; Christina Hoddle

2008-01-01

369

Effect of sex-pheromone concentration on behavior of three strains of western spruce budworm male moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of male western spruce budworm moths,Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, to a range of concentrations of the major sex pheromone, 92:8 (E\\/Z)-11-tetradecenal (Ald), in polyvinyl chloride lures, were observed using the electroantennogram technique, a flight tunnel, and field-trapping bioassays. The responses to virgin female moths were also observed in the flight tunnel and field bioassays. The moths were from three

J. D. Sweeney; J. A. McLean

1990-01-01

370

Spatial distribution of the gypsy moth [ Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae ] and some of its parasitoids within a forest environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of the microhabitat distributions of the gypsy moth,Porthetria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), and some of its parasitoids were investigated in the field by means of sticky panels and gypsy moth egg masses exposed\\u000a at different heights in trees, by egg masses exposed within forested and cleared areas, and by gypsy moth pupal collections\\u000a from different heights in trees.Ooencyrtus kuwanai

R. M. Weseloh

1972-01-01

371

Beware of bats, beware of birds: the auditory responses of eared moths to bat and bird predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH) proposes that the preponderance of moths in the diets of some bats (e.g., Rhinolophidae) is the result of these bats echolocating at allotonic frequencies, that is, outside of the typical hearing range of most moths (ca., 20--60 kHz). The broader hearing range of African moths (5--110 kHz) suggests that their ears may function at frequencies

David S. Jacobs; John M. Ratcliffe; James H. Fullard

2008-01-01

372

Neuroethology of Oviposition Behavior in the Moth Manduca sexta  

PubMed Central

Olfactory cues play decisive roles in the lives of most insect species, providing information about biologically relevant resources, such as food, mates, and oviposition sites. The nocturnal moth Manduca sexta feeds on floral nectar from a variety of plants (and thus serves as a pollinator), but females oviposit almost exclusively on solanaceous plants, which they recognize on the basis of olfactory cues. Plants, however, respond to herbivory by releasing blends of volatiles that attract natural enemies of herbivores. Thus, oviposition behavior probably results from the sensory evaluation not only of attractive host plant volatiles but also of repellent volatiles that indicate the acceptability or inappropriateness, respectively, of host plants for the females’ offspring. Here we describe results from chemical-ecological, neurophysiological, and behavioral experiments aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms that control oviposition behavior in M. sexta.

Reisenman, Carolina E.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Hildebrand, John G.

2009-01-01

373

Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: conserved karyotypes with diverged features.  

PubMed

Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n?=?31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n?=?30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n?=?28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the understanding of chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera in general. PMID:23717623

Síchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

2013-05-24

374

Apple and sugar feeding in adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella: effects on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility.  

PubMed

Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented. However, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pairs of moths maintained with the following food regimens: water, sucrose water, honey water, apple juice, apple flesh, or starved, i.e., no food or water provided. Longevity and total fecundity were enhanced in all treatments relative to the starved treatment moths. Sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice treatments yielded the highest longevity, but total fecundity was highest for moths maintained on honey water or apple juice. Total egg fertility did not differ among treatments. However, egg fertility declined more gradually over the female lifespan for the three aqueous solution diets of sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice. Similarly, fecundity per day declined more gradually over time for honey water and apple juice treatments. Performance of moths maintained with apple flesh was generally intermediate between that of moths with water and the three aqueous solution treatments. This suggests that moths benefit from feeding on ripe apple flesh, although apple may be more difficult to ingest or its nutrients less concentrated compared to aqueous solutions. The results presented here may explain attraction of adult moths to sweet baits as well as to odors from ripe fruit, which may be a natural source of food in the fall. PMID:22239247

Wenninger, Erik J; Landolt, Peter J

2011-01-01

375

Thermal Energy Exchange Model and Water Loss of a Barrel Cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes1  

PubMed Central

The influences of various diurnal stomatal opening patterns, spines, and ribs on the stem surface temperature and water economy of a CAM succulent, the barrel cactus Ferocactus acanthodes, were examined using an energy budget model. To incorporate energy exchanges by shortwave and longwave irradiation, latent heat, conduction, and convection as well as the heat storage in the massive stem, the plant was subdivided into over 100 internal and external regions in the model. This enabled the average surface temperature to be predicted within 1 C of the measured temperature for both winter and summer days. Reducing the stem water vapor conductance from the values observed in the field to zero caused the average daily stem surface temperature to increase only 0.7 C for a winter day and 0.3 C for a summer day. Thus, latent heat loss does not substantially reduce stem temperature. Although the surface temperatures averaged 18 C warmer for the summer day than for the winter day for a plant 41 cm tall, the temperature dependence of stomatal opening caused the simulated nighttime water loss rates to be about the same for the 2 days. Spines moderated the amplitude of the diurnal temperature changes of the stem surface, since the daily variation was 17 C for the winter day and 25 C for the summer day with spines compared with 23 C and 41 C, respectively, in their simulated absence. Ribs reduced the daytime temperature rise by providing 54% more area for convective heat loss than for a smooth circumscribing surface. In a simulation where both spines and ribs were eliminated, the daytime average surface temperature rose by 5 C.

Lewis, Donald A.; Nobel, Park S.

1977-01-01

376

Allozyme diversity and genetic structure of the leafy cactus (Pereskia guamacho [Cactaceae]).  

PubMed

We examined levels of genetic variation and genetic structure in the leafy cactus (Pereskia guamacho) in arid and semiarid zones in Venezuela. We surveyed genetic diversity within 17 populations using 19 allozyme loci. Genetic diversity was relatively high at both the species (P(s) = 89%, A(s) = 3.26, AP(s) = 3.53, H(es) = 0.24) and population (P(p) = 63%, A(p) = 1.90, AP(p) = 2.42, H(ep) = 0.20) levels. A significant deficit of heterozygote individuals was detected within populations in the Paraguana Peninsula region (F(IS) = 0.301). Relatively low levels of population differentiation were detected at macrogeographic (G(ST) = 0.112) and regional levels (G(ST) = 0.044 for peninsula region and G(ST) = 0.074 for mainland region), suggesting substantial genetic exchange among populations; however, gene flow in this species seems to be regulated by the distance among populations. Overall, estimates of genetic diversity found in P. guamacho are concordant with the pattern observed for other cacti surveyed, namely high levels of polymorphism and genetic diversity with one common allele and several rare alleles per locus. Differences in gene dispersal systems between this species and other cacti studied were not reflected in the patterns of genetic diversity observed. The concentration of the highest estimates of genetic variation in northwestern Venezuela suggests a potential reservoir of plant genetic diversity within xerophilous ecosystems in northern South America. PMID:12195035

Nassar, J M; Hamrick, J L; Fleming, T H

377

Parenchyma-Chlorenchyma Water Movement during Drought for the Hemiepiphytic Cactus Hylocereus undatus  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Hylocereus undatus, a hemiepiphytic cactus cultivated in 20 countries for its fruit, has fleshy stems whose water storage is crucial for surviving drought. Inter-tissue water transfer during drought was therefore analysed based on cell volumes and water potential components. • Methods In addition to determining cell dimensions, osmotic pressures and water potentials, a novel but simple procedure leading to an external water potential of zero was devised by which cells in thin sections were perfused with distilled water. The resulting volume changes indicated that the parenchyma–chlorenchyma water movement was related to more flexible cell walls in the water-storage parenchyma with its lower internal turgor pressure (P) than in the chlorenchyma. • Key Results Under wet conditions, P was 0·45?MPa in the chlorenchyma but only 0·10?MPa in the water-storage parenchyma. During 6 weeks of drought, the stems lost one-third of their water content, becoming flaccid. About 95?% of the water lost came from cells in the water-storage parenchyma, which decreased by 44?% in length and volume, whereas cells in the adjacent chlorenchyma decreased by only 6?%; the osmotic pressure concomitantly increased by only 10?% in the chlorenchyma but by 75?% in the water-storage parenchyma. • Conclusions The concentrating effect that occurred as cellular volume decreased indicated no change in cellular solute amounts during 6 weeks of drought. The ability to shift water from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma allowed the latter tissue to maintain a positive net CO2 uptake rate during such a drought.

NOBEL, PARK S.

2006-01-01

378

Effect of Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense Strains on the Germination and Seedlings Growth of the Giant Columnar Cardon Cactus (Pachycereus pringlei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild Cardon cactus seeds were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strains Cd and Sp-245 to improve seed germination and seedling growth parame- ters. Differential germination responses were related to the bacterial strain. A. brasilense Cd (the type strain for the species A. brasilense) significantly decreased seed germination. A. brasilense Sp245 (a known beneficial bacteria for cereal plants) significantly increased the germination

MARIA-ESTHER PUENTE; YOAV BASHAN

1993-01-01

379

Development of a cactus-mucilage edible coating ( Opuntia ficus indica) and its application to extend strawberry ( Fragaria ananassa) shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased consumer demand for higher quality food in combination with the environmental need to reduce disposable packaging waste have led to increased interest in research into edible films and coatings. In this work, the use of prickly pear cactus mucilage (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated as an edible coating to extend the shelf-life of strawberries. Different methods for mucilage extraction

V. Del-Valle; P. Hernández-Muñoz; A. Guarda; M. J. Galotto

2005-01-01

380

How important is clonal recruitment for population maintenance in rare plant species?: the case of the narrow endemic cactus, Stenocereus eruca, in Baja California, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenocereus eruca is a postrate columnar cactus whose regeneration seems to occur mainly through clonal propagation. It is a narrow endemic species of the Sonoran desert in Baja California Sur and currently considered as threatened under Mexican legislation. In this paper we describe the demography of ramets in four populations along its distribution range and the demography of genets in

Ricardo Clark-Tapia; Maria C. Mandujano; Teresa Valverde; Ana Mendoza; Francisco Molina-Freaner

2005-01-01

381

Selenium accumulation, distribution and speciation in spineless prickly pear cactus: a salt, boron, and drought tolerant, selenium-enriched nutraceutical fruit crop.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) may be an alternative crop to grow in drainage-impacted regions of the westside of California, where high levels of salinity, selenium (Se), and boron (B) are present. Preliminary trials have demonstrated that Opuntia can tolerate the adverse soil conditions, while accu...

382

A Case Study on in situ Rooting Profiles and Water-Use Efficiency of Cactus Pears, Opuntia ficus-indica and O. robusta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root distribution of cactus pear with distance from the mother plant and depth was determined in the field for one-year-old Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (cultivar Morado - green cladode) and O. robusta Wendl. (cultivar Monterey - blue cladode) in a semiarid climate. The roots were expressed in terms of root mass, root length and root thickness. In addition, the evapotranspiration

H. A. Snyman

383

Antioxidative effect of cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) extract on lipid peroxidation inhibition in oils and emulsion model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects of cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts (CPFE) on fish oil, fish oil-in-water emulsion and linoleic acid were studied using conjugated diene hydroperoxides (CDH), weight gaining, peroxide value (PV), and thiobabituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. A modified DPPH assay was used in the characterization of CPFE antioxidants for their thermal stability. CPFE successfully

Nalin Siriwardhana; You-Jin Jeon

2004-01-01

384

Proceedings: U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Forum 1992. Held in Annapolis, Maryland on January 13-16, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes one workshop summary and 45 abstracts of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Fo...

K. W. Gottschalk M. J. Twery

1992-01-01

385

Proceedings: U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Review, 1990. Held in East Windsor, Connecticut on January 22-25, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes eight invited papers and 68 abstracts of volunteer presentations on gypsy moth biology, ecology, impacts, and management which were presented at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Review.

K. W. Gottschalk M. J. Twery S. I. Smith

1990-01-01

386

Yeast communities of the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae as resources for larval and adult stages of Drosophila serido.  

PubMed

The feeding behavior of Drosophila serido on the yeast communities of necrotic stem tissue of Pilosocereus arrabidae were studied in a sand dune ecosystem of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The prevalence of cactophilic yeasts including Pichia barkeri, Candida sonorensis and Geotrichum sp. in the crops and external surfaces of D. serido reflected its association with the cactus habitat. The effective number of yeasts vectored on the surface of flies was higher than that in the crops. Also overlap between the yeasts from stems and from crops was partial suggesting selective feeding by the flies in the substrates visited. The females had a higher effective number of yeast species and a lower similarity than males with the yeast community of P. arrabidae. This was probably related to the search for oviposition sites by females. The presence of Pichia thermotolerans-like and Pichia amethionina var pachycereana in the flies, but not in P. arrabidae stems, indicated that D. serido was not limited to this cactus species. The larvae and adults lived in different patches with the adults feeding in patches with higher yeast species richness. The larvae had a narrower feeding niche and higher overlap with P. arrabidae, and preferred P. barkeri and Pichia cactophila as food. Adult flies fed on patches with the most frequent yeasts except for P. cactophila. Pichia caribaea was found in higher frequency in the adult crops than in the stems. Our data suggested that there was food selection and diet partitioning between adult and larval stages of D. serido. PMID:7710278

Morais, P B; Rosa, C A; Hagler, A N; Mendonca-Hagler, L C

1994-01-01

387

The effect of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis) supplementation on growth, carcass, meat quality and fatty acid composition of male goat kids.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of grain compared to spineless cactus feeding on goat kids growth, carcass characteristics and FA profile. For this purpose, 21 kids were used and allocated to 3 groups receiving a low quantity (200g) of oat hay. The control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter (C130). The second group received half of that contained consumed by the control one but its CP content was 260g/kg DM and spineless cactus ad libitum (C260-Cac). In the third group, concentrate intake was limited to soya bean at a quantity that provided the same CP quantity as the two other groups and also cached spineless cactus was distributed ad libitum (Soya-Cac). Animals of all groups had free access to water. At the end of the growth trial which lasted for 74 days, all kids were slaughtered. Samples of longissimus dorsi muscle were used for meat quality and FA composition study. Animals in the control group and those in the C260-Cac had higher growth rate than Soya-Cac diet animals. Muscle and adipose tissue mean weights were higher in the first groups while the bone weight was similar in all treatments. Animals given Soya-Cac diet had relatively less fat (10.5%) than those fed other diets (p<0.001). Carcass fat content tended to be lower (p=0.07) in C260-Cac goats (13.5%) than in those of the C130 group (15.8%). The ultimate pH ranged between 6.18 and 6.48; it was higher in meat from control goats (C130) than in animals receiving cactus. Dietary treatment had no significant effect (p>0.05) on meat moisture, ash, crude fat and protein contents. The intra muscular lipid composition in fatty acids showed differences between the control group and those receiving cactus. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as well as a higher proportion of PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio than control ones. In conclusion, this study showed that cactus feeding of goat kids maximises the proportion of CLA, PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio. PMID:22062293

Atti, N; Mahouachi, M; Rouissi, H

2006-01-19

388

Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed. Additional pens and sheds were built to house and manage livestock involved with the Operation Roofer Coaster activities in 1963.

NONE

1998-07-01

389

Mitogenomic analysis of Montipora cactus and Anacropora matthai (cnidaria; scleractinia; acroporidae) indicates an unequal rate of mitochondrial evolution among Acroporidae corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome was determined for specimens of the coral species Montipora cactus (Bernard 1897) and Anacropora matthai (Pillai 1973), representing two morphologically distinct genera of the family Acroporidae. These sequences were compared with the published mt genome sequence for the confamilial species, Acropora tenuis (Dana 1846). The size of the mt genome was 17,887 bp and 17,888 bp for M. cactus and A. matthai. Gene content and organization was found to be very similar among the three Acroporidae mt genomes with a group I intron occurring in the NADH dehyrogenase 5 ( nad5) gene. The intergenic regions were also similar in length among the three corals. The control region located between the small ribosomal RNA ( ms) and the cytochrome oxidase 3 ( cox3) gene was significantly smaller in M. cactus and A. matthai (both 627 bp) than in A. tenuis (1086 bp). Only one set of repeated sequences was identified at the 3'-end of the control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. A lack of the abundant repetitive elements which have been reported for A. tenuis, accounts for the relatively short control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. Pairwise distances and relative rate analyses of 13 protein coding genes, the group I intron and the largest intergenic region, igr3, revealed significant differences in the rate of molecular evolution of the mt genome among the three species, with an extremely slow rate being seen between Montipora and Anacropora. It is concluded that rapid mt genome evolution is taking place in genus Acropora relative to the confamilial genera Montipora and Anacropora although all are within the relatively slow range thought to be typical of Anthozoa.

Tseng, Ching-Chih; Wallace, Carden C.; Chen, Chaolun Allen

2005-11-01

390

Sexual dimorphism in neuronal projections from the antennae of silk moths ( Bombyx mori, Antheraea polyphemus ) and the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antennal lobe of both sexes of the silk moth Bombyx mori contains 55–60 ventrally located antennal glomeruli; in addition, that of the male contains a dorsal macroglomerular complex (MGC). A group of identifiable glomeruli consisting of two lateral large glomeruli (LLG) and four medial small glomeruli (MSG) is present in both sexes, but the LLG are greatly enlarged in

M. A. Koontz; D. Schneider

1987-01-01

391

FIELD EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS OF THE CODLING MOTH GRANULOVIRUS: PERSISTENCE OF ACTIVITY AND SUCCESS OF SEASONAL APPLICATIONS AGAINST NATURAL INFESTATIONS OF CODLING MOTH IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ORCHARDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Applications of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), which target neonate larvae before or during initial entry into fruit, offer potential for selective control of this key pest. In field tests we compared the persistence and efficacy of single applications of three CpGV products approved for orga...

392

Trapping hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), in hop yards in Washington State with acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris, in commercial hop yards (Humulus lupulus L.) were captured in traps baited with a combination of acetic acid plus 3-methyl-1-butanol (AAMB). The two chemicals were synergistic in attracting hop looper moths; in a comparison of the lure chemicals, most moths we...

393

Oviposition and pollination behavior of the yucca moth, Tegeticula maculata (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae), and its relation to the reproductive biology of Yucca whipplei (Agavaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult behavior of the yucca moth, Tegeticula maculata Riley, is finely tuned to the reproductive biology of its specific host plant, Yucca whipplei Torr. The female moths oviposit in the ovaries of the yucca flowers and actively pollinate the same flowers with pollen which they have collected previously. The selective pressures imposed on the moths by 1) the plant's

C. L. Aker; D. Udovic

1981-01-01

394

Influence of Uncultivated Habitats and Native Host Plants on Cluster Infestation by Grape Berry Moth, Endopiza viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Michigan Vineyards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitis grapevinesare the native host of the grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and are found in uncultivated habitatsthroughout eastern North America. Levelsof infes tation by grape berry moth larvae at vineyard bordersand interiorswere compared among vineyardsadjacent to four typesof uncultivated habitats: deciduouswoods, coniferouswoods, a single row of trees, and grasses. Adult male moths were monitored at these

Natalia Botero-Garcés; Rufus Isaacs

2004-01-01

395

Phylogeny and evolution of parthenogenesis in Finnish bagworm moth species (Lepidoptera: Psychidae: Naryciinae) based on mtDNA-markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapputo, A., Kumpulainen, T. & Mappes, J. 2005: Phylogeny and the evolution of parthenogene- sis in Finnish bagworm moth species (Lepidoptera: Psychidae: Naryciinae) based on mtDNA- markers. — Ann. Zool. Fennici 42: 141-160. We investigated species diversity and evolution of parthenogenesis among bagworm moth species of Dahlica and Siederia using mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Par- thenogenesis is rare among Lepidoptera other

Alessandro Grapputo; Tomi Kumpulainen; Johanna Mappes

396

MALE ACCESSORY GLAND FACTORS ELICIT CHANGE FROM 'VIRGIN' TO 'MATED' BEHAVIOUR IN THE FEMALE CORN EARWORM MOTH HELICOVERPA ZEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary After mating, the females of many species of moths become depleted of sex pheromone, calling behaviour is terminated, and they become transiently or permanently unreceptive to additional matings. In the corn earworm moth, Helicoverpa zea, we have found that the male accessory gland\\/duplex is required for evoking the post-mating depletion of sex pheromone but apparently not for the cessation

TIMOTHY G. KINGAN; PATRICIA A. THOMAS-LAEMONT

1993-01-01

397

IMPLANTATION OF ACEPHATE AND INJECTION OF MICROBIAL INSECTICIDES INTO PIN OAKS FOR CONTROL OF GYPSY MOTH: TIME AND EFFICACY COMPARISONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy and temporal pattern of gypsy moth mortality resulting from implantation and injection of pin oaks with synthetic organic (acephate) and microbial (gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrosis virus = NPV, and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner = B.t.) insecticides was investigated. All mortality oc- curred in the larval stage. Implantation of acephate produced significant increases in cumulative mortality. Neither microbial treatment showed a

S. J. Fleischer; D. Delorme; F. W. Ravlin; R. J. Stipes

398

Phylogeny of the Geometridae and the evolution of winter moths inferred from a simultaneous analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes.  

PubMed

Geometridae is one of the most diverse families within the Lepidoptera, comprising nine subfamilies. Winter moths, which have a unique life history, are found in three subfamilies. To examine the phylogeny of the Geometridae at the subfamily level and determine the evolutionary history of winter moths, we constructed phylogenetic trees for all nine geometrid subfamilies using two mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences. Specimens of all subfamilies were sampled from Japan. Simultaneous analyses of the combined data from all genes revealed that the Geometridae comprised two major clades: one with subfamilies Larentiinae and Sterrhinae, and the other with the remaining seven subfamilies. The second clade included the largest subfamily, Ennominae, and the subfamily Archiearinae, which is traditionally considered to be an ancestral lineage of the Geometridae. The Larentiinae+Sterrhinae clade contained one winter moth lineage, and the second major clade consisted of three winter moth lineages, including Alsophilinae, which contains winter moths exclusively. Using a Bayesian inference of divergence times, we estimated that geometrids began to diverge 54 Mya (62-48 Mya), whereas winter moth lineages differentiated from non-winter moth lineages 34-12 Mya, during the global cooling events in the Oligocene and the early Miocene. The adaptation to cool climates may have been a preadaptation that facilitated the winter moth life cycle. PMID:17363285

Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sota, Teiji

2007-01-30

399

A Pheromone-Guided Mobile Robot that Behaves like a Silkworm Moth with Living Antennae as Pheromone Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the pheromone-oriented behavior of moths will be demonstrated by synthesis with biosensors and a small mobile robot that is controlled by recurrent neural networks. Since antennae on a silkworm moth are very sensitive as compared to conventional arti ficial gas sensors, they can be used as living gas sensors that detect pheromone molecules. A simple recurrent artificial

Yoshihiko Kuwana; Isao Shimoyama

1998-01-01

400

Effect of radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of pome fruit in South Africa, and control of codling moth in apple and pear orchards relies on the application of insecticides and in some cases pheromone mediated mating disruption. Development of resistance to insecticides and placement of restr...

401

A dry and open pheromone trap activated by 4% diazinon for trapping male moths of spodoptera littoralis boisd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies conducted in Israel throughout 1978 resulted in the development of an improved pheromone trap for capturing large numbers of male Spodoptera littoralis moths in the field. The dry open trap is dusted on its interior walls with 4% diazinon to prevent the escape of moths attracted therein by a dispenser releasing the insect's synthetic sex pheromone, and it remains

Shlomo Neumark; Itzhak Teich

1980-01-01

402

PROGRESS ON EXTRACTION OF CODLING MOTH PUPAE FROM DIET TO FACILITATE HANDLING, SHIPPING AND IRRADIATION OF INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The agar-free artificial diet developed for the codling moth by Brinton et al. (1969) is economical and has been used successfully by the Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release (OKSIR) Program in British Columbia to consistently produce 15-16 million codling moth adults per week. As managed by th...

403

Timing Sprays by a Heat Unit Model of Spring Flight of the Nantucket Pine Tip Moth in North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sprays of dimethoate and diflubenzuron were timed by a heat unit (HU) model to coincide with the predicted 20 and 80 percent of spring flight of the Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM). Attacks by tip moth larvae on loblolly pine tips were compared for timed s...

J. A. Richmond

1992-01-01

404

EFFECTS OF PARENTAL AGE AT MATING ON SEX RATIOS OF THE GYPSY MOTH PARASITOID GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (Marsh) is an oligophagous, gregarious larval parasitoid of the Indian gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA OBFUSCATA (Walker), that readily attacks the European gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA DISPAR (L.). Though attempts to establish G. FLAVICOXIS in the U.S. were unsuccessful due to its stringe...

405

Allozyme and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses Confirm Entomophaga maimaiga Responsible for 1989 Epizootics in North American Gypsy Moth Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989, populations of North American gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, in seven contiguous northeastern states were severely reduced by a fungal pathogen. Based on morphology, development, and pathology, this organism appeared to be Entomophaga maimaiga. We have now used allozyme and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses to confirm this identification. Previously, this mycopathogen had been reported only from gypsy moth

Ann E. Hajek; Richard A. Humber; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bernie May; Scott R. A. Walsh; Julie C. Silver

1990-01-01

406

Effects on behavior of Apanteles melanoscelus females caused by modifications in extraction, storage, and presentation of Gypsy moth silk kairomone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choice experiments were performed to investigate details of femaleApanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) behavior when exposed to gypsy moth silk kairomone [Lymantria dispar (L.)] and to host larvae when kairomone is present. Female parasites only responded to the kairomone when it had been placed on thin strands such as cotton fibers. Both gypsy moth silk and silk glands contain the same or

Ronald M. Weseloh

1977-01-01

407

Census of the Bacterial Community of the Gypsy Moth Larval Midgut by Using Culturing and Culture-Independent Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about bacteria associated with Lepidoptera, the large group of mostly phytophagous insects comprising the moths and butterflies. We inventoried the larval midgut bacteria of a polyphagous foliivore, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), whose gut is highly alkaline, by using traditional culturing and culture- independent methods. We also examined the effects of diet on microbial composition. Analysis

Nichole A. Broderick; Kenneth F. Raffa; Robert M. Goodman; Jo Handelsman

2004-01-01

408

Parasitism of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): The New Zealand position in a world perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitism of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is recorded in New Zealand by 7 species of Hymenoptera; 1 pteromalid, 2 braconids and 4 ichneumonids and by one dipteran in the family Tachinidae. The biology and significance of these species as parasitoids of oriental fruit moth is described. Hyperparasitism is recorded, only at a low level, from 2 congeneric ichneumonids.

Derek A. Russell

1987-01-01

409

Sublethal effects of larval exposure to indoxacarb on reproductive activities of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sublethal effects of larval exposure to indoxacarb on reproductive activities of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) were studied. The third instar male and female larvae of the diamondback moth were fed with collard leaves dipped with a lethal dose of 20% mortality of indoxacarb in order to determine its impact on reproductive activities of adult survivors. Females from indoxacarb

Guangli Wang; Xiaoling Huang; Hongyi Wei; Henry Y. Fadamiro

410

Responses of Ovipositing Moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to Host Plant Deprivation: Life-History Aspects and Implications for Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

For three species of geometrid moths with noneruptive population dynamics, phys- iological and behavioral responses of ovipositing females to larval host deprivation were recorded. Single substrate trials were used. Availability of adult food was also varied to manipulate physiological condition of the moths. Egg production rate decreased only weakly in the absence of host plant, whereas it was strongly influenced

Toomas Tammaru; Juhan Javoiš

2000-01-01

411

Incorporation of Rhodamine B into Male Tobacco Budworm Moths Heliothis Virescens to use as a Marker for Mating Studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhodamine B, a dye commonly used in a variety of biological studies was incorporated into the bodies of tobacco budworm moths by feeding them 0.1% rhodamine in 10% sucrose solution. After one to three days of male moth exposure to this pigment it was clearly detectable in >82% of spermatophores from...

412

QTL analysis of sex pheromone blend differences between two closely related moths: Insights into divergence in biosynthetic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the evolution of premating signals in moths, it is important to know the genetic basis of these signals. We conducted Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis by hybridizing two noctuid moth species, Heliothis virescens (Hv) and Heliothis subflexa (Hs), and backcrossing the F1 females to males of both parental species. One of these backcrosses (F1 × Hs) was a biological replicate

Astrid T. Groot; Marie L. Estock; Joy L. Horovitz; Jennifer Hamilton; Richard G. Santangelo; Coby Schal; Fred Gould

2009-01-01

413

Extinction of the acoustic startle response in moths endemic to a bat-free habitat.  

PubMed

Most moths use ears solely to detect the echolocation calls of hunting, insectivorous bats and evoke evasive flight manoeuvres. This singularity of purpose predicts that this sensoribehavioural network will regress if the selective force that originally maintained it is removed. We tested this with noctuid moths from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, sites where bats have never existed and where an earlier study demonstrated that the ears of endemic species resemble those of adventives although partially reduced in sensitivity. To determine if these moths still express the anti-bat defensive behaviour of acoustic startle response (ASR) we compared the nocturnal flight times of six endemic to six adventive species in the presence and absence of artificial bat echolocation sounds. Whereas all of the adventive species reduced their flight times when exposed to ultrasound, only one of the six endemic species did so. These differences were significant when tested using a phylogenetically based pairwise comparison and when comparing effect sizes. We conclude that the absence of bats in this habitat has caused the neural circuitry that normally controls the ASR behaviour in bat-exposed moths to become decoupled from the functionally vestigial ears of endemic Tahitian moths. PMID:15271085

Fullard, J H; Ratcliffe, J M; Soutar, A R

2004-07-01

414

Risk assessment of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gypsy moth is a global pest that has not yet established in New Zealand despite individual moths having been discovered near ports. A climate-driven phenology model previously used in North America was applied to New Zealand. Weather and elevation data were used as inputs to predict where sustainable populations could potentially exist and predict the timing of hatch and oviposition in different regions. Results for New Zealand were compared with those in the Canadian Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) where the gypsy moth has long been established. Model results agree with the current distribution of the gypsy moth in the Canadian Maritimes and predict that the majority of New Zealand’s North Island and the northern coastal regions of the South Island have a suitable climate to allow stable seasonality of the gypsy moth. New Zealand’s climate appears more forgiving than that of the Canadian Maritimes, as the model predicts a wider range of oviposition dates leading to stable seasonality. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of climate change on the predicted potential distribution for New Zealand. Climate change scenarios show an increase in probability of establishment throughout New Zealand, most noticeably in the South Island.

Pitt, Joel Peter William; Régnière, Jacques; Worner, Sue

2007-03-01

415

Ionizing irradiation quarantine treatment against oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres.  

PubMed

Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is a pest of many rosaceous temperate fruits, including pomes, Malus spp., and stone fruits, Prunus spp., in much of the world. However, some areas are free of the pest, and shipments of fruit hosts from infested to noninfested areas may be regulated. Current quarantine treatments for oriental fruit moth include methyl bromide fumigation and cold storage for several weeks. Methyl bromide use is being restricted because it is a stratospheric ozone-depleting substance, and alternatives are sought. Cold is not tolerated by many hosts of oriental fruit moth. The objective of this research was to develop irradiation quarantine treatments against the pest under ambient and hypoxic storage conditions because some hosts of oriental fruit moth are stored in hypoxic atmospheres, and hypoxia is known to lessen the effects of irradiation. In ambient atmospheres, no adults emerged from 58,779 fifth instars (the most radiotolerant stage present in fruit) irradiated with a target dose of 200 Gy (195-232 Gy measured). In atmospheres flushed with nitrogen, 5.3% of adults emerged from 44,050 fifth instars irradiated with a target dose of 200 Gy (194-230 Gy measured), but they died at a faster rate than control adults and without laying eggs. A dose of 232 Gy (the maximum recorded when 200 Gy was targeted) is recommended to disinfest any fruit of oriental fruit moth under ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. PMID:15279260

Hallman, Guy J

2004-06-01

416

Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1  

PubMed Central

Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE) on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g) male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w) for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 ?g/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i) a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii) an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii) restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which decreased as well as its associated genes such as bax and bcl2. Conclusion We concluded that CCE might have a hepatoprotective effect against aflatoxicosis in mice, probably acting by promoting the antioxidant defence systems.

2011-01-01

417

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Rice Moth, Corcyra cephalonica  

PubMed Central

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined as a circular molecular of 15,273 bp in size. The mitogenome composition (37 genes) and gene order are the same as the other lepidopterans. Nucleotide composition of the C. cephalonica mitogenome is highly A+T biased (80.43%) like other insects. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of coxl gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine protein-coding genes have the common stop codon TAA, and the nad2, cox1, cox2, and nad4 have single T as the incomplete stop codon. 22 tRNA genes demonstrated cloverleaf secondary structure. The mitogenome has several large intergenic spacer regions, the spacer1 between trnQ gene and nad2 gene, which is common in Lepidoptera. The spacer 3 between trnE and trnF includes microsatellite-like repeat regions (AT)18 and (TTAT)3. The spacer 4 (16 bp) between trnS2 gene and nad1 gene has a motif ATACTAT; another species, Sesamia inferens encodes ATCATAT at the same position, while other lepidopteran insects encode a similar ATACTAA motif. The spacer 6 is A+T rich region, include motif ATAGA and a 20-bp poly(T) stretch and two microsatellite (AT)9, (AT)8 elements.

Wu, Yu-Peng; Li, Jie; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

2012-01-01

418

Microspectrophotometry of rhodopsin and metarhodopsin in the moth Galleria  

PubMed Central

Fresh, frozen sections of the photoreceptor layer of the compound eye of the moth Galleria have been examined by microspectrophotometry, using 4 X 8 mum measuring beams that sampled from approximately two to four rhabdoms. The principal visual pigmen: absorbs maximally at 510 nm (P510), and on irradiation is converted to a thermally stable, pH- insensitive metarhodopsin with lambdamax at 484 nm (M484) and a 43% increase in molar extinction coefficient. Subsequently, short wavelength irradiation of the metarhodopsin photoregenerates some P510; but the absence of an isosbestic point in the cycle of spectral changes is consistent with the presence of smaller amounts of violet- or ultraviolet-sensitive visual pigment(s) that also are converted to a blue-absorb g metarhodopsin. Difference spectra for both P510 and M484 were measured, using hydroxylamine. The 484-nm metarhodopsin is reversibly converted to a form with lambdamax at 363 nm by high concentrations of glycerol. Dark regeneration of rhodopsin in vivo after several minutes exposure of thoroughly dark-adapted animals to full sunlight requires several days.

1975-01-01

419

Sex pheromone of the smaller clearwing moth Synanthedon tenuis (Butler).  

PubMed

The smaller clearwing moth, Synanthedon tenuis (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a major pest of persimmon in northeast Asia. A previous study reported attraction of S. tenuis males to Z3,Z13-18:OAc, but this compound had no effect on male catch in the persimmon orchards in Korea. In this study, we analyzed pheromone gland extracts of S. tenuis females and identified Z3,Z13-18:OH as the main component. In field trapping trial, Z3,Z13-18:OH alone was attractive to S. tenuis males and competitive with live virgin females. These results indicate that the pheromone of this species consists of a single component, Z3,Z13-18:OH. However, Z3,Z13-18:OAc, a previously reported attractant, was not detected in the gland extracts of females. Furthermore, the addition of Z3,Z13-18:OAc to the main pheromone component strongly inhibited attraction for males, suggesting that the diene acetate is not a pheromone component. This is the first report of an octadecadienol as female-produced sex pheromone from the genus Synanthedon. PMID:22976589

Yang, Chang Yeol; Lee, Heung Su; Park, Chung Gyoo

2012-09-14

420

Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.  

PubMed

Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores. PMID:22319127

Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

2012-02-08

421

The complete mitochondrial genome of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica.  

PubMed

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined as a circular molecular of 15,273 bp in size. The mitogenome composition (37 genes) and gene order are the same as the other lepidopterans. Nucleotide composition of the C. cephalonica mitogenome is highly A+T biased (80.43%) like other insects. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of coxl gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine protein-coding genes have the common stop codon TAA, and the nad2, cox1, cox2, and nad4 have single T as the incomplete stop codon. 22 tRNA genes demonstrated cloverleaf secondary structure. The mitogenome has several large intergenic spacer regions, the spacer1 between trnQ gene and nad2 gene, which is common in Lepidoptera. The spacer 3 between trnE and trnF includes microsatellite-like repeat regions (AT)18 and (TTAT)(3). The spacer 4 (16 bp) between trnS2 gene and nad1 gene has a motif ATACTAT; another species, Sesamia inferens encodes ATCATAT at the same position, while other lepidopteran insects encode a similar ATACTAA motif. The spacer 6 is A+T rich region, include motif ATAGA and a 20-bp poly(T) stretch and two microsatellite (AT)(9), (AT)(8) elements. PMID:23413968

Wu, Yu-Peng; Li, Jie; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

2012-01-01

422

Climatic warming increases voltinism in European butterflies and moths  

PubMed Central

Climate change is altering geographical ranges, population dynamics and phenologies of many organisms. For ectotherms, increased ambient temperatures frequently have direct consequences for metabolic rates, activity patterns and developmental rates. Consequently, in many insect species both an earlier beginning and prolongation of seasonal duration occurred in parallel with recent global warming. However, from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, the number of generations (voltinism) and investment into each generation may be even more important than seasonality, since an additional generation per unit time may accelerate population growth or adaptation. Using a dataset extending back to the mid-nineteenth century, I report changes in the voltinism of butterfly and moth species of Central Europe. A significant proportion of 263 multi-voltine species showed augmented frequency of second and subsequent generations relative to the first generation in a warm period since 1980, and 44 species even increased the number of generations after 1980. Expected ecological consequences are diverse. Since multi-voltinism has been linked to insect outbreaks they include an increase in the abundance of herbivorous pests of agriculture and forestry. However, disruption of the developmental synchrony associated with multi-voltinism and host plant phenology may also reduce fitness, potentially having unexpected consequences for species of conservation concern. The ability of species to adapt evolutionarily to a changing environment may be facilitated by increased voltinism.

Altermatt, Florian

2010-01-01

423

Climatic warming increases voltinism in European butterflies and moths.  

PubMed

Climate change is altering geographical ranges, population dynamics and phenologies of many organisms. For ectotherms, increased ambient temperatures frequently have direct consequences for metabolic rates, activity patterns and developmental rates. Consequently, in many insect species both an earlier beginning and prolongation of seasonal duration occurred in parallel with recent global warming. However, from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, the number of generations (voltinism) and investment into each generation may be even more important than seasonality, since an additional generation per unit time may accelerate population growth or adaptation. Using a dataset extending back to the mid-nineteenth century, I report changes in the voltinism of butterfly and moth species of Central Europe. A significant proportion of 263 multi-voltine species showed augmented frequency of second and subsequent generations relative to the first generation in a warm period since 1980, and 44 species even increased the number of generations after 1980. Expected ecological consequences are diverse. Since multi-voltinism has been linked to insect outbreaks they include an increase in the abundance of herbivorous pests of agriculture and forestry. However, disruption of the developmental synchrony associated with multi-voltinism and host plant phenology may also reduce fitness, potentially having unexpected consequences for species of conservation concern. The ability of species to adapt evolutionarily to a changing environment may be facilitated by increased voltinism. PMID:20031988

Altermatt, Florian

2009-12-23

424

Female sex pheromone of the Gelechiid moth Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller).  

PubMed

The sex pheromone system of Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller), an important pest of the halophyte Salicornia europaea in the tidal salt marshes, was studied. Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc were identified from both female pheromone glands and female emissions, but in quite different ratios. Field trapping tests demonstrated that Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc are essential for optimal attraction of male moths, and a 100:5 blend found in gland extracts is significantly more attractive to males than a 100:50 ratio similar to that found in SPME samples. Small amounts of E3-12:OAc and Z5-14:OAc also were present in pheromone gland extracts. A blend of E3-12:OAc with Z3-12:OAc attracted a few males, but was not as attractive as the binary blend of Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc. Moreover, addition of E3-12:OAc did not affect captures of males to the primary binary blend. Another glandular component, Z5-14:OAc, had no behavioral activity in field bioassays. Therefore, a synthetic mixture of Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc in a 100:5 ratio can be used as an effective tool for monitoring and control of this species. PMID:22037791

Yang, Chang Yeol; Paik, Chae Hoon; Lee, Geon Hwi; Park, Jin Young

2011-10-29

425

Fecundity of the autumnal moth depends on pooled geometrid abundance without a time lag: implications for cyclic population dynamics.  

PubMed

1. The abundance and fecundity-related body size variation of the cyclic autumnal moth Epirrita autumnata were monitored from the early increase phase and throughout the outbreak to the end of the density decline in northernmost Norway during 1999-2006. Another geometrid, the winter moth Operophtera brumata, did not increase in density until the autumnal moth had its post-peak in 2004, and was at its own peak concurrent with the steeply declining autumnal moth abundance in 2005-06. 2. The body size variables measured (forewing lengths of males and females and hind femur lengths of males) of the autumnal moth showed a similar density-dependent response, i.e. increasing density was associated with decreasing body size and fecundity. Nevertheless, regression analyses clearly ranked the pooled geometrid abundance without a time lag as the best predictor for the body size variation, ahead of the abundance of the autumnal moth or past abundance of all geometrids. 3. Nondelayed effects of lowered food quality and absolute shortage of foliage under congested conditions are the most plausible reasons for reduced body size. 4. Two most commonly proposed causal factors of the autumnal moth population cycle, i.e. delayed inducible resistance of the host plant (mountain birch Betula pubescens czerepanovii) and delayed density-dependent parasitism by specialized hymenopteran parasitoids, cannot easily explain the diverging population trends between the autumnal and winter moths. 5. We suggest that either the inducible resistance of the host tree or the host utilization of the most important parasitoids and/or pathogens have to be strictly species-specific between these closely related moth species to produce the population dynamics observed. That fecundity of the autumnal moth was best related to the pooled geometrid abundance weakens support for the former hypothesis, while our lack of host-specific information limits conclusions about the role of natural enemies. PMID:18284477

Klemola, Tero; Andersson, Tommi; Ruohomäki, Kai

2008-02-13

426

Sex or Food? Appetetive Learning of Sex Odors in a Male Moth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moths learn to associate a flower odor with a food reward after a few learning trials. Can a hungry, male moth learn to associate a sex attractant with food instead of with sex? We provided a hungry male with odors of single female sex pheromone components, of the full sex pheromone blend or of a flower odor component as cues in an appetitive learning assay. The male learned the single pheromone components just as well as the flower odor. Learning was, however, severely impaired when the full sex pheromone blend was used as conditioning stimulus. The "hard-wiring" between pheromone odor and sex thus seems to be restricted to those circumstances when the male moth experiences the full blend.

Hartlieb, Elke; Hansson, Bill S.; Anderson, Peter

427

Impact of ant predation and heat on carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) mortality in California date gardens.  

PubMed

Dates, Phoenix dactylifera L., undergo a natural fruit abscission during the summer in California date gardens. Many of the abscised dates become lodged in the date bunch, and we demonstrated that carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), prefer to use these dates as a reproduction host compared with dates that fall to the ground. We also found that abscised fruit shaken onto the ground had significantly fewer live carob moth larvae than fruit that remained in bunches in the tree. Mortality in the dropped fruit was attributed to predation by two native ant species, the fire ant Solenopsis aurea Wheeler, and the California harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus (Buckley), in concert with extreme summer ground temperatures. Dates that fell in the full sunlight rapidly increased in temperature, which resulted in larvae either exiting the fruit (exposing them to ants) or dying in the fruit. Removal of abscised dates from bunches may provide a possible management strategy for carob moths in California date gardens. PMID:16022299

Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

2005-06-01

428

Fabrication of Moth-Eye Structure on Glass by Ultraviolet Imprinting Process with Polymer Template  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An antireflection moth-eye structure was fabricated on a glass substrate by ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). A Ni template with an artificial conical structure was fabricated by laser interference lithography an used as a stamp for embossing. A transparent PVC template was fabricated by hot embossing. The embossed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) film was then used as an imprint template after depositing SiO2 and a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Using the embossed PVC film as a UV-NIL stamp, a polymer based moth-eye structure was formed on the glass template and its transmittance, parallel to surface normal, was increased to 93% for a single side patterned and 97% for a double side patterned. However, at wavelengths shorter than 430 nm, the transmittance of 30°-rotated glass substrate with a moth-eye structure became lower than that of the bare glass substrate, while the transmittance was not changed for longer wavelength regions.

Bae, Byeong-Ju; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Eun-Ju; Lee, Heon; Jung, Gun-young

2009-01-01

429

Semiochemical and sonic signals for monitoring and control of clothes moths  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to a composition and procedure for manipulating the behaviour of the webbing clothes moth, Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). In particular, this invention relates to the use of specific semiochemical and sonic signals for manipulating the behaviour of the webbing clothes moths. A composition of chemicals for manipulating the behaviour of clothes moths, said composition comprising two or more chemicals in all possible combinations and ratios selected from the group consisting of: 1) (E,Z)-2,13:octadecadienal; 2) (E,Z)-2,13:octadecadienol; 3) hexadecanoic acid methyl ester; 4) (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid methyl ester; 5) nonanal; 6) geranylacetone; 7) octanal; 8) decanal; 9) nonenal; 10) octenal; 11) decenal.

Takacs; Stephen J. (Burnaby, British Columbia, CA); Gries; Gerhard J. (Coquitlam, British Columbia, CA); Gries; Regine M. (Coquitlam, British Columbia, CA)

2003-06-10

430

Bat defence in lekking ghost swifts (Hepialus humuli), a moth without ultrasonic hearing.  

PubMed Central

The Hepialidae represents an early branch of the Lepidoptera, whose members lack the ultrasonic hearing and other obvious predator defence systems present in other extant moths. I observed lekking male ghost swifts, Hepialus humuli, being exploited by northern bats, Eptesicus nilssonii, over a hayfield in southern Sweden. Because the moth's display flight was restricted to a brief (30 min) period at dusk, they avoided most predators temporally but were exposed to early emerging aerial-hawking bats. Against these, they apparently employed 'acoustic crypsis', achieved by flying close (< 0.5 m) to the vegetation, thereby hiding from the bats among clutter (echoes returning from the background). Nevertheless, the predation risk for the displaying moth males was very high (20% per night), mainly because they sometimes left the safety of the vegetation. The lack of 'advanced' predator defence mechanisms in H. humuli requires alternative defence strategies, which, however, restrict the behavioural repertoire and still carry a high predation risk.

Rydell, J

1998-01-01

431

Coevolution and divergence in the Joshua tree/yucca moth mutualism.  

PubMed

Theory suggests that coevolution drives diversification in obligate pollination mutualism, but it has been difficult to disentangle the effects of coevolution from other factors. We test the hypothesis that differential selection by two sister species of pollinating yucca moths (Tegeticula spp.) drove divergence between two varieties of the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) by comparing measures of differentiation in floral and vegetative features. We show that floral features associated with pollination evolved more rapidly than vegetative features extrinsic to the interaction and that a key floral feature involved in the mutualism is more differentiated than any other and matches equivalent differences in the morphology of the pollinating moths. A phylogenetically based, ancestral states reconstruction shows that differences in moth morphology arose in the time since they first became associated with Joshua trees. These results suggest that coevolution, rather than extrinsic environmental factors, has driven divergence in this obligate pollination mutualism. PMID:18462130

Godsoe, William; Yoder, Jeremy B; Smith, Christopher Irwin; Pellmyr, Olle

2008-06-01

432

The value of woody hedgerows for moth diversity on organic and conventional farms.  

PubMed

Habitat destruction and degradation are important drivers of biodiversity loss within agro-ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of farming practices and the value of woody hedgerows on Lepidoptera in North America. The purpose of this work was to study moth diversity in woody hedgerows and croplands of organic and conventional farms. In addition, the influence of vegetation composition and abiotic variables on species richness, abundance, and composition was examined. Moths were sampled with light traps during six weeks in the summer of 2001. Vegetation data and abiotic variables were obtained for all sites. In total, 26,020 individuals from 12 families and 408 species were captured. Most species were uncommon. Only 35 species included >100 individuals while for 71% of species <10 individuals were found. The Noctuidae represented 221 species and 85% of all individuals captured. Woody hedgerows harbored more species and in greater number than croplands. There was no significant difference in moth diversity between organic and conventional farms, except that the Notodontidae were significantly more species rich in organic than in conventional sites. Results show that species richness, abundance, and composition were greatly influenced by habitat types (hedgerow versus crop field) and abiotic variables (minimum temperature which was correlated to moon illumination, rainfall, and cloud cover). Moth species composition was significantly correlated to vegetation composition. This study broadens our understanding of the factors driving moth diversity and expands our knowledge of their geographic range. The maintenance of noncrop habitats such as woody hedgerows within agro-ecosystems seems paramount to preserving the biodiversity and abundance of many organisms, including moths. PMID:22251633

Boutin, C; Baril, A; McCabe, S K; Martin, P A; Guy, M

2011-06-01

433

Oxalate reduces calcium availability in the pads of the prickly pear cactus through formation of calcium oxalate crystals.  

PubMed

The pads (nopales) of the prickly pear cactus are considered to be a good source of minerals and other nutrients on the basis of compositional analysis. In this study, this analysis is taken a step further by assessing the availability of selected minerals in nopales using an in vitro digestion and dialysis method. The results obtained suggest that although nopales are enriched in a number of minerals, their tissue calcium is not freely available. Microscopic analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and oxalate measurements suggest that this reduction in available calcium is a result of its sequestration in the form of calcium oxalate crystals. The issue of mineral availability in plant foods is important when the dependence of many populations around the world on plant foods as their main source of minerals and other nutrients is considered. PMID:14995148

McConn, Michele M; Nakata, Paul A

2004-03-10

434

Direct sampling of resting codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults in apple tree canopies and surrounding habitats.  

PubMed

Field investigations were conducted to determine the resting locations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L.]) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males and females in mating disrupted and nondisrupted apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard plots. A custom-made sampling device, consisting of a leaf blower converted into a powerful vacuum, yielded 20-24% success in recovering marked moths, released in the tree canopy in orchards. Four collections each were made between 0900 and 1800 hours and 1800 and 2200 hours in 2005. Ninety-four moths were collected during the 1800-2200 hours samples. In mating disruption plots, 42% of females and 22% of males were found in the top third of the tree canopy (3.0-4.5m), 46% females and 43% males in the middle third (1.5-3.0m), and 12% female and 35% male in the lower third (0-1.5m). In nondisrupted plots 36.4% of females and 40% of males were in the top third of the canopy, 36.4% females and 52% males in the middle third, and 27.2% females and 8% males in the lower third of the tree canopy. Daylight vacuum sampling recovered only one female and two male moths from the top, four males from the middle and one male from the lower third of the tree canopy. Release-recapture studies of marked adult codling moths were conducted in 2006-2007 in screened tents to determine within orchard habitats for adult moths during 0900-1800 hours. Of moths recaptured, 14.6% of females and 13.5% of males were from the ground (herbicide strip and drive-row grass) and 32.9% of females and 24.6% of males were captured in the tree canopy 16-h post release, 17.4% of females and 3.4% of males from the ground and 26.5% of females and 38.2% of males in the tree 40-h post release, and 15.1% of females and 18.6% of males from the ground and 15.7 of females and 25.5% of males in the tree 64-h post release. Application of pyrethrum + PBO by using an orchard blast sprayer in 2007 resulted in the recapture of 28% and 37% of laboratory reared male and female moths, respectively, from trees during 0900-1800 h. Our results suggest that distributing pheromone dispensers throughout the tree canopy may be more effective than placing them in one location, such as near the tree crown. PMID:22251645

Epstein, David L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Gut, Larry J

2011-06-01

435

Novel sex pheromone components from the fall cankerworm moth, Alsophila pometaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sex pheromone extract from fall cankerworm moths,Alsophila pometaria, attracted conspecific males in field tests. Four EAG-active components were isolated from the extract and identified by GC-MS, highfield PMR spectroscopy, and microchemical techniques asn-nonadecane (I), (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene (II), (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene (III), and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetrane (IV). Studies of the behavioral responses of male moths in a flight tunnel to the isolated components showed II,

John W. Wong; P. Palaniswamy; E. W. Underbill; W. F. Steck; M. D. Chisholm

1984-01-01

436

Outbreak of caterpillar dermatitis caused by airborne hairs of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi).  

PubMed

Caterpillars may be an under-recognised cause of skin and eye reactions. We report a four-month outbreak of recurrent papulourticarial rash among staff and visitors at a community centre. Caterpillar of the mistletoe browntail moth The cause was eventually diagnosed as airborne hairs from (Euproctis edwardsi). caterpillars of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi), which infested a eucalypt tree growing in front of the centre. To our knowledge, this is the first clear case of airborne caterpillar hairs causing dermatitis in an indoor environment. PMID:11837874

Balit, C R; Ptolemy, H C; Geary, M J; Russell, R C; Isbister, G K

437

Chemical desilking of Cactoblastis cactorum Berg pupae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We conclude that de-silking of C. cactorum cocoons with NaOC1 is a fast and safe procedure that does no great harm to pupae when used as recommended. The effect of low humidity following de-silking was not found to be detrimental to C. cactorum. Nevertheless, we prefer to maintain a high RH in the...

438

Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps.  

PubMed

Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps. We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap. We deployed a total of 352 automated traps under field conditions across several U.S. states over a 5-yr period. In many cases, there was general congruence between male moth capture and the number of recorded events. Although it was difficult to decipher an individual recording event because of the tendency for over-recording, the overall distribution of recorded events was useful in assessing male gypsy moth flight behavior and phenology. The time stamp for recorded events corroborated a previous report of crepuscular gypsy moth male flight behavior, because, although most moths were trapped between 12 and 16 h, there was a consistent period of flight activity between 20 and 22 h. The median male flight duration was 24 d (228 DD, base threshold = 10 degrees C), but there were several traps that recorded flight periods >42 d that could not be explained by overcounting given the congruence between moth capture and the number of recorded events. Unusually long flight periods could indicate the introduction of male moths or other life stages that developed under different climatic conditions. PMID:20021749

Tobin, Patrick C; Klein, Kenneth T; Leonard, Donna S

2009-12-01

439

Tiger moths and the threat of bats: decision-making based on the activity of a single sensory neuron  

PubMed Central

Echolocating bats and eared moths are a model system of predator–prey interaction within an almost exclusively auditory world. Through selective pressures from aerial-hawking bats, noctuoid moths have evolved simple ears that contain one to two auditory neurons and function to detect bat echolocation calls and initiate defensive flight behaviours. Among these moths, some chemically defended and mimetic tiger moths also produce ultrasonic clicks in response to bat echolocation calls; these defensive signals are effective warning signals and may interfere with bats' ability to process echoic information. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of a single auditory neuron (the A1 cell) provides sufficient information for the toxic dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, to decide when to initiate defensive sound production in the face of bats. Thus, despite previous suggestions to the contrary, these moths' only other auditory neuron, the less sensitive A2 cell, is not necessary for initiating sound production. However, we found a positive linear relationship between combined A1 and A2 activity and the number of clicks the dogbane tiger moth produces.

Ratcliffe, John M.; Fullard, James H.; Arthur, Benjamin J.; Hoy, Ronald R.

2009-01-01

440

Epicuticular changes and storage potential of cactus pear [ Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] fruit following gibberellic acid preharvest sprays and postharvest heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (L.) cv. Gialla] fruit were treated 10 weeks after the second induced-bloom flush with 10 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) or were heated at 37°C for 30 h under saturated humidity after harvest. The two treatments were also combined before storage at 6°C for 45 days plus 4 additional days at 20°C to simulate a marketing

M. Schirra; G. D’hallewin; P. Inglese; T. La Mantia

1999-01-01

441

Intake, digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep on hay supplemented with prickly pear cactus [ Opuntia ficus- indica (L.) Mill.] with or without groundnut meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prickly pear cactus [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] and roughage (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets with (OCG) or without (OC) an organic N source supplement (50g groundnut meal) were compared to a roughage plus 200g concentrate (CC)-supplemented diet. Intake, nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and microbial N supply in Malpura hoggets were assessed. Opuntia cladodes contained DM 218g\\/kg, CP

A. K. Misra; A. S. Mishra; M. K. Tripathi; O. H. Chaturvedi; S. Vaithiyanathan; R. Prasad; R. C. Jakhmola

2006-01-01

442

Effects of elevated concentrations of CO 2 in modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of prickly pear cactus stems ( Opuntia spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested the effects of passive and semi-active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the postharvest life and quality of flattened stems or cladodes of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.), called “nopal or nopalitos” in Mexico stored at 5°C. In semi-active MAP, we injected elevated partial pressures of CO2 (20, 40 or 80 kPa) in the packages immediately after

J. C. Guevara; E. M. Yahia; E. Brito de la Fuente; S. P. Biserka

2003-01-01

443

Root distribution with changes in distance and depth of two-year-old cactus pears Opuntia ficus-indica and O. robusta plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opuntia is a drought tolerant crop and even the smallest amount of water is absorbed efficiently through the shallow and horizontally spread root system. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the root dynamics of cactus pear for sustainable production of fodder and fruit in the drier areas. This study, conducted during the 2003\\/2004 growing season on two-year-old Opuntia

H. A. Snyman

2006-01-01

444

Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Antioxidant Activity and Content of Carotenoids and Phenolic Compounds of Cactus Pear Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pears (Opuntia ficus-indica) are draught resistant plants originated in Mexico. Their flattened stem segments, called cladodes, have moisture, protein and fibre contents of 92, 1-2 and 4-6% respectively, and a pectin content in the range of 0.8-3.3% depending on the species. They also contain certain concentration of carotenoids which are of special interest because of their antioxidant activity. This

M. E. Jaramillo-Flores; L. González-Cruz; M. Cornejo-Mazón; L. Dorantes-Alvarez; G. F. Gutiérrez-López; H. Hernández-Sánchez

2003-01-01

445

Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in peaches and nectarines using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.  

PubMed

Two high-temperature, forced air treatments under controlled atmosphere conditions, called CATTS for controlled atmosphere/temperature treatment system, were developed for control of all life stages of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), infesting peaches and nectarines (both Prunus spp.). These treatments were used in efficacy and confirmation tests to kill > 5,000 fourth instar oriental fruit moths and > 30,000 fourth instar codling moths with zero survivors. The treatments consist of linear heating rates of either 12 or 24 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature under a 1% O2, 15% CO2, and > 90% RH atmosphere with air speed between 1.2 and 2.0 m/s. At a 12 degrees C linear chamber heating rate, treatment takes approximately 3 h to reach a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C. The average lowest core temperatures of the fruit reached 43.8 degrees C within the last 30 min of the treatment. At a 24 degrees C linear chamber heating rate, it takes approximately 2.5 h to reach a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C. The average lowest core temperatures of the fruit reached 44.6 degrees C for the last 15 min of the treatment. It also was determined that both treatments did not significantly alter the quality parameters that were evaluated to a degree that would have negatively influenced the marketability of the fruit. Positive benefits of treatment included a slower ripening of treated fruit and an inhibition of the loss of juiciness during storage in some cultivars. These treatments may be used to replacement to methyl bromide fumigation for conventional fruit or as a new treatment for organic fruit contingent upon importing country approval. PMID:17066790

Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda M; Obenland, David

2006-10-01

446

MONITORING CODLING MOTH IN FOUR PEAR CULTIVARS WITH THE PEAR ESTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pear ester, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate can be an effective attractant for codling moth, Cydia pomonella, in pear orchards treated with sex pheromones. Differences in the attractiveness of the pear ester relative to a sex pheromone lure were found within pear cultivars. The pear ester outperf...

447

VIRUS TRANSMISSION IN GYPSY MOTHS IS NOT A SIMPLE MASS ACTION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

We used the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), to test one of the basic assumptions of most models of disease dynamics, that the rate of horizontal transmission is directly proportional to the product of the densiti...

448

Synergism between Bacillus thuringiensis Spores and Toxins against Resistant and Susceptible Diamondback Moths (Plutella xylostella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of combinations of Bacillus thuringiensis spores and toxins on the mortality of dia- mondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae in leaf residue bioassays. Spores of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki increased the toxicity of crystals of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki to both resistant and susceptible larvae. For B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, resistance ratios were 1,200 for a spore-crystal

YONG-BIAO LIU; BRUCE E. TABASHNIK; WILLIAM J. MOAR; ROBERT A. SMITH

1998-01-01

449

Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basic biology and physiology of this temperate pest, little is known on its potential to develop and establish in tropical environments with short photoperiods and few to no days below 10 degrees C. Apples were harvested over three field seasons (2007-2009) from unmanaged orchards in central Washington State and subjected to simulated commercial cold storage at 1.1 +/- 2 degrees C for up to 119 d. After cold storage, infested fruits were held at 20 degrees C under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod for up to 6 mo. Over the entire experiment only 27% of the larvae collected exited the fruit and cocooned. Of those 27%, only 1.06% of larvae held under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod successfully emerged as moths. No moths emerged when host fruit would be available in a representative importing country in the tropics over the 3 yr of testing. These results indicate that codling moth in apples from the Pacific Northwest pose little threat of surviving and establishing in tropical regions where daylength is insufficient to break diapause and the chilling requirement is not met. PMID:22606796

Neven, Lisa G

2012-04-01

450

Aerial Spraying for Gypsy Moth Control: A Handbook of Technology. Updated Version, January 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a native pest of the forests of Europe and Asia that was introduced into the United States in Eastern Massachusetts in 1869 and in New Jersey in the 1920's. It is now established in all or parts of the 13 Northeastern ...

R. Reardon K. Mierzejewski J. Bryant D. Twardus W. Yendol

1991-01-01

451

Lethal dose and associated effects of Bacillus thuringiensis in sprayed droplets against gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility of third instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) to Bacillus thuringiensis in the formulated product Foray 48B (Novo Nordisk Bioindustrials, Inc., Danbury, CT) was evaluated. The bioassay technique involved feeding larvae droplets of the formulation sprayed on leaf discs. The amount of leaf material consumed, time to mortality, and weight increase were measured. The LD95 was 21.1 International Units

S. L. Ratcliffe; W. G. Yendol

1993-01-01

452

Survival of diverse Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is correlated with urease production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can kill a variety of pests, but seldom causes epizootics because it replicates poorly in insects. We have tested lepidopteran-toxic B. thuringiensis strains with diverse substrate utilization profiles for the ability to survive repeated passages through larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, without intervening growth on artificial media. These experiments have revealed

Phyllis A. W. Martin; Robert R. Farrar Jr.; Michael B. Blackburn

2009-01-01

453

Aerial spraying for gypsy moth control: A handbook of technology. Updated version, January 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a native pest of the forests of Europe and Asia that was introduced into the United States in Eastern Massachusetts in 1869 and in New Jersey in the 1920's. It is now established in all or parts of the 13 Northeastern States from western Pennsylvania, eastern West Virginia, and northern Virginia to central Maine,

R. Reardon; K. Mierzejewski; J. Bryant; D. Twardus; W. Yendol

1991-01-01

454

Synergy Between Zwittermicin A and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Against Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus French & French increased the mortality of 3rd-instar gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (L.), caused by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner. B. cereus did not cause mortality of L. dispar when applied alone. The activity of various B. cereus strains was correlated positively with their accumulation of zwittermicin A, an aminopolyol antibiotic, in culture. When a constant dose of

Nichole A. Broderick; Robert M. Goodman; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jo Handelsman

2000-01-01

455

Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

456

Heat shock tolerance and antioxidant activity in moth bean seedlings treated with tetcyclacis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal cv. Jaadia) seeds were germinated in the presence of 0, 18, or 36 µM solutions of the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, tetcyclacis. After 72 h, seedlings were exposed to 22 or 48°C for 90 min. The 48°C temperature dramatically increased total electrolyte and sugar leakage from the seedlings, particularly in the controls. Tetcyclacis reduced electrolyte

Abha Upadhyaya; Tim D. Davis; Narendra Sankhla

1991-01-01

457

Modeling the sterile insect technique for suppression of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

A population model was derived for light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), subject to the sterile insect technique (SIT). The model was parameterized from the literature and from recent laboratory studies conducted in New Zealand and Australia. Relationships were fitted for several model parameters that vary with irradiation dose, allowing the model to simulate effectively complete sterility at 300 Gy through inherited sterility occurring from lower doses. At 300 Gy, the model suggests that eventual population extinction is 95% probable when the ratio of released to wild males in monitoring traps exceeds 6.4. Higher overflooding rates would be required to achieve eradication more rapidly. The optimal release interval, in terms of minimizing the required rate of production of factory moths, is approximately weekly. There is little advantage in releasing males only compared with releasing both sexes. Female-only releases are unlikely to be a useful tool for inherited sterility eradication because there is no reduction in the fertility of F1 offspring. The critical release rate required to halt population increase declines with decreasing irradiation dose, but at doses of < 171 Gy there is a risk that irradiated-lineage moths may form a self-sustaining population, making eradication by SIT alone impossible. The model suggests that a dose of around 200 Gy may be optimal because the resulting inherited sterility would reduce by a third the number of factory moths required compared with 300 Gy. PMID:22066173

Kean, John M; Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Woods, Bill

2011-10-01

458

Secondary metabolites of the leaf surface affected by sulphur fertilisationand perceived by the diamondback moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Summary. Oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. (cv Express), plants were grown under three different sulphur regimes: sulphur-free (S 0), normal sulphur (S n, normal field concentration) and a sulphur-rich (S +, 2 × concentration of S n). We performed dual choice oviposition assays with the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, using real plants and, for the first time with this

Cristina Marazzi; Bruno Patrian; Erich Städler

2004-01-01

459

Goat Moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) of the Hanford Site and Hanford National Monument, Washington State  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three species of goat moths are recorded at the Hanford Nuclear Site and Hanford National Monument in south central Washington State. They are: Comadia bertholdi (Grote), 1880, Givira cornelia (Neumoegen & Dyar), 1893, and Prionoxystus robiniae (Peck), 1818. The general habitat of the Hanford area...

460

Correlated Insecticide Cross-Resistance in Azinphosmethyl Resistant Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to several classes of insecticides was correlated with azinphosmethyl resistance in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in California. In tests of laboratory and field populations, cross-resistance was positively correlated with azinphosmethyl and two organophos- phates (diazinon, phosmet), a carbamate (carbaryl), a chlorinated hydrocarbon (DDT), and two pyrethroids (esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin). Additionally, negatively correlated cross-resistance was identified between azinphosmethyl and

John E. Dunley; Stephen C. Welter

2000-01-01

461

Development of adult thoracic leg muscles during metamorphosis of the hawk moth Manduca sexta  

Microsoft Academic Search

During metamorphosis, the larval thoracic legs of the hawk moth Manduca sexta are replaced by a new set of adult legs. The larval leg motoneurons persist to innervate new adult muscles, and the motor terminals remain within the developing adult legs. Here we describe the fate of the larval leg muscles and the origin of new muscles within the adult

C. Consoulas; M. Anezaki; R. B. Levine

1997-01-01

462

Control of neurosecretion in the moth Manduca sexta : Physiological regulation of the eclosion hormone cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Metamorphosis in the mothManduca sexta culminates with the secretion of the peptide eclosion hormone (EH), which triggers the stereotyped behavior of adult emergence (eclosion) from the pupal cuticle. In restrained but spontaneously behaving animals, the release of EH occurred shortly before the onset of subjective night (Fig. 3) and coincided with a depletion of EH from the neurohemal organs of

Philip F. Copenhaver; James W. Truman

1986-01-01

463

Flight physiology of migrating Urania fulgens (Uraniidae) moths: kinematics and aerodynamics of natural free flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air speeds and wing kinematics were determined for the Neotropical moth Urania fulgens in natural migratory flight over Lake Gatun, Republic of Panama. Morphological parameters are presented for the same insects filmed in free flight. A quasi-steady aerodynamic analysis was used to show that unsteady mechanisms of lift generation are probably not necessary to produce the forces necessary for fast

R. Dudley; P. J. DeVries

1990-01-01

464

THE EFFECTS OF BLOOD PROTEIN DEPLETION ON THE GROWTH OF THE OOCYTES IN THE CECROPIA MOTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the final two weeks in the metamorphosis of the Cecropia moth the oocytes enter a period of yolk formation, in the course of which their volume increases 400-fold. The growth of the oocyte during this period is not dependent exclusively on the synthetic activities of the ovary, but also entails the transfer of proteins from the blood to the

WILLIAM H. TELFER; L. DAVID

465

THE ROUTE OF ENTRY AND LOCALIZATION OF BLOOD PROTEINS IN THE OOCYTES OF SATURNIID MOTHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oocytes of saturniid moths take up proteins selectively from the blood. The distribution of blood proteins in the ovary during protein uptake was investigated by staining 2 \\/~ sec- tions of freeze-dried ovaries with fluorescein-labeled antibodies. The results indicate that blood proteins occur primarily in the intercellular spaces of the follicle cell layer, in associa- tion with a brush

WILLIAM H. TELFER

1961-01-01

466

Incidence of fusiform rust infection on loblolly pine related to tip moth damage  

SciTech Connect

Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana) is a common pest over most of the natural range of loblolly pine, causing deformation and growth reduction of seedlings and saplings during the early life of the stand. Fusiform rust (caused by Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme) is a limiting factor in the production of southern pines throughout a broad area of the southeastern United States, extending from South Carolina to Texas. The target areas on the hosts for both pests are young, succulent shoot tissues. Carbofuran, a systematic insecticide, was used to determine the effect of controlling tip moth on seedlings infected by the fusiform rust organism. Beginning with the 2nd year carbofuran was applied over 4 successive years. The insecticide sharply reduced the incidence of tip moth and increased the height of 5-year-old saplings compared with untreated controls. Usually any treatment that stimulates the growth of pines also results in increased rust infection. However, this was not the case here because untreated saplings had significantly more infection. It is not known whether the increased disease incidence on untreated trees was due to the susceptibility and/or total number of secondary shoots initiated in response to tip dieback caused by the tip moth, or if carbofuran itself has some fungicidal effect resulting in lower infection on treated seedlings. 6 refs., 1 tab.

Powers, H.R. Jr.; Stone, D.M.

1985-09-01

467

Optical diffraction by the microstructure of the wing of a moth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the wing of the moth Trichoplusia orichalcea a prominent, apparently highly reflective, golden spot can be seen. Scales from this area of the wing exhibit a regular microstructure resembling a submicrometer herringbone pattern. We show that a diffraction process from this structure is responsible for the observed optical properties, such as directionality, brightness variations, polarization, and color.

Brink, D. J.; Smit, J. E.; Lee, M. E.; Möller, A.

1995-09-01

468

Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

469

EVALUATION OF A RECOMBINANT DIAMONDBACK MOTH BACULOVIRUS IN SELECTED LEPIDOPTERAN CELL LINES AND LARVAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is one of the most important pests of the cabbage family, as well as other vegetable crops throughout the world. Its control by chemical insecticides as well as the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis has become more difficult due to the developm...

470

INSECTICIDAL EFFECTS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH, PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-eight strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for toxicity against the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. Bt strains were cultured on agar plates, examined for the presence of crystals and then harvested in water. Samples of Bt whole culture preparations, those treated ...

471

Functions of an Organ of the Larva of the Puss Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

THIS season I am breeding, with the object of observing their gradual growth and development, a number of the larvæ of Cerura (or Dicranura) vinula, the Puss Moth; but I have sought in vain for the function performed by the slender red filaments, ejected, at the insect's will, from its twin tails. They appear to shoot from their sheathes, just

Arthur S. Thorn

1900-01-01

472

KAIROMONE-AUGMENTED MATING DISRUPTION CONTROL FOR CODLING MOTH IN CALIFORNIAN WALNUTS AND APPLES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Novel control methods, using both sprayable microencapsulated formulations (MEC) and hand-applied (HA) dispensers, have demonstrated that the pear-ester (PE) attractant kairomone (ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate), termed 'DA'-kairomone, improves mating disruption (MD) of male codling moths (CM) in b...

473

TREATMENT PROTOCOLS TO CONTROL CODLING MOTH IN APPLES USING RADIO FREQUENCY ENERGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apples destined for export to Japan and South Korea are currently disinfested for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), using methyl bromide fumigation. Restrictions and limitations imposed on the uses of methyl bromide have increased interest in developing alternative non-che...

474

POSTHARVEST TREATMENT TO CONTROL CODLING MOTH IN FRESH APPLES USING WATER ASSISTED RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apples destined for export to Japan and South Korea are currently disinfested for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), using methyl bromide fumigation. Restrictions and limitations imposed on the uses of methyl bromide have increased interest in developing alternative non-che...

475

Transcriptome of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transcriptomic profiles of the lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which...

476

Dispersal of first-instar gypsy moth larvae in relation to population quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies of dispersal by first instar gypsy moth larvae indicate that almost all larvae undergo an initial dispersal episode. However, in laboratory studies large larvae (from large eggs) disperse more frequently than small larvae (from small eggs) in the presence of favored food. Large larvae may be better adapted for dispersal. When larvae encounter unacceptable food or are denied

John L. Capinera; Pedro Barbosa

1976-01-01

477

Laboratory Bioassays Testing the Host Range of the Gypsy Moth Fungal Pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga causes epizootics in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, populations, but little is known about the effects of this pathogen on other insect species. The host specificity of E. maimaiga was evaluated by externally inoculating larvae with conidia in the laboratory. Larvae were considered successfully infected if E. maimaiga produced spores in\\/on cadavers. A total of 78

A. E. Hajek; L. Butler; M. M. Wheeler

1995-01-01

478

Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gypsy moth is a destructive, nonindigenous pest of forest, shade, and fruit trees that was introduced into the United States in 1869, and is currently established throughout the Northeast and upper Midwest. The Slow the Spread Program is a regional in...

P. C. Tobin L. M. Blackburn

2007-01-01

479

Host selection by Blepharipa pratensis (Meigen), a tachinid parasite of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host selection process ofBlepharipa pratensis (Meigen), a tachinid parasite of the gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar L., was investigated. Once in the host's habitat, and following contact with a recently damaged leaf edge (cut, torn, eaten), the fly orients perpendicular to the edge and moves back and forth with the front tarsi grasping the damaged edge. Oviposturing (oviposition intention) may occur.

Thomas M. Odell; Paul A. Godwin

1984-01-01

480

Intraspecific variation in aspen phytochemistry: effects on performance of gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual quaking aspen trees vary greatly in foliar chemistry and susceptibility to defoliation by gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars. To relate performance of these insects to differences in foliar chemistry, we reared larvac from egg hatch to pupation on leaves from different aspen trees and analyzed leaf samples for water, nitrogen, total nonstructural carbohydrates, phenolic glycosides, and condensed tannins.

Jocelyn D. C. Hemming; Richard L. Lindroth

1995-01-01

481

Leaf phenolic inhibition of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus Role of polyhedral inclusion body aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassays with nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) administered to gypsy moth larvae on leaf disks from various tree species reveal strong viral inhibition by some tree species. Phenolic extracts from inhibitory tree leaves cause virus polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs) to form large aggregations. However, aggregated PIBs treated with leaf extracts and administered to larvae on laboratory diet (without phenolics) retain virulence.

Steven T. Keating; Mark D. Hunter; Jack C. Schultz

1990-01-01

482

Expression of Pheromone Binding Proteins During Antenna1 Development in the Gypsy Moth Lymantria dispar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified 2 olfactory specific proteins in the gypsy moth Lymantria disparthat are uniquely associated with the male antennae, the principal olfactory organs of this animal. These proteins were the major soluble protein components of the olfactory sensilla, present in equivalent amounts. Both proteins comigratecl on SDS-PAGE, showing an apparent molecular mass of 15,000 Da but migrated separately on

Rg Vogt; Ac Kohne; J. T. Dubnau; G. D. Prestwich

1989-01-01

483

Developing Effective Brochures for Increasing Knowledge of Environmental Problems: The Case of the Gypsy Moth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational brochures in increasing participants' knowledge about the environmental problem of gypsy moth infestations and associated action strategies. Results suggest that brochures rated high in communication effectiveness were most useful in increasing knowledge. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/MDH)|

Young, Charlotte F.; Witter, John A.

1994-01-01

484

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the gall-inducing moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attack ramets of Solidago altissima L. and S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), initiating stem galls early in ramet growth. We examined the relationship between ramet size (as an indicator of plant vigour) and galling rate over 3 years at a field site in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We marked Solidago ramets along

Stephen B. Heard; Graham H. Cox

2009-01-01

485

Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for codling moth control.  

PubMed

The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally efficient in enhancing the activity of CpGV. The addition of brown cane sugar to yeast further increased larval mortality and the protection of fruit against larvae. In comparison, without yeast, the addition of sugar to CpGV did not produce a significant effect. A field trial confirmed that fruit injury and larval survival were significantly reduced when apple trees were sprayed with CpGV, M. pulcherrima, and sugar. We have shown earlier that mutualistic yeasts are an essential part of codling moth larval diet. The finding that yeast also enhances larval ingestion of an insect-pathogenic virus is an opportunity for the development of a novel plant protection technique. We expect the combination of yeasts and insect pathogens to essentially contribute to future insect management. PMID:23881444

Knight, Alan L; Witzgall, Peter

2013-07-24

486

FLUORESCENT BRIGHTENER INHIBITS APOPTOSIS IN BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAL MIDGUT CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fluorescent brightener significantly lowers the LC50 and LT50 in a variety of nucleopolyhedrovirus-insect host systems. In the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), a European NPV strain of virus (LdMNPV) does not replicate in the midgut. However, addition of a fluorescent brightener (Calcofluor M2R)...

487

Development of gypsy moth larvae feeding on red maple saplings at elevated CO 2 and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted increases in atmospheric CO 2 and global mean temperature may alter important plant-insect associations due to the direct effects of temperature on insect development and the indirect effects of elevated temperature and CO 2 enrichment on phytochemicals important for insect success. We investigated the effects of CO 2 and temperature on the interaction between gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar

Ray S. Williams; David E. Lincoln; Richard J. Norby

2003-01-01

488

Effects of two bitter substances on olfactory conditioning in the moth Heliothis virescens.  

PubMed

In nature, moths encounter nutritious and toxic substances in plants, and thus have to discriminate between a diversity of tastants. Whereas olfactory learning allowing memory of nutritious plants is well demonstrated, little is known about learning and memory of toxic items in adult lepidopterans. Moths may use bitter substances to detect and possibly learn to avoid noxious plants. We have studied the physiological and behavioural effects of two bitter substances, quinine and sinigrin, on the moth Heliothis virescens. Electrophysiological recordings showed responses to both compounds in gustatory receptor neurons on the antennae. The response patterns suggested a peripheral discrimination between quinine and sinigrin. We evaluated their putative aversive effect in an appetitive conditioning context where the moths learned to associate an odour with sucrose. We first aimed at enhancing olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response by testing the effect of the sucrose concentration on acquisition, retention and extinction. 2 mol l(-1) and 3 mol l(-1) sucrose concentration gave similar acquisition, retention and extinction performances. Experiments involving pre-exposure or facilitated extinction with an odour paired with quinine, sinigrin or no tastant showed a latent inhibitory effect, as well as an aversive effect of quinine and, to a lesser extent, of sinigrin. The results suggested that the two tastants may act as negative reinforcers in H. virescens. PMID:17601960

Jørgensen, Kari; Stranden, Marit; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Menzel, Randolf; Mustaparta, Hanna

2007-07-01

489

Electrophysiological characterization of responses from gustatory receptor neurons of sensilla chaetica in the moth Heliothis virescens.  

PubMed

Discrimination of edible and noxious food is crucial for survival in all organisms. We have studied the physiology of the gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in contact chemosensilla (insect gustatory organs) located on the antennae of the moth Heliothis virescens, emphasizing putative phagostimulants and deterrents. Sucrose and the 2 bitter substances quinine and sinigrin elicited responses in a larger proportion of GRNs than inositol, KCl, NaCl, and ethanol, and the firing thresholds were lowest for sucrose and quinine. Variations in GRN composition in individual sensilla occurred without any specific patterns to indicate specific sensillum types. Separate neurons showed excitatory responses to sucrose and the 2 bitter substances quinine and sinigrin, implying that the moth might be able to discriminate bitter substances in addition to separating phagostimulants and deterrents. Besides being detected by separate receptors on the moth antennae, the bitter tastants were shown to have an inhibitory effect on phagostimulatory GRNs. Sucrose was highly appetitive in behavioral studies of proboscis extension, whereas quinine had a nonappetitive effect in the moths. PMID:17768225

Jørgensen, Kari; Almaas, Tor Jørgen; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Mustaparta, Hanna

2007-09-03

490

Mechanisms of partial plant resistance to diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) in brassicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial diet studies were used to differentiate among physical and chemical mechanisms affecting the suitability to diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.), of 16 food substrates obtained by growing four different brassicas in the glasshouse or field and measuring the pest's performance on either leaf discs or a diet incorporating leaf powders. Leaves of Chinese cabbage and the cabbage cultivar ‘Minicole’

Karnam V. Hariprasad; Helmut F. van Emden

2010-01-01

491

Hot air treatment for disinfestation of lightbrown apple moth and longtailed mealy bug on persimmons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality response of fifth instar lightbrown apple moth (LBAM; Epiphyas postvittana Walker) and longtailed mealy bug (LMB; Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni-Tozetti) on persimmons to heat treatments was examined at air temperatures between 44 °C and 50 °C. LMB were more tolerant to heat treatment than LBAM and there was no difference in mortality for both species between insects found on

Peter R. Dentener; Sharon M. Alexander; Philip J. Lester; Robert J. Petry; John H. Maindonald; Rod M. McDonald

1996-01-01

492

Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, outbreak in northeast London, 1995?–?2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small outbreak of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), was discovered in June 1995 in the South Woodford area of northeast London, near Epping Forest. The origin of this outbreak remains unknown, but the eggs may have been transported from continental Europe, where major outbreaks occurred in the early 1990s. A risk assessment concluded that severe defoliation by this

RJC Cannon; D Koerper; S Ashby; R Baker; PW Bartlett; G Brookes; R Burgess; S Cheek; HF Evans; R Hammon; J Head; G Nettleton; J Robinson; D Slawson; MC Taylor; CA Tilbury; M Ward

2004-01-01

493

Effect of cultivar on oviposition preference of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oviposition preference of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was investigated on white cabbage cultivars under field conditions in two vegetation periods. Significantly less eggs were laid on cultivar 'Golden Acre'. There were no differences in the number of eggs found on the cultivar 'Lennox', 'Krautman', 'Krautkaiser' and 'Turquoise'. The cultivar 'Parel' showed different results during experimental

A. Ploomi; K. Jõgar; L. Metspalu; K. Hiiesaar; E. Švilponis; I. Kivimägi; N. Men' shykova; A. Luik; I. Sibul; A. Kuusik

494

Moth diversity in three biofuel crops and native prairie in Illinois.  

PubMed

The expanding demand for biofuel feedstock may lead to large-scale conscription of land for monoculture production of biofuel crops with concomitant substantial negative impacts on biodiversity. We compared moth diversity in light-trap samples from corn, miscanthus, switchgrass and native prairie, to determine whether there is an observable relationship between plant species diversity and moth abundance and diversity. Moth alpha diversity was highest in prairie and was higher in switchgrass than in the other two biofuel crops. Beta diversity generally was low among the biofuel crops, and prairie shared lower beta diversity with switchgrass than with corn or miscanthus. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in moth abundance per species among treatments. The alpha and beta diversity index findings are consistent with those of other studies on arthropods in biofuel crops and provide evidence to suggest that large-scale conversion of acreage to biofuel crops may have substantial negative effects on arthropod biodiversity both within the cropping systems and in the surrounding landscape. PMID:23955892

Harrison, Terry; Berenbaum, May R

2012-07-13

495

HOST-ASSOCIATED GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION IN THE GOLDENROD ELLIPTICAL-GALL MOTH, GNORIMOSCHEMA GALLAESOLIDAGINIS (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Careful study of apparently generalist phytophagous insects often reveals that they instead represent com- plexes of genetically differentiated host races or cryptic species. The goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, attacks two goldenrods in the Solidago canadensiscomplex: S. altissima and S. gigantea (Asteraceae). We tested for host-associated genetic differentiation in G. gallaesolidaginis via analysis of variation at 12 allozyme loci among

John D. Nason; Stephen B. Heard; Frederick R. Williams

2002-01-01

496

STRUCTURE ACTIVITY STUDIES WITH PHEROMONE BINDING PROTEINS OF THE GYPSY MOTH, LYMANTRIA DISPAR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pheromone olfaction in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, involves accurate distinction of compounds with similar structure and polarity. The identified pheromone is (7R, 8S)-cis-2-methyl-7, 8-epoxyoctadecane, 1a, and a known antagonist is (7Z) 2-methyloctadec-7-ene, 4a. The first step in olfaction...

497

Adaptation of antennal neurons in moths is associated with cessation of pheromone-mediated upwind flight.  

PubMed

A wind-borne plume of sex pheromone from a female moth or a synthetic source has a fine, filamentous structure that creates steep and rapid fluctuations in concentration for a male moth flying up the plume's axis. The firing rates from single antennal neurons on Agrotis segetum antennae decreased to nearly zero within seconds after the antennae were placed in a pheromone plume 70 cm downwind of a high-concentration source known from previous studies to cause in-flight arrestment of upwind progress. In a separate experiment, the fluctuating output from chilled neurons on Grapholita molesta antennae became attenuated in response to repetitive, experimentally delivered pheromone pulses. The attenuation was correlated with a previously reported higher percentage of in-flight arrestment exhibited by moths flying at cooler compared to warmer temperatures. These results indicate that two peripheral processes related to excessive concentration, complete adaptation of antennal neurons, or merely the attenuation of fluctuations in burst frequency, are important determinants of when upwind progress by a moth flying in a pheromone plume stops and changes to station keeping. Also, adaptation and attenuation may affect the sensation of blend quality by preferentially affecting cells sensitive to the most abundant components in airborne pheromone blends. PMID:3200859

Baker, T C; Hansson, B S; Löfstedt, C; Löfqvist, J

1988-12-01

498

Construction of a brain-machine hybrid system to analyze adaptive behavior of silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created a brain-machine hybrid system (BMHS) which is able to solve the chemical plume tracking (CPT) problem using the brain of the male silkworm moth. The purpose of the system is to investigate adaptability which results from interactions between brain, body, and environment. In this paper, we describe a BMHS architecture and experiments to verify that the behavior

Atsushi Takashima; Ryo Minegishi; Daisuke Kurabayashi; Ryohei Kanzaki

2010-01-01

499

HYDROPRENE PROLONGS DEVELOPMENT TIME AND INCREASES MORTALITY IN WANDERING-PHASE INDIANMEAL MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) LARVAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wandering-phase Indianmeal moth larvae, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were exposed to the label rate of hydroprene (1.9 X 10-3 mg[AI]/ cm2) sprayed on concreted petri dishes. Larvae were exposed for 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h and maintained at 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32ºC and 57% relative humidity ...

500

Instar Development of the Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth in Relation to Field Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instar development is recorded for the Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudot-sugata) for two different elevations in the Boise National Forest, Idaho, in 1991. The percentage of the population by instars is associated with accumulated degree-days after...

R. C. Beckwith D. G. Grimble J. C. Weatherby

1993-01-01