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1

Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.  

PubMed

As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations. PMID:24665701

López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

2014-02-01

2

A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

SciTech Connect

The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Service, P.O. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793 (United States)

2007-03-15

3

The evolution of obligate pollination mutualisms: senita cactus and senita moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new obligate pollination mutualism involving the senita cactus, Lophocereus schottii (Cactaceae, Pachyceereae), and the senita moth, Upiga virescens (Pyralidae, Glaphyriinae) in the Sonoran Desert and discuss the evolution of specialized pollination mutualisms. L. schottii is a night-blooming, self-incompatible columnar cactus. Beginning at sunset, its flowers are visited by U. virescens females, which collect pollen on specialized abdominal

Theodore H. Fleming; J. Nathaniel Holland

1998-01-01

4

Phylogenetic origins of Lophocereus (Cactaceae) and the senita cactus-senita moth pollination mutualism.  

PubMed

Recent ecological research has revealed that the Sonoran Desert columnar cactus Lophocereus and the pyralid moth Upiga virescens form an obligate pollination mutualism, a rare but important case of coevolution. To investigate the phylogenetic origins of this unusual pollination system, we used molecular sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny of the four taxa within the genus Lophocereus and to determine the phylogenetic position of Lophocereus within the North American columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereeae). Our analysis included Lophocereus, six Pachycereus species, Carnegiea gigantea, and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo within the subtribe Pachycereinae, and Stenocereus thurberi as an outgroup within the Stenocereinae. Extensive screening of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes failed to reveal sequence variation within Lophocereus. At a deeper phylogenetic level, however, we found strong support for the placement of Lophocereus within Pachycereus as sister group to the hummingbird-pollinated P. marginatus. We discuss possible hypotheses that may explain the transition from bat pollination (ancestral) to moth and hummingbird pollination in Lophocereus and P. marginatus, respectively. Additional phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Pachycereus should be expanded to include Lophocereus, Carnegiea, Neobuxbaumia, and perhaps other species, whereas P. hollianus may need to be excluded from this clade. Future study will be needed to test taxonomic distinctions within Lophocereus, to test for parallel cladogenesis between phylogroups within Lophocereus and Upiga, and to fully delineate the genus Pachycereus and relationships among genera in the Pachycereinae. PMID:21665708

Hartmann, Stefanie; Nason, John D; Bhattacharya, Debashish

2002-07-01

5

Clavispora opuntiae and other yeasts associated with the moth Sigelgaita sp. in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Clavispora opuntiae was the prevalent yeast associated with the feeding sites of Sigelgaita sp. larvae in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae. Also associated with this habitat were Candida sonorensis, Pichia cactophila, Pichia barkeri, Candida sp. A, Geotrichum sp., Geotrichum sericeum and the yeast like organisms Prototheca zopfii and Acremonium sp. Atypical yeast biotypes that may represent new species of Pichia, Sporopachydermia and Candida were isolated. Mating types of Clavispora opuntiae were at a ratio 70 h- to 3 h- and reduced levels of sporulation suggested low pressure for sexual reproduction in this habitat. Sigelgaita sp. probably was not an important vector for Clavispora opuntiae because it was not isolated from an adult or eggs of this moth. PMID:1285643

Rosa, C A; Hagler, A N; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; de Morais, P B; Gomes, C M; Monteiro, R F

1992-11-01

6

Cactus: a medicinal food  

Microsoft Academic Search

With excellent quality and flavour of fresh fruits, young leaves of cactus serve as nutritious vegetable and salad dish and\\u000a the immature fruits for making mock-gherkins. Cactus, with high water use efficiency produce forage for animals, vegetables,\\u000a and fruits with 14% glucose. Traditionally cactus used as a valuable health supporting nutrient and it also has applications\\u000a in pharmaceutical industries. Cactus

Anoop A. Shetty; M. K. Rana; S. P. Preetham

7

Cactus spine injuries.  

PubMed

Cactus spines produce injuries whose clinical significance is loosely in inverse proportion to the dimensions of the spine. Long and medium spines of saguaro and barrel cacti seldom result in embedded fragments, but when they do they are difficult to locate and remove. Other medium spines, those of prickly pear and cholla, are a nuisance but they can be removed readily by traction, as can the smaller spines (glochids) of the prickly pear. The very small spines (also glochids) of the polka dot or bunny's ear cactus (Opuntia microdasys) and the beavertail cactus (Opuntia basilaris) offer the most frustrating problem of all, but can be peeled off with a dried film of a professional facial gel. PMID:3390256

Lindsey, D; Lindsey, W E

1988-07-01

8

UK Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprehensive guide to the moths of Great Britain and Ireland, with photographs of live specimens, common and scientific names, and notes on biology. The aim of the site is to illustrate as many species of British moths as possible and to provide this information in an accessible format.

Kimber, Ian

9

Luna moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One reason why the luna moth is considered to be an insect is because its body is divided into three parts-the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Luna moths undergo complete metamorphosis, meaning that their offspring look very different from the adults until they actually reach adulthood.

Shawn Hanrahan (None;)

2004-01-01

10

Cactus Graphs for Genome Comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a data structure, analysis and visualization scheme called a cactus graph for comparing sets of related genomes. Cactus graphs capture some of the advantages of de Bruijn and breakpoint graphs in one unified framework. They naturally decompose the common substructures in a set of related genomes into a hierarchy of chains that can be visualized as multiple alignments and nets that can be visualized in circular genome plots.

Paten, Benedict; Diekhans, Mark; Earl, Dent; St. John, John; Ma, Jian; Suh, Bernard; Haussler, David

11

75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information about APHIS and its programs is available on the Internet at (http://www.aphis.usda.gov). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...approximately 0.86 to 1.4 inches) that is indigenous to Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It is a...

2010-07-15

12

Use of Cactus in Mortars and Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural polymers have been used in ancient times to improve the durability of lime-based mortars and concretes. The natural polymers used were locally available. In this work, cactus extract from Mexico has been tested in a Portland cement mortar. It is seen that cactus extract increases the plasticity of the mortar and improves water absorption and freeze-salt resistance. Calcium hydroxide

S. Chandra; L. Eklund; R. R. Villarreal

1998-01-01

13

Cactus: Algorithms for genome multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Much attention has been given to the problem of creating reliable multiple sequence alignments in a model incorporating substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Far less attention has been paid to the problem of optimizing alignments in the presence of more general rearrangement and copy number variation. Using Cactus graphs, recently introduced for representing sequence alignments, we describe two complementary algorithms for creating genomic alignments. We have implemented these algorithms in the new “Cactus” alignment program. We test Cactus using the Evolver genome evolution simulator, a comprehensive new tool for simulation, and show using these and existing simulations that Cactus significantly outperforms all of its peers. Finally, we make an empirical assessment of Cactus's ability to properly align genes and find interesting cases of intra-gene duplication within the primates.

Paten, Benedict; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Diekhans, Mark; Zerbino, Daniel; Haussler, David

2011-01-01

14

CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

Matti, Jonathan, C.; Kuizon, Lucia

1984-01-01

15

Use of cactus in mortars and concrete  

SciTech Connect

Natural polymers have been used in ancient times to improve the durability of lime-based mortars and concretes. The natural polymers used were locally available. In this work, cactus extract from Mexico has been tested in a Portland cement mortar. It is seen that cactus extract increases the plasticity of the mortar and improves water absorption and freeze-salt resistance. Calcium hydroxide produced by Portland cement hydration interacts with the components of cactus extract, polysaccharides or proteins, and forms complexes. It affects the crystallization process. Painting of the concrete with this extract has also shown improved water resistance.

Chandra, S. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eklund, L. [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Villarreal, R.R. [Univ. of Nuevo Leon, Monterry (Mexico)] [Univ. of Nuevo Leon, Monterry (Mexico)

1998-01-01

16

Cactus Spines in Tongues of Slaughtered Cattle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The damage caused by cactus spines predisposes the tongue to bacterial infection, leading to focal suppurative granulomas. The microscopic findings in these granulomas, which contain rosettes, are not unlike those associated with infection by Actinobacill...

G. Migaki L. E. Hinson G. D. Imes F. M. Garner

1969-01-01

17

Cholla cactus from the Sonora desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cacti have few leaves and waxy skin to reduce water loss, shallow root systems, and the ability to store water. The cholla cactus has thousands of spines for shade and to keep predators from eating it.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

18

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus Wren.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field applic...

H. L. Short

1985-01-01

19

Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O'Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. (US Geological Survey (US)); Kreidler, T.J. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1990-01-01

20

Native ecotypic variation and the role of host identity in the spread of an invasive herbivore, Cactoblastis cactorum.  

PubMed

Environmental niche models (ENMs) have gained enormous popularity as tools to investigate potential changes in species distributions resulting from climate change and species introductions. Despite recognition that species interactions can influence the dynamics of invasion spread, most implementations of ENMs focus on abiotic factors as the sole predictors of potential range limits. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that biotic interactions are relatively unimportant, either because of scaling issues, or because fundamental and realized niches are equivalent in a species' native range. When species are introduced into exotic landscapes, changes in biotic interactions relative to the native range can lead to occupation of different regions of niche space and apparent shifts in physiological tolerances. We use an escaped biological control organism, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.), to assess the role of the environmental envelope as compared with patterns of host-herbivore associations based on collections made in the native range. Because all nonnative populations are derived from a single C. cactorum ecotype, we hypothesize that biotic interactions associated with this ecotype are driving the species' invasion dynamics. Environmental niche models constructed from known native populations perform poorly in predicting nonnative distributions of this species, except where there is an overlap in niche space. In contrast, genetic isolation in the native range is concordant with the observed pattern of host use, and strong host association has been noted in nonnative landscapes. Our results support the hypothesis that the apparent shift in niche space from the native to the exotic ranges results from a shift in biotic interactions, and demonstrate the importance of considering biotic interactions in assessing the risk of future spread for species whose native range is highly constrained by biotic interactions. PMID:22624321

Brooks, Christopher P; Ervin, Gary N; Varone, Laura; Logarzo, Guillermo A

2012-02-01

21

A preliminary study on cactus as coagulant in water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coagulation performance of cactus to act as natural macromolecular coagulant was studied by the jar test. The cactus coagulation attained comparatively high turbidity removal efficiency, and water with turbidity less than 5NTU could be obtained with initial turbidities from 20 to 200. When used to treat the same water sample, the optimum dosage of cactus coagulant was found similar

Jingdong Zhang; Fang Zhang; Yuhong Luo; Hong Yang

2006-01-01

22

The De Havilland "Moth"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

1926-01-01

23

Cactus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transfer of data from one part of a computer to another has always been a complex task in which speed is traded against accuracy and the time required for error correction. Much more complex therefore is the transfer of information from one machine to another of a different type. Difficulties arise when machines are updated, when file formats…

Hyde, Hartley

2007-01-01

24

Cactus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cacti are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Cacti use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-07-17

25

Life of a Gypsy Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

26

Gypsy Moth in North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Sandy Liebhold at the USDA's Forest Service Northeastern Research Station (Forestry Sciences Laboratory), this Gypsy Moth site provides background information on Gypsy Moths, from their introduction to North America in the 1800s through current management efforts to control them. Ecological information on the moths' life cycle, forest relationships, and natural enemies is provided, in addition to several useful and informative maps on distribution. A selection of Gypsy Moth links are also included.

27

Phytochemical and nutritional significance of cactus pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses cactus pear fruit with special emphasis on its functional components. Besides their nutritional importance, their significance in plant physiology is also described. Opuntia sp. is characterized by high levels of amino acids, especially proline and taurine. The latter was recently re-evaluated in nutritional science as a conditional amino acid and was hitherto virtually unknown in plant tissues.

Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; R. Carle

2001-01-01

28

Lloyd's Mariposa Cactus ('Neolloydia mariposensis') Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lloyds Mariposa cactus, Neolloydia mariposensis (Hester) L. Benson, was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act on November 6, 1979 (USFWS 1979). It is also listed as threatened by the state of Texas. This species is known from...

K. D. Heil S. Brack

1990-01-01

29

Gypsy Moth Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

Hamel, Dennis R.

30

Chemistry of Moth Repellents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

Pinto, Gabriel

2005-01-01

31

Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Cactus Mucilage Nanofibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work seeks to fabricate, optimize, and characterize nanofibers of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage and Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by electrospinning. Mucilage is a neutral mixture of sugars produced by cactus and PVA is a non-toxic, water-soluble, synthetic polymer, which is widely used as a co-spinning agent for polymers. Mucilage was extracted from the cactus pad and prepared for electrospinning

Yanay Pais

2011-01-01

32

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus Wren  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Short, Henry L.

1985-01-01

33

Red clover with moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

Sage Ross (None;)

2007-09-23

34

Properties and postharvest behavior of the vegetable cactus Nopalea cochenillifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flattened stem segments (cladodes) of certain cactus species are eaten in Mexico as a vegetable, when still at the young tender stage (nopalitos). This study focuses on the properties and response under storage of vegetable cladodes of a spineless cactus species newly introduced to Israel, Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck. Cladodes of N. cochenillifera were found to be suitable for harvest

A. Nerd; M. Dumoutier; Y. Mizrahi

1997-01-01

35

Cactus extract increases water infiltration rates in two soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyacrylamides (PAM) and polysaccharides can be used as soil amendments to improve soil physical properties, including infiltration of water into soil. Mucilage from prickly pear cactus contains large polysaccharides. Two experiments were done to test the hypothesis that pretreating columns of soil with cactus extract would improve subsequent falling?head ponded infiltration of water. One experiment tested samples from a loamy

Duane Gardiner; Peter Felker; Todd Carr

1999-01-01

36

Pereskia and the Origin of the Cactus Life?Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cactus life-form is cited as an example of a tight relationship between organism form and function: a succulent, long- lived, photosynthetic stem allows cacti to survive long periods of drought while maintaining a positive tissue water status. Pereskia (Cactaceae) comprises 17 species of leafy shrubs and trees that are thought to represent the original cactus condition. Recent phylo- genetic

2006-01-01

37

The Cactus Framework and Toolkit: Design and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe Cactus, a framework for building a variety of computing applications in science and engineering, including astrophysics, relativity and chemical engineering. We first motivate by example the need for such frameworks to support multi-platform, high performance applications across diverse communities. We then describe the design of the latest release of Cactus (Version 4.0) a complete rewrite of earlier versions,

Tom Goodale; Gabrielle Allen; Gerd Lanfermann; Joan Massó; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel; John Shalf

2002-01-01

38

Tiger moth jams bat sonar.  

PubMed

In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

2009-07-17

39

Butterflies and Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn the different steps in the life cycle of a butterfly. Students will understand some of the differences between a moth and a butterfly BUTTERFLIES -Use the website below to find out information about the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterflies -Print off this worksheet and color the pictures of the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterfly Life Cycle Coloring Page -Click the link to the video. -Watch the video of a real butterfly going through the life cycle. Butterfly Life Cycle Video OR -If the video isn't ...

Sessions, Mrs.

2009-04-06

40

Yeast communities of the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae and associated insects in the Sandy coastal plains of southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The yeast communities from necrotic tissues, decaying flowers and fruits, and from larval feeding sites of the moth Sigelgaita sp. in the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae were surveyed in three restinga ecosystems in Southeastern Brazil. Insects associated with these substrates were sampled to verify the vectoring of yeasts. The cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae was shown to have four different yeast communities associated with it. Necrotic stems had a diverse yeast community with the prevalent species Pichia barkeri, Candida sonorensis, Pichia cactophila, Geotrichum sp., Myxozyma mucilagina and Sporopachydermia sp. A, representing about 80% of the total isolates. Pichia sp. A and a Candida domercqii-like species represented more than 90% of the yeast isolates from decaying flowers. Fruits had a heterogeneous yeast community with typical fruit yeasts of the genus Kloeckera, basidiomicetous anamorphs of the genus Cryptococcus, the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia sp. A, a Candida domercqii-like species, and some cactophilic yeasts, especially Clavispora opuntiae. The feeding site of Sigelgaita sp. larvae had Clavispora opuntiae as the prevalent species. Insect vectors are suggested as one the most important factors influencing the composition of these yeast communities. PMID:8060124

Rosa, C A; Morais, P B; Hagler, A N; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; Monteiro, R F

1994-01-01

41

Moth Repellent Chemicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The featured molecules this month come from the paper The chemistry of moth repellents by Gabriel Pinto. Several of the molecules exhibit interesting structural features that students should explore. Hexachloroethane, not surprisingly, has energy minima in the staggered form that is shown. Students could be asked to look at the models for empenthrin and permethrin to see if they can see similar staggered arrangements in these more complex molecules. Camphor is a good way to introduce strained structures, and students can use the Jmol version of the model to measure bond angles to see if they can identify some of the consequences of this strain. The carbonyl moiety in camphor is interesting as it is non-planar.

42

76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nevis, New Caledonia, Paraguay, South Africa, St. Helena, St. Lucia, St...Nevis, New Caledonia, Paraguay, South Africa, St. Helena, St. Lucia, St...Nevis, New Caledonia, Paraguay, South Africa, St. Helena, St. Lucia,...

2011-02-23

43

Population transcriptomics of cactus host shifts in Drosophila mojavensis.  

PubMed

In the presence of environmental change, natural selection can shape the transcriptome. Under a scenario of environmental change, genotypes that are better able to modulate gene expression to maximize fitness will tend to be favoured. Therefore, it is important to examine gene expression at the population level to distinguish random or neutral gene expression variation from the pattern produced by natural selection. This study investigates the natural variation in transcriptional response to a cactus host shift utilizing the mainland Sonora population of Drosophila mojavensis. Drosophila mojavensis is a cactophilic species composed of four cactus host populations endemic to the deserts of North America. Overall, the change in cactus host was associated with a significant reduction in larval viability as well as the differential expression of 21% of the genome (3109 genes). Among the genes identified were a set of genes previously known to be involved in xenobiotic metabolism, as well as genes involved in cellular energy production, oxidoreductase/carbohydrate metabolism, structural components and mRNA binding. Interestingly, of the 3109 genes whose expression was affected by host use, there was a significant overrepresentation of genes that lacked an orthologous call to the D. melanogaster genome, suggesting the possibility of an accelerated rate of evolution in these genes. Of the genes with a significant cactus effect, the majority, 2264 genes, did not exhibit a significant cactus-by-line interaction. This population-level approach facilitated the identification of genes involved in past cactus host shifts. PMID:22512269

Matzkin, Luciano M

2012-05-01

44

Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew.  

PubMed

A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails. PMID:24473133

Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

2014-01-01

45

Phylogeographic Structure in the Bogus Yucca Moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): Comparisons with Coexisting Pollinator Yucca Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas highlights the potential importance of host plant specificity in insect diversification. Historically, one pollinator moth species, Tegeticula yuccasella, was believed to pollinate most yuccas. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that it is a complex of at least 13 distinct species, eight of which are specific to one yucca species. Moths in the

David M. Althoff; Joshua D. Groman; Kari A. Segraves; Olle Pellmyr

2001-01-01

46

Cactus Pear: A Fruit of Nutraceutical and Functional Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constantly increasing demand for nutraceuticals is paralleled by a more pronounced request for natural ingredients and health-promoting foods. The multiple functional properties of cactus pear fit well this trend. Recent data revealed the high content of some chemical constituents, which can give added value to this fruit on a nutritional and technological functionality basis. High levels of betalains, taurine,

Antonio Piga

2004-01-01

47

CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.

2008-01-01

48

Pereskia and the origin of the cactus life-form.  

PubMed

The cactus life-form is cited as an example of a tight relationship between organism form and function: a succulent, long-lived, photosynthetic stem allows cacti to survive long periods of drought while maintaining a positive tissue water status. Pereskia (Cactaceae) comprises 17 species of leafy shrubs and trees that are thought to represent the original cactus condition. Recent phylogenetic work has shown that there are two separate clades of Pereskia species, which are basal and paraphyletic with respect to the rest of the cacti. We selected seven Pereskia species, representing both clades, and characterized their water relations by measuring a suite of physiological traits in wild populations. Additionally, we estimated basic climate parameters from collection localities for all 17 Pereskia species. Extant Pereskia species exhibit ecological water use patterns that are very similar to those of the leafless, stem-succulent cacti. Ancestral trait reconstruction for the physiological and environmental data provides a preliminary assessment of the ecology and water relations of the earliest cacti and suggests that several key elements of the cactus ecological niche were established before the evolution of the cactus life-form. We interpret these ecological traits as potentially important drivers of evolutionary innovation in the cacti. PMID:16649155

Edwards, Erika J; Donoghue, Michael J

2006-06-01

49

Extreme variation in floral characters and its consequences for pollinator attraction among populations of an Andean cactus  

PubMed Central

Background and aims A South American cactus species, Echinopsis ancistrophora (Cactaceae), with dramatic among-population variation in floral traits is presented. Methods Eleven populations of E. ancistrophora were studied in their habitats in northern Argentina, and comparisons were made of relevant floral traits such as depth, stigma position, nectar volume and sugar concentration, and anthesis time. Diurnal and nocturnal pollinator assemblages were evaluated for populations with different floral trait combinations. Key Results Remarkable geographical variations in floral traits were recorded among the 11 populations throughout the distribution range of E. ancistrophora, with flower lengths ranging from 4·5 to 24·1 cm. Other floral traits associated with pollinator attraction also varied in a population-specific manner, in concert with floral depth. Populations with the shortest flowers showed morning anthesis and those with the longest flowers opened at dusk, whereas those with flowers of intermediate length opened at unusual times (2300–0600 h). Nectar production varied non-linearly with floral length; it was absent to low (population means up to 15 µL) in short- to intermediate-length flowers, but was high (population means up to 170 µL) in the longest tubed flowers. Evidence from light-trapping of moths, pollen carriage on their bodies and moth scale deposition on stigmas suggests that sphingid pollination is prevalent only in the four populations with the longest flowers, in which floral morphological traits and nectar volumes match the classic expectations for the hawkmoth pollination syndrome. All other populations, with flowers 4·5–15 cm long, were pollinated exclusively by solitary bees. Conclusions The results suggest incipient differentiation at the population level and local adaptation to either bee or hawkmoth (potentially plus bee) pollination.

Schlumpberger, Boris O.; Cocucci, Andrea A.; More, Marcela; Sersic, Alicia N.; Raguso, Robert A.

2009-01-01

50

Explosives detection with hard-wired moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled, and tested. It compares the electromyographic signals of insects trained to respond or not respond to a target explosive vapor in order to determine whether or not explosive devices, such as

Tony L. King; Frank M. Horine; Kevin C. Daly; Brian H. Smith

2004-01-01

51

Automatic Species Identification of Live Moths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by species using the feature vectors. Whereas a previous analysis of this image dataset reported in the literature [1] required that each moth's least worn wing region be highlighted manually for each image, WEKA was able to achieve a greater level of accuracy (85%) using support vector machines without manual specification of a region of interest at all. This paper describes the features that were extracted from the images, and the various experiments using different classifiers and datasets that were performed. The results show that data mining can be usefully applied to the problem of automatic species identification of live specimens in the field.

Mayo, Michael; Watson, Anna T.

52

USDA Forest Service: Gypsy Moth Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Forest Service compiled information from its gypsy moth suppression, eradication, and slow-the-spread projects to provide you with a comprehensive informational website on gypsy moths. Information on the gypsy moth is organized here by state, and year. You can also browse topics using the menu on the right side of the page, which offers selections like, "Defoliation," "Maps and Charts," "Eradication," "Online Resources," and "Photo Gallery" among others. The gypsy moth has become a problem in 19 states so far, destroying oak, poplar, and birch trees among others. Resources on this site are geared toward students, professionals, homeowners and anyone else seeking information on gypsy moths, and range from basic introductory information to specific problems and topics.

1969-12-31

53

Nutrient intake and utilisation in sheep fed with prickly pear cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritive value of prickly pear cactus (Opuntiaspp.) was assessed on 18 adult rams divided into three equal groups fed either (i)Cenchrus ciliarishay to appetite plus 200 g concentrate (G1), (ii) chopped cactus andCenchrus ciliaris(G2), and (iii) chopped cactus andSorghum helepense(G3in a cafeteria system.Opuntia-fed groups G2and G3consumed 6·31 and 4·21 kg fresh cactus daily, amounting to 79 and 54% of

S. K. Sirohi; S. A. Karim; A. K. Misra

1997-01-01

54

A gradient of cactus protein degradation establishes dorsoventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo.  

PubMed

Dorsoventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo is established by a signaling pathway active on the ventral and ventrolateral surfaces of the embryo. Signal transduction via the protein kinase Pelle frees the Rel-related protein Dorsal from its cytoplasmic inhibitor Cactus, allowing Dorsal to translocate into ventral and ventrolateral nuclei and direct gene expression. Here, we show by immunochemical analyses that Pelle-mediated signaling induces the spatially graded degradation of Cactus. Using a tissue culture system which reconstitutes Pelle-dependent Cactus degradation, we show that a motif in Cactus resembling the sites of signal-dependent phosphorylation in the vertebrate homologs IkappaB-alpha and IkappaB-beta is essential for Pelle-induced Cactus degradation. Substitution of four serines within this motif with nonphosphorylatable alanine residues generated a mutant Cactus that still functions as a Dorsal inhibitor but is resistant to induced degradation. Injection of RNA encoding this altered form of Cactus has a dominant negative effect on establishment of dorsoventral polarity in the embryo. We conclude that dorsoventral signaling results in a Cactus concentration gradient and propose that signal-dependent phosphorylation directs the spatially regulated proteolysis of Cactus protein. PMID:8948598

Reach, M; Galindo, R L; Towb, P; Allen, J L; Karin, M; Wasserman, S A

1996-11-25

55

How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?  

PubMed

The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

2011-07-15

56

Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M. [Deptartment of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2006-07-11

57

Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M.

2006-07-01

58

Storage response of cactus pear fruit following hot water brushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage response of cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] following hot water brushing was investigated. Fruit were simultaneously brushed for spine removal and sprayed with water. Ranges of temperature (60–70°C) and treatment time intervals (10–30s) were evaluated. All tested treatments were found not to significantly affect respiration rate, total soluble solids or acid concentrations. Treatments at 60 and 65°C

Lydakis Dimitris; N. Pompodakis; E. Markellou; S. M. Lionakis

2005-01-01

59

Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE\\/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec\\/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in

Douglas Miller; Terence Holland

2008-01-01

60

Daily to decadal patterns of precipitation, humidity, and photosynthetic physiology recorded in the spines of the columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic analyses of cactus spines grown serially from the apex of long-lived columnar cactuses may be useful for climatological and ecological studies if time series can be reliably determined from spines. To characterize the timescales over which spines may record this information, we measured spine growth in saguaro cactus over days, months, and years with time-lapse photography, periodic marking, and

Nathan B. English; David L. Dettman; Darren R. Sandquist; David G. Williams

2010-01-01

61

Daily to Decadal Patterns of Precipitation, Humidity, and Photosynthetic Physiology Recorded in the Spines of the Columnar Cactus, Carnegiea Gigantea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic analyses of cactus spines grown serially from the apex of long-lived columnar cactuses may be useful for climatological and ecological studies if time series can be reliably determined from spines. To characterize the timescales over which spines may record this information, we measured spine growth in saguaro cactus over days, months, and years with time-lapse photography, periodic marking, and

Nathan B. English; David L. Dettman; Darren R. Sandquist; David G. Williams

2010-01-01

62

Protective effect of cactus ( Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily,

Najla Hfaiedh; Mohamed Salah Allagui; Mbarka Hfaiedh; Abdelfattah El Feki; Lazhar Zourgui; Françoise Croute

2008-01-01

63

Sisal fibre reinforced soil with cement or cactus pulp in bahareque technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve bahareque technique, sisal fibre reinforced soils were stabilised with cement or cactus pulp.Bending, abrasion resistance, water absorption and erosion tests were performed and the results were compared with those obtained on the traditional plasters used in soil technologies.The performance capabilities of sisal fibre reinforced soil stabilised with cement are better than those of cactus pulp stabilised

Roberto Mattone

2005-01-01

64

Developmental changes in composition and quality of prickly pear cactus cladodes (nopalitos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and quality of edible tender stems or cladodes of 3 Prickly Pear Cactus species (Opuntia amyclaea, O. ficus-indica, and O. inermis) were studied at different stages of development. This traditional Mexican vegetable is called “nopalitos” in Spanish and “cactus leaves” in English. Cladodes harvested when 20 cm in length have the following average composition per 100 g: 91.7

Armida Rodriguez-Felix; Marita Cantwell

1988-01-01

65

Physical properties of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus india L.) grown wild in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the physical properties of cactus pear, which is grown wild in Turkey, is necessary for the design of equipment for harvesting, transporting, cleaning, packing, storing, processing etc. of the fruit. In this study, some physical properties of cactus pears were determined, and the effects of different water contents on the properties were investigated. At water content levels from

Onder Kabas; Aziz Ozmerzi; Ibrahim Akinci

2006-01-01

66

7 CFR 318.13 - Notice of quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Asiatic rice borer (Chilo suppressalis ), the mango weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae (F.)), the Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burm.), and a cactus borer (Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.)), which are new to...

2009-01-01

67

Sex Pheromone of the Oriental Fruit Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chemistry and specificity of sex pheromones in two subfamilies of the lepidopterous family Tortricidae1,2 have been studied because of the large number of economically important insects included. We identified the pheromone structure of the red-banded leaf roller moth, Argyrotaenia velutinana (subfamily Tortricinae), as cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate3, and now report the pheromone structure of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (subfamily

Wendell L. Roelofs; André Comeau; Robert Selle

1969-01-01

68

North Kaibab Pandora Moth Outbreak, 1978-1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pandora moth outbreak in Arizona was studied from 1979 to 1985 to determine that moth's life cycle, densities and distribution of life stages, larval and adult behavior, effects of the defoliation, sampling procedures, importance of biotic mortality fac...

J. M. Schmid D. D. Bennett

1988-01-01

69

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

70

Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.  

PubMed

Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a ?-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

2011-01-01

71

Calpain A modulates Toll responses by limited Cactus/I?B proteolysis  

PubMed Central

Calcium-dependent cysteine proteases of the calpain family are modulatory proteases that cleave their substrates in a limited manner. Among their substrates, calpains target vertebrate and invertebrate I?B proteins. Because proteolysis by calpains potentially generates novel protein functions, it is important to understand how this affects NF?B activity. We investigate the action of Calpain A (CalpA) on the Drosophila melanogaster I?B homologue Cactus in vivo. CalpA alters the absolute amounts of Cactus protein. Our data indicate, however, that CalpA uses additional mechanisms to regulate NF?B function. We provide evidence that CalpA interacts physically with Cactus, recognizing a Cactus pool that is not bound to Dorsal, a fly NF?B/Rel homologue. We show that proteolytic cleavage by CalpA generates Cactus fragments lacking an N-terminal region required for Toll responsiveness. These fragments are generated in vivo and display properties distinct from those of full-length Cactus. We propose that CalpA targets free Cactus, which is incorporated into and modulates Toll-responsive complexes in the embryo and immune system.

Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Oliveira, Danielle; Buffolo, Marcio; Perlman, David H.; Schupbach, Trudi; Araujo, Helena

2013-01-01

72

Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

2010-01-01

73

The Drosophila ankyrin repeat protein cactus has a predominantly alpha-helical secondary structure.  

PubMed

The cactus protein is the Drosophila homologue of the mammalian I kappa B family of cytoplasmic anchor proteins. We have expressed in E. coli and purified a cactus fusion protein, CACT-Bgl. CACT-Bgl protein contains the six ankyrin repeat sequences which are necessary for specific binding to the Drosophila rel family transcription factor dorsal. We show that the purified CACT-Bgl protein can bind specifically to dorsal and, using circular dichroism spectroscopy, that the protein adopts a largely alpha-helical secondary structure. A further analysis of the ankyrin repeat domains of cactus, using an improved secondary structure prediction program indicates that the N-terminal of the repeat will form into a loop structure and the C-terminal section into an interrupted, amphipathic alpha-helix. On the basis of these findings we propose that the ankyrin repeats of cactus fold together into helical bundles interconnected by diverged loops. PMID:8253187

Gay, N J; Ntwasa, M

1993-12-01

74

Diamondback moth compensatory consumption of protease inhibitor-transformed plants.  

PubMed

Prior study of the effect of protease inhibitors (PIs) on diamondback moths suggests that moths are resistant to them, so PIs represent an ineffective defence against moths. However, our data suggest that diamondback moths do suffer lower growth rates when they consume plants transformed with potato protease inhibitor (PI2), but that effect is hidden by compensatory consumption. Plants, instead of gaining an advantage by lowering the insect growth rate, suffer a disadvantage as moths consume more tissue to mitigate the effect. Furthermore, PI2, when used in conjunction with another transgenic pesticidal protein, Bt (from Bacillus thuringiensis) counteracts the effectiveness of Bt at protecting plant tissue. Thus, transgenic PIs are not only less effective than previously thought in protecting Brassica plants from diamondback moths, they may actually lead to increased plant damage by the moths. PMID:11348512

Winterer, J; Bergelson, J

2001-04-01

75

Identity of cactus and lettuce spiroplasmas with Spiroplasma citri as determined by DNA-DNA hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of spiroplasma strains from the cactusOpuntia tuna monstrosa and from aster yellows-diseased lettuce is described. DNA from these strains (ATCC 29594 and ATCC 29747) is compared with\\u000a DNA fromSpiroplasma citri, and from the corn stunt and suckling mouse cataract spiroplasmas. The cactus and the lettuce isolates are found to be identical\\u000a withS. citri by this method.

Claus Christiansen; E. A. Freundt; K. Maramorosch

1980-01-01

76

Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

1980-01-01

77

Evolutionary consequences of dispersal ability in cactus-feeding insects.  

PubMed

Although gene flow is an important determinant of evolutionary change, the role of ecological factors such as specialization in determining migration and gene flow has rarely been explored empirically. To examine the consequences of dispersal ability and habitat patchiness on gene flow, migration rates were compared in three cactophagous longhorn beetles using coalescent analyses of mtDNA sequences. Analyses of covariance were used to identify the roles of dispersal ability and habitat distribution in determining migration patterns. Dispersal ability was a highly significant predictor of gene flow (p< 0.001), and was more important than any other factor. These findings predict that dispersal ability may be an import factor shaping both microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns; this prediction is borne out by comparisons of species diversity in cactus-feeding groups. PMID:16636926

Smith, Christopher Irwin; Farrell, Brian D

2006-03-01

78

Ultrasonic Signal Competition Between Male Wax Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair formation in the lesser wax moth, Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera: Pyral- idae), is effected by male ultrasonic signals that are attractive to receptive fe- males within 1-2 m. The males typically aggregate in the vicinity of the larval food resource, honeybee colonies, and signal for 6-10 h each night. Females are known to choose males on a relative basis and

Feng-You Jia; Michael D. Greenfield; Robert D. Collins

2001-01-01

79

Pheromone-Regulated Anemotaxis in Flying Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain male moths flying upwind toward a scent-producing female appear to be guided anemotactically by optomotor reactions to the ground pattern. Loss of the odor stimulus changes the anemotactic angle from into wind to across wind with left-right reversals.

J. S. Kennedy; D. Marsh

1974-01-01

80

Supplementation with barley or spineless cactus ( Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) cladodes on digestion, growth and intramuscular fatty acid composition in sheep and goats receiving oaten hay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 84-day experiment, comprising growth and digestibility trials, was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing barley with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) cladodes (cactus) on feed intake, digestion, blood metabolites, growth and meat quality of male lambs and kids consuming oaten hay. The replacement of barley by cactus decreased drinking water intake (P=0.002) but had no effect

S. Abidi; H. Ben Salem; V. Vasta; A. Priolo

2009-01-01

81

Caripito itch: dermatitis from contact with Hylesia moths.  

PubMed

Caripito itch, a pruritic dermatosis rarely seen in the United States, is caused by contact with moths of the genus Hylesia--specifically, with urticating abdominal hairs of the adult female moth. The purpose of this study was to investigate an outbreak of Caripito itch that occurred in thirty-four of thirty-five crew members of a British oil tanker who were exposed to Hylesia moths at the port of Caripito, Venezuela. Methods of investigation included general history and physical examination of all crew members, complete inspection of the ship, transparent-tape slide preparations from involved skin, cutaneous histopathologic studies, and entomologic examination of the moths. The patients had a typical papulourticarial eruption, primarily on exposed surfaces. Although Hylesia moths do not occur in the United States, primary care physicians and dermatologists, especially those located in port cities, should be aware of cutaneous lepidopterism caused by Hylesia moths. PMID:4078069

Dinehart, S M; Archer, M E; Wolf, J E; McGavran, M H; Reitz, C; Smith, E B

1985-11-01

82

Abscission Layer Formation as a Resistance Response of Peruvian Apple Cactus Against Glomerella cingulata.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Stem disks from 2-year-old cacti Cereus tetragonus (susceptible) and C. peruvianus (resistant) were inoculated in the center (pith) with Glomerella cingulata isolated from Colletotrichum stem rot in three-angled cacti. The susceptible cactus became extensively colonized, whereas colonization was limited to a small area in the resistant cactus. The resistant cactus formed prominent abscission layers (ALs) in parenchyma internal to the inoculation site. Ethanol extracts of the fungal culture also stimulated AL formation in the resistant cactus. Initial cell division followed at 2 to 4 days after treatment, and layering of multiple cells at 7 days after treatment. After 10 days, the outer layers were sometimes sloughed from the inner layers. No AL formation was induced in susceptible C. tetragonus treated with ethanol extract or in untreated control cacti. Light and electron microscopy revealed that initial cell division occurred by cell wall formation, and that an additional cell wall was layered in pre-existing parenchyma cells without ordinary cell division. Later, separation layers formed in ALs where inner cell walls appeared to be thickened secondarily, and the cell walls and middle lamella within the layer dissolved. These results suggest that AL formation in the resistant cactus is induced by fungal metabolites, and that it serves as a histological barrier against anthracnose pathogens. PMID:18944021

Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang-Hyung

2002-09-01

83

Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. PMID:24799205

Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

2014-10-01

84

Anthropogenic drivers of gypsy moth spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is a polyphagous defoliator introduced to Medford, Massachusetts in 1869. It has spread to over 860,000 km2 in North America, but this still only represents ¼ of its susceptible host range in the United States. To delay defoliation\\u000a in the remaining susceptible host range, the government maintains a barrier zone and a quarantine, reflecting a

Kevin M. Bigsby; Patrick C. Tobin; Erin O. Sills

85

Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions  

PubMed Central

Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as combinatorial signals and use the integrated floral traits from their memory traces to mediate future foraging decisions.

Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcon, Ruben

2013-01-01

86

A flux capacitor for moth pheromones.  

PubMed

In this issue of Chemical Senses, Baker et al. propose a provocative and intriguing explanation for a commonly observed phenomenon in moth chemocommunication. Sex pheromones in moths typically consist of mixtures of long-chain unsaturated compounds in specific ratios. These ratios are correspondingly detected by male moths using separate olfactory sensory neurons for each pheromone component housed singly or multiply in long trichoid sensilla on the antennal surface. These neurons are often present in different proportions, typically with the neuron responding to the highest ratio component present in greatest abundance or with the largest dendritic diameter. In their article, Baker et al. postulate that these physical differences in neuron magnitudes arise to compensate for the higher molecular flux present with the most abundant pheromone components. Such a suggestion raises several questions concerning the physiological and behavioral nature of pheromone communication. Specifically, is the flux in a natural pheromone plume high enough to warrant increased flux detection for the most abundant components? Second, how can changes in neuronal number or size lead to increased flux detection? And finally, how would this increased flux detection be accomplished at molecular, cellular, and ultimately network scales? We address each of these questions and propose future experiments that could offer insight into the stimulating proposition raised by Baker et al. PMID:22334600

Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

2012-05-01

87

Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

2012-12-01

88

Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

2013-12-01

89

Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

2011-12-01

90

Odour-source localization system mimicking behaviour of silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for localizing odour sources by mimicking the behaviour of silkworm moths is proposed. A male silkworm moth is able to localize its female counterpart by tracking airborne sexual pheromone. Through the observation of this behaviour, we have confirmed that wing vibrations are effective in enhancing the directivity of the odour stimulus. An artificial system with this mechanism

H. Ishida; K. Hayashi; M. Takakusaki; T. Nakamoto; T. Moriizumi; R. Kanzaki

1995-01-01

91

User's Guide for GMPHEN: Gypsy Moth Phenology Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GMPHEN is a flexible, menu-driven computer model that uses daily temperatures and previously published data to predict the timing of gypsy moth and host development. The model simulates gypsy moth egg hatch, larval and pupal development, and budbreak and ...

K. A. Sheehan

1992-01-01

92

Nocturnal activity positively correlated with auditory sensitivity in noctuoid moths.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between predator detection threshold and antipredator behaviour in noctuoid moths. Moths with ears sensitive to the echolocation calls of insectivorous bats use avoidance manoeuvres in flight to evade these predators. Earless moths generally fly less than eared species as a primary defence against predation by bats. For eared moths, however, there is interspecific variation in auditory sensitivity. At the species level, and when controlling for shared evolutionary history, nocturnal flight time and auditory sensitivity were positively correlated in moths, a relationship that most likely reflects selection pressure from aerial-hawking bats. We suggest that species-specific differences in the detection of predator cues are important but often overlooked factors in the evolution and maintenance of antipredator behaviour. PMID:18319206

ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

2008-06-23

93

Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a cactus.  

PubMed

A novel high G+C actinobacterium, designated strain OS1-21(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a cactus (Opuntia fiscus-indica var. sanboten) and the taxonomic status was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain OS1-21(T) were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming, non-motile rods; colonies of the cells were circular, translucent, smooth and moderate yellow in colour. ll-Diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C16?:?0, iso-C16?:?0 2-OH, 10-methyl C17?:?0, 10-methyl C18?:?0 and C17?:?1cis9. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 73.7 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Nocardioides panacihumi Gsoil 616(T) (98.7?% sequence similarity) and Nocardioides terrae VA15(T) (97.8?%), followed by Nocardioides marinus CL-DD14(T) (97.1?%). DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain OS1-21(T) with the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours were low (<16.0?%). Combined data of polyphasic taxonomic analyses revealed that the organism could be assigned to a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OS1-21(T) (?=?KCTC 19804(T)?=?NBRC 107915(T)). PMID:24670898

Lee, Soon Dong; Seong, Chi Nam

2014-06-01

94

Effect of temperature on shelf life and microbial population of lightly processed cactus pear fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using cactus pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cv. Gialla) to produce ready-to-eat fruit was investigated. Changes in sensory quality and proliferation of spoilage microorganisms on lightly processed and packaged fruit as a function of storage temperature and modified atmosphere packaging were measured. The shelf life of the samples was kinetically modelled in order to check the

M. R Corbo; C Altieri; D D’Amato; D Campaniello; M. A Del Nobile; M Sinigaglia

2004-01-01

95

Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument Environmental Assessment, May 2003. Visitor Center Area Parking and Roadway Modifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the proposed project is to provide a safe parking area and access road at the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (OPCNM) visitor center for the benefit of all users (motorists, bicyclists and pedestrians). The proposed project is needed to...

2003-01-01

96

Water relations and photosynthesis of a barrel cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes , in the Colorado desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural characteristics, water relations, and photosynthesis of Ferocactus acanthodes (Lemaire) Britton and Rose, a barrel cactus exhibiting Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), were examined in its native habitat in the western Colorado desert. Water storage in its succulent stem permitted nighttime stomatal opening ot continue for about 40 days after the soil water potential became less than that of the

Park S. Nobel

1977-01-01

97

A greenhouse study on root dynamics of cactus pears, Opuntia ficus-indica and O. robusta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 10 years a great interest in spineless cactus pear was shown in the drier areas in terms of both fresh fruit and fodder production. However, there is a lack of knowledge on quantitative data on root dynamics of these plants needed to fully understand its potential under water limiting conditions. This study aimed at quantifying the effects

H. A. Snyman

2006-01-01

98

Parenchyma-Chlorenchyma Water Movement during Drought for the Hemiepiphytic Cactus Hylocereus undatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims Hylocereus undatus, a hemiepiphytic cactus cultivated in 20 countries for its fruit, hasfleshy stems whose water storage is crucial for surviving drought. Inter-tissue water transfer during drought was therefore analysed based on cell volumes and water potential components. Methods In addition to determining cell dimensions, osmotic pressures and water potentials, a novel but simple procedure leading to

PARK S. NOBEL

2006-01-01

99

Analysis of Core Soil and Water Samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak Atoll.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of exp 137 Cs, exp 90 Sr, exp 239+240 Pu and exp 241 Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry proc...

W. L. Robison V. E. Noshkin

1981-01-01

100

Water availability and the competitive effect of a columnar cactus on its nurse plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted in a semi-arid tropical ecosystem in Mexico to test whether competition for soil water is the causal mechanism underlying the negative effect of the columnar cactus Nrohuxbaumitr tetetzo on its nurse plant Mimosa hiscma and to examine how this relationship varies over time. The effect of irrigation was evaluated by recording the production of leaves,

Arturo Flores-Martinez; Exequiel Ezcurra; Salvador Stinchez-Col

1998-01-01

101

Germination responses of three congeneric cactus species ( Neobuxbaumia) with differing degrees of rarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed germination patterns may have a direct impact on the level of rarity of a species. We analysed the germination behaviour of three cactus species differing in their degree of rarity: Neobuxbaumia macrocephala, N. tetetzo, and N. mezcalaensis. Germination treatments included different temperatures, immersion in HCl, darkness, and different water potentials. The rarest species, N. macrocephala, showed the lowest germinability

C. A. Ramírez-Padilla; T. Valverde

2005-01-01

102

Water availability and the competitive effect of a columnar cactus on its nurse plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted in a semi-arid tropical ecosystem in Mexico to test whether competition for soil water is the causal mechanism underlying the negative effect of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia tetetzo on its nurse plant Mimosa luisana and to examine how this relationship varies over time. The effect of irrigation was evaluated by recording the production of leaves,

Arturo Flores-Martínez; Exequiel Ezcurra; Salvador Sánchez-Colón

1998-01-01

103

Water Diffusivity and Color of Cactus Pear Fruits (Opuntia Ficus Indica) Subjected to Osmotic Dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the results of a series of tests whose main purpose was to determinate how osmotic drying influences both water loss and color retention in cactus pear fruits. The dehydration process was performed using a 3 experimental design which involved three different sugar concentration levels (40, 50, and 608Brix) and three different temperatures (25, 40, and 558C). A

E. J. Moreno-Castillo; R. González-García; A. Grajales-Lagunes; M. A. Ruiz-Cabrera; M. Abud-Archila

2005-01-01

104

Thermal energy exchange model and water loss of a barrel cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of various diurnal stomatal opening patterns, spines, and ribs on the stem surface temperature and water economy of a CAM succulent, the barrel cactus Ferocactus acanthodes, were examined using an energy budget model. To incorporate energy exchanges by shortwave and longwave irradiation, latent heat, conduction, and convection as well as the heat storage in the massive stem, the

D. A. Lewis; P. S. Nobel

1977-01-01

105

Obtention of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Product from Cactus (Opuntia boldinghii Britton and Rose) Cladodes Whole Flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to obtain an enzymatically hydrolyzed product from cactus cladodes whole flour (Opuntia boldinghii Britton and Rose). The whole flour was subjected to the action of th e commercially prepared enzymes Pectinex® Ultra SP-L and Cellubrix® L (1:1 ratio). The experiments were carried out under fixed conditions of temperature of 50 C ± 1 C

C. A. Padron Pereira; M. J. Moreno Alvarez; C. A. Medina-Martinez; D. M. Garcia Pantaleon

2009-01-01

106

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code  

Microsoft Academic Search

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine

Matthew Franklin Barone; Jonathan Murray

2010-01-01

107

Susceptibility of South African Cactus Pear Varieties to Four Fungi Commonly Associated With Disease Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten of the commercially most important cultivars of spineless cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) were screened in the glasshouse and field for their susceptibility to four fungal pathogens (Phialocephala virens, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium sp1 and Fusarium sp2) commonly associated with cladode and fruit diseases in South Africa during surveys conducted over the last three years. The fungi were artificially inoculated by

Wijnand J. Swart; Rachel M. Oelofse; Maryke T. Labuschagne

108

Malagasy birds as hosts for eye-frequenting moths.  

PubMed

While tear-feeding in moths on mammals is widespread, there have been no reports of this behaviour in Madagascar and none on birds. We report that a moth, Hemiceratoides hieroglyphica belonging to the Calpini, a generally fruit-feeding or blood-feeding lineage of noctuids, attacks sleeping birds in Madagascar. This moth is able to intrude its sharply tipped proboscis into a closed bird's eye. The proboscis is characterized by a specific armoury of hooks, barbs and spines similar to that in piercing calpines but dissimilar to that in other tear-feeding moths. This is the first report of exploitation of tears by Lepidoptera from the closed eyes of sleeping birds. PMID:17251126

Hilgartner, Roland; Raoilison, Mamisolo; Büttiker, Willhelm; Lees, David C; Krenn, Harald W

2007-04-22

109

Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths  

PubMed Central

Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls.

Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

2013-01-01

110

Southwestern Pine Tip Moth Damage to Ponderosa Pine Reproduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The southwestern pine tip moth deforms young pines by mining growth tips. Deformities, recognizable several years after initial attack, are categorized as prune, crook, fork, posthorn, bush, and spiketop. Combinations of deformities--crook/prune, bush/cro...

G. Lessard D. T. Jennings

1976-01-01

111

New Pheromone Components of the Grapevine Moth Lobesia botrana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid\\u000a moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to

Peter Witzgall; Marco Tasin; Hans-Ruedi Buser; Gertrud Wegner-Kiß; Vicente S. Marco Mancebón; Claudio Ioriatti; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Marie Bengtsson; Lutz Lehmann; Wittko Francke

2005-01-01

112

An unusual lepidopteran sex pheromone system in the bagworm moth.  

PubMed

The female sex pheromone of the bagworm moth is (R)-1-methylbutyl decanoate. The antipode is biologically inactive and it neither enhances nor detracts from the potency of the R enantiomer. Unlike other moths for which female pheromones have been identified, the female secretes the pheromone from glands on her thorax and it is disseminated from hair that is shed from her body. PMID:17798283

Leonhardt, B A; Neal, J W; Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Plimmer, J R

1983-01-21

113

The neuroethology of sound production in tiger moths (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Certain species of tiger moths emit clicks when stimulated by bat-like sounds. These clicks are generated by modified thoracic episterna (tymbals) (Fig. 1) and constitute a rhythmic behaviour activated by simple sensory input.2.Tymbal periods are indirectly related to stimulus intensity and periods (Fig. 3). Moths initiate sounds with the tymbal opposite to the stimulated ear and once a sequence commences

James H. Fullard

1992-01-01

114

Evidence for histamine in the urticating hairs of Hylesia moths.  

PubMed

An urticarial dermatosis after contact with the urticating hairs of the adult female Hylesia moth may occur by several mechanisms including the intradermal injection of inflammatory mediators through the urticating hairs. Extracts were prepared from whole moths, urticating hairs, and other moth parts. Each of these extracts was subjected to a radioenzyme assay for histamine. Histamine was present in extracts made from whole moths and from urticating hairs. Extracts made from other moth parts contained no histamine. Cutaneous wheals occurred after intradermal injections of histamine and various concentrations of Hylesia extract (HE) into the backs of cynomolgus monkeys. This whealing response was suppressed by pretreatment of the animals with diphenhydramine hydrochloride, but not by pretreatment with indomethacin. Histologic examinations showed a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate around dilated capillaries without evidence of mast cell degranulation in HE-injected sites but not in controls. These findings provide evidence that histamine may be the mediator responsible for the urticarial lesions seen after contact with Hylesia moths. PMID:3585053

Dinehart, S M; Jorizzo, J L; Soter, N A; Noppakun, N; Voss, W R; Hokanson, J A; Smith, E B

1987-06-01

115

Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.  

PubMed

Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5?Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded. PMID:24651317

Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

2014-01-01

116

Dating Cactus: Annual and Sub-annual Variations of Oxygen-18, Carbon-13 and Radiocarbon in Spines of a Columnar Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured ?18O, ?13C and F14C of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro), to resolve a record of plant physiological responses to annual and sub-annual climate variation in the eastern Sonoran Desert. Spines grow from the apex of the cactus and are arranged serially along the side of the cactus oldest at the base, youngest at the apex. To establish the age of the spine series, we measured F14C of spines collected at 8 different heights from the apex (3.77 m) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. These spines yielded fractions of modern carbon (F14C) from 0.9679 and 1.5537, indicating the presence of carbon in spine tissue derived from atmospheric nuclear testing. We used the F14C of spine tissue to calculate the year of spine emergence for each of the 11 spines, assuming minimal re-allocation of stored carbon to growing spines. At the same 8 heights, we interpolated the date of spine emergence from observed height measurements made between 1964 and 2002. A very strong positive correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001) between the F14C age of spines and ages determined from direct height measurements was observed, with a two year offset suggesting incorporation of carbon from fossil fuel combustion sources in the Tucson basin. Additionally, spine tips from 97 spines collected serially from the top half of the same saguaro (between 1.77 and 3.50 m) and representing ~15 years of growth, yielded ?18O variations in spine bulk organic material from 38° to 50° (VSMOW) and in ?13C from ° to 11.5° (VPDB). The ?18O and ?13C values were positively correlated over the entire record (linear regression, r2 = 0.22, P < 0.0001). These variations occurred at or near an annual frequency. The most negative ?18O and ?13C values in bulk spine organic material from the naturally occurring cactus were observed in spines grown shortly following the 1983 and 1993 strong El Niño winter precipitation events in Tucson, suggesting that isotopes in spine tissue are a good proxy of these climate anomalies. We found similar ?18O, ?13C and F14C variations and relationships in a longer record (172 spines) from a 4.1 m tall saguaro 30 km distant. Temporal isotopic records from saguaro and potentially other long-lived succulent plants may provide useful high-frequency records of ecological responses to climate variation in desert environments where other such records are lacking.

Dettman, D. L.; English, N. B.; Sandquist, D. R.; Williams, D. G.

2006-12-01

117

Divergence in Olfactory Host Plant Preference in D. mojavensis in Response to Cactus Host Use  

PubMed Central

Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations.

Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S.; Rollmann, Stephanie M.

2013-01-01

118

Divergence in olfactory host plant preference in D. mojavensis in response to cactus host use.  

PubMed

Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

Date, Priya; Dweck, Hany K M; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S; Rollmann, Stephanie M

2013-01-01

119

Olfactory Receptors in Small Ermine Moths (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) Electrophysiology and Morphology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Distribution of sense organs on male antennae of small ermine moths, Yponomeuta spp. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae); Single cell responses from olfactory receptors of small ermine moths to sex attractants; Comparison of single cell responses of an...

J. N. C. van der Pers

1980-01-01

120

A Linear Algorithm for the Pos\\/Neg-Weighted 1Median Problem on a Cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1-median problem on a network asks for a vertex minimizing the sum of the weighted shortest path distances from itself\\u000a to all other vertices, each associated with a certain positive weight. We allow fornegative weights as well and devise an exact algorithm for the resulting ‘pos\\/neg-weighted’ problem defined on a cactus. The algorithm\\u000a visits every vertex just once and

Rainer E. Burkard; Jakob Krarup

1998-01-01

121

Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll  

SciTech Connect

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

1981-02-18

122

Physiological ecology of seed germination for the columnar cactus Stenocereus queretaroensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of seed germination to temperature, water potential, time after harvest, and light were investigated for Stenocereus queretaroensis, a columnar cactus native to west central Mexico. Germination was optimal between 20°C and 30°C, and the germination percentage decreased as the water potential was lowered from 0·00 to ?1·0 MPa. Maximal germination of 85% occurred for seeds that were 11 –

Erick De la Barrera; Park S. Nobel

2003-01-01

123

Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of ¹³⁷Cs, ⁹°Sr, \\/sup 239 +240\\/Pu and ²⁴¹Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island

W. L. Robison; V. E. Noshkin

1981-01-01

124

Yield and physiological traits of prickly pear cactus ‘nopal’ ( Opuntia spp.) cultivars under drip irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drip irrigation system was installed above ground at 30, 45, and 60% of the weekly-accumulated evaporation depth to evaluate productivity of harvested green cladodes (leaf-like stem segments) of the prickly pear cactus. Results showed that irrigating above 30% does not increase crop production. This percentage represents an annual irrigation depth of 0.74m, which is one of the lowest in

Arnoldo Flores-Hernández; Ignacio Orona-Castillo; Bernardo Murillo-Amador; Jose Luis Garcia-Hernandez; Enrique Troyo-Dieguez

2004-01-01

125

Water relations and mucopolysaccharide increases for a winter hardy cactus during acclimation to subzero temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thickness, relative water content (RWC), osmotic pressure, water potential isotherms, and mucopolysaccharide content were measured for the photosynthetic chlorenchyma and the water-storage parenchyma of the winter hardy cactus, Opuntia humifusa, after shifting from day\\/night air temperatures of 25° C\\/15° C to 5° C\\/-5° C. After 14 d at 5° C\\/-5° C, the average fraction of water contained in the symplast

Michael E. Loik; Park S. Nobel

1991-01-01

126

The xanthophyll cycle and energy dissipation in differently oriented faces of the cactus Opuntia macrorhiza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal changes in titratable acidity, photosynthesis, energy dissipation activity, and the carotenoid composition of differently\\u000a oriented cladodes of the cactus Opuntia macrorhiza were characterized during exposure to full sunlight in the field. Four cladode faces were chosen such that each was exposed\\u000a to maximum photon flux densities (PFD) at different times of the day in addition to receiving different daily

D. H. Barker

1997-01-01

127

Endophytic bacteria of Mammillaria fraileana , an endemic rock-colonizing cactus of the southern Sonoran Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small cactus Mammillaria fraileana is a pioneer rock-colonizing plant harboring endophytic bacteria with the potential for nitrogen fixation and rock weathering\\u000a (phosphate solubilization and rock degradation). In seeds, only a combination of culture-independent methods, such as fluorescence\\u000a in situ hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence vital staining, detected significant amounts of non-culturable,\\u000a but living, endophytic bacteria distributed underneath the

Blanca R. Lopez; Yoav Bashan; Macario Bacilio

2011-01-01

128

Dark matter and gamma rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to nonthermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco’s dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

Bergström, Lars; Hooper, Dan

2006-03-01

129

Appetitive flight patterns of male Agrotis segetum moths over landscape scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented of the first harmonic radar studies of pheromone-plume locating flights of male Agrotis segetum moths over distances of up to 500m. Upon release most moths flew in a direction having a downwind component. The first significant changes in flight orientations occur in the immediate vicinity of a pheromone source. Moths that were initially flying downwind change

A. M. Reynolds; D. R. Reynolds; A. D. Smith; G. P. Svensson; C. Löfstedt

2007-01-01

130

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

131

The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family.  

PubMed

Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R), blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies. PMID:24205129

Xu, Pengjun; Lu, Bin; Xiao, Haijun; Fu, Xiaowei; Murphy, Robert W; Wu, Kongming

2013-01-01

132

Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

2011-01-01

133

RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS  

SciTech Connect

HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-09-01

134

An epidemiologic study of gypsy moth rash.  

PubMed Central

In 1981, outbreaks of itchy skin rashes were reported accompanying the heavy infestation of gypsy moths (GM) in the Northeastern United States. The rash problem was widespread and a considerable public annoyance. In the spring of 1982, during the period of greatest contact with the caterpillars, a telephone survey was carried out in a highly infested community (HI) and a minimally infested community (LO). Information was collected from 1,000 persons, representing more than 90 per cent of those selected for study. The one-week risk of rash was 10.4 per cent in the HI area and 1.6 per cent in the LO area, for a risk ratio (RR) of 6.5. The occurrence of rash was strongly related to a history of having had a rash in the previous year or having had a caterpillar crawl on the affected area. The combination of both factors additively increased the risk of rash. Hay fever and hanging the wash outside were other related variables. History of allergies other than hay fever since childhood and the use of insecticides were unrelated to rash occurrence.

Tuthill, R W; Canada, A T; Wilcock, K; Etkind, P H; O'Dell, T M; Shama, S K

1984-01-01

135

Resolving the Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the "wings" observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

2013-09-01

136

Identification of a sex pheromone component of the geometrid moth Milionia basalis pryeri.  

PubMed

A single component in extracts of virgin female Milionia basalis pryeri moths elicited responses from male moth antennae. This compound (ca. 7 ng/female) was identified as (Z,Z)-(3S,4R)-3,4-epoxynonadeca-6,9-diene by GC-MS and NMR analyses, microchemical reactions, and comparative chiral HPLC. In a field test, synthetic (Z,Z)-(3S,4R)-3,4-epoxynonadeca-6,9-diene attracted male moths. The opposite enantiomer, the racemic mixture, and virgin female moths held in small cages attracted no more moths than the solvent controls. PMID:15898506

Yasui, Hiroe; Wakamura, Sadao; Arakaki, Norio; Irei, Hideki; Kiyuna, Chouji; Ono, Hiroshi; Yamazawa, Hiroyuki; Ando, Tetsu

2005-03-01

137

Imprinted moth-eye antireflection patterns on glass substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-micron sized, conical shaped moth-eye structure was transferred to thermoplastic polymer film, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using hot embossing process. Since master template was made of polycarbonate, embossing temperature and pressure were carefully maintained to 100°C and 10 atm. Conical shaped moth-eye pattern was reversed to tapered hole pattern on PVC film. Hot embossed PVC film was then used as transparent template for subsequent UV nanoimprint process, in order to form the conical shaped sub-micron moth-eye structure on glass substrate. After thin layer of Si oxide and monolayer of self-assembled, silane based molecules was coated on hot embossed PVC film. UV nanoimprint process was done on the glass substrate using hot embossed PVC film. As a result, the transmittance of glass substrate was increased from 91 to 94% for single side patterned and 96% for both side patterned glass substrate for the spectral range of 350 to 800 nm.

Hong, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Byeong-Ju; Han, Kang-Soo; Hong, Eun-Ju; Lee, Heon; Choi, Kyung-Woo

2009-03-01

138

The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

2013-10-01

139

Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

1984-01-01

140

Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?  

PubMed

Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth. PMID:22691198

Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

2012-06-01

141

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

2010-12-01

142

Contact Toxicity of 40 Insecticides Tested on Pandora Moth Larvae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty insecticides and an antifeeding compound were tested on pandora moth larvae (Coloradia pandora Blake) in the second and third instars. A total of 21 insecticides were more toxic at LD90 than DDT, providing a good choice of candidates for field testi...

R. L. Lyon

1971-01-01

143

Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times. PMID:10787157

Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

2000-03-22

144

Energetic cost of sexual attractiveness: ultrasonic advertisement in wax moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair formation in the lesser wax moth,Achroia grisella(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is initiated by male ultrasonic signals that attract receptive females. Individual males vary in attractiveness to females, and the most attractive males are distinguished by exaggeration of three signal characters: pulse rate, peak amplitude and asynchrony interval (temporal separation between pulses generated by movements of the left and right wings during

KLAUS REINHOLD; MICHAEL D. GREENFIELD; YIKWEON JANG; ALBERTO BROCE

1998-01-01

145

Physiological mismatching between neurons innervating olfactory glomeruli in a moth  

PubMed Central

The primary olfactory centres of most vertebrates and most neopteran insects are characterized by the presence of spherical neuropils, glomeruli, where synaptic interactions between olfactory receptor neurons and second-order neurons take place. In the neopteran insect taxa investigated so far, receptor neurons of a specific physiological identity target one glomerulus and thus bestow a functional identity on the glomerulus. In moths, input from pheromone-specific receptor neurons is received in a male-specific structure of the antennal lobe, called the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which consists of a number of specialized glomeruli. Each glomerulus of the complex receives a set of peripheral sensory afferents that encode one of several compounds involved in sexual communication. The complex is also innervated by dendritic branches of antennal lobe output neurons called projection neurons, which transfer information from the antennal lobe to higher centres of the brain. A hypothesis stemming from earlier work on moths claims that the receptor neuron innervation pattern of the MGC should be reflected in the pattern of dendrites of projection neurons invading the different MGC glomeruli. In this study we show that in the noctuid moth Trichoplusia ni, as in several other noctuid moth species, this hypothesis does not hold. The degree of matching between axon terminals of receptor neurons and the dendritic branches of identified projection neurons that express similar physiological specificity is very low.

Anton, S.; Hansson, B. S.

1999-01-01

146

Young Scientists Explore Butterflies and Moths. Book 4 Primary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on butterflies and moths and their stages of development. The first section contains exercises on recognizing insect body…

Penn, Linda

147

Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.  

PubMed

The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed. PMID:18284745

Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

2007-10-01

148

MVP, a Novel Bioinsecticide for the Control of Diamondback Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

MVP bioinsecticide is the first in a new class of biopesticide products based on Mycogen Corporation's novel CellCap bioencapsulation technology. MVP contains a selected endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki that is highly active against diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.). Using the CellCap system, this toxin is encapsulated and stabilized within dead bacterial cells that are killed and fixed

George G. Soares; Thomas C. Quick

149

Distribution of Paradine Plains Cactus in Pinyon-Juniper Woodland on the North Kaibab Ranger District, Kaibab National Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys for Paradine plains cactus (Pediocactus paradinei B. W. Benson) conducted for the Kaibab National Forest, North Kaibab Ranger District in 1992-94 qualitatively showed a fairly substantial population of scattered individuals in the pinyon-juniper woodland, and indicated that there might be a correlation between plant distribution and dripline of trees. This project was initiated in 1999 to test that possibility.

ARTHUR M. PHILLIPS; DEBRA J. KENNEDY; BARBARA G. PHILLIPS; DIEDRE WEAGE

150

Microbial Populations and Activities in the Rhizoplane of Rock-Weathering Desert Plants. II. Growth Promotion of Cactus Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

AWmct= Four bacterial species isolated from the rhizoplane of cadi growing in bare lava rocks were assessed for growth pro- motion of giant cardon cactus seedlings (Pachyceneus pringlei), These bacteria fixed N2, dissolved P, weathered extrusive igne- ous rock, marble, and limestone, and significantly mobilized useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in rock min-

M. E. Puentel; C. Y. Li; Y. Bashan

2004-01-01

151

Performance of Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) Clones in Hot Arid Region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.), commonly known as prickly pear or tuna, is a new crop in India although its spiny type, bearing very small fruits (locally called nagphani), is found wild in arid and semiarid plateau regions. Owing to its xerophytic characteristics and capability for greater conversion of water to dry matter than by either C3 or C4

O. P. Pareek; R. S. Singh; B. B. Vashishtha

152

Improved establishment and development of three cactus species inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense transplanted into disturbed urban desert soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and development of cactus transplants in urban, disturbed areas of the desert near La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, was monitored. Young plants of three species of pachycereid cacti (Pachycereus pringlei, Stenocereus thurberi, and Lophocereus schottii) inoculated with the plant growth promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in an eroded area (a dirt road) had a high survival rate and developed

Yoav Bashan; Adriana Rojas; M. Esther Puente

1999-01-01

153

Analysis of factors that affect the potential of star fruit (Averhoa Bilimbi) and cactus (Gymnocalycium Hossei) extracts as alternative battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research analyzes the factors that affect the work of the battery from the star fruit extract and the cactus extract. The value voltage and current generated are measure the work of the battery. Voltage measurement based on the electrode distance function, and electrode surface area. Voltage as a surface area electrode function and electrode distance function determined the current density and the voltage generated. From the experimental results obtained that the battery voltage is large enough, it is about 1.8 V for the extract of star fruit, and 1.7 V for the extract of cactus, which means that the juice extract from star fruit and the juice extract of cactus can become an alternative as battery replacement. The measurements with different electrode surface area on the star fruit and cactus extract which has the depth of the electrode 0.5 cm to 4 cm causes a decrease in the electric current generated from 12.5 mA to 1.0 mA, but obtained the same voltage.

Rahmawati, Sitti; Agnesstacia

2014-03-01

154

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. PMID:24621296

Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

2014-04-01

155

Factors affecting establishment success of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis (Cactaceae).  

PubMed

Early plant stages may be the most vulnerable within the life cycle of plants especially in arid ecosystems. Interference from exotic species may exacerbate this condition. We evaluated germination, seedling survival and growth in the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis, as a function of sunlight exposure (i.e., growing under open and shaded areas), different shade providers (i.e., growing under two native shrubs and one exotic grass species), two levels of predation (i.e., exclusion and non-exclusion) and variable microenvironmental conditions (i.e., temperature, PAR, humidity). Field experiments demonstrated that suitable conditions for germination and establishment of H. portoricensis seedling are optimal in shaded areas beneath the canopy of established species, but experiments also demonstrated that the identity of the shade provider can have a significant influence on the outcome of these processes. Harrisia portoricensis seedlings had higher probabilities of survival and grew better (i.e., larger diameters) when they were transplanted beneath the canopy of native shrubs, than beneath the exotic grass species, where temperature and solar radiation values were on average much higher than those obtained under the canopies of native shrubs. We also detected that exclusion from potential predators did not increase seedling survival. Our combined results for H. portoricensis suggested that the modification of microenvironmental conditions by the exotic grass may lower the probability of recruitment and establishment of this endangered cactus species. PMID:23894952

Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

2012-06-01

156

Postharvest heat and cold treatment to control Ceratitis capitata on cactus pear fruit.  

PubMed

In order to work out a quarantine treatment for cactus pear fruit a factorial experimental plan was carried combining postharvest water dips at 20, 50, 54, 58 and 60 degrees C and storage at 1 degrees C for 3, 6 and 10 days. Cactus pear fruit cv 'Rossa' were artificially infested with Med. fly eggs (at least 20 eggs per fruit) then left in the lab at 25 degrees C for 4 days. Treatments took place by dipping the fruit at each water temperature for 2 mm. At each established time fruit was picked and checked for vital larvae and degree of chilling injury (CI). Probit 9 requirements were achieved in all cases when fruit was cold-stored for 10 days. When fruit was kept for 6 days the quarantine requirement was achieved only by dipping the fruit at 58 and 60 degrees C while none dip treatment was effective if fruit was stored for 3 days at 1 degrees C. All Fruit stored for 10 days at 1 degrees C showed severe CI symptoms and when kept for 6 days the same degree of CI was found on fruit dipped in water at 20, 58 and 60 degrees C. No CI was observed after 3 days at 1 degrees C. In conclusion only when fruit was dipped at 50-54 degrees C and stored for 10 days at 1 degrees C the probit 9 condition was attained with acceptable CI symptoms. PMID:16628910

D'Hallewin, G; Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; Serusi, A

2005-01-01

157

Brain factor control of sex pheromone production in the female corn earworm moth.  

PubMed

Sex pheromone production in the female corn earworm moth Heliothis zea is controlled by a hormonal substance produced in the female's brain. It is present in the brain in scotophase as well as photophase, but it is released into the hemolymph to stimulate pheromone production only in the scotophase. The stimulatory activity was also detected in the brains of male corn earworm moths and of other moths. PMID:17750856

Raina, A K; Klun, J A

1984-08-01

158

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein–bombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moth’s antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

159

The antigenotoxic activities of cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes against the mycotoxin zearalenone in Balb\\/c mice: Prevention of micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and DNA fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a potent estrogenic metabolite. Evidence of its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity has recently emerged from several reports. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes to protect Balb\\/c mice against ZEN induced genotoxicity. To this end, the effect of a single dose of ZEN (40mg\\/kgb.w.) alone and with extract of cactus cladodes (25,

Lazhar Zorgui; Imen Ayed-Boussema; Yosra Ayed; Hassen Bacha; Wafa Hassen

2009-01-01

160

Cactus flower extracts may prove beneficial in benign prostatic hyperplasia due to inhibition of 5? reductase activity, aromatase activity and lipid peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cactus flower is deemed to be helpful in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) therapy, although there is no published information\\u000a regarding its clinical effect in patients and on the mechanism of its biological activity. The present study evaluated the\\u000a ability of cactus flower extracts to exert an effect on BPH through possible inhibition of such processes as lipid peroxidation,\\u000a androgen

Adi Jonas; Gennady Rosenblat; Daniel Krapf; William Bitterman; Ishak Neeman

1998-01-01

161

Effects of feeding high levels of cactus ( Opuntia fícus-indica Mill) cladodes on urinary output and electrolyte excretion in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding spineless cactus cladodes on diuresis and urinary electrolyte excretion in goats. Five bucks were used in a 5×5 Latin square experiment with 17-day periods. Experimental diets contained (g\\/kg dry matter (DM) basis) 370, 470, 570, 670, and 770 spineless cactus cladodes. Water consumption from feed and urine output increased linearly

E. L. Vieira; Â. M. V. Batista; A. F. Mustafa; R. F. S. Araújo; P. C. Soares; E. L. Ortolane; C. K. Mori

2008-01-01

162

Effects of increasing levels of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller) in the diet of dairy goats and its contribution as a source of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of substituting corn meal with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller) on water intake of dairy goats during lactation. Ten goats (Saanen, n=5; Alpine, n=5) were distributed in two 5×5 Latin squares according to breed. Ration consisted of 50% hay and 50% concentrate in which corn meal was replaced by increasing levels of cactus pear

Roberto Germano Costa; Edvaldo Mesquita Beltrão Filho; Ariosvaldo Nunes de Medeiros; Patrícia Emília Naves Givisiez; Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga; Airon Aparecido Silva Melo

2009-01-01

163

New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems. PMID:16365714

Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

2005-12-01

164

Occurrence of Lepidopterism caused by the moth Hylesia nigricans (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Lepidopterism by Hylesia nigricans (Berg) moth is recorded for the first time in southern Brazil. Preventive strategies of control are proposed based on information on the biology and ecology of this moth. PMID:17934630

Iserhard, Cristiano A; Kaminski, Lucas A; Marchiori, Maria O; Teixeira, Eduardo C; Romanowski, Helena P

2007-01-01

165

What causes outbreaks of the gypsy moth in North America?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gypsy moth has been present in North America for more than 100 years, and in many of the areas where it has become established\\u000a outbreaks occur with varying degrees of periodicity. There also exists extensive spatial synchrony in the onset of outbreaks\\u000a over large geographic regions. Density-dependent mortality clearly limits high-density populations, but there is little evidence\\u000a for strong

Andrew Liebhold; Joseph Elkinton; David Williams; Rose-Marie Muzika

2000-01-01

166

A new pheromone of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The female silkmoth Bombyx mori L. emits a second pheromone component bombykal (E-10, Z-12-hexade-cadien-1-al) in addition to the well-known sexual attractant bombykol (E-10, Z-12-hexadecadien-1-ol). Bombykal stimulates its own specialized and highly sensitive olfactory cells of the male moth. Surprisingly, the aldehyde inhibits the release of the male's wing-fluttering response to bombykol.

K. E. Kaissling; G. Kasang; H. J. Bestmann; W. Stransky; O. Vostrowsky

1978-01-01

167

Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.  

PubMed

Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

2014-08-22

168

Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth  

PubMed Central

Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies.

Karpati, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Carde, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

2013-01-01

169

Cold hardiness adaptations of codling moth, cydia pomonella  

PubMed

The cold hardiness adaptations of natural and laboratory reared populations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, were examined. Hemolymph, gut, and whole body supercooling points (SCPs), 24-h LT50s, polyhydroxy alcohol concentrations, hemolymph freezing points, and hemolymph melting points were determined. Nondiapausing codling moth larvae do not have appreciable levels of ice nucleators in the hemolymph or gut. Whole body supercooling points were higher than hemolymph supercooling points. For nondiapausing larvae, LT50s were significantly higher than both the whole body and the hemolymph supercooling points, indicating the presence of chill sensitivity. As the larvae left the food source and spun a cocoon, both hemolymph and whole body SCPs decreased. Diapause destined larvae had significantly lower hemolymph SCPs than nondiapausing larvae, but whole body SCPs were not significantly different from nondiapausing larvae of the same age. The LT50s of diapause destined and diapausing larvae were significantly lower than that of nondiapausing larvae. Codling moths are freezing intolerant, with LT50s close to the average whole body supercooling point in diapause destined and diapausing larvae. The overwintering, diapausing larvae effectively supercool to avoid lethal freezing by removal of ice nucleators from the gut and body without appreciable increase of antifreeze agents such as polyols or antifreeze proteins. PMID:10079128

Neven

1999-02-01

170

Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth.  

PubMed

Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant-insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids (E)-beta-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones. PMID:16450082

Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

2006-03-01

171

The neural mechanisms of antennal positioning in flying moths.  

PubMed

In diverse insects, the forward positioning of the antenna is often among the first behavioral indicators of the onset of flight. This behavior may be important for the proper acquisition of the mechanosensory and olfactory inputs by the antennae during flight. Here, we describe the neural mechanisms of antennal positioning in hawk moths from behavioral, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological perspectives. The behavioral experiments indicated that a set of sensory bristles called Böhm's bristles (or hair plates) mediate antennal positioning during flight. When these sensory structures were ablated from the basal segments of their antennae, moths were unable to bring their antennae into flight position, causing frequent collisions with the flapping wing. Fluorescent dye-fills of the underlying sensory and motor neurons revealed that the axonal arbors of the mechanosensory bristle neurons spatially overlapped with the dendritic arbors of the antennal motor neurons. Moreover, the latency between the activation of antennal muscles following stimulation of sensory bristles was also very short (<10 ms), indicating that the sensorimotor connections may be direct. Together, these data show that Böhm's bristles control antennal positioning in moths via a reflex mechanism. Because the sensory structures and motor organization are conserved across most Neoptera, the mechanisms underlying antennal positioning, as described here, are likely to be conserved in these diverse insects. PMID:22660776

Krishnan, Anand; Prabhakar, Sunil; Sudarsan, Subashini; Sane, Sanjay P

2012-09-01

172

[The brown-tail moth of Bombyx Euproctis chrysorrhoea L. (Lepidoptera) responsible for lepidopterism in France: biological interpretation].  

PubMed

A scanning electron microscope study has enabled an explanation as to why the brown-tail moth provokes Lepidopterism. The brown-tail moth only provokes Lepidopterism via a transmission of the urticating hairs of its caterpillar. Urticating moths (genus Hylesia and Anaphae) protect their eggs and young caterpillars with urticating hairs, thus it is very ambiguous to label erucism as the contact dermatitis produced by caterpillar production or Lepidopterism as the contact dermatitis caused by moth urticating hairs. PMID:2510913

Lamy, M; Werno, J

1989-01-01

173

The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.  

PubMed

Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths. PMID:23913945

ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

2013-11-01

174

The effects of cactus inspired spines on the aerodynamics of a cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of cactus-like spines on the topology and the dynamics of the flow past a stationary or pivoted cylinder are experimentally studied. The experiments are performed either in a water channel or a wind tunnel at low to moderate Reynolds number (390-12 500). The instantaneous velocity field is recorded using TR-PIV and investigated for three different configurations: no spines, short spines (0.1D) and long spines (0.2D). The results show how the spines are able to slow the flow past the cylinder and then increase the recirculation area by up to 128% while the maximum fluctuating kinetic energy intensity is decreased by up to 35%. Moreover, the spines have a significant effect on the vortex shedding and the dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder, thus significantly reducing both the amplitude and the frequency at which a pivoted cylinder oscillates.

Levy, Benjamin; Liu, Yingzheng

2013-05-01

175

Forensic identification of CITES protected slimming cactus (Hoodia) using DNA barcoding.  

PubMed

Slimming cactus (Hoodia), found only in southwestern Africa, is a well-known herbal product for losing weight. Consequently, Hoodia extracts are sought-after worldwide despite a CITES Appendix II status. The failure to eradicate illegal trade is due to problems with detecting and identifying Hoodia using morphological and chemical characters. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of molecular identification of Hoodia based on DNA barcoding. Screening of nrITS1 and psbA-trnH DNA sequences from 26 accessions of Ceropegieae resulted in successful identification, while conventional chemical profiling using DLI-MS led to inaccurate detection and identification of Hoodia. The presence of Hoodia in herbal products was also successfully established using DNA sequences. A validation procedure of our DNA barcoding protocol demonstrated its robustness to changes in PCR conditions. We conclude that DNA barcoding is an effective tool for Hoodia detection and identification which can contribute to preventing illegal trade. PMID:23865560

Gathier, Gerard; van der Niet, Timotheus; Peelen, Tamara; van Vugt, Rogier R; Eurlings, Marcel C M; Gravendeel, Barbara

2013-11-01

176

Genetic variability of Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera, Dactylopiidae) on forage cactus in northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

The carmine cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae is a key pest in productive fields of forage cactus in Pernambuco, Brazil. Species identification by means of molecular markers assists in understanding the genetic profile, underpins morphological characterization, and supports the monitoring of populations in integrated management programs designed to control this pest. We evaluated the genetic variability of natural populations of D. opuntiae. Genetic variability was analyzed with ISSR and RAPD primers in 24 populations from 12 municipalities of Pernambuco State in Brazil. Morphological characterization confirmed that D. opuntiae was the only cochineal species present in all samples. Nine ISSR primers and six RAPD produced a total of 62 and 58 polymorphic fragments, respectively. Both types of markers showed an average genetic similarity of 80% regardless of the geographic origin of samples. The low genetic variability demonstrates a high degree of relatedness among these D. opuntiae populations. PMID:24301784

Silva, D M P; do E S Mergulhão, A C; de Medeiros, L V; Figueiredo, M V B; Burity, H A

2013-01-01

177

Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols  

SciTech Connect

This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

2002-05-07

178

Cryptically Patterned Moths Perceive Bark Structure When Choosing Body Orientations That Match Wing Color Pattern to the Bark Pattern  

PubMed Central

Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths’ behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

Kang, Chang-ku; Moon, Jong-yeol; Lee, Sang-im; Jablonski, Piotr G.

2013-01-01

179

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2013-07-01

180

Water availability and the competitive effect of a columnar cactus on its nurse plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field study was conducted in a semi-arid tropical ecosystem in Mexico to test whether competition for soil water is the causal mechanism underlying the negative effect of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia tetetzo on its nurse plant Mimosa luisana and to examine how this relationship varies over time. The effect of irrigation was evaluated by recording the production of leaves, modules (i.e. internodes with an axillary bud), inflorescences and fruits in shrubs growing either isolated or associated with juvenile or adult columnar cacti. 4 001 of water, in five doses of 801 each every 15 d, were added to the treatment plants; no water other than rainfall was added to control plants. Additionally, to evaluate how the effect of the columnar cacti on the shrubs may vary among years we made a comparison of the production of plant structures between 2 years of contrasting rainfall. The irrigation treatment increased the production of modules, inflorescences and fruits, but not of leaves. Shrub response to watering was also dependent on class of association: those associated with juvenile cacti showed a higher response to irrigation than any other treatment. Our results show that water addition increases the production of structures and partially reduces the negative effect of the cactus on nurse shrub, thus supporting the hypothesis of competition for water. The negative effect of the cacti on their nurse plants was present during both years of observations, but the intensity of the negative effect varies from relatively wet to dry years. The results are discussed in relation to how temporal changes in resource availability affect the results of competitive interactions and the importance of this mechanism in the structure and dynamics of this dryland community.

Flores-Martínez, Arturo; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador

1998-02-01

181

Pollination system of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus columnar cactus (tribe Cereeae) in eastern Mexico.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that there is a geographic dichotomy in the pollination systems of chiropterophilous columnar cacti: in intra-tropical areas they are pollinated almost exclusively by bats, whereas in extratropical areas they are pollinated by bats, birds and bees. However, currently the studies are clumped both taxonomically (mainly Pachycereeae species) and geographically (mainly in the Tehuacan Valley and the Sonoran Desert). This clumping limits the possibility of generalising the pattern to other regions or cactus tribes. Only four of the 36 chiropterophilous cacti in Pilosocereus have been studied. Despite the tropical distribution of two Pilosocereus species, bees account for 40-100% of their fruit set. We examined how specialised is the pollination system of P. leucocephalus in eastern Mexico. As we studied tropical populations, we expected a bat-specialised pollination system. However, previous studies of Pilosocereus suggest that a generalised pollination system is also possible. We found that this cactus is mainly bat-pollinated (bats account for 33-65% of fruit set); although to a lesser degree, diurnal visitors also caused some fruit set (7-15%). Diurnal visitors were more effective in populations containing honeybee hives. P. leucocephalus is partially self-compatible (14-18% of fructification) but unable to set fruit without visitors. Despite the variation in pollination system, P. leucocephalus shows more affinity with other columnar cacti from tropical regions than with those from extratropical regions. Although we report here that a new species of tropical Pilosocereus is relatively bat-specialised, this Cereeae genus is more flexible in its pollination system than the Pachycereeae genera. PMID:20636900

Munguía-Rosas, M A; Sosa, V J; Jácome-Flores, M E

2010-07-01

182

Tifton hay, soybean hulls, and whole cottonseed as fiber source in spineless cactus diets for sheep.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of three different sources of fiber (tifton hay, soybean hulls, and whole cottonseed) in spineless cactus diets for sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Twenty-one sheep in finishing phase with indeterminate breed, non-castrated, and with initial weight of 18.90 ± 1.07 kg were randomly distributed to individual stalls where they were confined for the duration of the experiment. The intakes of dry and organic matter, total carbohydrates, and total digestive nutrients were not influenced (P > 0.10) by the different fiber sources (1.10, 0.97, 0.73, and 0.80 kg/day, respectively). However, sheep which received the whole cottonseed diet were characterized by a lower (P < 0.10) intake of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber and greater (P < 0.10) intake of ether extract (0.11, 0.29, and 0.048 kg/day, respectively). The different sources of fiber resulted in similar times spent feeding (P > 0.10), although the rumination time was greater for tifton hay (P < 0.10) (429.05 min/day). The digestibility coefficient of dry and organic matter differed between the treatments (P < 0.10), with the soybean hull diet showing a higher level of digestion (83.23 and 86.72 %, respectively). The whole cottonseed diet gave the smallest digestibility coefficient of crude protein (68.95 %) and greatest for ether extract (85.94 %). The daily weight gain of animals fed on whole cottonseed was significantly lower (P < 0.10). On the basis of these findings, we recommend the use of tifton hay or soybean hulls as important additional source of fiber in forage spineless cactus diets for sheep in finishing phase. PMID:22618190

de Miranda Costa, Suellen Brandão; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Pessoa, Ricardo A Silva; Batista, Angela Maria Vieira; Ramos, Alenice Ozino; da Conceição, Maria Gabriela; dos Santos Gomes, Luiz Henrique

2012-12-01

183

Differences in Tolerance to Host Cactus Alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii  

PubMed Central

The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group.

Soto, Ignacio M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Corio, Cristian; Padro, Julian; Soto, Eduardo M.; Hasson, Esteban

2014-01-01

184

Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures.  

PubMed

Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae), were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone were attractive to P. orphisalis, whereas benzyl acetate, eugenol, cis-jasmone, limonene, linalool, methyl-2-methoxybenzoate, methyl salicylate, beta-myrcene, and 2-phenylethanol were not. When used in combination with phenylacetaldehyde, 4-oxoisophorone and methyl-2-methoxybenzoate increased catches of P. orphisalis in traps by -50%, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. A second crambid species, the false celery leaftier moth, Udea profundalis Packard, was also attracted to phenylacetaldehyde, but was not attracted to any other single-chemical lure. Cis-jasmone, limonene, and 4-oxoisophorone increased catches of U. profundalis by -50% when presented in traps with phenylacetaldehyde, while linalool increased the catch 2.5-fold, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. Both sexes of each species were similarly attracted to most of these lures. These findings provide chemical lures for trapping males and females of both P. orphisalis and U. profundalis. PMID:24772546

Landolt, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S

2014-04-01

185

What affects the rate of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) spread: winter temperature or forest susceptibility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of winter temperature and forest susceptibility on the rate of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) range expansion in the lower peninsula of Michigan was analysed using historical data on moth counts in a grid of pheromone-baited traps collected from 1985 to 1994 by the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The rate of spread was measured by the distance between

Alexei A. Sharov; Bryan C. Pijanowski; Andrew M. Liebhold; Stuart H. Gage

1999-01-01

186

Physiological Age of Host Plant Foliage and Survival of Gypsy Moth Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH of leaf homogenates of common birch (Betula verrucosa L.), a food plant of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, was measured at different times of day in the course of leaf organogenesis, and midgut pH was measured in gypsy moth larvae phenotypically differing in the color of the hypodermis at the fifth instar. A possible relation between these

V. I. Ponomarev

2003-01-01

187

Forty million years of mutualism: evidence for eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association.  

PubMed

The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 +/- 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0-6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 +/- 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 +/- 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available. PMID:10430916

Pellmyr, O; Leebens-Mack, J

1999-08-01

188

Limiting the costs of mutalism: multiple modes of interaction between yuccas and yucca moths  

PubMed Central

In pollination–seed predation mutualisms between yuccas and yucca moths, conflicts of interest exist for yuccas, because benefits of increased pollination may be outweighed by increased seed consumption. These conflicts raise the problem of what limits seed consumption, and ultimately what limits or regulates moth populations. Although the current hypothesis is that yuccas should selectively abscise flowers with high numbers of yucca-moth eggs, within-inflorescence selective abscission occurs in only one of the three moth–yucca systems that we studied. It occurs only when oviposition directly damages developing ovules, and does not, therefore, provide a general explanation for the resolution of moth–yucca conflicts. Within-locule egg mortality provides an alternative and stronger mechanism for limiting seed damage, and generating density-dependent mortality for yucca-moth populations. However, the most important feature of moth–yucca systems is that they are diverse, encompassing multiple modes of interaction, each with different consequences for limiting and regulating yucca moths.

Addicott, J. F.; Bao, T.

1999-01-01

189

An aerial-hawking bat uses stealth echolocation to counter moth hearing.  

PubMed

Ears evolved in many nocturnal insects, including some moths, to detect bat echolocation calls and evade capture [1, 2]. Although there is evidence that some bats emit echolocation calls that are inconspicuous to eared moths, it is difficult to determine whether this was an adaptation to moth hearing or originally evolved for a different purpose [2, 3]. Aerial-hawking bats generally emit high-amplitude echolocation calls to maximize detection range [4, 5]. Here we present the first example of an echolocation counterstrategy to overcome prey hearing at the cost of reduced detection distance. We combined comparative bat flight-path tracking and moth neurophysiology with fecal DNA analysis to show that the barbastelle, Barbastella barbastellus, emits calls that are 10 to 100 times lower in amplitude than those of other aerial-hawking bats, remains undetected by moths until close, and captures mainly eared moths. Model calculations demonstrate that only bats emitting such low-amplitude calls hear moth echoes before their calls are conspicuous to moths. This stealth echolocation allows the barbastelle to exploit food resources that are difficult to catch for other aerial-hawking bats emitting calls of greater amplitude. PMID:20727755

Goerlitz, Holger R; ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Zeale, Matt R K; Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

2010-09-14

190

Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls  

PubMed Central

Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%.

Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

2011-01-01

191

Effects of alternative prey on predation by small mammals on gypsy moth pupae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work shows that predation by small mammals is a dominant cause of mortality of low-density gypsy moths in North America and that declines in small mammal density result in increases in gypsy moth density. Here we examined whether predation by small mammals is density dependent by way of a type III functional response, and how predation is influenced by

Joseph S. Elkinton; Andrew M. Liebhold; Rose-Marie Muzika

2004-01-01

192

Towards a Global Barcode Library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) Tussock Moths of Biosecurity Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDetecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Many species in the tussock moth genus Lymantria are significant forestry pests, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., and consequently have been a focus for the development of molecular diagnostic

Jeremy R. Dewaard; Andrew Mitchell; Melody A. Keena; David Gopurenko; Laura M. Boykin; Karen F. Armstrong; Michael G. Pogue; Joao Lima; Robin Floyd; Robert H. Hanner; Leland M. Humble; Simon Joly

2010-01-01

193

Trypsin inhibitor in moth bean: thermal stability and changes during germination and cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypsin inhibitor from moth bean was studied for thermal stability and changes during germination and cooking. The application of dry heat did not inactivate the inhibitor. However, autoclaving at 120°C at 15lbs pressure destroyed inhibitor activity completely. The extracted inhibitor lost 70% activity in 60 min when incubated at 100°C. Soaking of moth bean seeds for 8 h decreased trypsin

S. S. Kadam; V. M. Ghorpade; R. N. Adsule; D. K. Salunkhe

1986-01-01

194

Her odours make him deaf: crossmodal modulation of olfaction and hearing in a male moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

All animals have to cope with sensory conflicts arising from simultaneous input of incongruent data to different sensory modalities. Nocturnal activity in moths includes mate-finding behaviour by odour detection and bat predator avoidance by acoustic detection. We studied male moths that were simultaneously exposed to female sex pheromones indicating the presence of a potential mate, and artificial bat cries simulating

Niels Skals; Peter Anderson; Morten Kanneworff; Christer Löfstedt; Annemarie Surlykke

2005-01-01

195

Factors Affecting Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernematidae) for Control of Overwintering Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Fruit Bins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit bins infested with diapausing codling moth larvae, Cydia pomonella (L.), are a potential source of reinfestation of orchards and may jeopardize the success of mating disruption programs and other control strategies. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were tested as a potential means of control that could be applied at the time bins are submerged in dump tanks. Diapausing cocooned codling moth

Lawrence A. Lacey; Lisa G. Neven; Heather L. Headrick; Robert Fritts

2005-01-01

196

Predation risk and mating behavior: the responses of moths to bat-like ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of predators, animal* may reduce or alter their mating activities. There has been little experimental study of whether mating behavior varies with the level of predation risk. Two species of moths, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Noctuidae) and Ostrinia nubilalis (Pyralidae), significantly reduced their mate-seeking behavior under high levels of simulated predation risk. Male moths aborted upwind flight in a

LaUta Acharya; Jeremy N. McNeil

1998-01-01

197

Moth outbreaks in relation to oak masting and population levels of small mammals: an alternative explanation to the mammal-predation hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between population outbreaks of the gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar) and oak masting in North America has been interpreted as an effect of reduced predation on moth pupae from small mammals after years of acorn failure. However, moth defoliation could be a consequence of high acorn production rather than of acorn failure, as all moth outbreaks in two

Vidar Selås

2003-01-01

198

Characterization and Comparison of Serratia Marcescens Isolated from Edible Cactus and from Silkworm for Virulence Potential and Chitosan Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Representative strains of Serratia marcescens from an edible cactus plant and silkworms were characterized and a comparison based on their cellular fatty acid composition, 16S rRNA and groE gene sequence analysis as well as silkworm virulence and chitosan susceptibility was carried out. Results from this study indicate that there are no significant differences between the phenotypic and molecular characterization, virulence and chitosan susceptibility of the S. marcescens strains from the cactus plant and silkworms. Silkworms inoculated with S. marcescens from either plant or silkworm resulted in nearly 100% mortality. Chitosan solution exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. marcescens. This activity increased with the increase of chitosan concentration and incubation time regardless of the strain source. Also, the results indicate that the plant associated S. marcescens maybe plays a possible role in the contamination of humans and animals, in particular silkworms, while chitosan showed a potential to control the contamination caused by S. marcescens.

Li, Bin; Yu, Rongrong; Liu, Baoping; Tang, Qiaomei; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

2011-01-01

199

Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

Xu, Jia; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Dapeng; Weng, Zhankun

2014-05-01

200

The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern.  

PubMed

The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as "papillonite" in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first "papillonite" epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

Jourdain, F; Girod, R; Vassal, J M; Chandre, F; Lagneau, C; Fouque, F; Guiral, D; Raude, J; Robert, V

2012-05-01

201

The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern  

PubMed Central

The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health.

Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

2012-01-01

202

Effects of replacing corn with cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus indica Mill) on the performance of Santa Inês lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and nutrient digestibility of feedlot Santa Inês sheep fed with increasing levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% dry matter basis) of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill) as a replacement for corn. Forty-five male (non-castrated) Santa Inês sheep, averaging 27.50±0.48kg body weight (BW) at the beginning of the study, were

R. G. Costa; I. H. Treviño; G. R. de Medeiros; A. N. Medeiros; T. F. Pinto; R. L. de Oliveira

203

Daily to decadal patterns of precipitation, humidity, and photosynthetic physiology recorded in the spines of the columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic analyses of cactus spines grown serially from the apex of long-lived columnar cactuses may be useful for climatological and ecological studies if time series can be reliably determined from spines. To characterize the timescales over which spines may record this information, we measured spine growth in saguaro cactus over days, months, and years with time-lapse photography, periodic marking, and postbomb radiocarbon dating and then analyzed isotopic variability over these same timescales and compared these measurements to local climate. We used daily increments of growth, visible as transverse bands of light and dark tissue in spines, as chronometers to develop diurnally resolved ?13C and ?18O records from three spines grown in series over a 70 day period. We also constructed a 22 year record of ?13C variations from spine tips arranged in chronological sequence along the side of a 4 m tall, single-stemmed saguaro. We evaluated two mechanisms potentially responsible for daily, weekly, and annual variability in ?13C values of spines; both related to vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Our data suggest that stomatal conductance is unlikely to be the determinant of ?13C variation in spines. We suggest that either VPD-induced changes in the balance of nighttime- and daytime-assimilated CO2 or mesophyll-limited diffusion of CO2 at night are the most likely determinant of ?13C variation in spines. Intra-annual and interannual variability of ?18O in spine tissue appears to be controlled by the mass balance of 18O-depleted water taken up after rain events and evaporative enrichment of 18O in tissue water between rains. We were able to estimate the annual growth and areole generation rate of a saguaro cactus from its 22 yearlong isotopic record because VPD, rainfall, and evaporation exhibit strong annual cycles in the Sonoran Desert and these variations are recorded in the oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of spines.

English, Nathan B.; Dettman, David L.; Sandquist, Darren R.; Williams, David G.

2010-06-01

204

Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) fiber was shown to promote weight loss in a 3-month clinical investigation. As demonstrated by in vitro studies, cactus fiber binds to dietary fat and its use results in reduced absorption, which in turn leads to reduced energy absorption and ultimately the reduction of body weight. Objective The objective of our study was to elucidate the dietary fat binding capacity of cactus fiber through determination of fecal fat excretion in healthy volunteers. Subjects and Methods This clinical investigation was performed as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects for a period of approximately 45 days. Twenty healthy volunteer subjects were randomized to receive cactus fiber or placebo, 2 tablets thrice daily with main meals. All subjects were provided with meals during the study period (except washout) according to a standardized meal plan, with 35% of daily energy need coming from fat. Two 24-hour feces samples were collected during both the baseline and treatment periods for analysis of the fat content. Results Cactus fiber showed an increased fecal fat excretion compared with placebo (mean [SD] = 15.79% [5.79%] vs 4.56% [3.09%]; P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported throughout the study period. Conclusions Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.

Uebelhack, Ralf; Busch, Regina; Alt, Felix; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Chong, Pee-Win

2014-01-01

205

Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.  

PubMed

Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations appear buffered at present from potential deleterious effects of climate change by other ecological forces. PMID:24421221

Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

2014-06-01

206

Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P?Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis. PMID:24752970

Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

2014-06-01

207

Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains.

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

208

Chlorantraniliprole resistance in the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).  

PubMed

The wide application of chlorantraniliprole, which selectively targets insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has led to increasingly prominent development of resistance to this insecticide. Although much work has been carried out on the structure and function of RyR, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to chlorantraniliprole in diamondback moth still needs further investigation. P. xylostella strains with medium and high resistance to chlorantraniliprole were obtained by laboratory selection and field collection. The biological activity of chlorantraniliprole against the third-instar larvae of susceptible and resistant strains was tested, and resistance development and biological fitness were investigated. The realized heritability (h2) of resistance showed the diamondback moth has a high risk of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. RyR transcript levels were lower in resistant strains than in susceptible strains, indicating that decreased expression of PxRyR may be associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. A 4,400 bp fragment of the RyR cDNA, which encodes most of the functional domains of RyR, was cloned and characterized from four strains (S, F18, BY, and ZC). A 14 amino acid (Q4546-S4559) deletion was found in three resistant strains (F18, BY, and ZC). A point mutation resulting in a glycine to glutamate substitution, as reported in a previously published article, was also found in the carboxyl-terminal region of two resistant strains (BY and ZC). These results indicated that decreased transcriptional level of RyR mRNA and combined with the site mutation might be related to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:24772564

Gong, Wei; Yan, Hui-Hui; Gao, Li; Guo, Yun-Yun; Xue, Chao-Bin

2014-04-01

209

Structure-activity relationship observations for the bagworm moth pheromone.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) observations were made for the bagworm moth pheromone, (R)-2-pentyl decanoate, and a series of analogs with modifications in the alcohol portion of the molecule. Observed attractiveness of these analogs was related to molecular structure and their physical attributes using computational chemistry. Electrostatic potential and Van der Waals (VdW) electrostatic coded surface three-dimensional (3D) maps of the molecular mechanics (MM) minimized lowest energy conformation of the pheromone show that size, shape, charge distribution, and chirality of the molecule are related to attractiveness. PMID:24226087

Warthen, J D; Klun, J A; Devilbiss, E D

1996-07-01

210

Veterinary pediatrics of butterflies, moths, and other invertebrates.  

PubMed

In the life cycle of invertebrate animals, the typical life history includes the egg and larval stage, which may be called the pediatric phases, representing development up to the point where the animal reaches adulthood with fully functional reproductive organs and full adult characteristics of morphology, coloration, physiology, and behavior. These typical immature or pediatric stages are found in both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. This article reviews the factors that impact the health and survival of juvenile stages of butterflies and moths in particular, and what can be done to extend veterinarian care and advice to clients to invertebrate problems. PMID:22640542

Emmel, Thomas C

2012-05-01

211

Diamondback moth in Ukraine: current status and potential for use biological control agents.  

PubMed

The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xillostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the insect pest damaging cabbage in Ukraine, especially in the Southern region. Biology, damage, population dynamics of diamondback moth and effect of natural enemies on the level of infestation of this pest by parasitoids and pathogens were studied in 2004-2007 in the laboratory and field conditions. Obtained results show that in general the pest has 2-3 generations, although up to 5-6 can evolve in the South. Fecundity and life longevity of Diamondback were studied on white cabbage, red cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and two basic weeds: shepherd's purse and wild mustard. The host plant affects fecundity and life span of the diamondback moth. Fecundity differs significantly and is highest with white cabbage. Fauna of Diamondback moth parasitoids is quite rich. All stages are affected by numerous parasitoids and predators. Around 22 parasitoid species were recorded during the study. Overall parasitism ranged from 18% to 60% varying essentially between the areas. Apanteles (Cotesia) sp., Diadegma sp., Trichogramma sp. were most common in all areas. Steinernema sp., entomopathogenic nematodes are found to be natural enemies of diamondback moth. The range of natural enemies contributes significantly to the control of Diamondback moth. Conservation and augmentation of natural enemies should be used in IPM systems in order to control diamondback moth on cabbage. Entomopathogenic nematodes are prominent biocontrol agents. PMID:20222594

Likar, Y; Stefanovska, T

2009-01-01

212

Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth.  

PubMed

Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold. PMID:21989514

ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W

2011-12-01

213

Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

2011-12-01

214

Past climate changes and ecophysiological responses recorded in the isotope ratios of saguaro cactus spines.  

PubMed

The stable isotope composition of spines produced serially from the apex of columnar cacti has the potential to be used as a record of changes in climate and physiology. To investigate this potential, we measured the delta(18)O, delta(13)C and F(14)C values of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea). To determine plant age, we collected spines at 11 different heights along one rib from the stem apex (3.77 m height) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. Fractions of modern carbon (F(14)C) ranged from 0.9679 to 1.5537, which is consistent with ages between 1950 and 2004. We observed a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.997) between the F(14)C age of spines and the age of spines determined from direct and repeated height measurements taken on this individual over the past 37 years. A series of 96 spines collected from this individual had delta(18)O values ranging from 38 per thousand to 50 per thousand [Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] and delta(13)C values from -11.5 per thousand to -8.5 per thousand [Vienna Peedee belemnite (VPDB)]. The delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of spines were positively correlated (r = 0.45, P < 0.0001) and showed near-annual oscillations over the approximately 15-year record. This pattern suggests that seasonal periods of reduced evaporative demand or greater precipitation input may correspond to increased daytime CO(2) uptake. The lowest delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of spines observed occurred during the 1983 and 1993 El Niño years, suggesting that the stable isotope composition recorded in spine tissue may serve as a proxy for these climate events. We compared empirical models and data from potted experimental cacti to validate these observations and test our hypotheses. The isotopic records presented here are the first ever reported from a chronosequence of cactus spines and demonstrate that tissues of columnar cacti, and potentially other long-lived succulents, may contain a record of past physiological and climatic variation. PMID:17724618

English, Nathan B; Dettman, David L; Sandquist, Darren R; Williams, David G

2007-11-01

215

Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique.

Carde, R T

1976-01-01

216

Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.  

PubMed

Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

2014-08-01

217

Moth responses to selectively fluorinated sex pheromone analogs.  

PubMed

Partially fluorinated analogs of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) female sex pheromone, 11-tetradecenyl acetate (97:3Z:E), having mono- and trifluorsubstitutions at the terminal carbon of the pheromone chain, mimicked the biological activity of the pheromone, while analogs with fluorine at either side of the double bond and a pentafluoro analog were essentially inactive. Comparison of the pheromonal activity of these analogs with the previously reported activity of similarly fluorinated pheromones in five other species of moths revealed an unpredictable relationship between fluorine substitution pattern and pheromone-mimicking activity. Fluorine substitution patterns that rendered pheromonal analogs biologically inactive in the European corn borer had no detrimental influence upon pheromonal activity in other species and the converse was also true. This is evidence that the relative importance of electronic qualities of sites within a pheromone molecule differ from species to species. Furthermore, it indicates that the biochemical components (pheromone receptor proteins, binding proteins, and enzymes) that make up moth olfactory chemosensory systems must also vary structurally from species to species, despite the fact that they are involved in olfactory sensing of compounds having very similar chemical structure. PMID:24241842

Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Wakabayashi, N; Waters, R M

1994-10-01

218

Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.  

PubMed

Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests. PMID:24662468

Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

2014-05-01

219

Peripheral and Central Olfactory Tuning in a Moth  

PubMed Central

Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain.

Ong, Rose C.

2012-01-01

220

Moth pollination of Metaplexis japonica (Apocynaceae): pollinaria transfer on the tip of the proboscis.  

PubMed

Asclepiad pollinaria (including pollen masses) attach to diverse body parts of flower visitors in many ways. In this paper, we observed nocturnal moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Noctuidae) transporting the pollinaria of the Japanese species Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) on the tip of the proboscis. Flowers of this species may induce nectar-feeding moths to pull out the proboscis along a guide rail (anther slit), thus clipping the pollinaria onto the tip of the proboscis and transferring the pollinaria to the next flower. The transfer of pollinaria on the unique vector of a moth proboscis tip is an interesting pollination mechanism among previously reported entomophiles. PMID:16059659

Sugiura, Shinji; Yamazaki, Kazuo

2005-08-01

221

Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

2007-01-01

222

Components of female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer moth,Conopomorpha cramerella.  

PubMed

The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40?60?4?6?10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393

Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D

1986-01-01

223

Aerial Application of Mexacarbate and Stabilized Pyrethrins on Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of mexacarbate and stabilized pyrethrins formulations was tested in 1972 on field populations of Douglas-fir tussock moth larvae (Orgyia pseudotsugata), in eastern Washington and Oregon forests of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and...

C. B. Williams P. J. Shea B. Maksymiuk J. A. Neisess D. McComb

1978-01-01

224

Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.  

PubMed

Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl ?11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

225

Allozyme Polymorphism and the Speciation Process in Small Ermine Moths (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Biochemical genetics and systematics of small ermine moths (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae); Allozymes and the population structure of Yponomeuta Cagnagellus (Lepidoptera); Inheritance of allozymes in Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera); Inheritance of allozym...

S. B. J. Menken

1980-01-01

226

Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

PubMed Central

Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl ?11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies.

Lienard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lofstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

227

Phoretic egg parasitoid,Telenomus euproctidis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), uses sex pheromone of tussock mothEuproctis taiwana (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) as a kairomone.  

PubMed

The phoretic egg parasitoid,Telenomus euproctidis Wilcox (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) was found more frequently on virgin than on mated female moths ofEuproctis taiwana (Shiraki) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), when virgin and mated moths were exposed concurrently in the field for 24 hr. A synthetic component of the moth's sex pheromone. (Z)-16-methyl-9-heptadecenyl isobutyrate, attracted both the wasp,T. euproctidis, and maleE. taiwana. These findings suggest thatT. euproctidis uses the sex pheromone of the female moth,E. taiwana, as a kairomone to locate a host female moth and through her the host eggs. PMID:24225929

Arakaki, N; Wakamura, S; Yasuda, T

1996-06-01

228

Inheritance of Resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1C in the Diamondback Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory selection increased resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1C in a strain of diamond- back moth (Plutella xylostella). The selected strain was derived from a field population that had evolved high levels of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and moderate resistance to Cry1C. Relative to the responses of a susceptible strain of diamondback moth, the resistance to Cry1C

YONG-BIAO LIU; BRUCE E. TABASHNIK

1997-01-01

229

Replacement of midgut epithelium in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonela , during larval-pupal moult  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelium of larval midgut of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonela, was replaced during the larval-pupal moult. The development of this moth was tentatively divided into 11 stages, from the full-grown larva of last instar to the 4-day-old pupa. The midgut at each stage was observed for (1) overall structure, (2) the position of goblet cells, and (3) the

Makiko F. Uwo; Kumiko Ui-Tei; Makio Takeda

2002-01-01

230

Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of grape berry moth (Lep., Tortricidae) to selected plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four non-host plant extracts from Bifora radians, Arctium lappa, Humulus lupulus and Xanthium strumarium, were tested against adult grape berry moths, Paralobesia viteana, for their potential as repellents or oviposition deterrents. Responses were compared with those elicited by the major component of the P. viteana sex pheromone. Moths of both sexes exhibited varying electroantennogram (EAG) responses from 1.7 to 2.4

A. Gökçe; L. L. Stelinski; R. Isaacs; M. E. Whalon

2006-01-01

231

Epidemic dermatitis due to contact with a moth in Cozumel, Mexico.  

PubMed

In early December 1989, an outbreak that was initially thought to be scabies was investigated among employees of tourist hotels in Cozumel, Mexico. Of 417 employees interviewed, only 19 (4.6%) met a case definition for scabies dermatitis, while 91 (21.8%) reported a nonspecific dermatitis of less than one-week's duration. Persons with nonspecific dermatitis related the onset of their dermatitis to skin contact with a moth that had been present in large numbers in November. At the time of the initial investigation in December, there were no active cases of dermatitis and the moth was no longer present. During early January 1990, numerous cases of dermatitis again began to be reported. Using a case definition for nonspecific dermatitis, a survey of Cozumel's resident population showed an attack rate of 12.1%. A case-control study revealed the only significant risk factor to be skin contact with the suspect moth (P less than 0.01), which had returned in large numbers. Six health workers volunteered to have the moth rubbed on their skin; within 5 min, five of six developed an intense pruritus followed by an erythematous rash. The moth was classified as Hylesia alinda Druce. This species has nettling hairs on its abdomen that excrete a histamine-like substance. Although this moth is normally present in small numbers in Cozumel, the passage of hurricane Gilbert killed most of its natural predators (wasps and bees), allowing its population to overgrow. No control measures were undertaken because the moth's natural predators returned that spring and dramatically reduced the moth population. No further outbreaks of dermatitis occurred. PMID:1599050

Fernandez, G; Morales, E; Beutelspacher, C; Villanueva, A; Ruiz, C; Stetler, H C

1992-05-01

232

Phylogeny and life history evolution of Prodoxus yucca moths (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yucca moths (Lep., Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate pollination mutualism with yuccas. In addition to the pollinators, yuccas also host many non-pollinating yucca moths. Here the genus Prodoxus, the non- pollinating sister group of the pollinators, is revised using morphological and molecular data, their phylogenetic relationships are analysed, and the evolution of host tissue specialization explored. Twenty-two species are

OLLE P ELLMYR; M ANUEL; B ALCAZAR-LARA; J AMES L EEBENS-MACK

233

The cabbage moth modulates the adult eclosion time in response to the amplitude of temperature cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult eclosion rhythm of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae, pupating in the soil, was recorded in darkness under two thermoperiods, 24°C (12 h):16°C (12 h) and 20.5°C (12 h):19.5°C (12 h), with different amplitude and the same average temperature. Clear daily rhythms of eclosion were observed in both conditions. However, moths eclosed about 2 h before the temperature drop in 20.5°C:19.5°C,

Kazuhiro Tanaka; Yuji Kimura; Yasuhiko Watari

2012-01-01

234

Fine-scale structure of pheromone plumes modulates upwind orientation of flying moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN studies of moths flying upwind to a pheromone source, attention has focused on the influence on flight orientation of the composition1,2 and concentration3,4 of the chemical message, and of changes in the visual environment5,6 and in wind speeds7-9. The chemical signal must be intermittent for moths to fly upwind10-12, when they usually follow a zigzag track, the evident expression

Agenor Mafra-Neto; Ring T. Cardé

1994-01-01

235

"This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.  

PubMed

The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control. PMID:22797850

Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

2012-08-01

236

Beware of bats, beware of birds: the auditory responses of eared moths to bat and bird predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH) proposes that the preponderance of moths in the diets of some bats (e.g., Rhinolophidae) is the result of these bats echolocating at allotonic frequencies, that is, outside of the typical hearing range of most moths (ca., 20--60 kHz). The broader hearing range of African moths (5--110 kHz) suggests that their ears may function at frequencies

David S. Jacobs; John M. Ratcliffe; James H. Fullard

2008-01-01

237

Effects of germination and cooking on polyphenols and in vitro protein digestibility of horse gram and moth bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in polyphenols and in vitro protein digestibility due to germination and cooking were studied in horse gram and moth bean. Horse gram had higher amounts of polyphenols than moth bean. Polyphenol content in horse gram decreased from 1.6% to 1.1% at 48h germination, but in moth bean there was a reduction in polyphenol content from 1.3% to 1.0% at

P. N. Satwadhar; S. S. Kadam; D. K. Salunkhe

1981-01-01

238

Antireflective "moth-eye" structures on tunable optical silicone membranes.  

PubMed

Flexible silicone membranes are key components for tunable optical lenses. The elastic operation of the membranes impedes the use of classical layer systems for an antireflective (AR) effect. To overcome this limitation, we equipped optical elastomer membranes with "moth-eye" structures directly in the flexible silicone substrate. The manufacturing of the AR structures in the flexible membrane includes a mastering process based on block copolymer micelle nanolithography followed by a replication method. We investigate the performance of the resulting AR structures under strain of up to 20% membrane expansion. A significant transmittance enhancement of up to 2.5% is achieved over the entire visible spectrum, which means that more than half of the surface reflection losses are compensated by the AR structures. PMID:22772109

Brunner, Robert; Keil, Bettina; Morhard, Christoph; Lehr, Dennis; Draheim, Jan; Wallrabe, Ulrike; Spatz, Joachim

2012-07-01

239

Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).  

PubMed

The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals. PMID:10318925

González, A; Rossini, C; Eisner, M; Eisner, T

1999-05-11

240

Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix)  

PubMed Central

The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals.

Gonzalez, Andres; Rossini, Carmen; Eisner, Maria; Eisner, Thomas

1999-01-01

241

Sex pheromone catabolism in the redbanded leafroller moth.  

PubMed

Tritium-labeled components of the red-banded leaf-roller female sex pheromone, (Z)- and (E)-[11,12-(3)H2]-11-tetradecenyl acetate (57 Ci/mmol), applied to antennae of males and females were degraded causing formation of tritiated 11-tetradecenol, 11-tetradecenoic acid, and water. Results indicate that the catabolic pathway involves acetate hydrolysis, oxidation of alcohol to fatty acid, and degradation of the acid via?-oxidation. Both geometric isomers were degraded equally well by males but degradation proceeded comparatively less rapidly with female antennae. It is surmised that under natural conditions of olfactory sensing, sex pheromone impinging upon the moth's antennae is probably subject to a similar catabolic fate. PMID:24249015

Klun, J A; Schwarz, M

1993-04-01

242

Evolution of moth sex pheromones via ancestral genes  

PubMed Central

Mate finding in most moth species involves long-distance signaling via female-emitted sex pheromones. There is a great diversity of pheromone structures used throughout the Lepidoptera, even among closely related species. The conundrum is how signal divergence has occurred. With strong normalizing selection pressure on blend composition and response preferences, it is improbable that shifts to pheromones of diverse structures occur through adaptive changes in small steps. Here, we present data supporting the hypothesis that a major shift in the pheromone of an Ostrinia species occurred by activation of a nonfunctional desaturase gene transcript present in the pheromone gland. We also demonstrate the existence of rare males that respond to the new pheromone blend. Their presence would allow for asymmetric tracking of male response to the new blend and, thus, evolution of an Ostrinia species with structurally different sex pheromone components.

Roelofs, Wendell L.; Liu, Weitian; Hao, Guixia; Jiao, Hongmei; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Linn, Charles E.

2002-01-01

243

Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths.  

PubMed

We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

2014-01-01

244

Chromosomal Evolution in Tortricid Moths: Conserved Karyotypes with Diverged Features  

PubMed Central

Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n?=?31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n?=?30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n?=?28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the understanding of chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera in general.

Sichova, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalikova, Martina; Marec, Frantisek

2013-01-01

245

Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection on moth pheromone communication  

PubMed Central

The chemical composition of the sexual communication signals of female moths is thought to be under strong stabilizing selection, because females that produce atypical pheromone blends suffer lower success in finding mates. This intraspecific selection pressure cannot explain the high diversity of moth pheromone blends found in nature. We conducted experiments to determine whether communication interference from males of closely related species could exert strong enough directional selection to cause evolution of these signals. Attraction and mating success of Heliothis subflexa (Hs) females with a normal quantitative trait locus for production of acetate pheromone components (norm-OAc) were compared with Hs females with an introgressed quantitative trait locus from Heliothis virescens (Hv) that dramatically decreased the amount of acetate esters in their pheromone glands (low-OAc). In field experiments with natural Hv and Hs populations, 10 times more Hv males were captured in traps baited with live low-OAc Hs females than in traps with norm-OAc Hs females. This pattern was confirmed in mate-choice assays in cages. Hybrids resulting from Hv–Hs matings have effectively zero fitness in the field. Combining our results with the extensive data set gathered in the past 40 years on the reproductive biology of Hv, we can quantitatively estimate that the directional selection exerted by Hv males on Hs females to produce relatively high amounts (>5%) of acetates can range from 0.135 to 0.231. Such intense interspecific selection may counteract intraspecific stabilizing selection that impedes evolutionary changes in pheromone blends and could lead to diversification of sexual signals.

Groot, Astrid T.; Horovitz, Joy L.; Hamilton, Jennifer; Santangelo, Richard G.; Schal, Coby; Gould, Fred

2006-01-01

246

Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: conserved karyotypes with diverged features.  

PubMed

Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n?=?31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n?=?30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n?=?28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the understanding of chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera in general. PMID:23717623

Síchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

2013-01-01

247

The gleaning attacks of the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, are relatively inaudible to moths.  

PubMed

This study empirically tests the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaning insectivorous bats (short duration, high frequency, low intensity) are acoustically mismatched to the ears of noctuid moths and are less detectable than those of aerially hawking bats. We recorded auditory receptor cell action potentials elicited in underwing moths (Catocala spp.) by echolocation calls emitted during gleaning attacks by Myotis septentrionalis (the northern long-eared bat) and during flights by the aerial hawker Myotis lucifugus (the little brown bat). The moth ear responds inconsistently and with fewer action potentials to the echolocation calls emitted by the gleaner, a situation that worsened when the moth's ear was covered by its wing (mimicking a moth resting on a surface). Calls emitted by the aerial-hawking bat elicited a significantly stronger spiking response from the moth ear. Moths with their ears covered by their wings maintained their relative hearing sensitivity at their best frequency range, the range used by most aerial insectivorous bats, but showed a pronounced deafness in the frequency range typically employed by gleaning bats. Our results (1) support the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaners are acoustically inconspicuous to the ears of moths (and presumably other nocturnal tympanate insects), leaving the moths particularly vulnerable to predation, and (2) suggest that gleaners gain a foraging advantage against eared prey. PMID:8315370

Faure, P A; Fullard, J H; Dawson, J W

1993-05-01

248

N-butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae).  

PubMed

Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested. PMID:24534117

Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

2014-04-01

249

Apple and Sugar Feeding in Adult Codling Moths, Cydia pomonella: Effects on Longevity, Fecundity, and Egg Fertility  

PubMed Central

Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented. However, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pairs of moths maintained with the following food regimens: water, sucrose water, honey water, apple juice, apple flesh, or starved, i.e., no food or water provided. Longevity and total fecundity were enhanced in all treatments relative to the starved treatment moths. Sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice treatments yielded the highest longevity, but total fecundity was highest for moths maintained on honey water or apple juice. Total egg fertility did not differ among treatments. However, egg fertility declined more gradually over the female lifespan for the three aqueous solution diets of sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice. Similarly, fecundity per day declined more gradually over time for honey water and apple juice treatments. Performance of moths maintained with apple flesh was generally intermediate between that of moths with water and the three aqueous solution treatments. This suggests that moths benefit from feeding on ripe apple flesh, although apple may be more difficult to ingest or its nutrients less concentrated compared to aqueous solutions. The results presented here may explain attraction of adult moths to sweet baits as well as to odors from ripe fruit, which may be a natural source of food in the fall.

Wenninger, Erik J.; Landolt, Peter J.

2011-01-01

250

Endophytic bacteria of Mammillaria fraileana, an endemic rock-colonizing cactus of the southern Sonoran Desert.  

PubMed

The small cactus Mammillaria fraileana is a pioneer rock-colonizing plant harboring endophytic bacteria with the potential for nitrogen fixation and rock weathering (phosphate solubilization and rock degradation). In seeds, only a combination of culture-independent methods, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence vital staining, detected significant amounts of non-culturable, but living, endophytic bacteria distributed underneath the membrane covering the embryo, in the undifferentiated tissue of the embryo, and in the vascular tissue. Large populations of culturable endophytic bacteria were detected in stems and roots of wild plants colonizing rocks in the southern Sonoran Desert, but not in seeds. Among 14 endophytic bacterial isolates found in roots, four isolates were identified by full sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. In vitro tests indicated that Azotobacter vinelandii M2Per is a potent nitrogen fixer. Solubilization of inorganic phosphate was exhibited by Pseudomonas putida M5TSA, Enterobacter sakazakii M2PFe, and Bacillus megaterium M1PCa, while A. vinelandii M2Per, P. putida M5TSA, and B. megaterium M1PCa weathered rock by reducing the size of rock particles, probably by changing the pH of the liquid media. Cultivated seedlings of M. fraileana, derived from disinfected seeds and inoculated with endophytic bacteria, showed re-colonization 105 days after inoculation. Their densities decreased from the root toward the stem and apical zones. Functional traits in planta of culturable and non-culturable endophytic bacteria in seeds remain unknown. PMID:21445557

Lopez, Blanca R; Bashan, Yoav; Bacilio, Macario

2011-07-01

251

Thermal Energy Exchange Model and Water Loss of a Barrel Cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes1  

PubMed Central

The influences of various diurnal stomatal opening patterns, spines, and ribs on the stem surface temperature and water economy of a CAM succulent, the barrel cactus Ferocactus acanthodes, were examined using an energy budget model. To incorporate energy exchanges by shortwave and longwave irradiation, latent heat, conduction, and convection as well as the heat storage in the massive stem, the plant was subdivided into over 100 internal and external regions in the model. This enabled the average surface temperature to be predicted within 1 C of the measured temperature for both winter and summer days. Reducing the stem water vapor conductance from the values observed in the field to zero caused the average daily stem surface temperature to increase only 0.7 C for a winter day and 0.3 C for a summer day. Thus, latent heat loss does not substantially reduce stem temperature. Although the surface temperatures averaged 18 C warmer for the summer day than for the winter day for a plant 41 cm tall, the temperature dependence of stomatal opening caused the simulated nighttime water loss rates to be about the same for the 2 days. Spines moderated the amplitude of the diurnal temperature changes of the stem surface, since the daily variation was 17 C for the winter day and 25 C for the summer day with spines compared with 23 C and 41 C, respectively, in their simulated absence. Ribs reduced the daytime temperature rise by providing 54% more area for convective heat loss than for a smooth circumscribing surface. In a simulation where both spines and ribs were eliminated, the daytime average surface temperature rose by 5 C.

Lewis, Donald A.; Nobel, Park S.

1977-01-01

252

Entropy crisis, ideal glass transition, and polymer melting: exact solution on a Husimi cactus.  

PubMed

We investigate an extension of the lattice model of melting of semiflexible polymers originally proposed by Flory. Along with a bending penalty epsilon, present in the original model and involving three sites of the lattice, we introduce an interaction energy epsilon (p), corresponding to the presence of a pair of parallel bonds and an interaction energy epsilon (h), associated with a hairpin turn. Both these new terms represent four-site interactions. The model is solved exactly on a Husimi cactus, which approximates a square lattice. We study the phase diagram of the system as a function of the energies. For a proper choice of the interaction energies, the model exhibits a first-order melting transition between a liquid and a crystalline phase at a temperature T(M). The continuation of the liquid phase below T(M) gives rise to a supercooled liquid, which turns continuously into a new low-temperature phase, called metastable liquid, at T(MC)

Corsi, Andrea; Gujrati, P D

2003-09-01

253

Sun/shade conditions affect recruitment and local adaptation of a columnar cactus in dry forests  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Facilitation among plants in water-limited environments (i.e. where evapotranspiration overcomes the availability of water during the growing season) has been considered a local adaptation to water and light conditions. Among cacti, early life-history stages can benefit from the facilitative effects of nurse plants that reduce solar radiation and water stress. However, whether light condition itself acts as an agent of selection through facilitation remains untested. The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether light conditions affect seedling recruitment, (2) whether the positive effect of shade on seedling recruitment is more intense under more stressful conditions and (3) whether shade condition (facilitation) reduces the magnitude of local adaptation on seedling recruitment relative to full sunlight conditions. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment, coupled with the artificial manipulation of sun/shade conditions, was performed to test for the effects of local adaptation on germination, seedling survival and growth, using two demes of the columnar cactus Pilosocereus leucocephalus, representing different intensities of stressful conditions. Key Results Full sunlight conditions reduced recruitment success and supported the expectation of lower recruitment in more stressful environments. Significant local adaptation was mainly detected under full sunlight conditions, indicating that this environmental factor acts as an agent of selection at both sites. Conclusions The results supported the expectation that the magnitude of local adaptation, driven by the effects of facilitative nurse plants, is less intense under reduced stressful conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that sun/shade conditions act as a selective agent accounting for local adaptation in water-limited environments, and that facilitation provided by nurse plants in these environments can attenuate the patterns of local adaptation among plants benefiting from the nurse effect.

Miranda-Jacome, Antonio; Montana, Carlos; Fornoni, Juan

2013-01-01

254

The effect of spineless cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis) supplementation on growth, carcass, meat quality and fatty acid composition of male goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of grain compared to spineless cactus feeding on goat kids growth, carcass characteristics and FA profile. For this purpose, 21 kids were used and allocated to 3 groups receiving a low quantity (200g) of oat hay. The control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130g crude protein (CP) per

N. Atti; M. Mahouachi; H. Rouissi

2006-01-01

255

A Case Study on in situ Rooting Profiles and Water-Use Efficiency of Cactus Pears, Opuntia ficus-indica and O. robusta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root distribution of cactus pear with distance from the mother plant and depth was determined in the field for one-year-old Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (cultivar Morado - green cladode) and O. robusta Wendl. (cultivar Monterey - blue cladode) in a semiarid climate. The roots were expressed in terms of root mass, root length and root thickness. In addition, the evapotranspiration

H. A. Snyman

256

Seasonal patterns of acid fluctuations and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia excelsa in relation to light availability and size  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated relationships between light availability, diel acid fluctuation, and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia excelsa growing in western Mexico. We compared canopy and understory individuals from a deciduous forest as well as open-grown plants of the same approximate size as those in the understory. During the wet season light availability and daily fluctuations in titratable acidity (an

Manuel T. Lerdau; N. Michele Holbrook; Harold A. Mooney; Paul M. Rich; Julie L. Whitbeck

1992-01-01

257

Long-distance kissing loop interactions between a 3? proximal Y-shaped structure and apical loops of 5? hairpins enhance translation of Saguaro cactus virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circularization of cellular mRNAs is a key event prior to translation initiation. We report that efficient translation of Saguaro cactus virus (SCV) requires a 3? translational enhancer (PTE) located partially in coding sequences. Unlike a similar PTE reported in the 3? UTR of Pea enation mosaic virus that does not engage in an RNA:RNA interaction (Wang Z. et al., J.

Maitreyi Chattopadhyay; Kerong Shi; Xuefeng Yuan; Anne E. Simon

2011-01-01

258

Cactus-like and honeycomb-like Zinc Selenide microspheres on graphene oxide sheets with excellent optical properties.  

PubMed

Novel cactus-like and honeycomb-like ZnSe microspheres have been successfully grown on graphene oxide sheets by hydrothermal method at 190°C for 24h. The morphologies, structures, chemical compositions and optical properties of the as-grown ZnSe microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Raman spectra. It was found that the concentration of EDTA was important for the formation of morphologies of ZnSe microspheres. The cactus-like ZnSe microspheres were formed when the concentration of EDTA was 0.3M. With increasing the concentration of EDTA to 0.45M, honeycomb-like ZnSe microspheres were formed. The results of XRD revealed that the as-grown ZnSe microspheres have cubic zinc blende structure. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) showed that the samples emit blue-green light under ultraviolet light. The results of Raman spectra, XRD and SEM showed that the ZnSe microspheres were grown on graphene oxide sheets. The formation mechanism of ZnSe microspheres grown on graphene oxide sheets was also discussed. PMID:24998063

Han, Junwei; Xue, Shaolin; Zhou, Weikang; Wu, Shuxian; Xie, Pei; Zou, Rujia

2014-09-15

259

The effect of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis) supplementation on growth, carcass, meat quality and fatty acid composition of male goat kids.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of grain compared to spineless cactus feeding on goat kids growth, carcass characteristics and FA profile. For this purpose, 21 kids were used and allocated to 3 groups receiving a low quantity (200g) of oat hay. The control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter (C130). The second group received half of that contained consumed by the control one but its CP content was 260g/kg DM and spineless cactus ad libitum (C260-Cac). In the third group, concentrate intake was limited to soya bean at a quantity that provided the same CP quantity as the two other groups and also cached spineless cactus was distributed ad libitum (Soya-Cac). Animals of all groups had free access to water. At the end of the growth trial which lasted for 74 days, all kids were slaughtered. Samples of longissimus dorsi muscle were used for meat quality and FA composition study. Animals in the control group and those in the C260-Cac had higher growth rate than Soya-Cac diet animals. Muscle and adipose tissue mean weights were higher in the first groups while the bone weight was similar in all treatments. Animals given Soya-Cac diet had relatively less fat (10.5%) than those fed other diets (p<0.001). Carcass fat content tended to be lower (p=0.07) in C260-Cac goats (13.5%) than in those of the C130 group (15.8%). The ultimate pH ranged between 6.18 and 6.48; it was higher in meat from control goats (C130) than in animals receiving cactus. Dietary treatment had no significant effect (p>0.05) on meat moisture, ash, crude fat and protein contents. The intra muscular lipid composition in fatty acids showed differences between the control group and those receiving cactus. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as well as a higher proportion of PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio than control ones. In conclusion, this study showed that cactus feeding of goat kids maximises the proportion of CLA, PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio. PMID:22062293

Atti, N; Mahouachi, M; Rouissi, H

2006-06-01

260

Host plant volatiles induce oriented flight behaviour in male European grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana relies on a female produced sex pheromone for long-distance mate finding. Grapevine moth males compete heavily during limited time windows for females. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of host plant volatiles by grapevine moth males and whether such compounds elicit upwind oriented flights. We compared five host plant headspace extracts by means of gas chromatography linked electroantennogram (EAG) recording. We identified 12 common host plant volatiles (aliphatic esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenes) that elicit EAG responses from grapevine moth males and that occur in at least three of the host plant volatile headspace extracts tested. Subsequently the behavioural response of grapevine moth males to four these compounds presented singly and in mixtures (1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (E)-?-caryophyllene) was recorded in a wind tunnel. Grapevine moth males engaged in upwind flights to all of four compounds when released singly at 10,000 pg/min and to all, except 1-octen-3-ol, when released at 100 pg/min. A blend of the four host plant volatiles released at 10,000 pg/min and mixed at a ratio based on the analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Solaris volatile emissions attracted significantly more males than any single compound. Grapevine moth males perceive and respond to host plant volatiles at biologically relevant levels indicating that host plant volatiles figure as olfactory cues and that L. botrana males can discern places where the likelihood of encountering females is higher. PMID:21729701

von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

2011-10-01

261

Mitogenomic analysis of Montipora cactus and Anacropora matthai (cnidaria; scleractinia; acroporidae) indicates an unequal rate of mitochondrial evolution among Acroporidae corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome was determined for specimens of the coral species Montipora cactus (Bernard 1897) and Anacropora matthai (Pillai 1973), representing two morphologically distinct genera of the family Acroporidae. These sequences were compared with the published mt genome sequence for the confamilial species, Acropora tenuis (Dana 1846). The size of the mt genome was 17,887 bp and 17,888 bp for M. cactus and A. matthai. Gene content and organization was found to be very similar among the three Acroporidae mt genomes with a group I intron occurring in the NADH dehyrogenase 5 ( nad5) gene. The intergenic regions were also similar in length among the three corals. The control region located between the small ribosomal RNA ( ms) and the cytochrome oxidase 3 ( cox3) gene was significantly smaller in M. cactus and A. matthai (both 627 bp) than in A. tenuis (1086 bp). Only one set of repeated sequences was identified at the 3'-end of the control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. A lack of the abundant repetitive elements which have been reported for A. tenuis, accounts for the relatively short control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. Pairwise distances and relative rate analyses of 13 protein coding genes, the group I intron and the largest intergenic region, igr3, revealed significant differences in the rate of molecular evolution of the mt genome among the three species, with an extremely slow rate being seen between Montipora and Anacropora. It is concluded that rapid mt genome evolution is taking place in genus Acropora relative to the confamilial genera Montipora and Anacropora although all are within the relatively slow range thought to be typical of Anthozoa.

Tseng, Ching-Chih; Wallace, Carden C.; Chen, Chaolun Allen

2005-11-01

262

Monitoring and temperature-based prediction of the whitemarked tussock moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in blueberry.  

PubMed

Larvae of the whitemarked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), defoliate and contaminate blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., in eastern North America, but infestations are often not detected until economic damage has been caused. To improve monitoring techniques and understand the phenology of the whitemarked tussock moth in blueberry, we compared four trap types and determined temperature-based phenology of this pest over two growing seasons. Large delta traps captured the greatest number of male moths, and similar moth captures were found with or without monthly lure changing. Traps placed at field perimeters adjacent to woods trapped significantly more moths than those inside fields, whereas position in the canopy (high versus low) did not affect captures. Under laboratory conditions, the lower developmental threshold for larvae was 12.3 degrees C, in close agreement with field studies indicating a 12.8 degrees C threshold. Using the 12.8 degrees C threshold, monitoring of O. leucostigma cohorts on caged blueberry plants revealed a spring generation with egg hatch starting at 206 +/- 3 growing degree-days (GDD) and a late-summer generation with egg hatch starting at 1,157 +/- 52 GDD. Combined use of optimized monitoring methods and the phenology model for O. leucostigma is expected to improve integrated management of this pest in blueberry. PMID:19449644

Isaacs, Rufus; Van Timmeren, Steven

2009-04-01

263

THE GLEANING ATTACKS OF THE NORTHERN LONG-EARED BAT, MYOTIS SEPTENTRIONALIS, ARE RELATIVELY INAUDIBLE TO MOTHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study empirically tests the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaning insectivorous bats (short duration, high frequency, low intensity) are acoustically mismatched to the ears of noctuid moths and are less detectable than those of aerially hawking bats. We recorded auditory receptor cell action potentials elicited in underwing moths (Catocala spp.) by echolocation calls emitted during gleaning attacks

PAUL A. FAURE; JAMES H. FULLARD; W. DAWSON

1993-01-01

264

[Description of an outbreak of lepidopterism (dermatitis associated with contact with moths) among sailors in Salvador, State of Bahia].  

PubMed

An occurrence of pruritic papular dermatitis among the whole crew of a Filipino commercial ship in Salvador, State of Bahia, was associated with contact with Hylesia moths. This unusual type of dermatitis is caused by the bristles (flechettes) on the moths' bodies. Reporting on such cases serves to warn about possible similar situations. PMID:17992420

Moreira, Shirlei Cristina; de Lima, Jean Carla; Silva, Lucineide; Haddad, Vidal

2007-01-01

265

Listening in Pheromone Plumes: Disruption of Olfactory-Guided Mate Attraction in a Moth by a Bat-Like Ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocturnal moths often use sex pheromones to find mates and ultrasonic hearing to evade echolocating bat predators. Male moths, when confronted with both pheromones and sound, thus have to trade off reproduction and predator avoidance depending on the relative strengths of the perceived conflicting stimuli. The ultrasonic hearing of Plodia interpunctella was investigated. A threshold curve for evasive reaction to

Glenn P. Svenssona; Christer Löfstedt; Niels Skals

2007-01-01

266

Multiple aquatic invasions by an endemic, terrestrial Hawaiian moth radiation  

PubMed Central

Insects are the most diverse form of life on the planet, dominating both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, yet no species has a life stage able to breath, feed, and develop either continually submerged or without access to water. Such truly amphibious insects are unrecorded. In mountain streams across the Hawaiian Islands, some caterpillars in the endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma are truly amphibious. These larvae can breathe and feed indefinitely both above and below the water's surface and can mature completely submerged or dry. Remarkably, a molecular phylogeny based on 2,243 bp from both nuclear (elongation factor 1? and carbomoylphosphate synthase) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) genes representing 216 individuals and 89 species of Hyposmocoma reveals that this amphibious lifestyle is an example of parallel evolution and has arisen from strictly terrestrial clades at least three separate times in the genus starting more than 6 million years ago, before the current high islands existed. No other terrestrial genus of animals has sponsored so many independent aquatic invasions, and no other insects are able to remain active indefinitely above and below water. Why and how Hyposmocoma, an overwhelmingly terrestrial group, repeatedly evolved unprecedented aquatic species is unclear, although there are many other evolutionary anomalies across the Hawaiian archipelago. The uniqueness of the community assemblages of Hawaii's isolated biota is likely critical in generating such evolutionary novelty because this amphibious ecology is unknown anywhere else.

Rubinoff, Daniel; Schmitz, Patrick

2010-01-01

267

Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.  

PubMed

Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores. PMID:22319127

Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

2012-06-22

268

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Rice Moth, Corcyra cephalonica  

PubMed Central

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined as a circular molecular of 15,273 bp in size. The mitogenome composition (37 genes) and gene order are the same as the other lepidopterans. Nucleotide composition of the C. cephalonica mitogenome is highly A+T biased (80.43%) like other insects. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of coxl gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine protein-coding genes have the common stop codon TAA, and the nad2, cox1, cox2, and nad4 have single T as the incomplete stop codon. 22 tRNA genes demonstrated cloverleaf secondary structure. The mitogenome has several large intergenic spacer regions, the spacer1 between trnQ gene and nad2 gene, which is common in Lepidoptera. The spacer 3 between trnE and trnF includes microsatellite-like repeat regions (AT)18 and (TTAT)3. The spacer 4 (16 bp) between trnS2 gene and nad1 gene has a motif ATACTAT; another species, Sesamia inferens encodes ATCATAT at the same position, while other lepidopteran insects encode a similar ATACTAA motif. The spacer 6 is A+T rich region, include motif ATAGA and a 20-bp poly(T) stretch and two microsatellite (AT)9, (AT)8 elements.

Wu, Yu-Peng; Li, Jie; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

2012-01-01

269

Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.  

PubMed

A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality. PMID:21644949

Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

2011-06-01

270

Climatic warming increases voltinism in European butterflies and moths  

PubMed Central

Climate change is altering geographical ranges, population dynamics and phenologies of many organisms. For ectotherms, increased ambient temperatures frequently have direct consequences for metabolic rates, activity patterns and developmental rates. Consequently, in many insect species both an earlier beginning and prolongation of seasonal duration occurred in parallel with recent global warming. However, from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, the number of generations (voltinism) and investment into each generation may be even more important than seasonality, since an additional generation per unit time may accelerate population growth or adaptation. Using a dataset extending back to the mid-nineteenth century, I report changes in the voltinism of butterfly and moth species of Central Europe. A significant proportion of 263 multi-voltine species showed augmented frequency of second and subsequent generations relative to the first generation in a warm period since 1980, and 44 species even increased the number of generations after 1980. Expected ecological consequences are diverse. Since multi-voltinism has been linked to insect outbreaks they include an increase in the abundance of herbivorous pests of agriculture and forestry. However, disruption of the developmental synchrony associated with multi-voltinism and host plant phenology may also reduce fitness, potentially having unexpected consequences for species of conservation concern. The ability of species to adapt evolutionarily to a changing environment may be facilitated by increased voltinism.

Altermatt, Florian

2010-01-01

271

Bat defence in lekking ghost swifts (Hepialus humuli), a moth without ultrasonic hearing.  

PubMed Central

The Hepialidae represents an early branch of the Lepidoptera, whose members lack the ultrasonic hearing and other obvious predator defence systems present in other extant moths. I observed lekking male ghost swifts, Hepialus humuli, being exploited by northern bats, Eptesicus nilssonii, over a hayfield in southern Sweden. Because the moth's display flight was restricted to a brief (30 min) period at dusk, they avoided most predators temporally but were exposed to early emerging aerial-hawking bats. Against these, they apparently employed 'acoustic crypsis', achieved by flying close (< 0.5 m) to the vegetation, thereby hiding from the bats among clutter (echoes returning from the background). Nevertheless, the predation risk for the displaying moth males was very high (20% per night), mainly because they sometimes left the safety of the vegetation. The lack of 'advanced' predator defence mechanisms in H. humuli requires alternative defence strategies, which, however, restrict the behavioural repertoire and still carry a high predation risk.

Rydell, J

1998-01-01

272

Identification of a neuropeptide hormone that regulates sex pheromone production in female moths.  

PubMed

A pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) hormone that controls sex pheromone production in female moths was identified from the brain-subesophageal ganglion complexes of the adult corn earworm, Heliothis zea. PBAN has 33 amino acid residues and a molecular weight of 3900. Its amino acid sequence has no significant homology with any of the fully characterized peptide hormones. The synthetic peptide, at a dose of between 2 and 4 picomoles, induced production of a normal quantity of sex pheromone in ligated H. zea females. The peptide also induced pheromone production in six other species of moths, thus indicating that this or similar peptides may be responsible for the regulation of pheromone production in moths. PMID:17802237

Raina, A K; Jaffe, H; Kempe, T G; Keim, P; Blacher, R W; Fales, H M; Riley, C T; Klun, J A; Ridgway, R L; Hayes, D K

1989-05-19

273

The value of woody hedgerows for moth diversity on organic and conventional farms.  

PubMed

Habitat destruction and degradation are important drivers of biodiversity loss within agro-ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of farming practices and the value of woody hedgerows on Lepidoptera in North America. The purpose of this work was to study moth diversity in woody hedgerows and croplands of organic and conventional farms. In addition, the influence of vegetation composition and abiotic variables on species richness, abundance, and composition was examined. Moths were sampled with light traps during six weeks in the summer of 2001. Vegetation data and abiotic variables were obtained for all sites. In total, 26,020 individuals from 12 families and 408 species were captured. Most species were uncommon. Only 35 species included >100 individuals while for 71% of species <10 individuals were found. The Noctuidae represented 221 species and 85% of all individuals captured. Woody hedgerows harbored more species and in greater number than croplands. There was no significant difference in moth diversity between organic and conventional farms, except that the Notodontidae were significantly more species rich in organic than in conventional sites. Results show that species richness, abundance, and composition were greatly influenced by habitat types (hedgerow versus crop field) and abiotic variables (minimum temperature which was correlated to moon illumination, rainfall, and cloud cover). Moth species composition was significantly correlated to vegetation composition. This study broadens our understanding of the factors driving moth diversity and expands our knowledge of their geographic range. The maintenance of noncrop habitats such as woody hedgerows within agro-ecosystems seems paramount to preserving the biodiversity and abundance of many organisms, including moths. PMID:22251633

Boutin, C; Baril, A; McCabe, S K; Martin, P A; Guy, M

2011-06-01

274

Genetic variability of an unusual apomictic triploid cactus--Haageocereus tenuis Ritter--from the Coast of Central Peru.  

PubMed

Haageocereus tenuis is a prostrate cactus restricted to a small area of 2 km(2) near the city of Lima, Peru. The species is triploid and propagates mainly through stem fragmentation. In addition, propagation via agamospermy is documented and adventitious embryony is also inferred as a mechanism. Although seedling recruitment has not been observed in nature, we have shown that asexually produced seeds are viable. About 45 adult individuals, plus 9 individuals obtained from seeds, were sampled and 5 microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic variability. Microsatellite analysis confirms that individuals from the only existing population are genetically identical and that the population likely represents a single clone. The absence of mutations in any individual, even in highly variable microsatellite loci, may indicate that the species is also of recent origin. Other prostrate species of Haageocereus are suspected to be occasional apomicts. This phenomenon has significant implications for the evolutionary biology and ecology of Haageocereus and other clonal Cactaceae. PMID:23028024

Arakaki, Mónica; Speranza, Pablo; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

2013-01-01

275

Direct sampling of resting codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults in apple tree canopies and surrounding habitats.  

PubMed

Field investigations were conducted to determine the resting locations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L.]) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males and females in mating disrupted and nondisrupted apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard plots. A custom-made sampling device, consisting of a leaf blower converted into a powerful vacuum, yielded 20-24% success in recovering marked moths, released in the tree canopy in orchards. Four collections each were made between 0900 and 1800 hours and 1800 and 2200 hours in 2005. Ninety-four moths were collected during the 1800-2200 hours samples. In mating disruption plots, 42% of females and 22% of males were found in the top third of the tree canopy (3.0-4.5m), 46% females and 43% males in the middle third (1.5-3.0m), and 12% female and 35% male in the lower third (0-1.5m). In nondisrupted plots 36.4% of females and 40% of males were in the top third of the canopy, 36.4% females and 52% males in the middle third, and 27.2% females and 8% males in the lower third of the tree canopy. Daylight vacuum sampling recovered only one female and two male moths from the top, four males from the middle and one male from the lower third of the tree canopy. Release-recapture studies of marked adult codling moths were conducted in 2006-2007 in screened tents to determine within orchard habitats for adult moths during 0900-1800 hours. Of moths recaptured, 14.6% of females and 13.5% of males were from the ground (herbicide strip and drive-row grass) and 32.9% of females and 24.6% of males were captured in the tree canopy 16-h post release, 17.4% of females and 3.4% of males from the ground and 26.5% of females and 38.2% of males in the tree 40-h post release, and 15.1% of females and 18.6% of males from the ground and 15.7 of females and 25.5% of males in the tree 64-h post release. Application of pyrethrum + PBO by using an orchard blast sprayer in 2007 resulted in the recapture of 28% and 37% of laboratory reared male and female moths, respectively, from trees during 0900-1800 h. Our results suggest that distributing pheromone dispensers throughout the tree canopy may be more effective than placing them in one location, such as near the tree crown. PMID:22251645

Epstein, David L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Gut, Larry J

2011-06-01

276

Lepidopterism due to exposure to the moth Hylesia metabus in northeastern Venezuela.  

PubMed

Lepidopterism refers to a spectrum of medical conditions in humans that usually involves the skin and results from contact with the adult or larval forms of certain butterflies and moths. We analyzed the epidemiologic and clinical features associated with exposure to the moth Hylesia metabus between 1970 and 2002 in the Cajigal district, Sucre, Venezuela. Fifty cases of lepidopterism mostly affecting individuals under 18 years of age were identified during this period and manifested as pruritic dermatitis with or without associated respiratory symptoms. With increased travel to endemic areas of lepidopterism, travel and tropical medicine practitioners should be aware of the clinical spectrum of this condition. PMID:16282317

Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Arria, Melissa; Rojas-Mirabal, Jose; Borges, Eduardo; Benitez, Jesus A; Herrera, Melfran; Villalobos, Carlos; Maldonado, Andrea; Rubio, Nestor; Franco-Paredes, Carlos

2005-11-01

277

Attract-and-Kill and other pheromone-based methods to suppress populations of the Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Three attract-and-kill formulations, a gel, a wax panel, and a plastic cylinder were tested in simulated warehouses at three densities of devices and at three densities of moths, Plodia interpunctella Hübner, per room. Wax panels and the cylinder formulations suppressed all the densities of moths with only one device per room. Two field experiments were then conducted during 2005 and 2006 in replicated commercial pet food and grocery stores that harbored natural populations of P. interpunctella. In the summer of 2005, the wax panel formulation suppressed adult male response to monitoring traps and also reduced the numbers of larvae in food bait oviposition cups after the first month of being established. This suppression was maintained until the third month. The second field experiment in 2006 compared three pheromone-based methods of moth suppression in buildings with moth populations in untreated buildings. The mass-trapping treatment showed the lowest adult moth capture after the first month of the experiment until the end of the third month. However, this treatment was similar statistically to use of attract-and-kill panels, mating disruption, and untreated control establishments in most of the weeks. Monitoring of larvae in food cups revealed the pheromone-based methods were not significantly different from each other, but that they suppressed moth populations in most of the weeks when compared with untreated control buildings. This research shows potential for successful pheromone-based suppression methods for Indianmeal moths in commercial applications. PMID:24665735

Campos, Manuel; Phillips, Thomas W

2014-02-01

278

Mating of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths and their host plant origins as larvae within Australian cotton farming systems.  

PubMed

Transgenic (Bt) cotton dominates Australian cotton production systems. It is grown to control feeding damage by lepidopteran pests such as Helicoverpa armigera. The possibility that these moths might become resistant to Bt remains a threat. Consequently, refuge crops (with no Bt) must be grown with Bt cotton to produce large numbers of Bt-susceptible moths to reduce the risk of resistance developing. A key assumption of the refuge strategy, that moths from different host plant origins mate at random, remains untested. During the period of the study reported here, refuge crops included pigeon pea, conventional cotton (C3 plants), sorghum or maize (C4 plants). To identify the relative contributions made by these (and perhaps other) C3 and C4 plants to populations of H. armigera in cotton landscapes, we measured stable carbon isotopes (?(13)C) within individual moths captured in the field. Overall, 53% of the moths were of C4 origin. In addition, we demonstrated, by comparing the stable isotope signatures of mating pairs of moths, that mating is indeed random amongst moths of different plant origins (i.e. C3 and C4). Stable nitrogen isotope signatures (?(15)N) were recorded to further discriminate amongst host plant origins (e.g. legumes from non-legumes), but such measurements proved generally unsuitable. Since 2010, maize and sorghum are no longer used as dedicated refuges in Australia. However, these plants remain very common crops in cotton production regions, so their roles as 'unstructured' refuges seem likely to be significant. PMID:22999440

Baker, G H; Tann, C R

2013-04-01

279

Evaluation of Spineless Cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indicus ) as an Alternative Feed and Water Source for Animals During Dry Season in Eritrea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Throughout East Africa, animal feed resources fluctuate seasonally and are often of limited availability. Finding alternative\\u000a feed resources that can sustain animal production during the long dry season is an essential need. Cactus is a drought tolerant\\u000a and succulent feed resource available throughout the year in Eritrea. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing\\u000a levels of spineless

Habteab S. Teklehaimanot; J. P. Tritschler

280

Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r?=?0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r?=?0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r?=?0.701), Blattella germanica (r?=?0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r?=?0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens.

Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

2014-01-01

281

Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis in columnar cactus seedlings during ontogeny: the effect of light on nocturnal acidity accumulation and chlorophyll fluorescence.  

PubMed

Columnar cacti have been traditionally classified as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, though recent research indicates some cactus seedlings employ the C(3) pathway. To verify this last result, we measured acidity fluctuations for five columnar and one globular cactus species in seedlings from 1 to 48 d old after experimental exposure to 60% and 30% full sunlight, and in adult plants in the field. Using light-response curves of chlorophyll fluorescence, we determined photosynthetic efficiency (?F/Fm'), maximum electron transport rate (ETR(max)) and saturating photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD(sat)). All seedlings used the CAM pathway from their first day of development, and increases in nocturnal acidity depended on species, light treatment, and age. The CAM pathway was also found in adult plants. Cactus seedlings were able to acclimatize to light conditions by making photochemical adjustments, mainly by modifying the level of light at which photosystem II is saturated (PPFD(sat)). The presence of CAM in the seedlings of columnar cacti increases water-use efficiency and reduces the risk of photoinhibition. This could favor survival in the highly variable light levels characteristic of the desert environments of columnar cacti. PMID:21636502

Hernández-González, Olivia; Villarreal, Oscar Briones

2007-08-01

282

A 26-year Composite Stable Isotope Record of Precipitation, Humidity and El Niño in the Spines of Saguaro Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal cycles of rainfall and humidity are recorded by stable isotopes in the spines of columnar cactuses. Multi-decadal ?18O and ?13C records of spine series from five saguaro cactuses, dated using bomb radiocarbon and semi-annual variations in ?13C, demonstrate the reproducibility of a climate signal. For ?18O and ?13C, the expressed population signal between 1980 and 2006 is 0.68 and 0.66, respectively, but 0.76 and 0.59 between 1980 and 1997, suggesting that age/height related effects are present in isotopic spine series. Composite ?18O and ?13C records constructed from five spine series show significant relationships to external climate forcing. Once dating errors are corrected, mean annual spine ?18O is negatively correlated with total annual precipitation (TAP) from November through October (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with mean annual nighttime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) (P < 0.01). Year to year decreases (> 2‰) in the maximum annual spine ?18O are positively correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (P < 0.01). We hypothesize these decreases are caused by El Niño enhanced winter rainfall. While less significant, minimum annual ?13C is negatively correlated with TAP (P < 0.05) and mean nighttime VPD (P < 0.05). These results bolster proposed mechanistic models of isotopic variation in the spines of columnar cactuses and demonstrate the use of isotopic spine series as climate proxies.

English, N. B.; Dettman, D. L.; Williams, D. G.

2008-12-01

283

Growth Impact of Tip Moth Control in 23-Year-Old Pines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements were taken in plots of 22- and 23-year-old pines in Florida, Texas, and Arkansas that had received insecticide treatment for tip moth protection for 6 to 10 years after planting. A significant height advantage was found in treated loblolly pi...

H. A. Thomas C. P. Oprean

1984-01-01

284

THE EFFECTS OF BLOOD PROTEIN DEPLETION ON THE GROWTH OF THE OOCYTES IN THE CECROPIA MOTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the final two weeks in the metamorphosis of the Cecropia moth the oocytes enter a period of yolk formation, in the course of which their volume increases 400-fold. The growth of the oocyte during this period is not dependent exclusively on the synthetic activities of the ovary, but also entails the transfer of proteins from the blood to the

WILLIAM H. TELFER; L. DAVID

285

THE ROUTE OF ENTRY AND LOCALIZATION OF BLOOD PROTEINS IN THE OOCYTES OF SATURNIID MOTHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oocytes of saturniid moths take up proteins selectively from the blood. The distribution of blood proteins in the ovary during protein uptake was investigated by staining 2 \\/~ sec- tions of freeze-dried ovaries with fluorescein-labeled antibodies. The results indicate that blood proteins occur primarily in the intercellular spaces of the follicle cell layer, in associa- tion with a brush

WILLIAM H. TELFER

1961-01-01

286

Volatiles associated with preferred and nonpreferred hosts of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana.  

PubMed

Ovipositing female Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana, prefer loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., to slash pine, Pinus elliottii Engelm, except during the first spring following planting of seedlings. Host discrimination by R. frustrana increases as seedlings develop, suggesting that changes in the chemical composition of seedlings may mediate the moth's host preferences. Volatile compounds from slash and loblolly pine seedlings were collected using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) during the first year following planting. Four collection periods coincided with adult emergence and oviposition during each of four annual generations of R. frustrana in the Georgia Coastal Plain. Infestation of slash pine peaked during the second tip moth generation and was similar to the loblolly pine infestation level. By the fourth tip moth generation, slash pine infestation levels had declined and diverged considerably from those of loblolly pine. Significant differences in relative quantities of beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, limonene, beta-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and an unidentified sesquiterpene occurred between slash and loblolly pine during the fourth generation. However, no strong correlation was observed between any individual compound and host damage that could readily explain the temporal changes in R. frustrana host preference. Gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of standards identified 19 different seedling-associated compounds that elicited antennal responses from R. frustrana females, indicating that a blend of terpenoids may mediate host discrimination. PMID:15274443

Asaro, C; Sullivan, B T; Dalusky, M J; Berisford, C W

2004-05-01

287

Genetic diversity in populations of asexual and sexual bag worm moths (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the two-fold cost of sex, most of the higher animals reproduce sexually. The advantage of sex has been suggested to be its ability, through recombination, to generate greater genetic diversity than asexuality, thus enhancing adaptation in a changing environment. We studied the genetic diversity and the population structure of three closely related species of bag worm moths: two

Alessandro Grapputo; Tomi Kumpulainen; Johanna Mappes; Silja Parri

2005-01-01

288

Adaptation of antennal neurons in moths is associated with cessation of pheromone-mediated upwind flight.  

PubMed Central

A wind-borne plume of sex pheromone from a female moth or a synthetic source has a fine, filamentous structure that creates steep and rapid fluctuations in concentration for a male moth flying up the plume's axis. The firing rates from single antennal neurons on Agrotis segetum antennae decreased to nearly zero within seconds after the antennae were placed in a pheromone plume 70 cm downwind of a high-concentration source known from previous studies to cause in-flight arrestment of upwind progress. In a separate experiment, the fluctuating output from chilled neurons on Grapholita molesta antennae became attenuated in response to repetitive, experimentally delivered pheromone pulses. The attenuation was correlated with a previously reported higher percentage of in-flight arrestment exhibited by moths flying at cooler compared to warmer temperatures. These results indicate that two peripheral processes related to excessive concentration, complete adaptation of antennal neurons, or merely the attenuation of fluctuations in burst frequency, are important determinants of when upwind progress by a moth flying in a pheromone plume stops and changes to station keeping. Also, adaptation and attenuation may affect the sensation of blend quality by preferentially affecting cells sensitive to the most abundant components in airborne pheromone blends.

Baker, T C; Hansson, B S; Lofstedt, C; Lofqvist, J

1988-01-01

289

THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).  

EPA Science Inventory

Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

290

Appetitive flight patterns of male Agrotis segetum moths over landscape scales.  

PubMed

An analysis is presented of the first harmonic radar studies of pheromone-plume locating flights of male Agrotis segetum moths over distances of up to 500 m. Upon release most moths flew in a direction having a downwind component. The first significant changes in flight orientations occur in the immediate vicinity of a pheromone source. Moths that were initially flying downwind change course and start flying crosswind whilst those that initially flew crosswind change course and start flying upwind. It is shown that such behaviour is consistent with the adoption of an effective plume-location strategy, and conditions are identified when downwind flights would be more advantageous than crosswind ones. Additionally, some of the complex flight patterns that can arise at later times are shown to be compatible with the adoption of an optimal biased scale-free (Lévy-flight) searching strategy. It is found that disruptive doses of sex pheromone can have a marked influence upon male moth flight patterns. PMID:17109897

Reynolds, A M; Reynolds, D R; Smith, A D; Svensson, G P; Löfstedt, C

2007-03-01

291

Use of a Secondary Host by Non-Outbreak Populations of the Gypsy Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak species are the favored host of gypsy moth populations in the northeastern United state, although the herbivore expands its host range dramatically during an outbreak. Pitch pine, a secondary host because of its unacceptability for early development, was found to be frequently used for oviposition in oak-pitch pine forests with non-outbreak populations. This observation led to the study of

MaryCarol Rossiter

1987-01-01

292

Virulence Mechanisms of Photorhabdus sp. Strain K122 toward Wax Moth Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virulence of Photorhabdus sp. strain K122 was assessed by injecting whole cells, spent culture medium, and lysate fractions into the hemocoel of larvae of wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Virulence correlated with the growth rate of the cultures and all larvae died after the cultures entered the stationary phase. Maximal production of protease and lipase exoenzymes occurred at the stationary phase

David J Clarke; Barbara C. A Dowds

1995-01-01

293

Dietary glycerol and adult access to water: effects on fecundity and longevity in the almond moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of food eaten by larval insects will affect traits such as gamete production, fat reserves, muscle bulk and body size in the adult. Moreover, larvae also depend on high moisture content in the diet for survival. The almond moth (Ephestia cautella) (W.) (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae) does not feed as an adult although it continues to drink water. We tested

Camilla Ryne; P. Anders Nilsson; Michael T. Siva-Jothy

2004-01-01

294

The moth and the aspen tree: Sodium in early postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moth and the aspen tree: Sodium in early postnatal development. Over the past 25 years, our perception of the neonatal kidney has changed markedly from its being a “limited” organ compared with that of the adult to being extraordinarily well adapted in its role in maintaining homeostasis and making possible the rapid somatic growth necessary during this critical period

Robert L. Chevalier

2001-01-01

295

An antibiotic from Penicillium sp. covering the cocoon of the leaf-rolling moth, Dactylioglypha tonica.  

PubMed

An antibiotic-producing Penicillium sp. strain was isolated from cocoons of the leaf-rolling moth, Dactylioglypha tonica. An antibacterial compound was isolated from the cultured broth, and the chemical structure of the principle was determined by spectroscopic data to be a derivative of isocoumarincarboxylate. PMID:11129597

Imamura, N; Ishikawa, T; Ohtsuka, T; Yamamoto, K; Dekura, M; Fukami, H; Nishida, R

2000-10-01

296

Nutritional composition, processing, and utilization of horse gram and moth bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse gram and moth bean are the unexploited legumes of the tropics and subtropics grown mostly under dry?land agriculture. The chemical composition is comparable with commonly cultivated legumes. Like other legumes, these are deficient in methionine and tryptophan. Horse gram is an excellent source of iron and molybdenum. Comparatively, horse gram seeds have higher trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin activities and

S. S. Kadam; D. K. Salunkhe; Joseph A. Maga

1985-01-01

297

Structure and function of antennal lobe neurons in the male turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interneurons with dendritic branches in the antennal lobe of the male turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Schiff., Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated with intracellular recording and staining methods. Seventeen projection neurons that transmit information from the antennal lobe to higher centers in the brain displayed dendritic arbors in the male specific macroglomerular complex (MGC) and responded to chemical components of the female

B. S. Hansson; S. Anton; T. A. Christensen

1994-01-01

298

Multiple mating and its effects in the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple mating and some of its effects were investigated in the tortricid moth, Epiphyas postvittana, a species in which females are generally monandrous. Males were capable of mating a relatively large number of times (mean of 6.6 matings throughout their lifetime). Although less common, multiple mating of females occurred and was related to the male that the female mated with

S. P. Foster; R. H. Ayers

1996-01-01

299

Separating the attractant from the toxicant improves attract-and-kill of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The behavior of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), responding to three attract-and-kill devices was compared in flight tunnel experiments measuring attraction and duration of target contact. Placing a 7.6 by 12.6 cm card immediately upwind of a rubber septum releasing pheromone, dramatically increased the duration on the target to > 60 s. In this setting, nearly all the males flew upwind, landed on the card first, and spent the majority of time searching the card. In contrast, male codling moths spent < 15 s at the source if given the lure only. In a forced contact bioassay, knockdown rate or mortality of male codling moths increased in direct proportion to duration of contact on a lambda-cyhalothrin-loaded filter paper. When this insecticide-treated paper was placed immediately upwind of the lure in the flight tunnel, > 90% of males contacting the paper were knocked down 2 h after voluntary exposure. These findings suggest that past attempts to combine insecticide directly with sex pheromones into a small paste, gel, or other forms of dollops are ill-advised because moths are likely over-exposed to pheromone and vacate the target before obtaining a lethal dose of insecticide. It is better to minimize direct contact with the concentrated pheromone while enticing males to extensively search insecticide-treated surface nearby the lure. PMID:24224258

Huang, Juan; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

2013-10-01

300

Incidence of Fusiform Rust Infection on Loblolly Pine Related to Tip Moth Damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana) is a common pest over most of the natural range of loblolly pine, causing deformation and growth reduction of seedlings and saplings during the early life of the stand. Fusiform rust (caused by Cronartium que...

H. R. Powers D. M. Stone

1985-01-01

301

Life Cycle and Immature Stages of the Arctiid Moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk

Laura Rodríguez-Loechesa; Alejandro Barro

2008-01-01

302

(-)-Germacrene D Increases Attraction and Oviposition by the Tobacco Budworm Moth Heliothis virescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sesquiterpene germacrene D (GD) activates a major type of olfactory receptor neuron on the antennae of the heliothine moths. In Heliothis virescens females, 80% of the recordings have shown activity of one neuron type responding with high sensitivity and selectivity to GD. With the aim of determining the behavioural significance of this sesquiterpene, we have used a two-choice wind-tunnel

R. Mozuraitis; M. Stranden; M. I. Ramirez; A.-K. Borg-Karlson; H. Mustaparta

2002-01-01

303

Countryside Biogeography of Moths in a Fragmented Landscape: Biodiversity in Native and Agricultural Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of fragmented landscapes, especially in the tropics, have traditionally focused on the native fragments themselves, ignoring species distributions in surrounding agricultural or other human-dominated areas. We sampled moth species richness within a 227-ha forest fragment and in four surrounding agricul- tural habitats (coffee, shade coffee, pasture, and mixed farms) in southern Costa Rica. We found no signifi- cant difference

Taylor H. Ricketts; Gretchen C. Daily; Paul R. Ehrlich; John P. Fay

2001-01-01

304

Determinants of Sperm Transfer by Males of the Noctuid Moth Heliothis virescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ejaculate composition can be an important determinant of male reproductive success in the face of sperm competition, which varies with the mating history of the female. Here we examine the effect of various male and female mating histories and morphological traits on ejaculate sperm numbers in the polyandrous moth Heliothis virescens. We show that when mating with nonvirgin females, males

Craig W. LaMunyon; Tammy S. Huffman

2001-01-01

305

Determinants of Sperm Transfer by Males of the Noctuid Moth Heliothis virescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ejaculate composition can be an important determinant of male reproductive success in the face of sperm competition, which varies with the mating history of the female. Here we examine the effect of various male and female mating histories and morphological traits on ejaculate sperm numbers in the polyan- drous moth Heliothis virescens. We show that when mating with nonvirgin females,

Craig W. LaMunyon; Tammy S. Huffman

2001-01-01

306

Taxonomic Revision of the New World Moth Genus 'Pero' (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bulletin is a systematic revisionary monograph of Pero, a large moth genus of the family Geometridae and subfamily Enominae, with species in almost all areas of the New World except arctic North America and extreme southern South America. The revision...

R. L. Poole

1987-01-01

307

VIRUS TRANSMISSION IN GYPSY MOTHS IS NOT A SIMPLE MASS ACTION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

We used the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), to test one of the basic assumptions of most models of disease dynamics, that the rate of horizontal transmission is directly proportional to the product of the densiti...

308

BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI AFFECTS A BENEFICIAL INSECT, THE CINNABAR MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE)  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. iological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (L), is susceptible ...

309

Plasmatocytes from the moth Pseudoplusia includens induce apoptosis of granular cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary immune response toward internal parasites and other large foreign objects that enter the insect hemocoel is encapsulation. Prior studies indicated that granular cells and plasmatocytes are the two hemocyte types required for capsule formation by the moth Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Capsules formed by P. includens also have a defined architecture with primarily granular cells attaching directly to

Louis L Pech; Michael R Strand

2000-01-01

310

Insect odour perception: recognition of odour components by flower foraging moths  

PubMed Central

Odours emitted by flowers are complex blends of volatile compounds. These odours are learnt by flower-visiting insect species, improving their recognition of rewarding flowers and thus foraging efficiency. We investigated the flexibility of floral odour learning by testing whether adult moths recognize single compounds common to flowers on which they forage. Dual choice preference tests on Helicoverpa armigera moths allowed free flying moths to forage on one of three flower species; Argyranthemum frutescens (federation daisy), Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) or Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Results showed that, (i) a benzenoid (phenylacetaldehyde) and a monoterpene (linalool) were subsequently recognized after visits to flowers that emitted these volatile constituents, (ii) in a preference test, other monoterpenes in the flowers' odour did not affect the moths' ability to recognize the monoterpene linalool and (iii) relative preferences for two volatiles changed after foraging experience on a single flower species that emitted both volatiles. The importance of using free flying insects and real flowers to understand the mechanisms involved in floral odour learning in nature are discussed in the context of our findings.

Cunningham, John Paul; Moore, Chris J; Zalucki, Myron P; Cribb, Bronwen W

2006-01-01

311

Disulfide structure of the pheromone binding protein from the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disulfide bond formation is the only known posttranslational modification of insect pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). In the PBPs from moths (Lepidoptera), six cysteine residues are highly conserved at positions 19, 50, 54, 97, 108 and 117, but to date nothing is known about their respective linkage or redox status. We used a multiple approach of enzymatic digestion, chemical cleavage, partial

Walter S Leal; Larisa Nikonova; Guihong Peng

1999-01-01

312

Wind selection and drift compensation optimize migratory pathways in a high-flying moth.  

PubMed

Numerous insect species undertake regular seasonal migrations in order to exploit temporary breeding habitats [1]. These migrations are often achieved by high-altitude windborne movement at night [2-6], facilitating rapid long-distance transport, but seemingly at the cost of frequent displacement in highly disadvantageous directions (the so-called "pied piper" phenomenon [7]). This has lead to uncertainty about the mechanisms migrant insects use to control their migratory directions [8, 9]. Here we show that, far from being at the mercy of the wind, nocturnal moths have unexpectedly complex behavioral mechanisms that guide their migratory flight paths in seasonally-favorable directions. Using entomological radar, we demonstrate that free-flying individuals of the migratory noctuid moth Autographa gamma actively select fast, high-altitude airstreams moving in a direction that is highly beneficial for their autumn migration. They also exhibit common orientation close to the downwind direction, thus maximizing the rectilinear distance traveled. Most unexpectedly, we find that when winds are not closely aligned with the moth's preferred heading (toward the SSW), they compensate for cross-wind drift, thus increasing the probability of reaching their overwintering range. We conclude that nocturnally migrating moths use a compass and an inherited preferred direction to optimize their migratory track. PMID:18394893

Chapman, Jason W; Reynolds, Don R; Mouritsen, Henrik; Hill, Jane K; Riley, Joe R; Sivell, Duncan; Smith, Alan D; Woiwod, Ian P

2008-04-01

313

Management of Diamondback Moth with plutellae: Prospects in the Philippines Cotesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indigenous Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov was recorded for the first time in 1982 in Baguio City, Benguet and Mountain Province. The low level parasitism (1.9-16.5%) of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) by this parasite is due to the hyperparasite (Trichomalopsis sp.), and the entomophagous fungus, Erynia sp. and frequent insecticidal applications. Indigenous C. plutellae was absent in the lowland cruciferous

Belen Morallo-Rejesus; Antonio S. Sayaboc

314

Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus--a novel method for codling moth control.  

PubMed

The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally efficient in enhancing the activity of CpGV. The addition of brown cane sugar to yeast further increased larval mortality and the protection of fruit against larvae. In comparison, without yeast, the addition of sugar to CpGV did not produce a significant effect. A field trial confirmed that fruit injury and larval survival were significantly reduced when apple trees were sprayed with CpGV, M. pulcherrima, and sugar. We have shown earlier that mutualistic yeasts are an essential part of codling moth larval diet. The finding that yeast also enhances larval ingestion of an insect-pathogenic virus is an opportunity for the development of a novel plant protection technique. We expect the combination of yeasts and insect pathogens to essentially contribute to future insect management. PMID:23881444

Knight, Alan L; Witzgall, Peter

2013-07-01

315

Size and dispersion of urticating setae in three species of processionary moths.  

PubMed

Larvae of the processionary moths of the Palaearctic region bear urticating setae that are released against vertebrate predators, especially insectivorous birds. A few species are pests of forest and urban trees and, consequently, may threaten human and animal health during outbreaks, causing dermatitis, conjunctivitis and respiratory distress. Although some studies provide detailed information about the setae, particularly those of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, there is little knowledge on the morphological traits of the setae and their release by the larvae. In the present study we identify major traits of the setae of 3 species of processionary moth, T. pityocampa, T. pinivora and T. processionea, which are potentially helpful in the understanding of setae dynamics in the environment: (i) diameter and length of setae and (ii) analysis of dynamical properties of the setae in the airborne state. Setae are highly variable in size, with bimodal distribution in T. pityocampa and T. pinivora; in these 2 species, short and long setae are interspersed within the integument fields where they occur. The difference in the seta size has important consequences in dispersion, as smaller setae can spread 5 times further than their bigger counterparts. This information is relevant for a full understanding of the defensive importance of larval setae against natural enemies of the processionary moths, as well for elucidating the importance of the processionary setae as air pollutants, both close to the infested trees and at longer distances. PMID:24952969

Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Perin, Chiara; Paolucci, Paolo; Roques, Alain; Battisti, Andrea; Horvath, Helmuth

2014-06-01

316

Effects of Defoliation by Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth on Timing and Quantity of Streamflow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Streamflow data from three watersheds in the Blue Mountains of Oregon were tested for changes in annual runoff, summer runoff, and peak discharge following the defoliation in 1972 and 1973 caused by the Douglas-fir tussock moth. Annual runoff from the Uma...

J. D. Helvey A. R. Tiedemann

1978-01-01

317

Aestival dormancy in the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a geographically wide distribution the life cycles of different populations of the cabbage moth Mamestra brossicae are adapted to a remarkable diversity of climatic conditions. This is undoubtedly a proof of its success in adaptation. Some populations living in regions characterized by a drought period interrupting the growth season are capable of distinguishing between one critical day length signalling

Klaus Peter Sauer; Cornelia Grüner

1988-01-01

318

Impact of different Agents on the Efficacy of Codling Moth Granulovirus in Tank Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the control of codling moth it is common to combine the granulovirus with other agents, especially fungicides, in spray application. Therefore the knowledge about the influence of these agents on the efficacy of the virus in tank mix is very important. Studies on this subject were part of a project supported by BMELV (German Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture

E. Fritsch; K. Undorf-Spahn; J. Huber; J. Kienzle

319

Biochemical effects of potato irradiation on potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera - Gelechiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of gamma radiation on the whole body contents of nutritional materials was investigated for potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller, fed on irradiated potato tubers. The statistical analysis of the data indicated that the quantities of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in the whole body of the adults of Ph. operculella were affected significantly. There was a correlation with their

Iman M. Haiba; Mona F. Abd-El Aziz

2008-01-01

320

Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere. PMID:21735898

Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

2011-06-01

321

Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.  

PubMed Central

We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing their frequency, and measured the auditory thresholds from the A1 cells of the moths. Knowing the auditory responses of the moth we tested three predictions. (i) The ranking of the audibility of unmanipulated calls to the moths should be predictable from their temporal and/or frequency structure. This was supported. (ii) Doubling the duration of the calls should increase their audibility by ca. 3 dB for all species. Their audibility did indeed increase by 2.1-3.5 dB. (iii) Reducing the frequency of the calls would increase their audibility for all species. Reducing the frequency had small effects for the two bat species which used short duration (2.7-3.6 ms) calls. However, the relatively long-duration (50 ms), largely constant-frequency calls of R. hipposideros increased in audibility by 21.6 dB when their frequency was halved. Time and frequency changes influence the audibility of calls to tympanate moths in different ways according to call design. Large changes in frequency and time had relatively small changes on the audibility of calls for short, largely broadband calls. Channelling energy into the second harmonic of the call substantially decreased the audibility of calls for bats which use long-duration, constant-frequency components in echolocation calls. We discuss our findings in the contexts of the evolution of both bat echolocation call design and the potential responses of insects which hear ultrasound.

Jones, G; Waters, D A

2000-01-01

322

Plant odor analysis of potato: response of guatemalan moth to above- and belowground potato volatiles.  

PubMed

The Guatemalan moth Tecia solanivora is an invasive pest of potato in Central and South America. The larvae infest potato tubers in the field as well as in storage facilities. The headspace of potato foliage and potato tubers was studied with regard to volatiles that mediate host-finding and oviposition in the Guatemalan moth. Foliage of three phenological stages, from sprouting to tuberization and flowering, released more than 30 sesquiterpenes. The main compounds were beta-caryophyllene, germacrene-D-4-ol, germacrene-D, kunzeaol, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Sesquiterpenes accounted for >90% of the headspace of green plants, whereas fresh potato tubers emitted only trace amounts of a few sesquiterpenes. Screening of headspace collections with antennae of Guatemalan moth females showed a strong response to several sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes that were emitted from foliage only. In addition, antennae responded to methyl phenylacetate, a floral fragrance that was released in large amounts from flowering plants and that was also present in tuber headspace. Female and male moths were attracted to methyl phenylacetate; this compound may accordingly contribute to female attraction to tuber-bearing potato plants in the field as well as to potato tubers in storage. Oviposition tests showed that females lay eggs near mature flowering plants. Eggs were laid in soil close to the plant and not on potato stems and foliage, which may be due to avoidance of terpenoid compounds released from green plant parts at close range. The results support the concept that potato volatiles mediate host-finding and oviposition behavior and that these compounds may become useful tools for management of the Guatemalan moth. PMID:19496533

Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Cotes Prado, Alba Marina; Bosa, Felipe; Bengtsson, Marie; Witzgall, Peter

2009-07-01

323

Wing shape variations in an invasive moth are related to sexual dimorphism and altitude.  

PubMed

Wing morphology has great importance in a wide variety of aspects of an insect's life. Here, we use a geometric morphometric approach to test the hypothesis that variation, in insect wing morphology patterns, occurs between sexes and along altitudinal gradients for invasive species, despite their recent association to this environment. We explored the variation in wing morphology between 12 invasive populations of the invasive potato pest, Tecia solanivora, at low and high altitude in the central highlands of Ecuador. After characterizing sexual dimorphism in wing shape, we investigated if moths at higher elevations differ in wing morphology from populations at lower altitudes. Results indicate wing shape and size differences between sexes and between altitudinal ranges. Females showed larger, wider wings than males, while high altitude moths showed larger, narrow-shaped wings by comparison to low-altitude moths. GLM analyses confirmed altitude was the only significant determinant of this gradient. Our study confirms a sexual dimorphism in size and wing shape for the potato moth. It also confirms and extends predictions of morphological changes with altitude to an invasive species, suggesting that wing morphology variation is an adapted response contributing to invasion success of the potato moth in mountainous landscapes. Ours is one of the first studies on the morphology of invasive insects and represents a valuable contribution to the study of insect invasions because it both offers empirical support to previous genetic studies on T. solanivora as well as proving broader insight into the mechanisms behind morphological evolution of a recently introduced pest. PMID:20102659

Hernández-L, N; Barragán, A R; Dupas, S; Silvain, J-F; Dangles, O

2010-10-01

324

Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.  

PubMed

The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives. PMID:21061961

Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

2010-10-01

325

Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares de...

D. Prados G. May J. Gasser J. C. Smoot J. P. Spruce R. McKellip R. E. Ryan W. Hargrove

2007-01-01

326

Flight Behaviour of Males of Two Moths, Cadra Cautella and Pectinophora Gossypiella, in Homogeneous Clouds of Pheromone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abstract. It is thought that orientation by male moths along pheromone plumes is guided by interception of filaments of pheromone along that plume and that clean air gaps are required for upwind progress. Given that several investigations have determined ...

K. A. Justus R. T. Carde

2002-01-01

327

Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity  

PubMed Central

Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of moth, the light drawing them in from the surrounding landscape into sub-optimal urban habitats.

Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

2014-01-01

328

Change in the acid-base status of an appalachian mountain catchment following forest defoliation by the gypsy moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infestation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) can alter biogeochemical conditions in affected catchments. Stream-water concentration data obtained over the period of 1980–1993 for White Oak Run, a stream in Shenandoah National Park, Va., indicate that change in catchment acid-base status is associated with forest defoliation by the moth larva. Stream-water concentration changes following defoliation included increasing concentrations of strong-acid

J. R. Webb; B. J. Cosby; F. A. Deviney; K. N. Eshleman; J. N. Galloway

1995-01-01

329

Activated biochar derived from cactus fibres--preparation, characterization and application on Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The adsorption efficiency of activated biochar prepared from cactus fibres regarding the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time). Activation of the biochar took place using nitric acid oxidation and characterisation was performed by SEM analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption and acid-base titrations. The results show that laminar structures constitute the material and carboxylic moieties are the predominant binding sites. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 3.5 mol kg(-1). The effect of ionic strength and temperature on the adsorption efficiency indicates that at low pH outer-sphere and at near neutral pH inner-sphere complexes are the predominant surface species and the kinetic data obtained were fitted very well by the Lagergren rate expression. PMID:24718356

Hadjittofi, Loukia; Prodromou, Melpomeni; Pashalidis, Ioannis

2014-05-01

330

Interglacial microrefugia and diversification of a cactus species complex: phylogeography and palaeodistributional reconstructions for Pilosocereus aurisetus and allies.  

PubMed

The role of Pleistocene climate changes in promoting evolutionary diversification in global biota is well documented, but the great majority of data regarding this subject come from North America and Europe, which were greatly affected by glaciation. The effects of Pleistocene changes on cold- and/or dry-adapted species in tropical areas where glaciers were not present remain sparsely investigated. Many such species are restricted to small areas surrounded by unfavourable habitats, which may represent potential interglacial microrefugia. Here, we analysed the phylogeographic structure and diversification history of seven cactus species in the Pilosocereus aurisetus complex that are restricted to rocky areas with high diversity and endemism within the Neotropical savannas of eastern South America. We combined palaeodistributional estimates with standard phylogeographic approaches based on two chloroplast DNA regions (trnT-trnL and trnS-trnG), exon 1 of the nuclear gene PhyC and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. Our analyses revealed a phylogeographic history marked by multiple levels of distributional fragmentation, isolation leading to allopatric differentiation and secondary contact among divergent lineages within the complex. Diversification and demographic events appear to have been affected by the Quaternary climatic cycles as a result of isolation in multiple patches of xerophytic vegetation. These small patches presently harbouring P. aurisetus populations seem to operate as microrefugia, both at present and during Pleistocene interglacial periods; the role of such microrefugia should be explored and analysed in greater detail. PMID:24803224

Bonatelli, Isabel A S; Perez, Manolo F; Peterson, A Townsend; Taylor, Nigel P; Zappi, Daniela C; Machado, Marlon C; Koch, Ingrid; Pires, Adriana H C; Moraes, Evandro M

2014-06-01

331

Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage.  

PubMed

Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. PMID:24679777

Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz

2014-08-15

332

Copper(II) removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption on non-treated and chemically modified cactus fibres.  

PubMed

The adsorption efficiency of a biomass by-product (cactus fibres) regarding the removal of copper(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated before and after its chemical treatment. The chemical treatment of the biomass by-product included phosphorylation and MnO2-coating. The separation/removal efficiency has been studied as a function of pH, Cu(II) concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time. Evaluation of the experimental data shows that the MnO2-coated product presents the highest adsorption capacity, followed by the non-treated and phosphorylated material. Regarding the effect of ionic strength/salinity on the adsorption, in contrast to the removal efficiency of the phosphorylated product, which is significantly affected, the MnO2-coated and non-treated material don't show any effect, indicating the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes. The adsorption reaction is in all cases endothermic and relatively fast, particularly the adsorption on the MnO2-coated product. The results of the present study indicate that for the removal of bivalent metal-ions from contaminated waters the MnO2-coated material is expected to be the most effective adsorbent and an alternative to MnO2 resins for the treatment of environmentally relevant waters. PMID:24334902

Prodromou, M; Pashalidis, I

2013-01-01

333

Range expansions in the flightless longhorn cactus beetles, Moneilema gigas and Moneilema armatum, in response to Pleistocene climate changes.  

PubMed

Pollen cores and plant and animal fossils suggest that global climate changes at the end of the last glacial period caused range expansions in organisms indigenous to the North American desert regions, but this suggestion has rarely been investigated from a population genetic perspective. In order to investigate the impact of Pleistocene climate changes and glacial/interglacial cycling on the distribution and population structure of animals in North American desert communities, biogeographical patterns in the flightless, warm-desert cactus beetles, Moneilema gigas and Moneilema armatum, were examined using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data from the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Gene tree relationships between haplotypes were inferred using parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian analysis. Nested clade analysis and coalescent modelling using the programs mdiv and fluctuate were used to identify demographically independent populations, and to test the hypothesis that Pleistocene climate changes caused recent range expansions in these species. A sign test was used to evaluate the probability of observing concerted population growth across multiple, independent populations. The phylogeographical and nested clade analyses reveal a history of northward expansion in both of these species, as well as a history of past range fragmentation, followed by expansion from refugia. The coalescent analyses provide highly significant evidence for independent range expansions from multiple refugia, but also identify biogeographical patterns that predate the most recent glacial period. The results indicate that widespread desert environments are more ancient than has been suggested in the past. PMID:15773934

Smith, Christopher Irwin; Farrell, Brian D

2005-04-01

334

Disulfide cross-linking in crude embryonic lysates reveals three complexes of the Drosophila morphogen dorsal and its inhibitor cactus.  

PubMed

In Drosophila embryos dorsoventral polarity is determined by a concentration gradient of dorsal (dl) protein in the nuclei formed by the differential regulation of nuclear localization of dl protein. cactus (cact) represses the nuclear localization of dl protein. By introducing intermolecular disulfide bonds in homogenates of embryos, we detected three complexes of dl and/or cact proteins. Complex 1 (190 kDa) is a dl protein homodimer (dl2). Complex 2 (270 kDa) consists of one complex 1 and one cact molecule (dl2cact). Complex 3 (200 kDa) is a cact protein complex that does not contain dl protein. In wild-type embryos dl2cact was detected as the major form of dl protein, and dl2 was minor. With this assay virtually no dl monomer is detected. Analysis of the dl protein complexes in ventralized and dorsalized mutant embryos indicates that dl2cact is a cytoplasmic form, whereas dl2 is localized mainly in the nuclei. It seems that a small amount of dl2 is also present in the cytoplasm. PMID:8202491

Isoda, K; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

1994-06-01

335

Recovery of fertility by Mediterranean flour moths transferred from continuous light to light:dark  

SciTech Connect

Male Mediterranean flour moths, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller), placed in continuous light (LL) from the early pupal stage on were partially sterile as adults. When old adult moths were transferred to alternating light and dark (LD), fertility was not recovered, but fertility was recovered when fairly young males were similarly transferred. Multiple matings of males indicated that recovery was correlated with sperm in the testes at the LL to LD transfer becoming available for ejaculations. Few morphological abnormalities were found in the sperm of LL males, but there was less activity than in the sperm of LD males. At 1 week after eclosion, the testes of LL males contained more sperm bundles than did the testes of LD males, but the LL males had somewhat fewer bundles overall in their reproductive tracts. Disruption of the circadian rhythm regulating movement of sperm from the testes was suggested as the most probable cause of the sterility of LL males.

Riemann, J.G.; Johnson, M.; Thorson, B.

1981-05-01

336

Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes  

PubMed Central

A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passage through the insects, with two new terpenes being detected in the feces. One of these was identified as isoborneol. The relative significance of the insect and gut microflora with respect to terpene modification is unresolved. The well-established toxicity of terpenes may account for the near absence of common gut microflora in the insects. Images

Andrews, R. E.; Spence, K. D.

1980-01-01

337

Susceptibility of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to postharvest gamma irradiation.  

PubMed

Gamma irradiation doses applied to inhibit potato sprouting were tested against potato tuber moth larval and pupal stages. Young larvae and pupae were more susceptible to irradiation injuries than older ones. When larvae of different ages were exposed to doses > or = 100 Gy, only 13-35% pupated, but no adult emergence was obtained. The exposure of 1-1.5- or 3-3.5-d-old pupae to 150 Gy induced high level of sterility and remarkable reduction in female mating ability and fecundity, whereas the reduction was less noticeable for 5-5.5-d-old pupae. Postharvest gamma irradiation of potatoes could be considered as an efficient control approach against potato tuber moth larval and pupal infestations. PMID:15154502

Saour, George; Makee, Hayat

2004-04-01

338

Field trials with the synthetic sex pheromone of the oak processionary moth Thaumetopoea processionea.  

PubMed

The biological activity of synthetic (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienyl acetate, the major pheromone component found in female gland extracts of the oak processionary moth Thaumetopoea processionea, was evaluated in field trials. Traps baited with 10 mg of the chemical efficiently attracted a large number of males provided they were placed in the upper crown region of the oaks. Devices positioned 10-15 m high in the trees attracted significantly more males than those traps installed at 2 or 6-8 m above the ground. Pherocon traps were slightly more efficient than Delta traps, and lower or higher amounts of the attractant in the baits did not significantly influence the number of moths caught. The importance of the stereomeric purity of the lure and the easy isomerization of the (Z,Z)-acetate to other isomers, particularly to the E,E isomer, should be considered for the development of efficient formulations in the field. PMID:14682527

Breuer, Michael; Kontzog, Hans-Günter; Guerrero, Angel; Camps, Francisco; De Loof, Arnold

2003-11-01

339

Nanostructured biomimetic moth-eye arrays in silicon by nanoimprint lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eyes and wings of some species of moth are covered in arrays of subwavelength pillars that have been tuned over millions of years of evolution to reflect as little sunlight as possible. We are investigating ways of exploiting this to reduce reflection from the surfaces of silicon solar cells. Here, we report on the experimental realization of biomimetic antireflective moth-eye arrays in silicon using a technique based on nanoimprint lithography and dry etching. Areas of 1cm x 1cm have been patterned and analysis of reflectance measurements predicts a loss in the performance of a solar cell of only 6.5% compared to an ideal antireflective coating. This compares well with an optimized single layer Si3N4 antireflective coating, for which an 8% loss is predicted.

Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.

2009-08-01

340

Radio frequency treatments to control codling moth in in-shell walnuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Diamond’ Walnuts (Juglansregia L.) in the shell were treated with radio frequency (RF) energy in a 27 MHz pilot-scale system to determine the treatment effect on third- and fourth-instar codling moth, Cydiapomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), mortality and walnut quality. After 2 and 3 min of RF treatments, infested in-shell walnuts were heated to 43 and 53°C. The corresponding insect mortality

S. Wang; J. N. Ikediala; J. Tang; J. D. Hansen; E. Mitcham; R. Maoa; B. Swanson

2001-01-01

341

Fabrication of micro-lens arrays with moth-eye antireflective nanostructures using thermal imprinting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

We fabricated micro-lens arrays which have moth-eye antireflective nanostructures on their surfaces using thermal imprinting process and plasma treatment and characterized the morphology of the micro-lens arrays. After a micro-lens array shape was fabricated on a photoresist using photolithography and thermal reflow process, patterns were transferred onto a Ni stamp, and then micro-lens patterns were replicated on a polycarbonate film

Sang Soon Oh; Choon-Gi Choi; Young-Sung Kim

2010-01-01

342

The Role of Biotic Factors in Gypsy Moth Population Dynamics in Slovakia: Present Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the current knowledge about the bioregulation complex that affects gypsy moth population dynamics in Slovakia. The study involved the presence and efficacy of pathogens, parasitoids, and predators in naturally occurring oak forest stands in southwestern Slovakia from 1990 to 1999. Mortality caused by pathogens was 33.7% in the progression phase, 62.3% in the culmination phase, 33.3% in

M. TURCÁNI; J. NOVOTNÝ; M. ZÚBRIK; M. MCMANUS; D. PILARSKA; J. MADDOX; B. Stiavnica; E. Peabody

343

Identification of the Sex Pheromone of the Spruce Seed Moth, Cydia strobilella L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spruce seed moth, Cydia strobilella L., is a serious pest on cones of spruce (Picea spp.) in the Holarctic region. Previous studies from different parts of its area of distribution have reported conflicting results\\u000a on the composition of its sex pheromone. By gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection, coupled gas chromatography-mass\\u000a spectrometry, a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and field trials, the

Hong-Lei Wang; Glenn P. Svensson; Olle Rosenberg; Marie Bengtsson; Erling V. Jirle; Christer Löfstedt

2010-01-01

344

Behavioral observations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, in orchards permeated with synthetic pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was studied in apple orchards treated with the main pheromone compound codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienol, and a blend of codlemone and codlemone acetate, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate, a strong pheromone antagonist. Codlemone alone and the pheromone\\/antagonist-blend had a similar effect on the behavior of males emerging into air-permeated orchards. Male flights within tree canopy and upwind orientation

Peter Witzgall; Anna-Carin Bäckman; Mats Svensson; Uwe Koch; Franco Rama; Ashraf El-Sayed; Julia Brauchli; Heinrich Arn; Marie Bengtsson; Jan Löfqvist

1999-01-01

345

Changes in voltinism in a pine moth Dendrolimus spectabilis (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) population: implications of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change induces an alteration in the life cycle of many poikilothermic organisms, resulting in changes in the structure\\u000a and function of communities. Changes in voltinism in the pine moth Dendrolimus spectabilis (Butler), which is known to be univoltine in South Korea, were studied to elucidate the effects of climate change on their\\u000a voltinism. The developmental stages of the pine

Won Il Choi; Young-Kyu Park; Young-Seuk Park; Mun Il Ryoo; Hai-Poong Lee

2011-01-01

346

A survey of the Agrothereutes hospes , an ectoparasitoid on wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrothereutes hospes (Tschek.) (Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae), a solitary ectoparasitoid, is redescribed. Details of tyloids on male flagellum are\\u000a presented and discussed. Investigations on the development of the parasitoid on wax moth host Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera) were made. Longevity of A. hospes females is between 10 days and 40 days, while in males it is 7–20 days. The egg productivity and the hatching of

M. F. Gürbüz; J. Kolarov; M. Y. Aksoylar; N. Akdura

2006-01-01

347

Effects of two hemolymph proteins on humoral defense reactions in the wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hemolymph proteins were isolated from the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae by a two-step procedure consisting of acid extraction and reversed phase (RP)-HPLC. One was an apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) previously characterized as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding protein in the hemolymph of G. mellonella. The other was confirmed to be a new protein with a molecular mass of 23,768.69Da, referred

Shin Yong Park; Chong Han Kim; Woo Hyuk Jeong; Joon Ha Lee; Sook Jae Seo; Yeon Soo Han; In Hee Lee

2005-01-01

348

Calorimetric investigations on thermoregulation and growth of wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory cultures of larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella show drastically increased temperatures a few days after the start of cultures. To examine this phenomenon, we performed direct calorimetric measurements on isolated eggs and larvae of different larval stages. Fourth and fifth instar larvae have significantly increased mass-specific heat production rates (up to 160 mW g?1). These high heat

Erik Schmolz; Olaf Schulz

1995-01-01

349

Cutting Wild Grapevines as a Cultural Control Strategy for Grape Berry Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-yr Þeld study was conducted at commercial grape farms to evaluate cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens). At each farm, wild grapevines were cut in the woods adjacent to one vineyard for control ofP.viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received no such cutting. Both vineyards received a standard broad-spectrum insecticide program

Paul E. Jenkins; Rufus Isaacs

2007-01-01

350

Effects of microhabitat, time of day, and weather on predation of gypsy moth larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire cages with different-sized meshes were placed on trunks and around leaves at different heights in oak trees and in forest litter. Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, instars II–V tethered with threads were placed in each cage (instars II–III only in leaf cages) as well as outside the cages. Predation of larvae decreased from near ground to mid-crown in trees and

Ronald M. Weseloh

1988-01-01

351

Phase-dependent outbreak dynamics of geometrid moth linked to host plant phenology  

PubMed Central

Climatically driven Moran effects have often been invoked as the most likely cause of regionally synchronized outbreaks of insect herbivores without identifying the exact mechanism. However, the degree of match between host plant and larval phenology is crucial for the growth and survival of many spring-feeding pest insects, suggesting that a phenological match/mismatch-driven Moran effect may act as a synchronizing agent. We analyse the phase-dependent spatial dynamics of defoliation caused by cyclically outbreaking geometrid moths in northern boreal birch forest in Fennoscandia through the most recent massive outbreak (2000–2008). We use satellite-derived time series of the prevalence of moth defoliation and the onset of the growing season for the entire region to investigate the link between the patterns of defoliation and outbreak spread. In addition, we examine whether a phase-dependent coherence in the pattern of spatial synchrony exists between defoliation and onset of the growing season, in order to evaluate if the degree of matching phenology between the moth and their host plant could be the mechanism behind a Moran effect. The strength of regional spatial synchrony in defoliation and the pattern of defoliation spread were both highly phase-dependent. The incipient phase of the outbreak was characterized by high regional synchrony in defoliation and long spread distances, compared with the epidemic and crash phase. Defoliation spread was best described using a two-scale stratified spread model, suggesting that defoliation spread is governed by two processes operating at different spatial scale. The pattern of phase-dependent spatial synchrony was coherent in both defoliation and onset of the growing season. This suggests that the timing of spring phenology plays a role in the large-scale synchronization of birch forest moth outbreaks.

Jepsen, Jane U.; Hagen, Snorre B.; Karlsen, Stein-Rune; Ims, Rolf A.

2009-01-01

352

Genetic bottleneck in invasive species: the potato tuber moth adds to the list  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of genetic diversity within populations of introduced species has received increasing attention as an important\\u000a factor influencing their survival and adaptive potential. We examined this issue with the Guatemalan potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora, an agricultural pest which has successfully invaded South America and the Canary Islands within the last 20 years. To analyse\\u000a changes in T. solanivora genetic diversity,

N. Puillandre; S. Dupas; O. Dangles; J.-L. Zeddam; C. Capdevielle-Dulac; K. Barbin; M. Torres-Leguizamon; J.-F. Silvain

2008-01-01

353

Successional Stages of Faunal Regeneration — A Case Study on Megadiverse Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, little is known about the impact of habitat disturbance and subsequent regeneration on mega-diverse insect assemblages\\u000a native to Andean mountain rainforests. The speciose insect order Lepidoptera provides an ideal target for such analysis. Butterflies\\u000a and moths are probably the taxonomically best known insects. Moreover, lepidopterans are functionally connected in two-fold\\u000a manner with the vegetation they inhabit: through the

N. Hilt; K. Fiedler

354

Effectiveness of twelve insecticides applied topically to diapausing larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.  

PubMed

Dose-mortality curves were established for 12 insecticides administered by topical application to diapausing larvae from a susceptible codling moth strain. Toxicity varied greatly among the insecticides tested. LC50 values ranged from 0.1 mg kg(-1) for fenoxycarb to over 2800 mg kg(-1) for diflubenzuron and indoxacarb. Discriminating dose levels were determined from dose-mortality reference curves for the detection of resistance in field-collected diapausing larvae. PMID:15025243

Pasquier, Denis; Charmillot, Pierre-Joseph

2004-03-01

355

Factors affecting entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) for control of overwintering codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in fruit bins.  

PubMed

Fruit bins infested with diapausing codling moth larvae, Cydia pomonella (L.), are a potential source of reinfestation of orchards and may jeopardize the success of mating disruption programs and other control strategies. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were tested as a potential means of control that could be applied at the time bins are submerged in dump tanks. Diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae in miniature fruit bins were highly susceptible to infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) in a series of experiments. Cocooned larvae are significantly more susceptible to infection than are pupae. Experimental treatment of bins in suspensions of laboratory produced S. feltiae ranging from 10 to 100 IJs/ml of water with wetting agent (Silwet L77) resulted in 51-92% mortality. The use of adjuvants to increase penetration of hibernacula and retard desiccation of S. feltiae in fruit bins resulted in improved efficacy. The combination of a wetting agent (Silwet L77) and humectant (Stockosorb) with 10 S. feltiae IJs/ml in low and high humidity resulted in 92-95% mortality of cocooned codling moth larvae versus 46-57% mortality at the same IJ concentration without adjuvants. Immersion of infested bins in suspensions of commercially produced nematodes ranging from 10 to 50 IJs/ml water with wetting agent in an experimental packing line resulted in mortality in cocooned codling moth larvae of 45-87 and 56 - 85% for S. feltiae and S. carpocapsae, respectively. Our results indicate that EPNs provide an alternative nonchemical means of control that could be applied at the time bins are submerged in dump tanks at the packing house for flotation of fruit. PMID:16539105

Lacey, Lawrence A; Neven, Lisa G; Headrick, Heather L; Fritts, Robert

2005-12-01

356

Sexual Role Reversal in Mate-Finding Strategies of the Cabbage Looper Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mate-finding behavior of the cabbage looper moth Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) includes both female- and male-produced sex pheromones used in distinct mate-finding strategies. Both sexes release multicomponent pheromones attractive to the opposite sex. Male pheromone is comprised of d-linalool, m-cresol, and p-cresol released from abdominal hair pencils. Males exposed to host plant odor or to the female sex pheromone

Peter J. Landolt; Robert R. Heath

1990-01-01

357

Silk moth chorion pseudogenes: Hallmarks of genomic evolution by sequence duplication and gene conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The part of the genetic locus of the domesticated silk moth,Bombyx mori, in which high cysteine (Hc) chorion genes of late developmental specificity reside contains regions encompassing genelike\\u000a sequences which exhibit properties distinct from those of functional Hc genes. One of these regions has been characterized\\u000a and shown to contain a chorion pseudogene, ?HcB.15, which shares pronounced similarities with a

Maria E. Fotaki; Kostas Iatrou

1993-01-01

358

Immunochemical similarities among the hemolymph juvenile hormone binding proteins of moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemolymph from various species of moths was analyzed for cross-reactivity with a panel of six monoclonal antibodies made against the hemolymph juvenile hormone binding protein ofManduca sexta. With the exception of one antibody, the immunoreactivity was limited to the sphingid family. One monoclonal antibody cross-reacted with a number of lepidopteran species; however, families such as Noctuidae and Pyralidae, known

W. G. Goodman; B. Maxfield; Y. C. Park

1991-01-01

359

Faunistic groups of carpenter-moths (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) in the fauna of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arealogical review of carpenter-moths of the fauna of Russia is presented. Southern steppe western Palaearctic species\\u000a (10); steppe, southern steppe, and Central Asian semidesert species (7); and nemoral eastern Palaearctic species (6) predominate.\\u000a Endemics of the Russian fauna are 6 species: Acossus victor (Yakovlev, 2004) (southern Tuva); Cossus shmakovi Yakovlev, 2004 (Tuva, Khakassia); Deserticossus volgensis (Christoph, 1893) and D.

R. V. Yakovlev

2008-01-01

360

Do anthropogenic transports facilitate stored-product pest moth dispersal? A molecular approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stored-product moths cause large economic damage in food processing industries and storage facilities. Control of indoor pests is currently dealt with locally, and control strategies seldom include different mills or cooperative industries in joint efforts to reduce infestations. In colder climates where conditions hinder flight dispersal of stored-product moths, we hypothesize that human transport between mills will facilitate dispersal. Albeit considered intuitive, this hypothesis has so far never been tested. Male moths from three mills (populations) in southern Sweden and Denmark were collected and by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) pair-wise F st values were calculated. Cluster (population) origins of the genotypes were computed by using a model-based method, structure. The results suggest that known transportation of flour between two mills generate genetically more similar populations of the economically important stored-product moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zell.) (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae), compared to the third mill, with another distribution area, but situated geographically in between the other mills. The structure model placed the sampled genotypes to belong to either two or five original populations, with a higher probability of two original populations. The third mill was consistently different from the other two mills independent of the models’ calculated number of populations. Although the study was restricted to three mills and one transportation route, it highlights the possibility that transportation of food products promotes genetic mixing (i.e. dispersal) of insect pest populations. Including cooperating mills in control (or monitor) strategy schemes against stored-product pest insects would therefore be a more effective action, rather than to treat each mill separately.

Ryne, Camilla; Bensch, Staffan

2008-02-01

361

Note: Field evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea in controlling the diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella ) in Chinese kale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve entomopathogenic fungi were screened for controlling diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) eggs and larvae in the laboratory. None had any significant ovicidal effect.Isaria fumosorosea CKPF-095 showed the best efficacy in controlling the 2\\u000a nd\\u000a instar larvae. It was formulated into a wettable powder at a concentration of 1 × 109 conidia g?1 and used in two field tests. Both

Monchan Maketon; Patricia Orosz-Coghlan; Jantima Jaengarun

2008-01-01

362

Does Athetis lepigone moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) take a long-distance migration?  

PubMed

Athetis lepigone (Möschler), a new lepidopteran pest in China, has spread quickly to seven provinces since it was first reported causing damage on summer maize in Hebei province in 2005, Whether this species is a migrant or not remains unknown. The past 3 yr searchlight trapping on an island in the center of Bohai Gulf provided direct evidence that both male and female A. lepigone moths migrate across the Bohai Gulf waters in northern China because no host crops or A. lepigone larvae were found on this island. The four migration waves observed in this study represent high-altitude movements of the overwintering, first, second, and third generations of A. lepigone moths, respectively. Carbon isotope analysis showed that 1.76-5.44% of the tested A. lepigone moths originated from C4 plants, which provides additional evidence that this species is a migrant because there are no C4 plants on this small island. The 89.24-96.89% of tested A. lepigone moths originated from C3 plants were significantly higher than that from C4 plants in all generations, suggesting that maize fields are not the main host sites for A. lepigone. Few females were trapped in spring and early summer with relatively high mating frequency and more advanced ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species is not completely bound by the "oogenesis-flight syndrome." These findings reveal a new route for A. lepigone migrating to and from the northeastern agricultural region of China, and improve our knowledge of the migration ecology of A. lepigone. Further studies are needed to clarify the migration trajectories that will help in developing sound forecasting systems for this pest species. PMID:25026658

Fu, Xiaowei; Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Yunhe; Ali, Abid; Wu, Kongming

2014-06-01

363

Sex attractant for currant clearwing mothSynanthedon tipuliformis (Clerck) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).  

PubMed

The currant clearwing moth,Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerck) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a pest in many parts of the world. In field tests it was found that (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate attracts males of this species. The synthesis of this compound and of its geometrical isomer (Z,Z)-2,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate is described. PMID:24317588

Voerman, S; Persoons, C J; Priesner, E

1984-09-01

364

Carbaryl resistance in populations of grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in New York and Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

We collected grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana (Clemens) (from cultivated and wild Vitis along Lake Erie in Pennsylvania and New York), and measured carbaryl susceptibility in first instars. A model of susceptibility was based on the concentration-mortality curve of laboratory-maintained colonies originating from wild Vitis with no prior history of carbaryl exposure, and a noncommercial vineyard with modest previous exposure to carbaryl. We estimated LC50 and LC90 for susceptible grape berry moth larvae at 45.4 and 2319 microg/ml, respectively. Bioassays on field-collected larvae from commercial vineyards in both states, where grape growers were abiding by current pest management guidelines for carbaryl use, revealed carbaryl resistance ratios from 7 to 71 at the LC50 level. With the loss or restriction of alternative chemical control tactics in the Food Quality Protection Act era, resistance management programs for grape berry moth should be immediately developed and implemented to regain the efficacy of this once effective insecticide and other related chemical compounds. PMID:12403430

Nagarkatti, Sudha; Tobin, Patrick C; Muza, Andrew J; Saunders, Michael C

2002-10-01

365

Pheromone mediated modulation of pre-flight warm-up behavior in male moths  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY An essential part of sexual reproduction typically involves the identification of an appropriate mating partner. Males of many moth species utilize the scent of sex pheromones to track and locate conspecific females. However, before males engage in flight, warm-up by shivering of the major flight muscles is necessary to reach a thoracic temperature suitable to sustain flight. Here we show that Helicoverpa zea males exposed to an attractive pheromone blend (and in some instances to the primary pheromone component alone) started shivering earlier and took off at a lower thoracic temperature than moths subjected to other incomplete or unattractive blends. This resulted in less time spent shivering and faster heating rates. Two interesting results emerge from these experiments. First, the rate of heat generation can be modulated by different olfactory cues. Second, males detecting the pheromone blend take off at lower thoracic temperatures than males exposed to other stimuli. The take-off temperature of these males was below that for optimal power production in the flight muscles, thus generating a trade-off between rapid departure and suboptimal flight performance. Our results shed light on thermoregulatory behaviour of unrestrained moths associated with the scramble competition for access to females and suggest ecological trade-offs between rapid flight initiation and sub-optimal flight performance.

Crespo, Jose G.; Goller, Franz; Vickers, Neil J.

2012-01-01

366

Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.  

PubMed

How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes. PMID:23951712

Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

2013-07-01

367

Pheromone modulates plant odor responses in the antennal lobe of a moth.  

PubMed

In nature, male moths are exposed to a complex plant odorant environment when they fly upwind to a sex pheromone source in their search for mates. Plant odors have been shown to affect responses to pheromone at various levels but how does pheromone affects plant odor perception? We recorded responses from neurons within the non-pheromonal "ordinary glome ruli" of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to single and pulsed stimulations with the plant odorant heptanal, the pheromone, and their mixture in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon. We identified 3 physiological types of neurons according to their activity patterns combining excitatory and inhibitory phases. Both local and projection neurons were identified in each physiological type. Neurons with excitatory responses to heptanal responded also frequently to the pheromone and showed additive responses to the mixture. Moreover, the neuron's ability of resolving successive pulses generally improved with the mixture. Only some neurons with combined excitatory/inhibitory, or purely inhibitory responses to heptanal, also responded to the pheromone. Although individual mixture responses were not significantly different from heptanal responses in these neurons, pulse resolution was improved with the mixture as compared with heptanal alone. These results demonstrate that the pheromone and the general odorant subsystems interact more intensely in the moth AL than previously thought. PMID:24798893

Chaffiol, Antoine; Dupuy, Fabienne; Barrozo, Romina B; Kropf, Jan; Renou, Michel; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Anton, Sylvia

2014-06-01

368

Identification of conjugated pentadecadienals as sex pheromone components of the sphingid moth, Dolbina tancrei.  

PubMed

Homologs of bombykal, (10E,12Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal, have been reported to be sex pheromones or sexual attractants of several species of sphingid moths. In this study, we identified novel bombykal analogs as sex pheromone components from a Japanese sphingid moth, Dolbina tancrei. Staudinger (Sphingidae: Lepidoptera). Sex pheromone gland extracts from calling female moths were subjected to gas chromatography/electroantennograhic detection (GC/EAD), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and gas chromatography (GC) analyses. GC/EAD analyses showed two active components in the crude pheromone extracts. GC/MS analysis determined these two components to be pentadecadienals. GC/MS of their MTAD derivatives showed conjugated double bonds at the 9- and 11-positions, indicating 9,11-pentadecadienals. The isomeric configurations of these candidates were determined by comparison of their Kováts retention indices with those of synthetic compounds. Field bioassays with the four isomers of 9,11-pentadecadienal and their mixtures confirmed that the two sex pheromone components of D. tancrei are (9E,11Z)-9,11-pentadecadienal and (9Z,11Z)-9,11-pentadecadienal, with the highest male catches observed for a 90:10 blend. This is the first report of 9,11-pentadecadienals as sex pheromone components in lepidopteran species. PMID:24190021

Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; van Vang, Le; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

2013-12-01

369

Needle asymmetry, pine vigour and pine selection by the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental stability reflects the ability of a genotype to control stable development of a specific phenotype under a wide range of environmental conditions. Developmentally unstable phenotypes can be recognised by deviations from bilateral symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits and, because asymmetry might reflect nutritional quality of leaves for phytophagous insects, they therefore may base plant selection depending on leaf asymmetry. In this article we study such hypothetical relationships occurring between Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis) and pine-host selection by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Needle length of Aleppo pines indicated directional asymmetry and, as the hypothesis of developmental stability predicts, relative asymmetry was negatively related to needle length and positively to pine growth in height. Moreover, relative asymmetry proved to be negatively related to concentration of limonene, a defensive monoterpene that affects pine selection by adult female moths. In terms of growth, pine variation in needle length can be explained by the increase in volume of the pines from one to the next year, with smaller needles appearing in the pines that most increased their volume and those that least increased their height. Finally, as expected from a phytophagous insect that selects plants in relation to nutritional characteristics and level of chemical defence against herbivorous, the pine processionary moths selectively oviposited in the trees with the largest and most asymmetric needles. With these results, two of the main hypotheses that explain plant selection, plant-stress and plant-vigour hypotheses are discussed.

Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José; Soler, Manuel

2008-03-01

370

Barbastelle bats ( Barbastella spp.) specialize in the predation of moths: implications for foraging tactics and conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diet of barbastelle bats, Barbastella (b.) barbastellus and B. (b.) leucomelas, captured, respectively, in the Swiss Alps and in the Kirghiz Tien Shian and Pamir mountains (central Asia) was investigated through faecal analysis. Location of hunting habitats and data on foraging behaviour of Swiss barbastelle bats were obtained from radiotracking. In either area, ca. 99% of prey by volume consisted of Lepidoptera. The regular occurrence of one small arctiid species in the diet of Swiss barbastelles, as well as the predominance (84%) of tympanate moths among the Lepidoptera sampled at foraging sites suggest that B. barbastellus could prey to a large extent on smaller tympanate moths. Observations of foraging bats showed that, in the study area, barbastelles behaved as typical aerialhawking bat species, although they hunted exclusively just above the forest canopy. This aerial-hawking bat species has seemingly evolved a peculiar foraging technique to overcome the defence system of its probable tympanate prey. The diet of Barbastella appears one of the narrowest among Palaearctic bats. Such a specialization in foraging habits probably points to a higher vulnerability of this species, as compared to other more flexible aerial-hawking bats, to negative changes in the abundance of moth populations. This could explain its current rarity throughout most of Europe.

Sierro, Antoine; Arlettaz, Raphaël

371

Pheromone production, male abundance, body size, and the evolution of elaborate antennae in moths  

PubMed Central

The males of some species of moths possess elaborate feathery antennae. It is widely assumed that these striking morphological features have evolved through selection for males with greater sensitivity to the female sex pheromone, which is typically released in minute quantities. Accordingly, females of species in which males have elaborate (i.e., pectinate, bipectinate, or quadripectinate) antennae should produce the smallest quantities of pheromone. Alternatively, antennal morphology may be associated with the chemical properties of the pheromone components, with elaborate antennae being associated with pheromones that diffuse more quickly (i.e., have lower molecular weights). Finally, antennal morphology may reflect population structure, with low population abundance selecting for higher sensitivity and hence more elaborate antennae. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis to test these explanations using pheromone chemical data and trapping data for 152 moth species. Elaborate antennae are associated with larger body size (longer forewing length), which suggests a biological cost that smaller moth species cannot bear. Body size is also positively correlated with pheromone titre and negatively correlated with population abundance (estimated by male abundance). Removing the effects of body size revealed no association between the shape of antennae and either pheromone titre, male abundance, or mean molecular weight of the pheromone components. However, among species with elaborate antennae, longer antennae were typically associated with lower male abundances and pheromone compounds with lower molecular weight, suggesting that male distribution and a more rapidly diffusing female sex pheromone may influence the size but not the general shape of male antennae.

Symonds, Matthew RE; Johnson, Tamara L; Elgar, Mark A

2012-01-01

372

Surveying moths using light traps: effects of weather and time of year.  

PubMed

Light trapping is an ideal method for surveying nocturnal moths, but in the absence of standardised survey methods effects of confounding factors may impede interpretation of the acquired data. We explored the influence of weather, time of year, and light source on nightly catches of macro moths in light traps, and compared four strategies for sampling by estimating observed species richness using rarefaction. We operated two traps with different light sources for 225 consecutive nights from mid-March to the end of October in eastern Germany in 2011. In total, 49 472 individuals of 372 species were recorded. Species richness and abundance per night were mainly influenced by night temperature, humidity and lamp type. With a limited sample size (<10 nights) it was slightly better to concentrate sampling on the warmest summer nights, but with more sampling nights it was slightly better to sample during the warmest nights in each month (March to October). By exploiting the higher moth activity during warm nights and an understanding of the species' phenology, it is possible to increase the number of species caught and reduce effects of confounding abiotic factors. PMID:24637926

Jonason, Dennis; Franzén, Markus; Ranius, Thomas

2014-01-01

373

A Common Caatinga Cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, is an Important Ecotope of Wild Triatoma brasiliensis Populations in the Jaguaribe Valley of Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the Caatinga eco-region of northeastern Brazil. Wild T. brasiliensis populations have been reported only from rocky outcrops. However, this species frequently infests/re-infests houses in rock-free sedimentary lowlands. We therefore hypothesized that it should also occupy other natural ecotopes. We show that a common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, locally known as xiquexique, often harbors T. brasiliensis breeding colonies apparently associated with rodents (n = 44 cacti, infestation rate = 47.7%, 157 bugs captured). Our findings suggest that infested cacti might be involved in house re-infestation by T. brasiliensis in the Caatinga region. PMID:24710611

Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M; Abad-Franch, Fernando

2014-06-01

374

Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies  

PubMed Central

The outer surface of the facet lenses in the compound eyes of moths consists of an array of excessive cuticular protuberances, termed corneal nipples. We have investigated the moth-eye corneal nipple array of the facet lenses of 19 diurnal butterfly species by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscope, as well as by optical modelling. The nipples appeared to be arranged in domains with almost crystalline, hexagonal packing. The nipple distances were found to vary only slightly, ranging from about 180 to 240?nm, but the nipple heights varied between 0 (papilionids) and 230?nm (a nymphalid), in good agreement with previous work. The nipples create an interface with a gradient refractive index between that of air and the facet lens material, because their distance is distinctly smaller than the wavelength of light. The gradient in the refractive index was deduced from effective medium theory. By dividing the height of the nipple layer into 100 thin slices, an optical multilayer model could be applied to calculate the reflectance of the facet lenses as a function of height, polarization and angle of incidence. The reflectance progressively diminished with increased nipple height. Nipples with a paraboloid shape and height 250?nm, touching each other at the base, virtually completely reduced the reflectance for normally incident light. The calculated dependence of the reflectance on polarization and angle of incidence agreed well with experimental data, underscoring the validity of the modelling. The corneal nipples presumably mainly function to reduce the eye glare of moths that are inactive during the day, so to make them less visible for predators. Moths are probably ancestral to the diurnal butterflies, suggesting that the reduced size of the nipples of most butterfly species indicates a vanishing trait. This effect is extreme in papilionids, which have virtually absent nipples, in line with their highly developed status. A similar evolutionary development can be noticed for the tapetum of the ommatidia of lepidopteran eyes. It is most elaborate in moth-eyes, but strongly reduced in most diurnal butterflies and absent in papilionids.

Stavenga, D.G; Foletti, S; Palasantzas, G; Arikawa, K

2005-01-01

375

Fossil-calibrated molecular phylogenies reveal that leaf-mining moths radiated millions of years after their host plants.  

PubMed

Coevolution has been hypothesized as the main driving force for the remarkable diversity of insect-plant associations. Dating of insect and plant phylogenies allows us to test coevolutionary hypotheses and distinguish between the contemporaneous radiation of interacting lineages vs. insect 'host tracking' of previously diversified plants. Here, we used nuclear DNA to reconstruct a molecular phylogeny for 100 species of Phyllonorycter leaf-mining moths and 36 outgroup taxa. Ages for nodes in the moth phylogeny were estimated using a combination of a penalized likelihood method and a Bayesian approach, which takes into account phylogenetic uncertainty. To convert the relative ages of the moths into dates, we used an absolute calibration point from the fossil record. The age estimates of (a selection of) moth clades were then compared with fossil-based age estimates of their host plants. Our results show that the principal radiation of Phyllonorycter leaf-mining moths occurred well after the main radiation of their host plants and may represent the dominant associational mode in the fossil record. PMID:16780532

Lopez-Vaamonde, C; Wikström, N; Labandeira, C; Godfray, H C J; Goodman, S J; Cook, J M

2006-07-01

376

Functional flexibility as a prelude to signal diversity?: Role of a fatty acyl reductase in moth pheromone evolution.  

PubMed

Sex pheromones are the hallmark of reproductive behavior in moths. Mature females perform the task of mate signaling and release bouquets of odors that attract conspecific males at long range. The pheromone chemistry follows a relatively minimal design but still the combinatorial action of a handful of specialized pheromone production enzymes has resulted in remarkably diverse sexual signals that subtly vary in structure and in number and ratio of components. In a recent article,1 we showed that a single reductase gene (pgFAR) enables the conversion of key biosynthetic fatty-acyl precursors into fatty alcohols, the immediate precursors of the multi-component pheromone in small ermine moths (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). In the light of the widespread usage of multi-component pheromone blends across Lepidoptera, it is likely that the pgFAR biochemical flexibility is a regular feature of the moth pheromone machinery and polyvalent reductase genes are emerging as pivots to promote phenotypic transitions in moth mating signals. In addition, the small ermine moth pgFAR nevertheless contributes to regulating the ratio among components. Here we show that the pgFAR substrate specificity is actually counterbalancing the inherent chain-length preference of an upstream desaturase with ?11-activity and that the enzymes together modulate the final blend ratio between the Z11-16:OH, Z11-14:OH and E11-14:OH compounds before the final acetylation. PMID:21331247

Liénard, Marjorie A; Löfstedt, Christer

2010-11-01

377

Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on Outbreak Gypsy Moth Populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): The Role of Weather.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth-E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr, concurrently measuring rainfall, soil moisture, humidity, and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both field-collected larvae and laboratory-reared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisture-related variables (rainfall, soil moisture, and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets, and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of field-collected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time, and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas, or new weather conditions occur due to climate change. PMID:24805137

Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth

2014-06-01

378

Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica.  

PubMed

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of cabbage leaves and consuming less of the treated half of cabbage leaves. The botanical insecticides had less of an effect on the oviposition behaviour of P. xylostella moths. In laboratory and glasshouse trials, significantly fewer eggs were oviposited on the plants that had been treated with syringa extracts. Therefore, the syringa extracts appear to have a repellent effect. In contrast, when exposed to the neem extracts the moths did not discriminate between control plants and treated plants. Behavioural observation indicated that, despite the lower number of eggs oviposited on cabbage treated with syringa extracts, the moths chose cabbage treated with the highest dose of syringa more often than they chose control cabbage plants. Similar observations were found in cabbage plants treated with neem, moths chose the medium dose more often than they chose the control. Oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are important factors in pest control, and results from this study indicate that botanical insecticides have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for P. xylostella in South Africa. PMID:16197566

Charleston, D S; Kfir, R; Vet, L E M; Dicke, M

2005-10-01

379

Large Area Fabrication of Moth-Eye Antireflection Structures Using Self-Assembled Nanoparticles in Combination with Nanoimprinting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A moth-eye structure, which suppresses the reflection on a surface, was fabricated on the entire surface of a large silicon wafer by the formation of a self-assembled particle monolayer as a dry-etch mask formed by our embedded particle monolayer (EPM) method. We optimized the shape of moth-eye structures by optical calculation and improved the fabrication procedure to allow formation over a large area. As a result, we succeeded in fabricating a moth-eye structure on the entire surface of a 12-in. silicon wafer and the surface reflectance was reduced to less than 0.8% in the visible light range. A large nickel mold, which is able to transfer the pattern to an 8-in. display, could be formed using the 12-in. silicon substrate as a master. A moth-eye film was fabricated by UV nanoimprinting using the nickel mold and the high antireflection performance was confirmed. The fabrication cost of the moth-eye structure over a large area would be markedly reduced by the use of the self-assembly technique in combination with nanoimprinting.

Tsutomu Nakanishi,; Toshiro Hiraoka,; Akira Fujimoto,; Takeshi Okino,; Shinobu Sugimura,; Takuya Shimada,; Koji Asakawa,

2010-07-01

380

Effect of the bee glue (propolis) on the calorimetrically measured metabolic rate and metamorphosis of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the moth pests of the honeybee, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) causes the greatest damage, unless controlled at an early stage, because it feeds on wax, pollen, and cocoon of the bee larvae. This leads to the destruction of honeycomb and subsequent deterioration of weakened colonies. For controlling the pest, natural products are second to none,

Assegid Garedew; Erik Schmolz; Ingolf Lamprecht

2004-01-01

381

Quaternary origin and genetic divergence of the endemic cactus Mammillaria pectinifera in a changing landscape in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico.  

PubMed

The endemic Mexican cactus, Mammillaria pectinifera, shows low dispersal capabilities and isolated populations within the highly dissected landscape of Tehuacán Valley. These characteristics can restrict gene flow and act upon the genetic divergence and speciation in arid plants. We conducted a phylogeographic study to determine if the origin, current distribution, and genetic structure of M. pectinifera were driven by Quaternary geomorphic processes. Sequences of the plastids psbA-trnH and trnT-trnL obtained from 66 individuals from seven populations were used to estimate genetic diversity. Population differentiation was assessed by an analysis of molecular variance. We applied a stepwise phylogenetic calibration test to determine whether species origin and genetic divergence among haplotypes were temporally concordant with recognizable episodes of geomorphic evolution. The combination of plastid markers yielded six haplotypes, with high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.622) and low nucleotide diversity (? = 0.00085). The populations were found to be genetically structured (F(ST) = 0.682; P < 0.00001), indicating that geographic isolation and limited dispersal were the primary causes of genetic population differentiation. The estimated origin and divergence time among haplotypes were 0.017-2.39 and 0.019-1.237 mya, respectively, which correlates with Pleistocene tectonics and erosion events, supporting a hypothesis of geomorphically-driven geographical isolation. Based on a Bayesian skyline plot, these populations showed long term demographic stability, indicating that persistence in confined habitats has been the main response of this species to landscape changes. We conclude that the origin and haplotype divergence of M. pectinifera were a response to local Quaternary geomorphic evolution. PMID:24446289

Cornejo-Romero, A; Medina-Sánchez, J; Hernández-Hernández, T; Rendón-Aguilar, B; Valverde, P L; Zavala-Hurtado, A; Rivas-Arancibia, S P; Pérez-Hernández, M A; López-Ortega, G; Jiménez-Sierra, C; Vargas-Mendoza, C F

2014-01-01

382

Effects of Plant Size and Weather on the Flowering Phenology of the Organ Pipe Cactus (Stenocereus thurberi)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Flowering phenology is a critical life-history trait that influences reproductive success. It has been shown that genetic, climatic and other factors such as plant size affect the timing of flowering and its duration. The spatial and temporal variation in the reproductive phenology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus thurberi and its association with plant size and environmental cues was studied. Methods Flowering was monitored during 3 years in three populations of S. thurberi along a latitudinal gradient. Plant size was related to phenological parameters. The actual and past weather were used for each site and year to investigate the environmental correlates of flowering. Key Results There was significant variation in the timing of flowering within and among populations. Flowering lasted 4 months in the southern population and only 2 months in the northern population. A single flowering peak was evident in each population, but ocurred at different times. Large plants produced more flowers, and bloomed earlier and for a longer period than small plants. Population synchrony increased as the mean duration of flowering per individual decreased. The onset of flowering is primarily related to the variance in winter minimum temperatures and the duration to the autumn–winter mean maximum temperature, whereas spring mean maximum temperature is best correlated with synchrony. Conclusions Plant size affects individual plant fecundity as well as flowering time. Thus the population structure strongly affects flowering phenology. Indications of clinal variation in the timing of flowering and reproductive effort suggest selection pressures related to the arrival of migrating pollinators, climate and resource economy in a desert environment. These pressures are likely to be relaxed in populations where individual plants can attain large sizes.

Bustamante, Enriquena; Burquez, Alberto

2008-01-01

383

Differential response to soil salinity in endangered key tree cactus: implications for survival in a changing climate.  

PubMed

Understanding reasons for biodiversity loss is essential for developing conservation and management strategies and is becoming increasingly urgent with climate change. Growing at elevations <1.4 m in the Florida Keys, USA, the endangered Key tree cactus (Pilosocereus robinii) experienced 84 percent loss of total stems from 1994 to 2007. The most severe losses of 99 and 88 percent stems occurred in the largest populations in the Lower Keys, where nine storms with high wind velocities and storm surges, occurred during this period. In contrast, three populations had substantial stem proliferation. To evaluate possible mortality factors related to changes in climate or forest structure, we examined habitat variables: soil salinity, elevation, canopy cover, and habitat structure near 16 dying or dead and 18 living plants growing in the Lower Keys. Soil salinity and elevation were the preliminary factors that discriminated live and dead plants. Soil salinity was 1.5 times greater, but elevation was 12 cm higher near dead plants than near live plants. However, distribution-wide stem loss was not significantly related to salinity or elevation. Controlled salinity trials indicated that salt tolerance to levels above 40 mM NaCl was related to maternal origin. Salt sensitive plants from the Lower Keys had less stem growth, lower root:shoot ratios, lower potassium: sodium ratios and lower recovery rate, but higher ? (13)C than a salt tolerant lineage of unknown origin. Unraveling the genetic structure of salt tolerant and salt sensitive lineages in the Florida Keys will require further genetic tests. Worldwide rare species restricted to fragmented, low-elevation island habitats, with little or no connection to higher ground will face challenges from climate change-related factors. These great conservation challenges will require traditional conservation actions and possibly managed relocation that must be informed by studies such as these. PMID:22403670

Goodman, Joie; Maschinski, Joyce; Hughes, Phillip; McAuliffe, Joe; Roncal, Julissa; Powell, Devon; Sternberg, Leonel O'reilly

2012-01-01

384

Differential Response to Soil Salinity in Endangered Key Tree Cactus: Implications for Survival in a Changing Climate  

PubMed Central

Understanding reasons for biodiversity loss is essential for developing conservation and management strategies and is becoming increasingly urgent with climate change. Growing at elevations <1.4 m in the Florida Keys, USA, the endangered Key tree cactus (Pilosocereus robinii) experienced 84 percent loss of total stems from 1994 to 2007. The most severe losses of 99 and 88 percent stems occurred in the largest populations in the Lower Keys, where nine storms with high wind velocities and storm surges, occurred during this period. In contrast, three populations had substantial stem proliferation. To evaluate possible mortality factors related to changes in climate or forest structure, we examined habitat variables: soil salinity, elevation, canopy cover, and habitat structure near 16 dying or dead and 18 living plants growing in the Lower Keys. Soil salinity and elevation were the preliminary factors that discriminated live and dead plants. Soil salinity was 1.5 times greater, but elevation was 12 cm higher near dead plants than near live plants. However, distribution-wide stem loss was not significantly related to salinity or elevation. Controlled salinity trials indicated that salt tolerance to levels above 40 mM NaCl was related to maternal origin. Salt sensitive plants from the Lower Keys had less stem growth, lower root:shoot ratios, lower potassium: sodium ratios and lower recovery rate, but higher ? 13C than a salt tolerant lineage of unknown origin. Unraveling the genetic structure of salt tolerant and salt sensitive lineages in the Florida Keys will require further genetic tests. Worldwide rare species restricted to fragmented, low-elevation island habitats, with little or no connection to higher ground will face challenges from climate change-related factors. These great conservation challenges will require traditional conservation actions and possibly managed relocation that must be informed by studies such as these.

Goodman, Joie; Maschinski, Joyce; Hughes, Phillip; McAuliffe, Joe; Roncal, Julissa; Powell, Devon; Sternberg, Leonel O'reilly

2012-01-01

385

Seasonal photosynthetic gas exchange and water-use efficiency in a constitutive CAM plant, the giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea).  

PubMed

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and the capacity to store large quantities of water are thought to confer high water use efficiency (WUE) and survival of succulent plants in warm desert environments. Yet the highly variable precipitation, temperature and humidity conditions in these environments likely have unique impacts on underlying processes regulating photosynthetic gas exchange and WUE, limiting our ability to predict growth and survival responses of desert CAM plants to climate change. We monitored net CO(2) assimilation (A(net)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and transpiration (E) rates periodically over 2 years in a natural population of the giant columnar cactus Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro) near Tucson, Arizona USA to investigate environmental and physiological controls over carbon gain and water loss in this ecologically important plant. We hypothesized that seasonal changes in daily integrated water use efficiency (WUE(day)) in this constitutive CAM species would be driven largely by stomatal regulation of nighttime transpiration and CO(2) uptake responding to shifts in nighttime air temperature and humidity. The lowest WUE(day) occurred during time periods with extreme high and low air vapor pressure deficit (D(a)). The diurnal with the highest D(a) had low WUE(day) due to minimal net carbon gain across the 24 h period. Low WUE(day) was also observed under conditions of low D(a); however, it was due to significant transpiration losses. Gas exchange measurements on potted saguaro plants exposed to experimental changes in D(a) confirmed the relationship between D(a) and g(s). Our results suggest that climatic changes involving shifts in air temperature and humidity will have large impacts on the water and carbon economy of the giant saguaro and potentially other succulent CAM plants of warm desert environments. PMID:21822726

Bronson, Dustin R; English, Nathan B; Dettman, David L; Williams, David G

2011-11-01

386

Hydrogeology of the Quitobaquito Springs and La Abra Plain area, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quitobaquito Springs, in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the south end of the northwestward-trending Quitobaquito Hills, are less than 0.25 mile north of the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. The National Park Service is concerned that the natural flow from Quitobaquito Springs might be reduced by ground-water withdrawals in the adjacent State of Sonora, Mexico. Quitobaquito and other nearby springs flow from a highly fractured granite that forms the Quitobaquito Hills. Fractures in the granitic intrusive rocks provide conduits for ground water to flow from an alluvial flow system along Aguajita Wash to a line of springs on the southwest side of Quitobaquito Hills. The chemical composition of water from all the springs is similar. Carbon-14 analysis of water from Quitobaquito Springs indicates that the spring water probably is between 500 and several thousand years old. Discharge at Quitobaquito Springs averaged 28 gallons per minute and ranged from 15 to 40 gallons per minute for 1981-92. Rainfall at two gages in the area of recharge to the northeast of Quitobaquito Hills averaged 6.6 inches per year during the 11-year monitoring program ending in September 1992. The lack of correlation between spring discharge and local rainfall indicates that local annual recharge may be small relative to the total quantity of ground water in storage. Surface-geophysical data indicate that a thin alluvial aquifer overlies the shallow crystalline rocks northeast of Quitobaquito Hills along Aguajita Wash. Results of the study indicate that the ground-water flow system along Aguajita Wash provides a source of water to the springs and may be hydraulically connected to the ground-water system that is pumped for agricultural purposes in Mexico. The altitude and low permeability of the granite bedrock near the international boundary, however, may provide a barrier to and (or) delay the effect of a northwestward propagation of water- level declines caused by pumping near the Rio Sonoyta in Mexico.

Carruth, R. L.

1996-01-01

387

Valorisation d'un nouveau bio floculant (extrait de cactus) dans le traitement physico-chimique des rejets liquides chargés en cuivre, en zinc et en matière en suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cactus tree is native of the arid and semi-arid areas in Mexico. It belongs to the genus Opuntia, a succulent plant xérophytique which can store a large amount of water and doesn't affect the human health (1). Furthermore, it presents considerable values in different domaines such as cosmetics, medecine and food (2, 3). The main aim of this study

A. Abid; A. Zouhri; A. Ider; S. Kholtei

2009-01-01

388

Nurse Plants vs. Nurse Objects: Effects of Woody Plants and Rocky Cavities on the Recruitment of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus Columnar Cactus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Most studies on cactus recruitment have focused on the role of woody plants as seedling facilitators. Although the spatial association of cacti with objects had been described, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unknown. The aims of this study were to identify which mechanisms facilitate the establishment of a columnar cactus under the shade and protection of objects and to compare these mechanisms with those involved in plant–plant facilitation. Methods Three split-split-plot field experiments were conducted to compare the effects of two microhabitats (inside rocky cavities and beneath plant canopies) on seed removal, germination, seedling survivorship and dry weight. Flat, open spaces were used as the control. For each microhabitat, the effect of seed or seedling protection and substrate limitation were explored; aboveground microclimate and some soil properties were also characterized. Key Results The permanence of superficial seeds was greater inside rocky cavities than beneath woody plant canopies or on flat, open areas. Germination was similar in cavities and beneath plant canopies, but significantly higher than on flat, open areas. Seedling survivorship was greater beneath plant canopies than inside cavities or on flat, open spaces. Conclusions The mechanisms of plant facilitation are different from those of object facilitation. There are seed–seedling conflicts involved in the recruitment of P. leucocephalus: nurse plants favour mainly seedling survivorship by providing a suitable microenvironment, while nurse objects mainly favour seed permanence, by protecting them from predators.

Munguia-Rosas, Miguel Angel; Sosa, Vinicio J.

2008-01-01

389

Delayed density-dependent parasitism of eggs and pupae as a contributor to the cyclic population dynamics of the autumnal moth.  

PubMed

Many populations of forest Lepidoptera exhibit 10-year cycles in densities, with impressive outbreaks across large regions. Delayed density-dependent interactions with natural enemies are recognized as key factors driving these cyclic population dynamics, but emphasis has typically been on the larval stages. Eggs, pupae and adults also suffer mortality from predators, parasitoids and pathogens, but little is known about possible density relationships between mortality factors and these non-feeding life stages. In a long-term field study, we experimentally deployed autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) eggs and pupae to their natural enemies yearly throughout the 10-year population cycle in northern Norway. The abundance of another geometrid, the winter moth (Operophtera brumata), increased in the study area, permitting comparisons between the two moth species in predation and parasitism. Survival of autumnal moth eggs and pupae was related to the moth abundance in an inverse and delayed manner. Egg and pupal parasitoids dominated as density-dependent mortality factors and predicted the subsequent growth rate of the host population size. In contrast, effects of egg and pupal predators were weakly density dependent, and generally predation remained low. Parasitism rates did not differ between the autumnal and winter moth pupae, whereas predators preferred winter moth pupae over those of the autumnal moth. We conclude that parasitism of the autumnal moth by egg and pupal parasitoids can be related to the changes of the moth density in a delayed density-dependent manner. Furthermore, egg and pupal parasitoids cannot be overlooked as causal factors for the population cycles of forest Lepidoptera in general. PMID:24958367

Klemola, Tero; Andersson, Tommi; Ruohomäki, Kai

2014-08-01

390

Enhancement of outcoupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using a planarized moth-eye structure on glass substrate.  

PubMed

To improve optical properties of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), we developed a planarized moth-eye structure by ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). The moth-eye pattern was fabricated on a glass substrate by UV-NIL using AMONIL polymer resin. It contains nanoscaled, cone-shaped, periodic pattern arrays with a 250 nm diameter and a 550 nm pitch. The glass substrate with the moth-eye structure exhibited a 1%-2% improvement in transmittance of visible wavelengths, but it requires a planarized layer with high-refractive-index materials. Photosensitive titanium precursor resin annealed by UV was used to improve the current efficiency by up to 26% versus conventional OLEDs. PMID:24081049

Kim, Jeong Ho; Do, Lee-Mi; Choi, Je-Hong; Park, Jaehoon; Lee, Heon

2013-10-01

391

Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar-O2) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (? = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar-O2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°.

Liu, Chia-Hsing; Niu, Pei-Lun; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

2014-01-01

392

Seasonal Abundance and Suppression of Fruit-Piercing Moth Eudocima phalonia (L.) in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak  

PubMed Central

Seasonal population of the fruit-piercing moths Eudocima spp. was monitored throughout the citrus growing seasons in a citrus orchard and in site adjacent to secondary forest from July 2007 to June 2009. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with activity lowest during the wet months (September-February) when fruits are still available and while highest during the dry months (May-June) which also coincided with the main fruiting season. The effects of an nC24 horticultural mineral oil (HMO) on the citrus fruit damage caused by fruit-piecing moths was also determined. The percent fruit damage was significantly lowest (P?0.05) in HMO-treated plots (8.4), followed by Dimethoate-treated plots (11.6) and untreated plots (22.5). However, there was no significant difference between HMO and Dimethoate treated plots indicating HMO is effective in reducing percent fruit damage.

Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng

2011-01-01

393

Listening in Pheromone Plumes: Disruption of Olfactory-Guided Mate Attraction in a Moth by a Bat-Like Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal moths often use sex pheromones to find mates and ultrasonic hearing to evade echolocating bat predators. Male moths, when confronted with both pheromones and sound, thus have to trade off reproduction and predator avoidance depending on the relative strengths of the perceived conflicting stimuli. The ultrasonic hearing of Plodia interpunctella was investigated. A threshold curve for evasive reaction to ultrasound of tethered moths was established, and the frequency of best hearing was found to be between 40 and 70 kHz. Flight tunnel experiments were performed where males orienting in a sex pheromone plume were stimulated with 50 kHz pulses of different intensities. Pheromone-stimulated males showed increased defensive response with increased intensity of the sound stimulus, and the acoustic cue had long-lasting effects on their pheromone-mediated flight, revealing a cost associated with vital evasive behaviours.

Svenssona, Glenn P.; Lofstedt, Christer; Skals, Niels

2007-01-01

394

Reflectance properties of silicon moth-eyes in response to variations in angle of incidence, polarisation and azimuth orientation.  

PubMed

We report a study of the optical properties of silicon moth-eye structures using a custom-made fully automated broadband spectroscopic reflectometry system (goniometer). This measurement system is able to measure specular reflectance as a function of wavelength, polar incidence angle and azimuth orientation angle, from normal to near-parallel polar incidence angle. The system uses a linear polarized broadband super-continuum laser light source. It is shown that a moth-eye structure composed of a regular array of protruding silicon rods, with finite sidewall angle reduces reflectance and sensitivity to incident wavelength in comparison to truly cylindrical rods with perpendicular sidewalls. It is also shown that moth-eye structures have omnidirectional reflectance properties in response to azimuth orientation of the sample. The importance of applying the reflectometer setup to study the optical properties of solar cell antireflective structures is highlighted. PMID:24922250

Asadollahbaik, Asa; Boden, Stuart A; Charlton, Martin D B; Payne, David N R; Cox, Simon; Bagnall, Darren M

2014-03-10

395

Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.

Gansner, D.A.; Quimby, J.W.; King, S.L.; Arner, S.L.; Drake, D.A.

1994-08-01

396

Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a newly recorded parasitoid of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Argentina.  

PubMed

We report the first record of Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitizing larvae of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), in tomato crops in Northern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Tomato moth larvae were sampled during four consecutive growing cycles, between 2003 and 2005, in 10 sites. Neochrysocharis formosa was present only in organic outdoor and protected crops, and predominantly during the late season. Parasitism rates varied from 1.5% to 5%. The finding of this species is a new record for Argentina and South America, and T. absoluta is a new host record. PMID:21710041

Luna, M G; Wada, V I; La Salle, J; Sánchez, N E

2011-01-01

397

Genetic Patterns in European Geometrid Moths Revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN) System  

PubMed Central

Background The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems), a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. Methodology/Principal Findings This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88%) in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93%) were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3%) were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads) shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18%) were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed regional variation of uncertain taxonomic significance.

Hausmann, Axel; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Rougerie, Rodolphe; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hebert, Paul D. N.

2013-01-01

398

Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis  

PubMed Central

Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants) increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

2010-01-01

399

Oscillations of the transepithelial potential of moth olfactory sensilla are influenced by octopamine and serotonin.  

PubMed

The biogenic amine octopamine is known to enhance the sensitivity of male moths to their species-specific pheromones in flight-tunnel experiments. This sensitization of pheromone-guided upwind flight is at least partly due to octopamine-dependent increases in the peak nerve impulse frequency of the pheromone response of olfactory receptor neurons. It is not known, however, whether octopamine exerts its effects directly on the electrical properties of the olfactory receptor neurons or indirectly, via modulation of the accessory cells of the sensillum. In extracellular tip recordings of pheromone-dependent trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male Manduca sexta moths, we investigated the effects of octopamine and serotonin on the transepithelial potential, which is generated by the activity of V-ATPases in sensillar accessory cells. In addition, the action potential activity of unstimulated olfactory receptor neurons was examined in the presence of biogenic amines. Under constant environmental conditions, the transepithelial potential oscillated regularly with periods of 2-8 min and with a 1-25mV peak-to-peak amplitude over periods of several hours. These oscillatory intervals were interrupted by periods of relatively stable transepithelial potential, correlated with flight activity by the moth. Octopamine reduced the amplitude of the transepithelial potential oscillation and decreased the resistance of the sensillum preparation in a dose-dependent manner. Serotonin altered the waveform of the transepithelial potential, but did not change the resistance of the preparation. Thus, both amines affect the accessory cells, but have different targets in the regulation of the transepithelial potential. Neither amine significantly influenced the spontaneous action potential activity of the olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:11683434

Dolzer, J; Krannich, S; Fischer, K; Stengl, M

2001-08-01

400

Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm.  

PubMed

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions. PMID:22842865

Frank, K L; Tobin, P C; Thistle, H W; Kalkstein, Laurence S

2013-05-01

401

Comprehensive Molecular Sampling Yields a Robust Phylogeny for Geometrid Moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)  

PubMed Central

Background The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers), with approximately 23 000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.

Sihvonen, Pasi; Mutanen, Marko; Kaila, Lauri; Brehm, Gunnar; Hausmann, Axel; Staude, Hermann S.

2011-01-01

402

Single mutation to a sex pheromone receptor provides adaptive specificity between closely related moth species.  

PubMed

Sex pheromone communication, acting as a prezygotic barrier to mating, is believed to have contributed to the speciation of moths and butterflies in the order Lepidoptera. Five decades after the discovery of the first moth sex pheromone, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pheromone communication between closely related species. Although Asian and European corn borers (ACB and ECB) can be interbred in the laboratory, they are behaviorally isolated from mating naturally by their responses to subtly different sex pheromone isomers, (E)-12- and (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate and (E)-11- and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (ACB: E12, Z12; ECB; E11, Z11). Male moth olfactory systems respond specifically to the pheromone blend produced by their conspecific females. In vitro, ECB(Z) odorant receptor 3 (OR3), a sex pheromone receptor expressed in male antennae, responds strongly to E11 but also generally to the Z11, E12, and Z12 pheromones. In contrast, we show that ACB OR3, a gene that has been subjected to positive selection (? = 2.9), responds preferentially to the ACB E12 and Z12 pheromones. In Ostrinia species the amino acid residue corresponding to position 148 in transmembrane domain 3 of OR3 is alanine (A), except for ACB OR3 that has a threonine (T) in this position. Mutation of this residue from A to T alters the pheromone recognition pattern by selectively reducing the E11 response ?14-fold. These results suggest that discrete mutations that narrow the specificity of more broadly responsive sex pheromone receptors may provide a mechanism that contributes to speciation. PMID:22891317

Leary, Greg P; Allen, Jean E; Bunger, Peggy L; Luginbill, Jena B; Linn, Charles E; Macallister, Irene E; Kavanaugh, Michael P; Wanner, Kevin W

2012-08-28

403

Single mutation to a sex pheromone receptor provides adaptive specificity between closely related moth species  

PubMed Central

Sex pheromone communication, acting as a prezygotic barrier to mating, is believed to have contributed to the speciation of moths and butterflies in the order Lepidoptera. Five decades after the discovery of the first moth sex pheromone, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pheromone communication between closely related species. Although Asian and European corn borers (ACB and ECB) can be interbred in the laboratory, they are behaviorally isolated from mating naturally by their responses to subtly different sex pheromone isomers, (E)-12- and (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate and (E)-11- and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (ACB: E12, Z12; ECB; E11, Z11). Male moth olfactory systems respond specifically to the pheromone blend produced by their conspecific females. In vitro, ECB(Z) odorant receptor 3 (OR3), a sex pheromone receptor expressed in male antennae, responds strongly to E11 but also generally to the Z11, E12, and Z12 pheromones. In contrast, we show that ACB OR3, a gene that has been subjected to positive selection (? = 2.9), responds preferentially to the ACB E12 and Z12 pheromones. In Ostrinia species the amino acid residue corresponding to position 148 in transmembrane domain 3 of OR3 is alanine (A), except for ACB OR3 that has a threonine (T) in this position. Mutation of this residue from A to T alters the pheromone recognition pattern by selectively reducing the E11 response ?14-fold. These results suggest that discrete mutations that narrow the specificity of more broadly responsive sex pheromone receptors may provide a mechanism that contributes to speciation.

Leary, Greg P.; Allen, Jean E.; Bunger, Peggy L.; Luginbill, Jena B.; Linn, Charles E.; Macallister, Irene E.; Kavanaugh, Michael P.; Wanner, Kevin W.

2012-01-01

404

Towards a Global Barcode Library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) Tussock Moths of Biosecurity Concern  

PubMed Central

Background Detecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Many species in the tussock moth genus Lymantria are significant forestry pests, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., and consequently have been a focus for the development of molecular diagnostic tools to assist in identifying species and source populations. In this study we expand the taxonomic and geographic coverage of the DNA barcode reference library, and further test the utility of this diagnostic method, both for species/subspecies assignment and for determination of geographic provenance of populations. Methodology/Principal Findings Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcodes were obtained from 518 individuals and 36 species of Lymantria, including sequences assembled and generated from previous studies, vouchered material in public collections, and intercepted specimens obtained from surveillance programs in Canada. A maximum likelihood tree was constructed, revealing high bootstrap support for 90% of species clusters. Bayesian species assignment was also tested, and resulted in correct assignment to species and subspecies in all instances. The performance of barcoding was also compared against the commonly employed NB restriction digest system (also based on COI); while the latter is informative for discriminating gypsy moth subspecies, COI barcode sequences provide greater resolution and generality by encompassing a greater number of haplotypes across all Lymantria species, none shared between species. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcodes for diagnosing species of Lymantria and reinforces the view that the approach is an under-utilized resource with substantial potential for biosecurity and surveillance. Biomonitoring agencies currently employing the NB restriction digest system would gather more information by transitioning to the use of DNA barcoding, a change which could be made relatively seamlessly as the same gene region underlies both protocols.

deWaard, Jeremy R.; Mitchell, Andrew; Keena, Melody A.; Gopurenko, David; Boykin, Laura M.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Pogue, Michael G.; Lima, Joao; Floyd, Robin; Hanner, Robert H.; Humble, Leland M.

2010-01-01

405

Host and Phenology Shifts in the Evolution of the Social Moth Genus Thaumetopoea  

PubMed Central

The genus Thaumetopoea contains the processionary moths, a group of lepidopteran associated with forest trees, well known for the social behaviour of the larvae and for carrying urticating setae. The taxonomy of the genus is partly unresolved and a phylogenetic approach is lacking. The goal of this work is to produce a phylogeny for Thaumetopoea and to identify the main traits driving the evolution of this group. Eighteen mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were fully/partly sequenced. Markers were aligned and analysed singularly or in various combinations. Phylogenetic analyses were performed according to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Trees obtained from largest data sets provided identical topologies that received strong statistical support. Three main clades were identified within Thaumetopoea and were further supported by several signatures located in the mitochondrial tRNAs and intergenic spacers. The reference topology was used to investigate the evolution of life history traits related to biogeography, host plant, ecology, and morphology. A multigenic approach allowed to produce a robust phylogenetic analysis of the genus Thaumetopoea, with the identification of three major clades linked to different ecological and life history traits. The first clade is associated with Angiosperm host plants and has a fast spring development of larvae on young foliage. The other clades have originated by one event of host plant shift to Gymnosperm Pinaceae, which implied a longer larval developmental time due to the lower nutritional quality of leaves. These clades showed different adaptations to such a constraint, the first with a switch of larval feeding to cold season (winter pine processionary moths), and the second with a retraction to high altitude and latitude and a development cycle extended over two years (summer pine processionary moths). Recent global warming is affecting all species and seems able to further shape the evolution of the group.

Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Kerdelhue, Carole; Burban, Christian; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Pivotto, Isabelle; Salvato, Paola; Negrisolo, Enrico

2013-01-01

406

Phylogeny and Evolution of Pharmacophagy in Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae)  

PubMed Central

The focus of this study was to reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis for the moth subfamily Arctiinae (tiger moths, woolly bears) to investigate the evolution of larval and adult pharmacophagy of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and the pathway to PA chemical specialization in Arctiinae. Pharmacophagy, collection of chemicals for non-nutritive purposes, is well documented in many species, including the model species Utetheisa ornatrix L. A total of 86 exemplar ingroup species representing tiger moth tribes and subtribes (68 genera) and nine outgroup species were selected. Ingroup species included the most species-rich generic groups to represent the diversity of host-plant associations and pharmacophagous behaviors found throughout Arctiinae. Up to nine genetic markers were sequenced: one mitochondrial (COI barcode region), one nuclear rRNA (D2 region, 28S rRNA), and seven nuclear protein-coding gene fragments: elongation factor 1-? protein, wingless, ribosomal protein subunit S5, carbamoylphosphate synthase domain regions, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. A total of 6984 bp was obtained for most species. These data were analyzed using model-based phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). Ancestral pharmacophagous behaviors and obligate PA associations were reconstructed using the resulting Bayes topology and Reconstructing Ancestral States in Phylogenies (RASP) software. Our results corroborate earlier studies on the evolution of adult pharmacophagous behaviors, suggesting that this behavior arose multiple times and is concentrated in the phaegopterine-euchromiine-ctenuchine clade (PEC). Our results suggest that PA specialization may have arisen early in the phylogeny of the subfamily and that facultative larval pharmacophagous behaviors are the derived condition.

Zaspel, Jennifer M.; Weller, Susan J.; Wardwell, Charles T.; Zahiri, Reza; Wahlberg, Niklas

2014-01-01

407

High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.  

PubMed

The oriental fruit moth Grapholita (?=?Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies. PMID:24265692

Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua

2013-01-01

408

Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism.  

PubMed

The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has been established in aquatic insect larvae, but OCLTT has not been shown to generally apply to terrestrial insects. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling diapausing codling moth, a quarantine pest in walnuts, but treatment requires long times and the killing mechanism is unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on metabolism in diapausing 5th instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was investigated with multi-channel differential scanning calorimeters, one equipped with an oxygen sensor. O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates in air were measured simultaneously at isothermal temperatures from 5 to 50°C at 5°C intervals. Both rates increased with increasing temperatures from 5 to 40°C. The ratio of metabolic heat rate to O2 consumption rate at temperatures ?40°C shows that a portion of the metabolic heat is from normal anabolic reactions of metabolism. At 45 and 50°C in air, O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates dropped to near zero. These results indicate that treatment of walnuts in air at >45°C for a short period of time (minutes) is effective in killing diapausing 5th instar codling moth larvae. Continuous heating scans at 0.4°C/min were used to measure metabolic heat rates from 10 to 50°C with air and modified atmospheres with lowered oxygen and high carbon dioxide. A rapid increase was observed in heat rates above 40°C in scans with O2?11%. Taken together with the isothermal results showing no metabolic heat production or oxygen uptake at 45 and 50°C, these results demonstrate that thermal damage to cell membranes and loss of control of oxidation reactions is the lethal mechanism at high temperature when O2?11%. The data from scans with O2?2% and high CO2 show the effects of oxygen limitation as postulated by the OCLTT. However, CO2 anesthesia appears to protect larvae from oxygen limitation at high temperature. These results show that treatment of walnuts in air at temperatures >45°C will rapidly kill diapausing 5th instar codling moths. PMID:24802143

Neven, Lisa G; Lehrman, Nathan J; Hansen, Lee D

2014-05-01

409

Chemical, Electrophysiological, and Behavioral Investigations on the Sex Pheromone of Lackey Moth, Malacosoma neustrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lackey moth Malacosoma neustrium (L.) (Lepidoptera Lasiocampidae) is a common pest of many forest and cultivated broadleaf trees. Analysis by GC-EAD of gland extracts and female effluvia showed the presence of two active peaks that were characterized as (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (E5,Z7-12:Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (E5,Z7-12:OH) according to their GC retention times, mass spectra, and electroantennographic activity. (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienyl acetate (E5,Z7-12:Ac) was also

Giuseppe Rotundo; Giacinto Salvatore Germinara; Antonio De Cristofaro

2004-01-01

410

Toxin-binding proteins isolated from yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor and wax moth Galleria mellonella.  

PubMed

A 67-kDa protein that can specifically bind the activated Cry9A endotoxin under ligand-blotting conditions was purified from midgut epithelium apical membranes of wax moth Galleria mellonella by affinity chromatography. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of this protein as aminopeptidase N. In similar experiments, 66- and 58-kDa proteins specific to endotoxin Cry3A were isolated from the midgut epithelium apical membranes of Tenebrio molitor larvae. Mass spectrometry showed close similarity of the 58-kDa protein to the Tenebrio molitor ?-amylase. PMID:21568853

Bulushova, N V; Zhuzhikov, D P; Lyutikova, L I; Kirillova, N E; Zalunin, I A; Chestukhina, G G

2011-02-01

411

[Suppressive effects of non-preferable plant alcohol extracts on diamondback moth Plutella xylostella population].  

PubMed

In this paper, a life table and an interference index of population control (IIPC) were used to evaluate the effects of spraying the alcohol extracts of non-preferable plants on the dynamics of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella) population. The results showed that the alcohol extracts of Eupatorium odoratum, Lantana camara and Wedelia chinensis were available to protect kidney bean from Plutella xylostella infestation. Their IIPC were 0.110, 0.136 and 0.165, and the efficacies of controlling P. xylostella were 89.0%, 86.4% and 83.5%, respectively, compared with control. PMID:15852929

Xian, Jidong; Liang, Guangwen; Shen, Shuping; Pang, Xiongfei

2005-02-01

412

Proboscis Morphology and Its Relationship to Feeding Habits in Noctuid Moths  

PubMed Central

This study describes proboscis morphology and identifies morphometric differences among five species of noctuid moths with different feeding habits (fruit versus nectar-feeding). Morphological and morphometric parameters were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Measurements included: galea height in ten sites from base to tip, total proboscis length, and length of the distal region that contains large sensilla styloconica and / or tearing hooks and erectible barbs. Both morphometric and morphological differences were identified among species within and between feeding guilds, and these results are discussed in light of the feeding habits of each species.

Zenker, Mauricio Moraes; Penz, Carla; de Paris, Michele; Specht, Alexandre

2011-01-01

413

Toxin-binding proteins isolated from yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor and wax moth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 67-kDa protein that can specifically bind the activated Cry9A endotoxin under ligand-blotting conditions was purified from\\u000a midgut epithelium apical membranes of wax moth Galleria mellonella by affinity chromatography. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of this protein as aminopeptidase N.\\u000a In similar experiments, 66- and 58-kDa proteins specific to endotoxin Cry3A were isolated from the midgut epithelium apical\\u000a membranes

N. V. Bulushova; D. P. Zhuzhikov; L. I. Lyutikova; N. E. Kirillova; I. A. Zalunin; G. G. Chestukhina

2011-01-01

414

Identity of Eumenodora encrypta Meyrick, a cryptic Australian moth (Lepidoptera:Gelechioidea).  

PubMed

A hitherto neglected gelechioid moth genus Eumenodora Meyrick (Gelechioidea: Elachistidae; Cosmopterigidae; Xyloryctidae) is redescribed. The genus, originally assigned to the Elachistidae and later transferred to the Cosmopterigidae, is monotypic. The single constituent species, E. encrypta Meyrick, 1906, has long been known only from the holotype, collected in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). The specimen lacks its abdomen. The genus is characterized and the single recognized species redescribed based on recently collected adult males and a female. Evidence from morphology, supported by DNA sequences, is provided to support the placement of the taxon in the Hierodoris group of the Xyloryctidae, in spite of its atypical external appearance. PMID:24758801

Kaila, Lauri

2013-01-01

415

Influence of Applied NaCl on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism and Ionic Levels in a Cactus, Cereus validus1  

PubMed Central

To determine possible physiological responses to salinity, seedlings of Cereus validus Haworth, a cactus from Salinas Grandes, Argentina, were treated with up to 600 millimolar NaCl for up to 16 days when they were about 9 months old and 100 millimeters tall. Salt stress decreased stem biomass, e.g. it was 19.7 grams for controls and 11.4 grams for plants treated with 400 millimolar NaCl for 14 days. Nocturnal CO2 uptake in these obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants was inhibited 67% upon treatment with 400 millimolar NaCl for 14 days (controls, 181 millimoles CO2 per square meter), while nocturnal accumulation of malate was inhibited 49% (controls, 230 millimoles malate per square meter). The larger accumulation of malate as compared to uptake of atmospheric CO2 suggests that internal CO2 recycling occurred during the dark period. Such recycling was lower in the controls (?20%) than in the NaCl-treated plants (?50%). The nocturnal increase in malate and titratable acidity depended on the total daily photosynthetically active radiation available; measurements suggest a quantum requirment of 26 photons per malate. As NaCl in the medium was increased to 600 millimolar in daily increments of 50 millimolar, Na and Cl concentrations in the roots increased from about 7 to 100 millimolar, but K concentration in the cell sap remained near 26 millimolar. Concomitantly, concentrations of Na and Cl in the shoots increased from 8 to 17 millimolar and from 1 to 7 millimolar, respectively, while the K concentration increased about 16 to 60 millimolar. In plants maintained for 14 days at 500 millimolar NaCl, the root levels of Na and Cl increased to 260 millimolar, the shoot levels were about 60 millimolar, and the stem bases began to become necrotic. Such Na retention in the roots together with the special possibilities of carbon reutilization given by CAM are apparently survival mechanisms for the temporarily saline conditions experienced in its natural habitat.

Nobel, Park S.; Luttge, Ulrich; Heuer, Sabine; Ball, Erika

1984-01-01

416

Beta-diversity of geometrid moths from northern Borneo: effects of habitat, time and space.  

PubMed

1. Spatial patterns of beta-diversity, an important property of species communities, are less well-studied than those of local species richness, particularly in insects from tropical rainforests. 2. We use geometrid moth samples from northern Borneo to quantify ensemble turnover across distances of > 700 km, consider habitat- and sampling-related impacts on their composition, and evaluate remaining spatial patterns in the data. 3. Geometrid moth ensembles from Borneo are shaped by environmental parameters such as elevation and habitat disturbance, by temporal factors acting at small (mediated by weather) and large scales (i.e. changes over decades), and by methodological differences of sampling (related to the nightly flight times of species). 4. These parameters explain a large portion of the spatial structure of ensemble composition, but residual variation still contains a pattern that is tentatively best explained by geographical distance, particularly at distances < 20 km. 5. Patterns of species turnover indicate no evidence for biotic homogenization due to human-caused degradation of habitats. Beta-diversity plays a crucial part in mediating the regional diversity of geometrids on Borneo. PMID:17302830

Beck, Jan; Vun Khen, Chey

2007-03-01

417

Correlation between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.  

PubMed

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate. PMID:24766444

Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

2013-01-01

418

Correlation between Pesticide Resistance and Enzyme Activity in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella  

PubMed Central

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate.

Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

2013-01-01

419

Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats  

PubMed Central

Moths and butterflies flying in search of mates risk detection by numerous aerial predators; under the cover of night, the greatest threat will often be from insectivorous bats. During such encounters, the toxic dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera uses the received intensity, duration and emission pattern of the bat's echolocation calls to determine when, and how many, defensive ultrasonic clicks to produce in return. These clicks, which constitute an acoustic startle response, act as warning signals against bats in flight. Using an integrated test of stimulus generalization and dishabituation, here we show that C. tenera is able to discriminate between the echolocation calls characteristic of a bat that has only just detected it versus those of a bat actively in pursuit of it. We also show that C. tenera habituates more profoundly to the former stimulus train (‘early attack’) than to the latter (‘late attack’), even though it was initially equally responsive to both stimuli. Matched sensory and behavioural data indicate that reduced responsiveness reflects habituation and is not merely attributable to sensory adaptation or motor fatigue. In search of mates in the face of bats, C. tenera's ability to discriminate between attacking bats representing different levels of risk, and to habituate less so to those most dangerous, should function as an adaptive cost–benefit trade-off mechanism in nature.

Ratcliffe, John M.; Fullard, James H.; Arthur, Benjamin J.; Hoy, Ronald R.

2011-01-01

420

Functional consequences of sequence variation in the pheromone biosynthetic gene pgFAR for Ostrinia moths  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are central to the mating systems of a wide range of organisms, and reproductive isolation between closely related species is often achieved by subtle differences in pheromone composition. In insects and moths in particular, the use of structurally similar components in different blend ratios is usually sufficient to impede gene flow between taxa. To date, the genetic changes associated with variation and divergence in pheromone signals remain largely unknown. Using the emerging model system Ostrinia, we show the functional consequences of mutations in the protein-coding region of the pheromone biosynthetic fatty-acyl reductase gene pgFAR. Heterologous expression confirmed that pgFAR orthologs encode enzymes exhibiting different substrate specificities that are the direct consequences of extensive nonsynonymous substitutions. When taking natural ratios of pheromone precursors into account, our data reveal that pgFAR substrate preference provides a good explanation of how species-specific ratios of pheromone components are obtained among Ostrinia species. Moreover, our data indicate that positive selection may have promoted the observed accumulation of nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments substantiate the idea that amino acid polymorphisms underlie subtle or drastic changes in pgFAR substrate preference. Altogether, this study identifies the reduction step as a potential source of variation in pheromone signals in the moth genus Ostrinia and suggests that selection acting on particular mutations provides a mechanism allowing pheromone reductases to evolve new functional properties that may contribute to variation in the composition of pheromone signals.

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lienard, Marjorie A.; Antony, Binu; Qian, Shuguang; Fujii, Takeshi; Tabata, Jun; Ishikawa, Yukio; Lofstedt, Christer

2013-01-01

421

Diastereoselective synthesis of a lilac aldehyde isomer and its electrophysiological detection by a moth.  

PubMed

The monoterpene lilac aldehyde (=2-(5-ethenyl-5-methyloxolan-2-yl)propanal) is a widespread flower scent. Lilac aldehyde is emitted in high amounts from nocturnal plant species, and it is highly attractive to nocturnal moth pollinators, such as Hadena bicruris, the pollinating seed predator of Silene latifolia. Lilac aldehyde possesses three stereogenic centers and can occur in eight stereoisomers which induce different antennal responses in H. bicruris. The distribution pattern of stereoisomers differs among plant species, and if H. bicruris has different receptors for detecting different isomers, it may use these differences to discriminate flowers of S. latifolia hosts from flowers of non-host plants. To investigate the question whether the moths have in their antennae one olfactory receptor or several different receptors for the detection of the single lilac aldehyde isomers, (2S,2'S,5'S)-lilac aldehyde was diastereoselectively synthesized. (2S,2'S,5'S)-Lilac aldehyde and its isomeric mixture were tested electrophysiologically on antennae of H. bicruris. The results displayed antennal responses, which are characteristic for a single receptor that detects the different lilac aldehyde isomers. PMID:23847069

Schneider, Marc-André; Dötterl, Stefan; Seifert, Karlheinz

2013-07-01

422

Acquisition and structuring of midgut bacterial communities in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae.  

PubMed

Insects are associated with a diversity of bacteria that colonize their midguts. The extent to which these communities reflect maternal transmission, environmental acquisition, and subsequent structuring by the extreme conditions within the insect gut are poorly understood in many species. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) as a model to investigate interactions between egg mass and environmental sources of bacteria on larval midgut communities. Egg masses were collected from several wild and laboratory populations, and the effects of diet, initial egg mass community, and internal host environment were evaluated using 454 16S-rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Wild populations were highly diverse, while laboratory-maintained egg masses were associated with few operational taxonomic units. As larvae developed, their midgut bacterial communities became more similar to each other and the consumed diet despite initial differences in egg mass-associated bacteria. Subsequent experiments revealed that while midgut membership was more similar to bacteria associated with diet than with egg mass-associated bacteria, we were unable to detect distinct, persistent differences attributable to specific host plants. The differences between foliar communities and midgut communities of larvae that ingested them were owing to relative changes in populations of several bacteria phylotypes. We conclude that gypsy moth has a relatively characteristic midgut bacterial community that is reflective of, but ultimately distinct from, its foliar diet. This work demonstrates that environmental acquisition of diverse microbes can lead to similar midgut bacterial assemblages, underscoring the importance of host physiological environment in structuring bacterial communities. PMID:24780292

Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

2014-06-01

423

Neuronal Processing of Complex Mixtures Establishes a Unique Odor Representation in the Moth Antennal Lobe  

PubMed Central

Animals typically perceive natural odor cues in their olfactory environment as a complex mixture of chemically diverse components. In insects, the initial representation of an odor mixture occurs in the first olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). The contribution of single neurons to the processing of complex mixtures in insects, and in particular moths, is still largely unknown. Using a novel multicomponent stimulus system to equilibrate component and mixture concentrations according to vapor pressure, we performed intracellular recordings of projection and interneurons in an attempt to quantitatively characterize mixture representation and integration properties of single AL neurons in the moth. We found that the fine spatiotemporal representation of 2–7 component mixtures among single neurons in the AL revealed a highly combinatorial, non-linear process for coding host mixtures presumably shaped by the AL network: 82% of mixture responding projection neurons and local interneurons showed non-linear spike frequencies in response to a defined host odor mixture, exhibiting an array of interactions including suppression, hypoadditivity, and synergism. Our results indicate that odor mixtures are represented by each cell as a unique combinatorial representation, and there is no general rule by which the network computes the mixture in comparison to single components. On the single neuron level, we show that those differences manifest in a variety of parameters, including the spatial location, frequency, latency, and temporal pattern of the response kinetics.

Kuebler, Linda S.; Olsson, Shannon B.; Weniger, Richard; Hansson, Bill S.

2011-01-01

424

The peppered moth and industrial melanism: evolution of a natural selection case study  

PubMed Central

From the outset multiple causes have been suggested for changes in melanic gene frequency in the peppered moth Biston betularia and other industrial melanic moths. These have included higher intrinsic fitness of melanic forms and selective predation for camouflage. The possible existence and origin of heterozygote advantage has been debated. From the 1950s, as a result of experimental evidence, selective predation became the favoured explanation and is undoubtedly the major factor driving the frequency change. However, modelling and monitoring of declining melanic frequencies since the 1970s indicate either that migration rates are much higher than existing direct estimates suggested or else, or in addition, non-visual selection has a role. Recent molecular work on genetics has revealed that the melanic (carbonaria) allele had a single origin in Britain, and that the locus is orthologous to a major wing patterning locus in Heliconius butterflies. New methods of analysis should supply further information on the melanic system and on migration that will complete our understanding of this important example of rapid evolution.

Cook, L M; Saccheri, I J

2013-01-01

425

Interspecific pheromone plume interference among sympatric heliothine moths: a wind tunnel test using live, calling females.  

PubMed

Three species of North American heliothine moths were used to determine the level at which interspecific female interference of male attraction to conspecific females occurs. We used live calling females of Heliothis virescens, H. subflexa, and Helicoverpa zea, as lures for conspecific males in a wind tunnel, and then placed heterospecific females on either side of the original species such that the plumes of the three females overlapped downwind. In nearly all combinations, in the presence of heterospecific females, fewer males flew upwind and contacted or courted the source than when only conspecific females were used in the same spatial arrangement. Males did not initiate upwind flight to solely heterospecific female arrangements. Our results show that the naturally emitted pheromone plumes from heterospecific females of these three species can interfere with the ability of females to attract conspecific males when multiple females are in close proximity. However, the fact that some males still located their calling, conspecific females attests to the ability of these male moths to discriminate point source odors by processing the conflicting information from interleaved strands of attractive and antagonistic odor filaments on a split-second basis. PMID:18461401

Lelito, Jonathan P; Myrick, Andrew J; Baker, Thomas C

2008-06-01

426

Deep sympatric mtDNA divergence in the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata)  

PubMed Central

Deep sympatric intraspecific divergence in mtDNA may reflect cryptic species or formerly distinct lineages in the process of remerging. Preliminary results from DNA barcoding of Scandinavian butterflies and moths showed high intraspecific sequence variation in the autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata. In this study, specimens from different localities in Norway and some samples from Finland and Scotland, with two congeneric species as outgroups, were sequenced with mitochondrial and nuclear markers to resolve the discrepancy found between mtDNA divergence and present species-level taxonomy. We found five COI sub-clades within the E. autumnata complex, most of which were sympatric and with little geographic structure. Nuclear markers (ITS2 and Wingless) showed little variation and gave no indications that E. autumnata comprises more than one species. The samples were screened with primers for Wolbachia outer surface gene (wsp) and 12% of the samples tested positive. Two Wolbachia strains were associated with different mtDNA sub-clades within E. autumnata, which may indicate indirect selection/selective sweeps on haplotypes. Our results demonstrate that deep mtDNA divergences are not synonymous with cryptic speciation and this has important implications for the use of mtDNA in species delimitation, like in DNA barcoding.

Kvie, Kjersti S; Hogner, Silje; Aarvik, Leif; Lifjeld, Jan T; Johnsen, Arild

2013-01-01

427

Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation.

Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

2004-12-01

428

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

429

Functional consequences of sequence variation in the pheromone biosynthetic gene pgFAR for Ostrinia moths.  

PubMed

Pheromones are central to the mating systems of a wide range of organisms, and reproductive isolation between closely related species is often achieved by subtle differences in pheromone composition. In insects and moths in particular, the use of structurally similar components in different blend ratios is usually sufficient to impede gene flow between taxa. To date, the genetic changes associated with variation and divergence in pheromone signals remain largely unknown. Using the emerging model system Ostrinia, we show the functional consequences of mutations in the protein-coding region of the pheromone biosynthetic fatty-acyl reductase gene pgFAR. Heterologous expression confirmed that pgFAR orthologs encode enzymes exhibiting different substrate specificities that are the direct consequences of extensive nonsynonymous substitutions. When taking natural ratios of pheromone precursors into account, our data reveal that pgFAR substrate preference provides a good explanation of how species-specific ratios of pheromone components are obtained among Ostrinia species. Moreover, our data indicate that positive selection may have promoted the observed accumulation of nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments substantiate the idea that amino acid polymorphisms underlie subtle or drastic changes in pgFAR substrate preference. Altogether, this study identifies the reduction step as a potential source of variation in pheromone signals in the moth genus Ostrinia and suggests that selection acting on particular mutations provides a mechanism allowing pheromone reductases to evolve new functional properties that may contribute to variation in the composition of pheromone signals. PMID:23407169

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Liénard, Marjorie A; Antony, Binu; Qian, Shuguang; Fujii, Takeshi; Tabata, Jun; Ishikawa, Yukio; Löfstedt, Christer

2013-03-01

430

Multiphasic On/Off Pheromone Signalling in Moths as Neural Correlates of a Search Strategy  

PubMed Central

Insects and robots searching for odour sources in turbulent plumes face the same problem: the random nature of mixing causes fluctuations and intermittency in perception. Pheromone-tracking male moths appear to deal with discontinuous flows of information by surging upwind, upon sensing a pheromone patch, and casting crosswind, upon losing the plume. Using a combination of neurophysiological recordings, computational modelling and experiments with a cyborg, we propose a neuronal mechanism that promotes a behavioural switch between surge and casting. We show how multiphasic On/Off pheromone-sensitive neurons may guide action selection based on signalling presence or loss of the pheromone. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model with a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel reproduces physiological On/Off responses. Using this model as a command neuron and the antennae of tethered moths as pheromone sensors, we demonstrate the efficiency of multiphasic patterning in driving a robotic searcher toward the source. Taken together, our results suggest that multiphasic On/Off responses may mediate olfactory navigation and that SK channels may account for these responses.

Martinez, Dominique; Chaffiol, Antoine; Voges, Nicole; Gu, Yuqiao; Anton, Sylvia; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lucas, Philippe

2013-01-01

431

Chemical defense: Bestowal of a nuptial alkaloidal garment by a male moth on its mate  

PubMed Central

Males of the moth Cosmosoma myrodora (Arctiidae) acquire pyrrolizidine alkaloid by feeding on the excrescent fluids of certain plants (for instance, Eupatorium capillifolium). They incorporate the alkaloid systemically and as a result are protected against spiders. The males have a pair of abdominal pouches, densely packed with fine cuticular filaments, which in alkaloid-fed males are alkaloid laden. The males discharge the filaments on the female in bursts during courtship, embellishing her with alkaloid as a result. The topical investiture protects the female against spiders. Alkaloid-free filaments, from alkaloid-deprived males, convey no such protection. The males also transmit alkaloid to the female by seminal infusion. The systemic alkaloid thus received, which itself may contribute to the female's defense against spiders, is bestowed in part by the female on the eggs. Although paternal contribution to egg defense had previously been demonstrated for several arctiid moths, protective nuptial festooning of a female by its mate, such as is practiced by C. myrodora, appears to be without parallel among insects.

Conner, William E.; Boada, Ruth; Schroeder, Frank C.; Gonzalez, Andres; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Thomas

2000-01-01

432

Relative performance of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) on grapes and other hosts.  

PubMed

The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana is a major grapevine pest, but despite the abundance of vineyards it is a generalist and uses either grapes or alternative species. Given the abundance and predictability of grape, L. botrana could be expected to have evolved towards monophagy. In order to understand why this species remains polyphagous, we hypothesized that larvae reared on rare wild host plants should have higher fitness than those reared on the more abundant grape host. For this, we compared larval performance and several life history traits on three alternative host plants (Daphne gnidium, Olea europaea, Tanacetum vulgare) and three Vitaceae (Vitis vinifera), two cultivars and one wild species (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata), and two control groups raised on either a low or a high nutritive value medium. Alternative hosts are more suitable than Vitaceae for the reproductive performance of L. botrana: larval mortality and development time was reduced, while pupal weight, growth rate, female longevity, female fecundity, duration of laying and mating success were increased. High quality food ingested by larvae promotes higher adult body weight and enhances female reproductive output. This suggests that alternative hosts provide greater nutritional value for L. botrana than Vitaceae. The use of alternative host plants could thus be maintained in the host range because they offer L. botrana a better fitness than on the Vitaceae. This could typically represent an advantage for moths behaving in plant diversity grape landscapes. PMID:15791428

Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

2005-05-01

433

Synergism and redundancy in a plant volatile blend attracting grapevine moth females.  

PubMed

A flight tunnel study was done to decipher the behavioral effect of grape odor in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana. A blend of 10 volatile compounds, which all elicit a strong antennal response, attracts mated grapevine moth females from a distance, by upwind orientation flight. These 10 grape volatiles are in part behaviorally redundant, since attraction to a 3-component blend of beta-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene was not significantly different from the 10-component blend. Blending these three compounds had a strong synergistic effect on female attraction, and omission of any one compound from this 3-component blend almost abolished attraction. It was nonetheless possible to substitute the three compounds with the other grape volatiles which are perceived by the female antenna, to partly restore attraction. Several blends, of varying composition, elicited significant attraction. The observed behavioral plasticity in response to grape volatile blends probably reflects the variation of the natural plant signal, since females oviposit on different grape varieties, in different phenological stages. PMID:17126866

Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Coracini, Miryan; Casado, Daniel; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

2007-01-01

434

A multifunctional desaturase involved in the biosynthesis of the processionary moth sex pheromone  

PubMed Central

The sex pheromone of the female processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, is a unique C16 enyne acetate that is biosynthesized from palmitic acid. Three consecutive desaturation reactions transform this saturated precursor into the triunsaturated fatty acyl intermediate: formation of (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, acetylenation to 11-hexadecynoic acid, and final ?13 desaturation to (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynoic acid. By using degenerate primers common to all reported insect desaturases, a single cDNA sequence was isolated from total RNA of T. pityocampa female pheromone glands. The full-length transcript of this putative desaturase was expressed in elo1?/ole1? yeast mutants (both elongase 1 and ?9 desaturase-deficient) for functional assays. The construct fully rescued the ?ole1 yeast phenotype, confirming its desaturase activity. Analysis of the unsaturated products from transformed yeast extracts demonstrated that the cloned enzyme showed ?11 desaturase, ?11 acetylenase, and ?13 desaturase activities. Therefore, this single desaturase may account for the three desaturation steps involved in the sex pheromone biosynthetic pathway of the processionary moth.

Serra, Montserrat; Pina, Benjamin; Abad, Jose Luis; Camps, Francisco; Fabrias, Gemma

2007-01-01

435

Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

2014-04-01

436

Transcriptome of the Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

Transcriptomic profiles of the serious lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a biopesticide commonly used for its control. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which 838, 1,248 and 3,305 were respectively partitioned into high-, mid- and low-quality tiers on the basis of homology information. Digital gene expression profiles suggested genes differentially expressed at 24 hours post infection, and qRT-PCR analyses were performed for verification. The differentially expressed genes primarily associated with digestive function, including ?-amylase, lipase and carboxypeptidase; immune response, including C-type lectin 4; developmental genes such as arylphorin; as well as a variety of binding proteins: cellular retinoic acid binding protein (lipid-binding), insulin-related peptide binding protein (protein-binding) and ovary C/EBPg transcription factor (nucleic acid-binding). This is the first study conducted to specifically investigate gypsy moth response to a bacterial infection challenge using large-scale sequencing technologies, and the results highlight important genes that could be involved in biopesticide resistance development or could serve as targets for biologically-based control mechanisms of this insect pest. PMID:23658687

Sparks, Michael E; Blackburn, Michael B; Kuhar, Daniel; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

2013-01-01

437

Comprehensive gene and taxon coverage elucidates radiation patterns in moths and butterflies.  

PubMed

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) represent one of the most diverse animals groups. Yet, the phylogeny of advanced ditrysian Lepidoptera, accounting for about 99 per cent of lepidopteran species, has remained largely unresolved. We report a rigorous and comprehensive analysis of lepidopteran affinities. We performed phylogenetic analyses of 350 taxa representing nearly 90 per cent of lepidopteran families. We found Ditrysia to be a monophyletic taxon with the clade Tischerioidea + Palaephatoidea being the sister group of it. No support for the monophyly of the proposed major internested ditrysian clades, Apoditrysia, Obtectomera and Macrolepidoptera, was found as currently defined, but each of these is supported with some modification. The monophyly or near-monophyly of most previously identified lepidopteran superfamilies is reinforced, but several species-rich superfamilies were found to be para- or polyphyletic. Butterflies were found to be more closely related to 'microlepidopteran' groups of moths rather than the clade Macrolepidoptera, where they have traditionally been placed. There is support for the monophyly of Macrolepidoptera when butterflies and Calliduloidea are excluded. The data suggest that the generally short diverging nodes between major groupings in basal non-tineoid Ditrysia are owing to their rapid radiation, presumably in correlation with the radiation of flowering plants. PMID:20444718

Mutanen, Marko; Wahlberg, Niklas; Kaila, Lauri

2010-09-22

438

Genetic Characterization of the Gypsy Moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats Markers  

PubMed Central

This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar), one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei’s, H) was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling), revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (FST = 0.2543, P < 0.001) was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei’s and Shannon) and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern.

Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Luo, You-qing; Sun, Shuang-yan; Pu, Min

2013-01-01

439

Sex pheromone of the oak processionary moth Thaumetopoea processionea. Identification and biological activity.  

PubMed

The sex pheromone of the oak processionary moth Thaumetopoea processionea has been characterized from female gland extracts as a mixture of (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienyl acetate (1), (E,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienyl acetate (3) and (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienol (2) in 88:7:5 ratio. The amount of the major compound 1 was 20-30 ng/gland. No trace of (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal was found in the extract, and therefore, T. processionea appears to be the only "summer" processionary moth lacking this compound as a pheromone compound. The alcohol 2 had also been previously found but is electrophysiologically inactive, and in wind tunnel assays it lowers the number of contacts with the source when mixed with the major compound 1. The major component 1 elicited males to display the complete behavioral sequence, but the amount of chemical needed was unexpectedly high in comparison to the activity displayed by virgin females and gland extracts. (E,E)-11,13-hexadecadienyl acetate (5) inhibits the attractant activity of the major component 1 when mixed with 1 in 1:10 and 1:1 ratios. The main constituent 1 is active in the field, but its tendency to isomerize into the corresponding E,E isomer (5) must be considered if effective formulations are to be prepared. PMID:12720381

Quero, Carmen; Bau, Josep; Guerrero, Angel; Breuer, Michael; De Loof, Arnold; Kontzog, Hans-Günter; Camps, Francisco

2003-05-01

440

Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians  

PubMed Central

This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A