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Sample records for cactus moth cactoblastis

  1. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  2. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field populations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum were surveyed weekly beginning in July 2006. We sampled the native cactus, Opuntia stricta visually to determine the densities and development of immature stages. Adult males were collected using a synthetic pheromone and a sticky wing trap...

  3. Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

  4. VIRUSES IN LABORATORY-REARED CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful rearing of large numbers of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is vital to the success of a control program against this moth. Moths are partially sterilized by exposure to radiation and then released to mate with wild individuals. The progeny of wild and irradiated moths are sterile...

  5. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  6. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  7. Trail marking by larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bio- assays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intra- specific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  8. Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  9. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROL TACTICS AGAINST THE INVASIVE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biocontrol of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pears (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has invaded North America and its ability to control its host plant raises concerns for the safety and surviva...

  11. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of three constant temperatures (20°, 25° and 30°C) on the rate of development and life history of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). Results from these laboratory experiments were used to predict C. cactorum rate of development in the field during...

  12. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  13. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  14. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  15. Trail marking by the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to t...

  16. External morphology of the egg of the native (Melitara prodenialis) and exotic (Cactoblastis cactorum) cactus moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the chorionic surface of two pyralids that feed on Opuntia cactus. The chorionic surface of Cactoblastis cactorum has a reticulate pattern due to the ridges on the surface and aeropyles. The surface has a granular appearance at low m...

  17. Extended geographical distribution and host range of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera Pyralidae)in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field exploration was conducted to confirm the southernmost distribution of Cactoblastis cactorum in Argentina. The distribution of the moth was extended to the south (40° 10´S) and west (66° 56´W). The native Opuntia penicilligera was recorded as a host for the first time. These findings should ...

  18. COMPARATIVE PHENOLOGY OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM AND MELITARA PRODENIALIS (LEPIDOPTERA): PESTS OF CACTUS IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta) at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL from September 2006 – September 2007 for the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum and the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis. Every week, we visually counted the numbers and reco...

  19. Performance improvement through quality evaluation of sterile Argentine cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  1. The Multiple 'Personalities' of Cactoblastis cactorum: A Multi-Disciplinary Response to the Biological Impacts of the Moth's Geographical Wanderings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus feeding pyralid Cactoblastis cactorum is perhaps the most well know successful classical biological control agent against weeds when attacking non-native prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.). However, the moth has become a pest in North America where it attacks native Opuntia spp.; threat...

  2. CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE VALIDATION STUDY RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, in 1989 this moth was detected in the Florida Keys and has now become an invasive pest in the southea...

  3. Cactoblastis cactorum Sterile Insect Technique Validation Study Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically cont...

  4. Targets of an invasive species: Oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum on 14 North American Opuntioid cacti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent for cactus species of the genus Opuntia. The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North Americ...

  5. Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) as a possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern United States as we...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A TRAPPING SYSTEM FOR THE CACTUS MOTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests have demonstrated that virgin cactus moth females are very effective at attracting conspecific males. Research was conducted to isolate and identify volatile compounds released by cactus moth females. The behavioural activities of 3 putative compounds isolated by various methods are being d...

  7. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  8. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  9. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the South American cactus...from quarantined areas to prevent the artificial spread of South American cactus moth...non- quarantined areas to prevent the artificial spread of this pest. However,...

  10. PHEROMONE-BASED ATTRACTANT FOR MALES OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), is an invasive pest of Opuntia spp. Since its arrival in the Florida Keys in 1989, it has moved rapidly up the east and west coasts of Florida, threatening to invade the southwestern United States and Mexico. Female moths produce a sex pheromone that ...

  11. EXPANDING GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observational surveys and virgin female-baited traps have identified the continued spread of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The moth is infesting native and ornamental cacti north to Charleston, SC and west to St. George Island, FL. ...

  12. Rearing Cactoblastis cactorum on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum Berg, is an invasive species that threatens economically and ecologically important native cacti in Mexico and the U.S. southwest. The insect presently occurs along the coastal U.S. from Charleston, SC, to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL, and in the interi...

  13. SURVEY FOR EGG PARASITOIDS ATTACKING CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NORTH FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the natural enemies of Cactoblastis cactorum, a cactus moth native from Argentina, has increased since its accidental introduction to Bahia Honda Key, Florida, in October 1989. In 1957, C. cactorum was introduced onto the Caribbean islands of the Greater Antilles to manage the invasive p...

  14. 75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...Louisiana. This interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the South American cactus moth to noninfested areas...of regulated articles from quarantined areas to prevent the artificial spread of South American cactus moth to noninfested...

  15. Life table analysis for Cactoblastis cactorum immatures and female adults under five constant temperatures:Implications for pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported in Florida in 1989, and is expanding its geographical range in the United States to threaten Opuntia cactus in the southwestern states and Mexico where it is an important economic crop. Laboratory life history studie...

  16. Effect of temperature and length of exposure time on percent egg hatch of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oligophagous cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), has been recognized as a serious and immediate threat to Opuntia cacti in Florida and the southeastern United States. The moth has successfully colonized new geographical ranges with lower annual temperatures north of the Florida Keys wher...

  17. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... the artificial spread of the South American cactus moth from infested areas in the State of Louisiana...) restrict the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas to prevent the artificial... prevent the artificial spread of this pest. However, there are currently no nurseries in Louisiana...

  18. Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...

  19. CASE HISTORY: CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM ON OPUNTIA SPP. IN THE U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, in Florida in 1989, following its release against Opuntia species on several Caribbean islands in 1957-1960, has raised concerns for the safety of native and rare Opuntia species in the Florida Keys and the potential spread of C. c...

  20. A CHARACTER DEMONSTRATING THE OCCURRENCE OF MATING IN MALE CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small footb...

  1. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  2. Artificial diets for classical weed biocontrol agents-it's been done. The Cactoblastis cactorum story in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp., but its unintentional arrival in North America represents an economic and ecological threat to native Opuntia spp. in the U. S. and ...

  3. Laboratory Performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on South and North American Opuntia Species Occurring in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is native to South America. Since the insects’ unintentional arrival to the US in 1989 and to Mexican islands in 2006, it has become a serious threat to the diversity of Opuntia species in North America and to the wild and cultivated species of Opuntia. The na...

  4. Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for the Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A CLIMEX was developed for the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records, and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX “growth indices” against field measur...

  5. Diet flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: The influence of age, gender, mating status and body size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to the rich diversity of Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring an...

  6. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2007-03-15

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  7. Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Grasela, James J; McIntosh, Arthur H; Ringbauer, Joseph; Goodman, Cynthia L; Carpenter, James E; Popham, Holly J R

    2012-05-01

    The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) in Australia, Hawaii, South Africa, and various Caribbean islands, has posed great concern as to the possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern USA as well as with the potential to cause a major infestation of commercial and agricultural cactus crops in Mexico. A number of control measures have been investigated with varying degrees of success including, field exploration for cactus moth-specific parasitoids, insecticides, fungal, bacterial, and nematode agents. Current tactics used by the USA-Mexico binational program to eradicate cactus moth from Mexico and mitigate its westward movement in the USA include host plant removal, the manual removal and destruction of egg sticks and infected cacti stems, and the Sterile Insect Technique. One other approach not taken until now is the development of a cactus moth cell line as a tool to facilitate the investigation of baculoviruses as an alternative biocontrol method for the cactus moth. Consequently, we established C. cactorum cell lines derived from adult ovarian tissue designated as BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG. The mean cell population doubling time was 204.3 and 112 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with weekly medium change, while the doubling time was 176.6 and 192.6 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with a daily change of medium. In addition, the daily versus weekly change in medium was reflected in the percentage viability with both cell lines showing higher levels with a daily medium change. Of the three baculoviruses tested, only the recombinant AcMNPV-hsp70Red and GmMNPV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0 were able to demonstrate significant production of extracellular virus (ECV) in each of the cell lines, whereas both cell lines were refractive to an HzSNPV challenge at an MOI of 10. In this study, we have demonstrated both the successful development of a C. cactorum cell line and its ability to support a complete baculovirus infection. The potential is also there to pursue further investigations to determine the susceptibility of the cactus moth cell line to other viruses. Additionally, the availability of a cactus moth cell line will facilitate the analysis of viruses prior to using the more expensive bioassay test. Finally, it is hoped with the knowledge presented here that baculoviruses may also be considered as an alternative biocontrol method for the cactus moth. PMID:22580906

  8. Rearing a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes: Preliminary comparisons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared several biological parameters of native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, reared on an artificial versus the natural diet of Opuntia spp. cladodes. Results suggest that the current artificial diet developed for mass rearing C. cactorum can provide nutritional value for the rear...

  9. Cactus

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, R.L.

    1983-03-01

    The CACTUS project (computer-aided control, tracking, and updating system) was initiated by the Bendix Kansas City Division to address specific work-in-process problems encountered in a cable department. Since then, the project has been expanded to additional electrical manufacturing departments because of potential productivity gains from the system. The philosophy of CACTUS is to add an element of distributed data proessing to the centralized data processing system currently in use for control of work in process. Under this system, the existing chain of communications between the host computer and the CRT terminals in a department is severed. A mini-computer established in the department communicates directly with the central system, and departmental communication is then established with the mini-computer. The advantages, disadvantages, operation performance, and economics of the system are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  11. 75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ...Information Collection; South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY...to prevent the spread of South American cactus moth. DATES: We will consider all comments...to prevent the spread of South American cactus moth, contact Dr. Robyn Rose,...

  12. Flight phenology of male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different latitudes in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term trapping studies of the invasive moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) were conducted at various latitudes from Puerto Rico to South Carolina. Three flight periods per year were identified at the five temperate sties studied, which covered the majority of the insects’ mainland United States i...

  13. Identification of factors influencing flight performance of field-collected and laboratory-reared, overwintered, and nonoverwintered cactus moths fed with field-collected host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental conditions during egg and larval development may influence the dispersal ability of insect pests, thus requiring seasonal adjustment of control strategies. We studied the longest single flight, total distance flown and the number of flights initiated by wild Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg...

  14. 75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Collection; South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... regulations for the interstate movement of regulated articles to prevent the spread of South American cactus... American cactus moth, contact Dr. Robyn Rose, Program Manager, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ,...

  15. cactus (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    Morphologic and allozymic analyses provide evidence to suggest a lack of continuity between cactus mice (Peromyscus eremicus) from the Chihuahuan and Sonoran Deserts. In this study, cactus mice from 9 localities (6 from the Chihuahuan Desert and 3...

  16. Cholla Cactus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Cholla cactus growing in Pine Creek Canyon. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of the Mojave Desert....

  17. TURNING THE TIDE – USING THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MITIGATE AN UNWANTED WEED BIOCONTROL AGENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically contr...

  18. The Brownian cactus I Scaling limits of discrete cactuses

    E-print Network

    Le Gall, Jean-François

    The Brownian cactus I Scaling limits of discrete cactuses Nicolas Curien, Jean-Fran¸cois Le Gall, Gr´egory Miermont February 19, 2011 Abstract The cactus of a pointed graph is a discrete tree-tree called the contin- uous cactus of E. We prove under general assumptions that the cactus of random planar

  19. Bird's Nest in Cactus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A bird's nest in a cholla cactus in Pine Creek Canyon. The bird is likely a cactus wren, a species that nests specifically in cacti. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Can...

  20. The Brownian Cactus I. Scaling limits of discrete cactuses

    E-print Network

    Curien, Nicolas; Miermont, Grégory

    2011-01-01

    The cactus of a pointed graph is a discrete tree associated with this graph. Similarly, with every pointed geodesic metric space $E$, one can associate an $\\R$-tree called the continuous cactus of $E$. We prove under general assumptions that the cactus of random planar maps distributed according to Boltzmann weights and conditioned to have a fixed large number of vertices converges in distribution to a limiting space called the Brownian cactus, in the Gromov-Hausdorff sense. Moreover, the Brownian cactus can be interpreted as the continuous cactus of the so-called Brownian map.

  1. The Cactus Framework & Numerical Relativity

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    The Cactus Framework & Numerical Relativity: Petascale Requirements and Science Drivers Gabrielle Ott (U. Arizona) et al #12;4/8/07 #12;4/8/07 Cactus Code · Freely available, modular, portable and AEI. · Open source, documentation, etc #12;4/8/07 Cactus Structure Core "flesh" with plug-in "thorns

  2. Identifying the C. cactorum Pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), is an invasive pest of Opuntia spp. Since its arrival in the Florida Keys in 1989, it has moved rapidly up the east and west coasts of Florida, threatening to invade the southwestern United States and Mexico. Female moths produce a sex pheromone that ...

  3. Performance Profiling with Cactus Sasanka Madiraju

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    Performance Profiling with Cactus Benchmarks Sasanka Madiraju April 6th, 2006 System Science Master.3 Contributions and People Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Cactus Toolkit: Benchmarks 6 2.1 Cactus Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2 Types

  4. Codling MothCodling Moth Codling moth, the infamous "worm" in

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Codling MothCodling Moth Codling moth, the infamous "worm" in the apple, is difficult to manage infested every year require carefully timed sprays. Codling moth life cycle codling moth with sanitation practices. Promptlyremoveinfestedfruitfromtrees.Look forwormentrypoints

  5. Learning about Moths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  6. Cactus Graphs for Genome Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paten, Benedict; Diekhans, Mark; Earl, Dent; St. John, John; Ma, Jian; Suh, Bernard; Haussler, David

    We introduce a data structure, analysis and visualization scheme called a cactus graph for comparing sets of related genomes. Cactus graphs capture some of the advantages of de Bruijn and breakpoint graphs in one unified framework. They naturally decompose the common substructures in a set of related genomes into a hierarchy of chains that can be visualized as multiple alignments and nets that can be visualized in circular genome plots.

  7. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  8. The Cactus Framework: Design, Applications and

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    1 The Cactus Framework: Design, Applications and Future Directions Gabrielle Allen gallen 7/22/06 Cactus Code · Freely available, modular, portable and manageable environment/22/06 Cactus User Community Goddard Penn State Wash UAEI TACTuebingen Southampton SISSA Thessaloniki Earth

  9. Cactus: HPC infrastructure and programming tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    Cactus provides computational scientists and engineers with a collaborative, modular and portable programming environment for parallel high performance computing. Cactus can make use of many other technologies for HPC, such as Samrai, HDF5, PETSc and PAPI, and several application domains such as numerical relativity, computational fluid dynamics and quantum gravity are developing open community toolkits for Cactus.

  10. Component Specification in the Cactus Framework: The Cactus Configuration Language

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle; Löffler, Frank; Rideout, David; Schnetter, Erik; Seidel, Eric L

    2010-01-01

    Component frameworks are complex systems that rely on many layers of abstraction to function properly. One essential requirement is a consistent means of describing each individual component and how it relates to both other components and the whole framework. As component frameworks are designed to be flexible by nature, the description method should be simultaneously powerful, lead to efficient code, and be easy to use, so that new users can quickly adapt their own code to work with the framework. In this paper, we discuss the Cactus Configuration Language (CCL) which is used to describe components ("thorns'') in the Cactus Framework. The CCL provides a description language for the variables, parameters, functions, scheduling and compilation of a component and includes concepts such as interface and implementation which allow thorns providing the same capabilities to be easily interchanged. We include several application examples which illustrate how community toolkits use the CCL and Cactus and identify nee...

  11. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-09-01

    A real-life example consisting of the study of the different substances used as moth repellents is presented to introduce students to miscellaneous topics such as sublimation, intermolecular forces, insecticides, and the effect of moths on clothes. A set of questions about the most common moth repellents, well known to students, is used to motivate them to understand several everday phenomena through chemistry concepts. See Featured Molecules .

  12. CACTUS-Clustering Categorical Data Using Summaries Venkatesh Ganti* Johannes Gehrket Raghu Ramakrishnant

    E-print Network

    Hinneburg, Alexander

    CACTUS-Clustering Categorical Data Using Summaries Venkatesh Ganti* Johannes Gehrket Raghu calledCACTUS thatdiscoversexactly suchclusters in the data. CACTUS hastwo important characteristics.Our experimentson avariety of datasetsshowthat CACTUS outperformspreviouswork by afactorof 3 to 10. Second, CACTUS

  13. Integration of Trilinos Into The Cactus Code Framework

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    Integration of Trilinos Into The Cactus Code Framework Josh Abadie Research programmer Center for Computation & Technology Louisiana State University #12;Summary · Motivation · Objectives · The Cactus Code in Scientific Computing because of this complexity · Frameworks, like Cactus and libraries, like Trilinos

  14. CACTUS: Automated Tutorial Course Generation for Software Applications

    E-print Network

    CACTUS: Automated Tutorial Course Generation for Software Applications Federico García Escuela difficulties in mastering current highly interactive systems. In this paper we describe CACTUS, an interactive system used to develop tutorial courses for software applications. CACTUS tutorial courses provide more

  15. The De Havilland "Moth"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

  16. Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu Implementation of Level Set Methods in Cactus Framework By Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu #12;Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu be a powerful tool to handle such problems computationally #12;Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan

  17. Cactus and Alkalinity By Elton Roberts Ripon, CA

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Cactus and Alkalinity By ­ Elton Roberts ­ Ripon, CA 1cactus1@verizon.net Malcolm Burleigh ­ St but increased alkalinity is a serious problem that then gets the cactus grower into a losing situation practice ­ There are few references to suggest that cactus growers ought to use a low pH water

  18. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  19. "Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  20. Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  1. Use of cactus in mortars and concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Eklund, L.; Villarreal, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Natural polymers have been used in ancient times to improve the durability of lime-based mortars and concretes. The natural polymers used were locally available. In this work, cactus extract from Mexico has been tested in a Portland cement mortar. It is seen that cactus extract increases the plasticity of the mortar and improves water absorption and freeze-salt resistance. Calcium hydroxide produced by Portland cement hydration interacts with the components of cactus extract, polysaccharides or proteins, and forms complexes. It affects the crystallization process. Painting of the concrete with this extract has also shown improved water resistance.

  2. A cactus theorem for end cuts

    E-print Network

    Evangelidou, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Dinits-Karzanov-Lomonosov showed that it is possible to encode all minimal edge cuts of a graph by a tree-like structure called a cactus. We show here that minimal edge cuts separating ends of the graph rather than vertices can be `encoded' also by a cactus. We apply our methods to finite graphs as well and we show that several types of cuts can be encoded by cacti.

  3. Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    GM-6 Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance Gypsy moths are insects with a big appetite for oaks and other common trees. Gypsy moth caterpillars, which grow up to 2 inches long, can strip trees the air. Gypsy moths like to hide their eggs in cracks and crevices. Look for gypsy moth on anything

  4. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O'Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. ); Kreidler, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

  5. Codling Moth Areawide IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agriculture Research Service funded a five-year multi-institutional project to implement the use of sex pheromones for codling moth in conjunction with the use of other selective control strategies for secondary pests across large contiguous areas of pome fruit production. Twenty-two sites were ...

  6. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  7. Gypsy Moth Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Dennis R.

    The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

  8. Cactus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of data from one part of a computer to another has always been a complex task in which speed is traded against accuracy and the time required for error correction. Much more complex therefore is the transfer of information from one machine to another of a different type. Difficulties arise when machines are updated, when file formats…

  9. CACTUS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes LOGO to teach the concept of inequalities by programing the turtle to take random walks in the coordinate plane restricted to predetermined regions defined by inequalities. The students task is to discover the inequalities that define the illegal areas into which the turtle must not move. Provides examples and corresponding computer…

  10. Exploration of Constantly Connected Dynamic Graphs Based on Cactuses

    E-print Network

    Ilcinkas, David

    Exploration of Constantly Connected Dynamic Graphs Based on Cactuses David Ilcinkas, Ralf Klasing consider the same problem and we suppose that the underlying graph is a cactus graph (a connected graph

  11. The Cactus Worm: Experiments with Dynamic Resource Discovery and Allocation

    E-print Network

    Angulo, Dave

    The Cactus Worm: Experiments with Dynamic Resource Discovery and Allocation in a Grid Environment an experimental framework, called Cactus, that incorporates both adaptive application structures for dealing suggest that this "Cactus Worm" is an interesting challenge problem for Grid computing. 1 Introduction

  12. Implementation of a Binary Tree Driver (OAKc) in Cactus

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gabrielle

    Implementation of a Binary Tree Driver (OAKc) in Cactus Jeff DeReus Center for Computation requirements #12;Cactus Code Framework · http://www.cactuscode.org · Open source development designed primarily Allen ­ Assistant Director for Computing Applications · Tom Goodale ­ Chief Architect of the Cactus Code

  13. Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations and

    E-print Network

    Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations. The moths overwinter as full-grown larvae in cocoons in tree bark crevices, weed stems, trash on the ground. Are conditions right for Oriental fruit moth? Forecast models for Oriental fruit moth are available at Enviro

  14. A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae)... 29 A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera,

    E-print Network

    A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae)... 29 A new genus of metalmark moths genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae) with Afrotropical and Australasian distribution. Zoo as metalmark moths, are a family of micro-moths with a worldwide distribution. The family is most species

  15. diamondback moth in canola fact sheet

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    july 2010 diamondback moth in canola fact sheet diamondback moth a sporadic but serious pest crop monitoring from July is key to the control of diamondback moth. level 1, tourism house | 40 blackall street harvest and at windrowing are the same. diamondback moth (dbm) is an occasional pest of canola, brassica

  16. Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    GM-2-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q A GYPSY MOTH Q get your crop inspected and certified as being free of all viable gypsy moth life stages from either. Passing that in- spection certifies your crop as free of gypsy moth. WHAT CAN I DO TO BE SURE THAT MY

  17. Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    GM-1-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology THE GYPSY MOTH IN INDIANA Clifford S. Sadof Resources, Divsion of Entomology and Plant Pathology Gypsy Moth, the most serious forest and urban landscape food, but gypsy moth caterpillars can eat the foliage of 500 species of trees and plants. While most

  18. Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    GM-5-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q&A'S ABOUT PHEROMONES & CONTROLLING GYPSY MOTH Cliff Sadof, Department of Entomology, Purdue University Joe N. Caudell, Wildlife Biologist WHAT IS GYPSY MOTH PHEROMONE ? Gypsy moth pheromone (pronounced fair-o-moan) is a powerful scent

  19. An action of the cactus group

    E-print Network

    Henriques, Andre

    2007-01-01

    We construct an action of the big cactus group (the fundamental group of the Deligne-Mumford compactification of the moduli space of real curves of genus zero with n undistinguished marked points) on Fock-Goncharov's SL_m analog of the decorated Teichmuller space of ideal n-gons.

  20. Implementing Integrated FineGrain Customizable QoS using Cactus Matti A. Hiltunen, Richard D. Schlichting, and Gary Wong

    E-print Network

    Schlichting, Richard D.

    Implementing Integrated Fine­Grain Customizable QoS using Cactus Matti A. Hiltunen, Richard D attributes in tradeoff situa­ tions. 2. The Cactus approach The Cactus approach to constructing highly of prototypes of the Cactus model have been implemen

  1. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals. PMID:25261361

  2. Genetic differentiation, speciation, and phylogeography of cactus flies (Diptera: Neriidae: Odontoloxozus) from

    E-print Network

    Markow, Therese

    Genetic differentiation, speciation, and phylogeography of cactus flies (Diptera: Neriidae differentiation, systematics, and population structure of cactus flies (Diptera: Neriidae: Odontoloxozus) from', are common inhabitants of Sonoran Desert cactus necroses, and indepth studies on these species have provided

  3. Annealing a Magnetic Cactus into Phyllotaxis

    E-print Network

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Lammert, Paul E; Maynard, J D; Crespi, Vincent H

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by 2-D Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental "magnetic cactus" precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single spiral) phyllotaxis.

  4. Annealing a Magnetic Cactus into Phyllotaxis

    E-print Network

    Cristiano Nisoli; Nathaniel M. Gabor; Paul E. Lammert; J. D. Maynard; Vincent H. Crespi

    2010-02-03

    The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by 2-D Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental "magnetic cactus" precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single spiral) phyllotaxis.

  5. Annealing a magnetic cactus into phyllotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Gabor, Nathaniel M.; Lammert, Paul E.; Maynard, J. D.; Crespi, Vincent H.

    2010-04-01

    The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone, and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental “magnetic cactus” precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single-spiral) phyllotaxis.

  6. Doing numerical cosmology with the Cactus code

    E-print Network

    Vulcanov, D N

    2002-01-01

    The article presents some aspects concerning the construction of a new thorn for the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. This thorn is completely dedicated to numerical simulations in cosmology, that means it can provide evolutions of different cosmological models, mainly based on Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric. Some numerical results are presented, testing the convergence, stability and the applicability of the code.

  7. Doing numerical cosmology with the Cactus code

    E-print Network

    D. N. Vulcanov

    2002-10-02

    The article presents some aspects concerning the construction of a new thorn for the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. This thorn is completely dedicated to numerical simulations in cosmology, that means it can provide evolutions of different cosmological models, mainly based on Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric. Some numerical results are presented, testing the convergence, stability and the applicability of the code.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus Wren

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. WhatWhat''s New in Codlings New in Codling Moth ManagementMoth Management

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    WhatWhat''s New in Codlings New in Codling Moth ManagementMoth Management Rick FosterRick Foster Department of EntomologyDepartment of Entomology Purdue UniversityPurdue University #12;Codling Moth Management IssuesCodling Moth Management Issues Regulatory changesRegulatory changes New productsNew products

  10. Crabgrass, Measles, and Gypsy Moths: An Introduction

    E-print Network

    Durrett, Richard

    Crabgrass, Measles, and Gypsy Moths: An Introduction to Interacting Particle Systems* Richard-VerlagNewYork 37 Crabgrass, Measles, and Gypsy Moths: An Introduction to Interacting Particle Systems* Richard

  11. Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae)

    E-print Network

    Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae) The oak processionary moth is a major defoliator of oak in Europe. The larvae (caterpillars) feed on the foliage of many growing next to severely defoliated oaks. Oak processionary moth is also a risk to human health

  12. Antennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Tom

    Antennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths Sanjay P. Sane,1 * Alexandre Dieudonné,1 from the antennae serves a similar role during flight in hawk moths, which are four-winged insects. The antennae of flying moths vibrate and experience Coriolis forces during aerial maneuvers. The antennal

  13. Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    GM-4-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q&A'S ABOUT USING BTK TO CONTROL GYPSY MOTH Cliff Sadof & Adam Witte, Department of Entomology, Purdue University Jodie Ellis, Executive Director at Idaho Board of Veterinary Medicine WHAT IS THE GYPSY MOTH, AND WHY IS IT A PROB- LEM

  14. Using Memory Mapping to Support Cactus Stacks in Work-Stealing Runtime Systems

    E-print Network

    Leiserson, Charles E.

    Using Memory Mapping to Support Cactus Stacks in Work-Stealing Runtime Systems I-Ting Angelina Lee a "cactus stack," wherein a function's accesses to stack variables properly respect the func- tion's calling, and · bounded and efficient use of memory for the cactus stack. We have addressed this cactus-stack problem

  15. 76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...S.C. 3501 et seq.). List of Subjects 7 CFR Part 318 Cotton, Cottonseeds, Fruits, Guam, Hawaii, Plant diseases and...Transportation, Vegetables, Virgin Islands. 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases...

  16. 76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... and economic damage. In a final rule published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2009 (74 FR 27071... effective on July 15, 2010 (75 FR 41073-41074, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0037), we added Louisiana to the list... test and implement a sterile insect release program along the U.S. Gulf Coast. In support of...

  17. 75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 75 FR 41073-41074 on July 15, 2010. FOR... on July 15, 2010 (75 FR 41073-41074, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0037), we amended the regulations by... amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 75 FR 41073-41074 on July 15, 2010. Done in...

  18. Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

    2014-01-01

    A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails. PMID:24473133

  19. INDIANMEAL MOTH Plodia interpunctella (Hubner)

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    reported from grain products,driedfruit,oilseedsandproducts,pulses,citruspulp, fallen fruits, nuts, dried vegetables, seeds, dead insects, dried milk, spices, candies, chocolate, and drugs. In grain, larvae feed. FOOD Indianmeal moths can be found infesting a variety of grain and food materials. They have been

  20. HISTORICAL GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION FREQUENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These da...

  1. Codling moth of apples and pears The codling moth is a pest of apples and pears in the

    E-print Network

    Codling moth of apples and pears The codling moth is a pest of apples and pears in the United or scaffolds. The first moth of the season usually appears shortly in late bloom or petal fall. Moths emerge, where the insecticides do not affect them. Are conditions right for codling moth? Forecast models

  2. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  3. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  4. Cactus and Visapult: An Ultra-High Performance Grid-Distributed Visualization Architecture

    E-print Network

    1 Cactus and Visapult: An Ultra-High Performance Grid-Distributed Visualization Architecture Using to study gravitational waveforms of colliding black holes; The Cactus code. These improvements have boosted

  5. Reproductive biology of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Mexico and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apanteles opuntiarum, a parasitoid of cactus-feeding lepidopteran larvae, was incorrectly identified as A. alexanderi during the last 50 years. The discovery of A. opuntiarum as a new and separate species was followed by studies of its native host range. These studies revealed that the host range o...

  6. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  7. American Journal of Botany 92(7): 11771188. 2005. BASAL CACTUS PHYLOGENY: IMPLICATIONS OF

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Erika J.

    1177 American Journal of Botany 92(7): 1177­1188. 2005. BASAL CACTUS PHYLOGENY: IMPLICATIONS OF PERESKIA (CACTACEAE) PARAPHYLY FOR THE TRANSITION TO THE CACTUS LIFE FORM1 ERIKA J. EDWARDS,2,4 RETO, is generally viewed as representing the ``ancestral cactus,'' although its placement within Cactaceae has

  8. 1 Cactus Framework: Black Holes to Gamma Ray Bursts 7 Erik Schnetter1,2

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Mary R.

    Contents 1 Cactus Framework: Black Holes to Gamma Ray Bursts 7 Erik Schnetter1,2 , Christian D. Ott . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1.1 GRBs and petascale computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2 The Cactus framework to the Einstein equa- tions. BenchIO HDF5 80l writes several large files to disk using the Cactus checkpointing

  9. Plant Science Bulletin 53(2) 2007 The Organ Pipe Cactus. Yetman, David A. 2006.

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    74 Plant Science Bulletin 53(2) 2007 The Organ Pipe Cactus. Yetman, David A. 2006. University and succinct account of the organ pipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi), especially its interactions with humans this charismatic cactus species as though he knows it personally, which ­ after almost a half century acquaintance

  10. The Brownian cactus II. Upcrossings and local times of super-Brownian motion

    E-print Network

    Le Gall, Jean-François

    The Brownian cactus II. Upcrossings and local times of super-Brownian motion Jean-François Le Gall the density at r of the profile of distances from the root. In terms of the Brownian cactus, this gives 3 . Theorem 1 can be reformulated in terms of the Brownian cactus discussed in [5]. Recall that

  11. HaseltoniaNo.192014 Yearbook of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    HaseltoniaNo.192014 Yearbook of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America Number 19 #12, USA Haseltonia publishes papers that are more technical than those in Cactus and Succulent Journal. Haseltonia is the peer-reviewed publication of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America. It is published

  12. A role for CKII phosphorylation of the Cactus PEST domain in dorsoventral

    E-print Network

    A role for CKII phosphorylation of the Cactus PEST domain in dorsoventral patterning proteolysis of Cactus, the cytoplasmic inhibitor of the Rel-related transcription factor Dorsal, is an essential step in patterning of the Drosophila embryo. Signal-induced Cactus degradation frees Dorsal

  13. Compact Cactus-Shaped Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) Monopole on Organic Symeon Nikolaou*(1)

    E-print Network

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Compact Cactus-Shaped Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) Monopole on Organic Substrate Symeon Nikolaou*(1, U.S.A. simos@ece.gatech.edu Abstract: The implementation of a novel cactus-shaped monopole antenna-segments broadband antennas proposed in [4-5] do not cover the whole UWB range. In this paper, a compact cactus

  14. 126 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal RooT GoRELICK

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    126 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal RooT GoRELICK Special Issue: Eastern Brazil Brasilicereus­6 meters tall, looking like an Amedeo Modigliani version of an organ pipe cactus. The primary trunks with watery, translucent pulp2, a somewhat useful character if you like to snack on cactus fruits in the field

  15. Demography of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia macrocephala: a comparative approach using population projection matrices

    E-print Network

    Banuet, Alfonso Valiente

    Demography of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia macrocephala: a comparative approach using is a long-lived columnar cactus endemic to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley in south-central Mexico. This plant predation could be some factors that limit the distribution and abun- dance of this columnar cactus

  16. RealTime Issues in Cactus \\Lambda Matti A. Hiltunen, Xiaonan Han, and Richard D. Schlichting

    E-print Network

    Schlichting, Richard D.

    Real­Time Issues in Cactus \\Lambda Matti A. Hiltunen, Xiaonan Han, and Richard D. Schlichting­configurable real­time channel abstraction built using this approach is also given. This work is part of the Cactus­time operating system [16] on a cluster of Pentium PCs. 2 Configurable Real­Time Services The focus of the Cactus

  17. International Association for Ecology Seasonal Patterns of Acid Fluctuations and Resource Storage in the Arborescent Cactus

    E-print Network

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    in the Arborescent Cactus Opuntia excelsa in Relation to Light Availability and Size Author(s): Manuel T. Lerdau, N of acid fluctuations and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia excelsa in relation to light light availability, diel acid fluctuation, and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia

  18. Optimal Data Structures for Farthest-Point1 eries in Cactus Networks2

    E-print Network

    Smid, Michiel

    Optimal Data Structures for Farthest-Point1 eries in Cactus Networks2 Prosenjit Bose Jean-Lou De, cycles, uni-cyclic networks, and cactus networks.11 1 Introduction12 Consider the continuum of points, and cactus networks. We begin with data structures for simple22 networks and then use them as building blocks

  19. The Cactus Approach to Building Configurable Middleware Services Matti A. Hiltunen and Richard D. Schlichting

    E-print Network

    Schlichting, Richard D.

    The Cactus Approach to Building Configurable Middleware Services Matti A. Hiltunen and Richard D describe Cactus, a system that realizes this approach, and discuss some of the challenges in providing a number of different middleware services imple- mented using Cactus and outline some of the on-going work

  20. 244 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal Root GoRelick

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    244 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal Root GoRelick Euphorbia antiquorum and James Bond W hile in Thailand, but he only lists one-quarter of these as being "succulent, spiny, cactus-like". Of these seven a cactus-like Euphorbia in the islands of peninsular Thailand probably should have comes as a surprise. I

  1. EGRES Quick-Proof No. 2009-03 1 A quick proof for the cactus representation of

    E-print Network

    Frank, András

    EGRES Quick-Proof No. 2009-03 1 A quick proof for the cactus representation of mincuts Tam by a cactus, a graph built up from edge-disjoint circuits in a tree-like manner. Keywords: minimum cut, cactus-mail: frank@cs.elte.hu April 2009 #12;T. Fleiner and A. Frank: A quick proof for the cactus representation

  2. The flow past a cactus-inspired grooved cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Makdah, Adnan M.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2013-02-01

    The star-shaped cross section of giant cylindrical cactus plants is thought to be aerodynamically favorable for protection against toppling by strong winds. Particle image velocimetry is used to investigate the flow details within the surface grooves and in the immediate wake of a cactus-inspired model cylinder with eight longitudinal grooves, at biologically relevant Reynolds numbers between 50 × 103 and 170 × 103. The wake flow is analyzed and compared to a similarly sized circular cylinder. At the lowest Re tested, the wakes from the two geometries are similar. At higher Re, the cactus wake exhibits superior behavior as seen from the mean and turbulent velocities, suggesting that the flow mechanisms are Re dependent. The flow within the surface grooves reveals counter rotating rollers, while the geometrical ridges act as vortex generators known to help with the surface flow attachment. Lastly, a simplistic analysis is described to recover, qualitatively, certain time-dependent flow features from the randomly acquired PIV realizations.

  3. Measurement of the flow past a cactus-inspired cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.; El-Makdah, Adnan M.

    2012-11-01

    Desert cacti are tall cylindrical plants characterized by longitudinal u- or v-shaped grooves that run parallel to the plant axis, covering its surface area. We study the wake flow modifications resulting from the introduction of cactus-inspired surface grooves to a circular cylinder. Particle image velocimetry PIV is implemented in a wind tunnel to visualize and quantify the wake flow from a cactus cylinder in cross wind and an equivalent circular cylinder at Re O(1E5). The cactus wake exhibits superior behavior over its circular counterpart as seen from the mean and turbulent velocity profiles. The surface flow within the grooves is also probed to elucidate the origins of the wake alterations. Lastly, we use simple statistical analysis based only on the wake velocity fields, under the assumption of periodicity of the shedding, to recover the time varying flow from the randomly acquired PIV snapshots.

  4. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  5. Theoretical Exploration of Barrel-Shaped Drops on Cactus Spines.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To survive an arid environment, desert cacti are capable of harvesting water from fog by transporting condensed water drops using their spines. Cactus spines have a conical shape. In this work, on the basis of the difference of liquid pressure, a new theoretical model has been developed for a barrel-shaped liquid drop on a conical wire. This model is further simplified to interpret the effects of contact angles, conical angle, surface microgrooves, and gravity on the drop movement along a cactus spine. PMID:26473466

  6. COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory

    E-print Network

    Rieske-Kinney, Lynne K.

    COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory and nutrient uptake, and the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), to measure herbivore suitability. Gypsy moth exactacostinplantgrowthandproductivityforthischestnuthybrid,andmayenhanceplantsuitability for a generalist herbivore. Additionally, enhanced gypsy moth

  7. FUTURE RISK OF GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the suitable habitit combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation.

  8. European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets and other berry fruits; larvae feed on and pupate in berries. Invasion of this exotic moth may disrupt common names European grape moth, European vine moth, grape berry moth, vine moth Systematic position

  9. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, J. R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation, CACTUS, that was developed in the United Kingdom to help police with command and control training for large crowd control incidents. Use of the simulation for pre-event planning and decision making is discussed, debriefing is described, and the role of the trainer is considered. (LRW)

  10. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

  11. Extreme variation in floral characters and its consequences for pollinator attraction among populations of an Andean cactus

    PubMed Central

    Schlumpberger, Boris O.; Cocucci, Andrea A.; Moré, Marcela; Sérsic, Alicia N.; Raguso, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims A South American cactus species, Echinopsis ancistrophora (Cactaceae), with dramatic among-population variation in floral traits is presented. Methods Eleven populations of E. ancistrophora were studied in their habitats in northern Argentina, and comparisons were made of relevant floral traits such as depth, stigma position, nectar volume and sugar concentration, and anthesis time. Diurnal and nocturnal pollinator assemblages were evaluated for populations with different floral trait combinations. Key Results Remarkable geographical variations in floral traits were recorded among the 11 populations throughout the distribution range of E. ancistrophora, with flower lengths ranging from 4·5 to 24·1 cm. Other floral traits associated with pollinator attraction also varied in a population-specific manner, in concert with floral depth. Populations with the shortest flowers showed morning anthesis and those with the longest flowers opened at dusk, whereas those with flowers of intermediate length opened at unusual times (2300–0600 h). Nectar production varied non-linearly with floral length; it was absent to low (population means up to 15 µL) in short- to intermediate-length flowers, but was high (population means up to 170 µL) in the longest tubed flowers. Evidence from light-trapping of moths, pollen carriage on their bodies and moth scale deposition on stigmas suggests that sphingid pollination is prevalent only in the four populations with the longest flowers, in which floral morphological traits and nectar volumes match the classic expectations for the hawkmoth pollination syndrome. All other populations, with flowers 4·5–15 cm long, were pollinated exclusively by solitary bees. Conclusions The results suggest incipient differentiation at the population level and local adaptation to either bee or hawkmoth (potentially plus bee) pollination. PMID:19342397

  12. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  13. 76 FR 30089 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...Inspection Service Title: South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations. OMB...interstate movement of South American cactus moth host material including nursery stock...the artificial spread of South American cactus moth into non-infested areas of...

  14. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0113] Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY: Animal...environmental impact statement for the Gypsy Moth Program. DATES: Effective Date: April...of treatments for the control of gypsy moth. In addition to the proposal to add...

  15. A diversity of moths (Lepidoptera) trapped with two feeding attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding attractants for moths are useful as survey tools to assess moth species diversity, and for monitoring of the relative abundance of certain pest species. We assessed the relative breadth of attractiveness of two such lures to moths, at sites with varied habitats during 2006. Eighty-six of the...

  16. Diamondback Moth Scientific Name(s): Plutella xylostella

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Diamondback Moth Scientific Name(s): Plutella xylostella Order: Lepidoptera Physical Description: Adult diamondback moths are small, 12 mm long, with an 18-20 mm wingspan. They are grey or brownish and pale green in color, reaching a maximum length of 12 mm. Life Cycle and Habitat: Diamondback moths

  17. PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Resistance in Tubers moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), in tropical and subtropical countries, is the most destructive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efÞcacy of a Bt-cry5 transgene to control the potato tuber moth

  18. MANAGING THE ZIMMERMAN PINE MOTH Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    MANAGING THE ZIMMERMAN PINE MOTH Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologist Department of Entomology Landscape & Ornamentals E-40-W PURDUE EXTENSION The Zimmerman pine moth is the most important eco- nomic attacks spruce. DISTRIBUTION The Zimmerman pine moth was first found in the U.S. in 1879. Since then

  19. Nun moth Lymantria monacha Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Nun moth Lymantria monacha Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The nun moth is a serious defoliator if this exotic moth becomes established in North America. Tree stands in natural forests, recreational

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE Spatial dynamics of a gypsy moth defoliation outbreak

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Spatial dynamics of a gypsy moth defoliation outbreak and dependence on habitat, phenology, topog- raphy, and pesticide spray for a recent gypsy moth outbreak (2000­2001), in a mixed well with gypsy moth larval dispersal distances (100 m to 1 km). Un-measured processes

  1. POPULATION ECOLOGY Comparative Predation on Naturally Occurring Gypsy Moth

    E-print Network

    POPULATION ECOLOGY Comparative Predation on Naturally Occurring Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera(2): 293Ð296 (2006) ABSTRACT Predation is an important factor in the dynamics of gypsy moth (Lymantria. Here we compare predation rates on freeze-dried gypsy moth pupae afÞxed with beeswax to pieces

  2. INTRODUCTION Since the gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    267 INTRODUCTION Since the gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston in 1868 or 1869, it has and result in severe ecological and economic effects. It is inevitable that the gypsy moth will continue. 750 km from the expanding front of gypsy moth defoliation. Based on an historical rate of spread of ca

  3. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M.

    2006-07-11

    CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

  4. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development. PMID:25366556

  5. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the Corrective Action Unit No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action. The scope of this investigation will include drilling and collecting subsurface samples from within and below the trenches. Sampling locations will be biased toward the areas most likely to be contaminated. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Site is identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. This test was the first of four storage-transportation tests conducted in 1963 as part of Operation Roller Coaster. The experiment involved the use of live animals to assess the inhalation intake of a plutonium aerosol.

  6. Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario

    2010-09-01

    An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food. PMID:20811778

  7. 77 FR 26000 - Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1604-000] Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Cactus Energy LLC's application for market-based rate...

  8. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target ef...

  9. vol. 167, no. 6 the american naturalist june 2006 Pereskia and the Origin of the Cactus Life-Form

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Erika J.

    vol. 167, no. 6 the american naturalist june 2006 Pereskia and the Origin of the Cactus Life September 2, 2005; Accepted February 21, 2006; Electronically published April 28, 2006 abstract: The cactus and trees that are thought to represent the original cactus condition. Recent phylo- genetic work has shown

  10. 204 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal n the CSSA's 2007 post-conven-

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    204 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal O n the CSSA's 2007 post-conven- tion tour of Baja California, Jon floral throat character specified in Henrickson's monograph. 65 3 4 #12;206 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal

  11. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in the Clover Improved Lattice Formulation of QCD

    E-print Network

    Panagopoulos, H

    1999-01-01

    We extend to the clover improved lattice formulation of QCD the resummation of cactus diagrams, i.e. a certain class of tadpole-like gauge invariant diagrams. Cactus resummation yields an improved perturbative expansion. We apply it to the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators improving their one-loop perturbative estimates.

  12. 22 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal ROOT GORELICK

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    22 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal ROOT GORELICK After a few wet yearsin southern New Mexico L iving;24 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal S ummer 2005 brought sufficient flooding along the Rio Grande, and FEMA

  13. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in the Clover Improved Lattice Formulation of QCD

    E-print Network

    H. Panagopoulos; E. Vicari

    1998-09-02

    We extend to the clover improved lattice formulation of QCD the resummation of cactus diagrams, i.e. a certain class of tadpole-like gauge invariant diagrams. Cactus resummation yields an improved perturbative expansion. We apply it to the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators improving their one-loop perturbative estimates.

  14. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought-and

    E-print Network

    Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods1[OA] Gary S. Ban distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We

  15. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought-and

    E-print Network

    Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods Gary S. Ban~uelos2 distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We

  16. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  17. Codling Moth has a New Calendar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in 10 apple orchards in Washington State from 2003-2006 to characterize the seasonal cumulative curves of codling moth flight and the occurrence of fruit injury. Data from each generation were fit to logistic curves and these data were compared to a current widely-used model. ...

  18. Evolution of Moth Sex Pheromone Desaturases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moth sex pheromone communication has evolved to make use of complex blends of relatively simple long-chain fatty acid precursors. Species specificity is derived from the unique stereochemistry of double bonds introduced into exact locations along the hydrocarbon backbone of fatty acids, which are r...

  19. Codling Moth Granulovirus: A Comprehensive Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is regarded as the most injurious insect pest of apple in most countries where apple is grown. It is key pest of apple in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In conventional orchards, CM is usually controlled with broad-spectrum insecticides. A variety of problems associate...

  20. Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

  1. Moth pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect’s olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less ...

  2. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

  3. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

  4. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

  5. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

  6. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

  7. 76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet AGENCY: Animal...information collection associated with the gypsy moth program. DATES: We will consider all...CONTACT: For information on the gypsy moth program, contact Mr. Paul Chaloux,...

  8. Extracellular Transduction Events Under Pulsed Stimulation in Moth Olfactory Jean-Pierre Rospars1,2

    E-print Network

    Krivan, Vlastimil

    Extracellular Transduction Events Under Pulsed Stimulation in Moth Olfactory Sensilla Jean released continuously by female moths are broken in discontinuous clumps and filaments. These discontinuities are perceived by flying male moths as periodic variations in the concentration of the stimulus

  9. BIOLOGICAL CONTROLPARASITOIDS AND PREDATORS Effect of Host Diet and Insect Source on Synergy of Gypsy Moth

    E-print Network

    Handelsman, Jo

    of Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Mortality to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner against gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (L.)) larvae. The objective the mortality caused by B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in gypsy moths collected from four population sources

  10. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their native range. These results suggest fairly robust correlates of invasiveness that can be used for proactive management and risk assessments. PMID:25471679

  11. Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Miller, Terence Holland

    2008-10-31

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in the Enewetak Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The survey was strictly a visual survey, backed up by digital photos and a written description of the current condition.

  12. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Robertson, Mark P; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion-in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their native range. These results suggest fairly robust correlates of invasiveness that can be used for proactive management and risk assessments. PMID:25471679

  13. High duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests. PMID:26549128

  14. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a ?-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  15. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a ?-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  16. Jumping mechanisms and strategies in moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Dorosenko, Marina

    2015-06-01

    To test whether jumping launches moths into the air, take-off by 58 species, ranging in mass from 0.1 to 220?mg, was captured in videos at 1000 frames s(-1). Three strategies for jumping were identified. First, rapid movements of both middle and hind legs provided propulsion while the wings remained closed. Second, middle and hind legs again provided propulsion but the wings now opened and flapped after take-off. Third, wing and leg movements both began before take-off and led to an earlier transition to powered flight. The middle and hind legs were of similar lengths and were between 10 and 130% longer than the front legs. The rapid depression of the trochantera and extension of the middle tibiae began some 3?ms before similar movements of the hind legs, but their tarsi lost contact with the ground before take-off. Acceleration times ranged from 10?ms in the lightest moths to 25?ms in the heaviest ones. Peak take-off velocities varied from 0.6 to 0.9?m?s(-1) in all moths, with the fastest jump achieving a velocity of 1.2?m?s(-1). The energy required to generate the fastest jumps was 1.1?µJ in lighter moths but rose to 62.1?µJ in heavier ones. Mean accelerations ranged from 26 to 90?m?s(-2) and a maximum force of 9 G: was experienced. The highest power output was within the capability of normal muscle so that jumps were powered by direct contractions of muscles without catapult mechanisms or energy storage. PMID:25883381

  17. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2015-06-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ?10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  18. Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as combinatorial signals and use the integrated floral traits from their memory traces to mediate future foraging decisions. PMID:23991154

  19. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  20. Testing The Cactus code on exact solutions of the Einstein field equations

    E-print Network

    Vulcanov, D N; Vulcanov, Dumitru N.; Alcubierre, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a series of numerical simulations of exact solutions of the Einstein equations performed using the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. We describe an application (``thorn'') for the Cactus code that can be used for evolving a variety of exact solutions, with and without matter, including solutions used in modern cosmology for modelling the early stages of the universe. Our main purpose has been to test the Cactus code on these well-known examples, focusing mainly on the stability and convergence of the code.

  1. Testing the Cactus code on exact solutions of the Einstein field equations

    E-print Network

    Dumitru N. Vulcanov; Miguel Alcubierre

    2002-03-04

    The article presents a series of numerical simulations of exact solutions of the Einstein equations performed using the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. We describe an application (``thorn'') for the Cactus code that can be used for evolving a variety of exact solutions, with and without matter, including solutions used in modern cosmology for modeling the early stages of the universe. Our main purpose has been to test the Cactus code on these well-known examples, focusing mainly on the stability and convergence of the code.

  2. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  3. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

  4. Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The cabbage moth is a highly polyphagous defoliator, but particularly damaging to cabbage in Europe and Asia. Larval feeding and frass

  5. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold st...

  6. First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

  7. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ? 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  8. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  9. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY: Animal and... of decision for the final supplemental environmental impact statement for the Gypsy Moth Program... Register (69 FR 23492-23493) announcing the agencies' proposal to add the insecticide tebufenozide...

  10. Determining Host-Plant Resistance Mechanisms for Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth is a key pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Female moths deposit eggs on the outer surface of the bracts of the sunflower head. Larval feeding in the heads causes seed loss and lower oil content resulting in reduced yield. Upon reaching maturity larvae drop to the gr...

  11. CAPTURE OF NOCTUID AND PYRALID MOTHS USING FEEDING ATTRACTANT LURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests of floral chemicals dispensed in two-component lures were used to capture noctuid and pyralid moths in north-central Florida. Blends of phenylacetaldehyde plus '-myrcene, cis jasmone, linalool, and methyl-2-methoxy benzoate were successful in capturing large numbers of several moth spec...

  12. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Leavell, Brian C.; Keener, Adam L.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Chadwell, Brad A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Hill, Geena M.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ?47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator–prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  13. Monitoring and Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in two ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with sex pheromone in southern Oregon to implement the use of site-specific management practices for codling moth. The density of monitoring traps was increased and insecticide sprays were applied based on moth catch thresholds. Only porti...

  14. Worldwide Variability of Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Known resistance mechanisms including the action of detoxifying enzymes and insensitive variants of target proteins were examined in individual male and female moths from 29 populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L collected in 11 countries in Africa, Europe, North America and the Australian c...

  15. A near-linear time algorithm for constructing a cactus representation of minimum cuts

    E-print Network

    Panigrahi, Debmalya

    We present an Õ(m) (near-linear) time Monte Carlo algorithm for constructing the cactus data structure, a useful representation of all the global minimum edge cuts of an undirected graph. Our algorithm represents a fundamental ...

  16. Effect of iron concentration on growth and phylloclade edge yellowing of holiday cactus 

    E-print Network

    Ramirez, Dario

    1996-01-01

    Production of holiday cactus has been limited by the common occurrence of marginal chlorosis of the phyllociade, which can lead to losses in crop quality. This work was conducted to determine if poor growth and phylloclade yellowing were correlated...

  17. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. PMID:26041209

  18. Using memory mapping to support cactus stacks in work-stealing runtime systems

    E-print Network

    Lee, I-Ting Angelina

    Many multithreaded concurrency platforms that use a work-stealing runtime system incorporate a "cactus stack," wherein a function's accesses to stack variables properly respect the function's calling ancestry, even when ...

  19. Nocturnal activity positively correlated with auditory sensitivity in noctuoid moths.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

    2008-06-23

    We investigated the relationship between predator detection threshold and antipredator behaviour in noctuoid moths. Moths with ears sensitive to the echolocation calls of insectivorous bats use avoidance manoeuvres in flight to evade these predators. Earless moths generally fly less than eared species as a primary defence against predation by bats. For eared moths, however, there is interspecific variation in auditory sensitivity. At the species level, and when controlling for shared evolutionary history, nocturnal flight time and auditory sensitivity were positively correlated in moths, a relationship that most likely reflects selection pressure from aerial-hawking bats. We suggest that species-specific differences in the detection of predator cues are important but often overlooked factors in the evolution and maintenance of antipredator behaviour. PMID:18319206

  20. Research to Aquatic and

    E-print Network

    Fowler, James E.

    .1. Early Detection of Cactus Moth Pages 92-95 Task 3.1.A. Early Detection and Reporting of Cactus Moth: Sensory Structures of Larvae Pages 96-99 Task 3.1.B. Detection and Reporting of Cactus Moth: Protocols for Identification of Exotic and Native Cactus Moths Page 100 Task 3.2. Distribution of Opuntia in the Region Pages

  1. Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity 4th Grade Life Sciences 2.3

    E-print Network

    Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Standard 4th Grade Life Sciences 2.3 Evidence Outcomes: Use: Peppered Moth introduction slides http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf Materials Several to trace Sticky tape to stick moths onto surfaces Overview 1. Divide class into 2 groups 2. Each kid

  2. CLOTHES MOTHS AND CARPET BEETLES Gary W. Bennett and Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologists

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    CLOTHES MOTHS AND CARPET BEETLES Gary W. Bennett and Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologists Department of Entomology Household & Structural E-18-W PURDUE EXTENSION CLOTHES MOTH CONTROL The clothes moth and feathers. Damage done will depend upon the type of item being fed upon and the species of clothes moth

  3. Scouting Canola for Diamondback Moth Tom A. Royer and Kris Giles

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Scouting Canola for Diamondback Moth Tom A. Royer and Kris Giles There are reports of diamondback moth infesting canola in several locations in southwest Oklahoma and Texas. Diamondback moth have any research-based economic thresholds from Oklahoma for managing diamondback moth, so my

  4. Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America

    E-print Network

    Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America Masha to Biological invasions Gypsy moth- biology and formulation of mathematical model SI model results Predator invasion #12;Gypsy moth #12;Gypsy moth: introduction Introduced in late 1860s and currently occupies all

  5. Cactus Framework: Black Holes to Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Schnetter, Erik; Allen, Gabrielle; Diener, Peter; Goodale, Tom; Radke, Thomas; Seidel, Edward; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are intense narrowly-beamed flashes of gamma-rays of cosmological origin. They are among the most scientifically interesting astrophysical systems, and the riddle concerning their central engines and emission mechanisms is one of the most complex and challenging problems of astrophysics today. In this article we outline our petascale approach to the GRB problem and discuss the computational toolkits and numerical codes that are currently in use and that will be scaled up to run on emerging petaflop scale computing platforms in the near future. Petascale computing will require additional ingredients over conventional parallelism. We consider some of the challenges which will be caused by future petascale architectures, and discuss our plans for the future development of the Cactus framework and its applications to meet these challenges in order to profit from these new architectures.

  6. Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

  7. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae) were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone are attractive to P. orphisalis, ...

  8. CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN APPLES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are serious pests of apples grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where they do not appear, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the accidental introduction of these insects. The treatment consists of hot forced mo...

  9. Planarity of the 2-level Cactus Model Sabine Cornelsen 1 , Ye m Dinitz 2 , and Dorothea Wagner 1

    E-print Network

    Brandes, Ulrik

    Planarity of the 2-level Cactus Model Sabine Cornelsen 1 , Ye#12;m Dinitz 2 , and Dorothea Wagner 1.Cornelsen,Dorothea.Wagner}@uni-konstanz.de 2 Ben-Gurion University, Dept. of Computer Science dinitz@cs.bgu.ac.il Abstract. The 2-level cactus of the 2-level cactus, which can be used, e.g., in graph drawing. We give a new suÆcient planarity

  10. Sujet : Recherche d'information distribue : utilisation de clusters Contact : Josiane Mothe, IRIT 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, mothe@irit.fr

    E-print Network

    Grigoras, .Romulus

    Sujet : Recherche d'information distribuée : utilisation de clusters Contact : Josiane Mothe, IRIT 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, mothe@irit.fr Ce projet s'inscrit dans le cadre des moteurs de

  11. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths. PMID:22238600

  12. Enum eration et g en eration al eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet 1 , Cedric Chauve 2 , Gilles Schae er 3

    E-print Network

    Chauve, Cedric

    Enum#19;eration et g#19;en#19;eration al#19;eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet 1 , Cedric;eration al#19;eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet 1 , Cedric Chauve 2 , Gilles Schae#11;er 3 1 La;eration de cactus m-aires, selon la distribution des couleurs et selon la distribution des degr#19;es

  13. Enum eration et g en eration al eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet , Cedric Chauve y , Gilles Schae er z

    E-print Network

    Schaeffer, Gilles

    Enum#19;eration et g#19;en#19;eration al#19;eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet #3; , Cedric multidimensionnelle pour donner une explication combinatoire de deux formules d'#19;enum#19;eration de cactus m algorithme de g#19;en#19;eration al#19;eatoire pour ces structures. 1 Introduction Un m-cactus est un graphe

  14. Learning, odour preference and flower foraging in moths 

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, John P; Moore, Chris J; Zalucki, Myron P; West, Stuart A

    2003-01-01

    Floral volatiles play a major role in plant–insect communication. We examined the influence of two volatiles, phenylacetaldehyde and a-pinene, on the innate and learnt foraging behaviour of the moth Helicoverpa armigera. ...

  15. The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James

    1984-01-01

    Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

  16. 77 FR 26000 - Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Cactus Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  17. 76 FR 61855 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Cactus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Additionally, the petition requested that we recognize and list a western subspecies of the cactus......

  18. Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5?Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded. PMID:24651317

  19. Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

  20. Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

  1. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2013-08-01

    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P? and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P? and S, the critical exponents ?k and ?k for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, ?k and ?k are the critical exponents for P? and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are ?2 = 1.79(3), ?2 = 0.88(1), ?3 = 1.35(5) and ?3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (?? = 1 and ?? = 1), we also find ?? < ?3 < ?2 and ?? > ?3 > ?2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

  2. Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

  3. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. PMID:24799205

  4. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure–function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies. PMID:23212376

  5. A 1-mW vibration energy harvesting system for moth flight-control applications

    E-print Network

    Chang, Samuel C

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the approach and methodologies required to build a 1-mW energy-harvesting system for moth flight control applications. The crepuscular hawk moth Manduca sexta is the chosen test subject. This project ...

  6. Nano-Optics in the Biological World: Beetles, Butterflies, Birds, and Moths Mohan Srinivasarao*

    E-print Network

    Srinivasarao, Mohan

    Nano-Optics in the Biological World: Beetles, Butterflies, Birds, and Moths Mohan Srinivasarao, butterflies, and moths are produced by structural variations and have been the subject of study for centuries

  7. Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Naomi E.

    Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria Research Foundation, Washington; Pitkin, L.M., 1993. Neotropical emerald moths of the genera Nemoria

  8. Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a cactus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Dong; Seong, Chi Nam

    2014-06-01

    A novel high G+C actinobacterium, designated strain OS1-21(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a cactus (Opuntia fiscus-indica var. sanboten) and the taxonomic status was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain OS1-21(T) were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming, non-motile rods; colonies of the cells were circular, translucent, smooth and moderate yellow in colour. LL-Diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C(16?:?0), iso-C(16?:?0) 2-OH, 10-methyl C(17?:?0), 10-methyl C(18?:?0) and C(17?:?1)cis9. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 73.7 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Nocardioides panacihumi Gsoil 616(T) (98.7% sequence similarity) and Nocardioides terrae VA15(T) (97.8%), followed by Nocardioides marinus CL-DD14(T) (97.1%). DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain OS1-21(T) with the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours were low (<16.0%). Combined data of polyphasic taxonomic analyses revealed that the organism could be assigned to a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OS1-21(T) (?=?KCTC 19804(T)?=?NBRC 107915(T)). PMID:24670898

  9. Chapter VII Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth

    E-print Network

    Helsinki, University of

    111 Chapter VII Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth Sofia Gripenberg1 structure of the leaf-mining moth Tischeria ekebladella, a specialist herbivore of the pedunculate oak by two means: larvae drift through the landscape inside absiced leaves, and adult moths disperse actively

  10. REMOTE CONTROL OF A CYBORG MOTH USING CARBON NANOTUBE-ENHANCED FLEXIBLE NEUROPROSTHETIC PROBE

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    REMOTE CONTROL OF A CYBORG MOTH USING CARBON NANOTUBE-ENHANCED FLEXIBLE NEUROPROSTHETIC PROBE W to evoke multi-directional, graded abdominal motions in the moths thus altering their flight path. 1 on the remote control of insects, including cockroaches [5], beetles [2] and moths [3, 4], have used thin metal

  11. Evaluation of genetically modified potatoes against the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    13 Evaluation of genetically modified potatoes against the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea, Durbanville, 7550, South Africa Introduction The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller moth is regarded as a serious post harvest pest problem for both the commercial and the small scale

  12. Orientational disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lep., Tortricidae), by concentrated formulations of

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    Orientational disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lep., Tortricidae), by concentrated,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), on the behaviour of the male codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were evaluated to an adjacent 0.1 mg codlemone lure for up to 24 h after application. These moths flew out of the release cages

  13. Does butterfly diversity predict moth diversity? Testing a popular indicator taxon at local scales

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    Does butterfly diversity predict moth diversity? Testing a popular indicator taxon at local scales group, the moths, at a local scale relevant to many conservation decisions (100 ­101 km2 ). We sampled butterflies and moths at 19 sites representing the three major terrestrial habitats in sub-alpine Colorado

  14. Fossilized Biophotonic Nanostructures Reveal the Original Colors of 47-Million-Year-Old Moths

    E-print Network

    Cao, Hui

    Fossilized Biophotonic Nanostructures Reveal the Original Colors of 47-Million-Year-Old Moths Maria among animals and have been studied most extensively in butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), which-Million-Year- Old Moths. PLoS Biol 9(11): e1001200. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001200 Academic Editor

  15. Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of grape berry moth (Lep., Tortricidae) to selected plant extracts

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of grape berry moth (Lep., Tortricidae) to selected and Xanthium strumarium, were tested against adult grape berry moths, Paralobesia viteana, for their potential of the P. viteana sex pheromone. Moths of both sexes exhibited varying electroantennogram (EAG) responses

  16. Forest Health: Nantucket Pine Tip Moth http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 1

    E-print Network

    Forest Health: Nantucket Pine Tip Moth http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 1 weeks, but cool.usda.gov/pubs/rp/rp_srs032.pdf The Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana) can cause severe damage to buds and shoots, especially on poor sites. Tree mortality is rare and tip moth attacks are seldom a concern once trees reach

  17. Plum fruit moth Cydia funebrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Plum fruit moth Cydia funebrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The plum fruit moth is a pest been a target for the national CAPS survey in the United States (USDA-APHIS 2007). Plant hosts The moth

  18. Cherry ermine moth Yponomeuta padella Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Cherry ermine moth Yponomeuta padella Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The cherry ermine moth feeds defoliate entire trees. This exotic moth potentially poses a threat to Michigan's orchards and landscape

  19. CHEMICAL ECOLOGY An Attempt to Increase Efficacy of Moth Mating Disruption by

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    CHEMICAL ECOLOGY An Attempt to Increase Efficacy of Moth Mating Disruption by Co of the internal fruit feeding codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). There has been recent interest in the potential are attractive by themselves (often to both sexes), and also enhance male moth response to their pheromone

  20. Integrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals Clearwing Moths

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Integrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals Clearwing Moths Statewide of clear- wing moths (family Sesiidae) are important wood-boring pests in land- scapes. Hosts include alder infested a tree. Clearwing moth larvae bore beneath tree bark (Figure 2) and push frass, sometimes mixed

  1. Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The Silver Y moth is a highly. Other common name gamma moth Systematic position Insecta > Lepidoptera > Noctuidae > Autographa gamma

  2. Gas Source Tracing With a Mobile Robot Using an Adapted Moth Strategy

    E-print Network

    Zell, Andreas

    Gas Source Tracing With a Mobile Robot Using an Adapted Moth Strategy Achim Lilienthal, Denis source tracing strategy. Similar to the behaviour of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, the implemented-)starts this motion pattern if an increased gas concentration is sensed. While the moth uses the local airflow

  3. Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate mountain landscape

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate mountain landscape: vegetation. C. Miller, and J. A. Jones. 2013. Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate to determine the importance of topography and vegetation on moth community assembly and diversity. Significant

  4. Irradiance enhancement and increased laser damage threshold in As2S3 moth-eye

    E-print Network

    Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

    Irradiance enhancement and increased laser damage threshold in As2S3 moth-eye antireflective experimentally observed that moth-eye antire- flective microstructures at the end of As2S3 fibers have computationally study the irradiance enhancement in As2S3 moth-eye antireflec- tive microstructures in order

  5. Orientational Behaviors and EAG Responses of Male Codling Moth After Exposure to Synthetic Sex

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    Orientational Behaviors and EAG Responses of Male Codling Moth After Exposure to Synthetic Sex + Business Media, Inc. 2006 Abstract The effect of brief pheromone exposures on responses of codling moth nearly eliminated moth orientations to 0.1 mg codlemone [(E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol] and 0.1 mg three

  6. Direct Sampling of Resting Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Adults in Apple Tree Canopies and Surrounding Habitats

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    BEHAVIOR Direct Sampling of Resting Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Adults in Apple Tree investigations were conducted to determine the resting locations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L,releasedinthetreecanopyinorchards.Fourcollectionseachweremadebetween0900 and 1800 hours and 1800 and 2200 hours in 2005. Ninety-four moths were collected during the 1800Ð

  7. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

    E-print Network

    1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

  8. Geographic isolation trumps coevolution as a driver of yucca and yucca moth diversification

    E-print Network

    Smith, Chris

    Geographic isolation trumps coevolution as a driver of yucca and yucca moth diversification David M such as the one between yuccas and pollinating yucca moths. We took a three-step approach to examine if plant-speciation between yuccas and pollinator yucca moths in the genus Tegeticula (Prodoxidae). Second, we tested whether

  9. Phylogeny and life history evolution of Prodoxus yucca moths (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae)

    E-print Network

    Segraves, Kari A.

    Phylogeny and life history evolution of Prodoxus yucca moths (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae) O L L E P E. Yucca moths (Lep., Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate pollination mutualism with yuccas. In addition to the pollinators, yuccas also host many non-pollinating yucca moths. Here the genus Prodoxus

  10. Phylogeographic Structure in the Bogus Yucca Moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): Comparisons with

    E-print Network

    Althoff, David M.

    Phylogeographic Structure in the Bogus Yucca Moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): Comparisons with Coexisting Pollinator Yucca Moths David M. Althoff,1 Joshua D. Groman,2 Kari A. Segraves Received January 31, 2001; revised April 13, 2001 The pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas

  11. Geographic isolation trumps coevolution as a driver of yucca and yucca moth diversification

    E-print Network

    Segraves, Kari A.

    Geographic isolation trumps coevolution as a driver of yucca and yucca moth diversification David M interactions such as the one between yuccas and pollinating yucca moths. We took a three-step approach whether there has been co-speciation between yuccas and pollinator yucca moths in the genus Tegeticula

  12. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), belongs to the order Lepidoptera and

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    .org) Figure 3. Diamondback moth larva. (Knodel, Department of Entomology, NDSU) 2 #12;Life Cycle (Figure 5) Very few pupae survive the long, cold, harsh winters of North Dakota. Diamondback moths are generally. In North Dakota, migrating diamondback moths usually arrive in late May or early June. The complete life

  13. WHAT CAUSES MALE-BIASED SEX RATIOS IN THE GYPSY MOTH PARASITOID GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (Marsh) is an oligophagous, gregarious larval parasitoid of the Indian gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA OBFUSCATA (Walker), that readily attacks the European gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA DISPAR (L.). This species is believed to have potential for inundative releases against gypsy moth popu...

  14. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of, live... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section...

  15. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    E-print Network

    Hargrove, William W.

    Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth Accepted 18 September 2010 Keywords: MODIS NDVI time series data Gypsy moth Regional forest defoliation (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria

  16. Am. Midl. Nat. 143:397404 Effects of Forest Defoliation by the Gypsy Moth on Detritus

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    397 Am. Midl. Nat. 143:397­404 Effects of Forest Defoliation by the Gypsy Moth on Detritus changes in chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) leaf quality caused by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L al., 1995; Eshleman et al., 1998). Larvae of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L., Lepidoptera

  17. Gypsy Moth Egg Mass Sampling for Decision-Making: A Users' Guide

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Gypsy Moth Egg Mass Sampling for Decision-Making: A Users' Guide Andrew Liebhold1 Kevin Thorpe2 America in 1868 or 1869, the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), has become one of the most destructive forest insects in the northeastern U.S. In the wake of the gypsy moth's continuously expanding infested

  18. Differentiation of Competitive vs. Non-competitive Mechanisms Mediating Disruption of Moth Sexual

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    ); values ranged from 0.0005 for a tiny laminated flake dispenser of racemic disparlure targeting gypsy mothDifferentiation of Competitive vs. Non-competitive Mechanisms Mediating Disruption of Moth Sexual disruption profiles (plots of dispenser density vs. male catch) from moth sex pheromone literature were

  19. 76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions... detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on...

  20. Forest Response to Stress and Damage (FORSTAD) Gypsy Moth Data 1980-2004 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS

    E-print Network

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    TITLE Forest Response to Stress and Damage (FORSTAD) Gypsy Moth Data 1980-2004 PRINCIPAL Studies PO Box AB Millbrook, NY 12545 Telephone: (845) 677-5343 CODES Density = gypsy moth egg mass density DATA DESCRIPTION Gypsy moth density is presented in egg masses/hectare for each year of data

  1. Changes in radial increment of host and nonhost tree species with gypsy moth

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Changes in radial increment of host and nonhost tree species with gypsy moth defoliation R Jersey were measured to determine the influence of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation on both-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough)) defoli- ation and abundance in the western United States

  2. Using thinning as a management tool for gypsy moth: the influence on small mammal abundance

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Using thinning as a management tool for gypsy moth: the influence on small mammal abundance R by the gypsy moth. The effects of this management strategy on small mammal abundance were determined by pitfall into Massachusetts in 1869, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) has become one of North America's most important

  3. NOTES AND COMMENTS Oak mast seeding as a direct cause of gypsy moth outbreaks?

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    NOTES AND COMMENTS Oak mast seeding as a direct cause of gypsy moth outbreaks? A response to Sela on the dynamics of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) populations in North America. This paper highlighted a previously developed hypothesis, namely that gypsy moth outbreaks are caused by decreased rates of predation

  4. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  5. Declines in dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams (19882003): Gypsy moth defoliation stimulates diatoms?

    E-print Network

    Scanlon, Todd

    Declines in dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams (1988­2003): Gypsy moth with the timing of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation event. We develop a conceptual model centered in the more silica-rich streams. Gypsy moth defoliation led to greater sunlight penetration and enhanced

  6. he gypsy moth (Lymantria dis-par) is probably the most de-

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    T he gypsy moth (Lymantria dis- par) is probably the most de- structive forest defoliator in the United States. More than 81 million acres of forests have been defoliated by the gypsy moth since 1924). During gypsy moth outbreaks, many species of hard- woods may be defoliated; repeated de- foliation causes

  7. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of, live... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section...

  8. Resident Microbiota of the Gypsy Moth Midgut Harbors Antibiotic Resistance Determinants

    E-print Network

    Handelsman, Jo

    Resident Microbiota of the Gypsy Moth Midgut Harbors Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Heather K the antibiotic resistome of the microbial community in gypsy moth larval midguts by applying functional (Vasanthakumar et al., 2008). The gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantria dispar) is an in- teresting example

  9. Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.)

    E-print Network

    LETTER Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) E across the invasion front of the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States in data a mechanistic model developed for the gypsy moth system. We believe this study to be the first empirical

  10. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  11. POPULATION ECOLOGY Factors Influencing Larval Survival of the Invasive Browntail Moth

    E-print Network

    Parry, Dylan

    to or exceeding that of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Burgess and Cross- man 1929). In additionPOPULATION ECOLOGY Factors Influencing Larval Survival of the Invasive Browntail Moth (Lepidoptera is the browntail moth Euproctis chry- sorrhoea L, which was discovered in the eastern United States in 1897. Its

  12. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  13. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  14. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Evaluation of Preventive Treatments in Low-Density Gypsy Moth

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Evaluation of Preventive Treatments in Low-Density Gypsy Moth Populations Using the growth of isolated low-density populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). We developed of the USDA Forest Service Slow-the-Spread of the gypsy moth project from 1993 to 2001. Out of 556 treatments

  15. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth Derek M. Johnson1

    E-print Network

    LETTERS Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth Derek M. Johnson1 , Andrew M. Liebhold2- systems1 and cause substantial economic losses2 . A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth and 2004 alone3 . The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most

  16. POPULATION ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    POPULATION ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak with a period of approximately 10 years. Within the range of the gypsy moth in North America, however. Furthermore, gypsy moth out- breaks exhibit two significant periodicities: a dominant period of 8­10 years

  17. Disruption of Gypsy Moth1Male Sex Pheromone Behavior by High Frequency Sound2

    E-print Network

    Disruption of Gypsy Moth1Male Sex Pheromone Behavior by High Frequency Sound2 T.C.BAKER AND R. T 48824 Reprinted from the ENVIRONMENTALENTOMOLOGY #12;Disruption of Gypsy Moth1 Male Sex Pheromone Lymantria dispar L. (gypsy moth), while flying upwind toward a pheromone source, respond to high frequency

  18. 78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin... infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on October 24, 2013, we...

  19. 76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... collection associated with the gypsy moth program. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the gypsy moth program, contact Mr. Paul Chaloux, National...

  20. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  1. Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1 , Alexei A. Sharov2 , and Patrick C. Tobin1 Introduction The gypsy moth in North America (Elkinton and Liebhold 1990 species. The gypsy moth is an excellent species for illustrating the population processes operating during

  2. Type 3 functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing?

    E-print Network

    Type 3 functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing? Eric M. Schauber functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing? Á/ Oikos 107: 592Á/602. We conducted (Peromyscus leucopus) to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) pupae is decelerating (e.g. type 2) or accelerating (e

  3. PEST MANAGEMENTAND SAMPLING Forecasting Defoliation Caused by the Gypsy Moth from

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    PEST MANAGEMENTAND SAMPLING Forecasting Defoliation Caused by the Gypsy Moth from Field by the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), was examined from a series of forest stands in central Pennsylvania, sampling, egg mass THE AMOUNTOF forested land defoliated by the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L

  4. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of, live... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section...

  5. POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Predation on larvae and pupae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) was studied in a leading dispar, Peromyscus, Sorex, predation, small mammals, exclosures THE GYPSY MOTH, Lymantria dispar (L

  6. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of, live... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of, live... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section...

  8. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  9. Light brown apple moth (LBAM) (Epiphyas postvittana) is an important invasive leafroller pest

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Light brown apple moth (LBAM) (Epiphyas postvittana) is an important invasive leafroller pest for Light Brown Apple Moth IN CALIFORNIA NURSERIES Eggs are not easily observed by nursery scouts or other the head. Male light brown apple moths caught in pheromone traps. e wing-color pattern of males can

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FLORAL ODOR OF OREGON GRAPE: POSSIBLE FEEDING ATTRACTANTS FOR MOTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that flowers of Oregon grape, Berberis aquifolium Prursch., might release chemicals attractive to moths. Studies were conducted to determine what moths visit flowers of Oregon grape and to characterize the odor chemistry of those flowers in search of possible moth feeding attrac...

  11. ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND SYNTHESIS OF SEX PHEROMONE COMPONENTS OF THE CAROB MOTH, ECTOHYELOIS CERATOSIAE

    E-print Network

    ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND SYNTHESIS OF SEX PHEROMONE COMPONENTS OF THE CAROB MOTH, ECTOHYELOIS/OSU, Booster, Ohio, USA Summary: The sex pheromone of females of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae)-9-tetradecenal in the ratio of 10:l:l. A synthetic blend proved to be attractive. The carob moth, Ectomyelois

  12. The Evolution and Expression of the Moth Visual Opsin Family

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaowei; Murphy, Robert W.; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R), blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies. PMID:24205129

  13. RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  14. Resolving The Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths

    E-print Network

    Ricarte, Angelo; Hughes, A Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P; Andrews, Sean M; Wilner, David J

    2013-01-01

    HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.9 arcsec that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution. The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constr...

  15. Resolving the Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the "wings" observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  16. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  17. Characterizing Psychophysical Measures of Discrimination Thresholds and the Effects of Concentration on Discrimination Learning in the Moth

    E-print Network

    Daly, Kevin Charles

    of Concentration on Discrimination Learning in the Moth Manduca sexta Kevin C. Daly, Lynnsey A. Carrell and Esther in the moth Manduca sexta. Moths were differentially conditioned to respond to one odor (CS+) but not another postconditioning, moths were tested for the presence of a conditioned response (CR) with a blank, then the CS

  18. Introduction The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwoods in New Hampshire. A native of Europe and

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Gypsy Moth Introduction The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwoods in New Hampshire. A native of Europe and Asia, the gypsy moth was introduced into NorthAmerica in 1869 when specimens were accidentally released in Medford, Massachusetts. Gypsy moth feeds on the leaves of many tree

  19. Moth's eye anti-reflection gratings on germanium freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Shultz, Jason A.; Owen, Joseph D.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    Germanium is commonly used for optical components in the infrared, but the high refractive index of germanium causes significant losses due to Fresnel reflections. Anti-reflection (AR) surfaces based on subwavelength "moth's eye" gratings provide one means to significantly increase optical transmission. As found in nature, these gratings are conformal to the curved surfaces of lenslets in the eye of the moth. Engineered optical systems inspired by biological examples offer possibilities for increased performance and system miniaturization, but also introduce significant challenges to both design and fabrication. In this paper, we consider the design and fabrication of conformal moth's eye AR structures on germanium freeform optical surfaces, including lens arrays and Alvarez lenses. Fabrication approaches and limitations based on both lithography and multi-axis diamond machining are considered. Rigorous simulations of grating performance and approaches for simulation of conformal, multi-scale optical systems are discussed.

  20. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  1. Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2015-01-01

    Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20–40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916

  2. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    PubMed

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts. PMID:25232708

  3. [pp. 367-380. In WE Wallner (ed.), PROCEEDINGS Lymantriidae: A Comparison of Features of New and Old World Tussock Moths. New Haven,

    E-print Network

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    include three introduced species which have become established in North America, the gypsy moth, Lymantria of the invading Lymantriids is the gypsy moth, which continues to spread in North America. With economically pseudotsugata (McD.), and the satin moth, to the more catholic appetites of the gypsy moth and browntail moth

  4. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  5. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  6. Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed Central

    Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times. PMID:10787157

  7. CONTROL OF INDIANMEAL MOTH USING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Indianmeal moth is an important economic pest in food storage facilities. Once the larva reaches the final stage, it will often wander in search of a pupation site. This stage is extremely difficult to kill with residual insecticides. Recent research with the insect growth regulators hydroprene...

  8. Bin sterilization to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine efficacious temperatures of hot water baths to prevent adult emergence, found baths at 80°C for > ...

  9. Mass Rearing of the Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    E-print Network

    campus. These apples were a mixture of 'Granny Smith' and 'Red Delicious' varieties The apples were Fresh, thinning apples provided the best diet for high yields and high pupal weights, but apple quality not be accomplished on apples alone Tolerance of oriental fruit moth to methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, sorbic acid

  10. Effects of Temperature and Controlled Atmospheres on Codling Moth Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although controlled atmosphere temperature treatments are effective in controlling codling moth in fruit, the mechanism by which this combination treatment kills the larvae is unknown. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the effects of elevated temperatures, low oxygen, and high ...

  11. Olethreutinae Moths of the Midwestern United States, An Identification Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of the moth family known as “leaf-rollers” cause millions of dollars of damage annually to forest, ornamental, and crop plants. This manuscript provides a review of a new book on the leaf-rollers of the Midwestern United States. Numerous pest species are included in this work, along with deta...

  12. Young Scientists Explore Butterflies and Moths. Book 4 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on butterflies and moths and their stages of development. The first section contains exercises on recognizing insect body…

  13. The De Havilland "Tiger Moth"a low wing monoplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    With a speed of 186.5 M.P.H. and an operational altitude of 20,000 feet the De Havilland Tiger Moth has caused comment as it was introduced just before the King's Cup race of 1927. It is a single seater with unusual control configuration due to the cramped cockpit area.

  14. Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

  15. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  16. Almond moth oviposition patterns in continuous layers of peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spatial distribution of eggs laid over a 48-h period by individual female almond moths, Cadra cautella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was examined in bioassays where peanuts covered either the center quarter (quarter-coverage) or the whole (whole-coverage) of a 120-cm square arena gridded into...

  17. Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed. PMID:18284745

  18. Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

  19. Dating Cactus: Annual and Sub-annual Variations of Oxygen-18, Carbon-13 and Radiocarbon in Spines of a Columnar Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettman, D. L.; English, N. B.; Sandquist, D. R.; Williams, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    We measured ?18O, ?13C and F14C of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro), to resolve a record of plant physiological responses to annual and sub-annual climate variation in the eastern Sonoran Desert. Spines grow from the apex of the cactus and are arranged serially along the side of the cactus oldest at the base, youngest at the apex. To establish the age of the spine series, we measured F14C of spines collected at 8 different heights from the apex (3.77 m) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. These spines yielded fractions of modern carbon (F14C) from 0.9679 and 1.5537, indicating the presence of carbon in spine tissue derived from atmospheric nuclear testing. We used the F14C of spine tissue to calculate the year of spine emergence for each of the 11 spines, assuming minimal re-allocation of stored carbon to growing spines. At the same 8 heights, we interpolated the date of spine emergence from observed height measurements made between 1964 and 2002. A very strong positive correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001) between the F14C age of spines and ages determined from direct height measurements was observed, with a two year offset suggesting incorporation of carbon from fossil fuel combustion sources in the Tucson basin. Additionally, spine tips from 97 spines collected serially from the top half of the same saguaro (between 1.77 and 3.50 m) and representing ~15 years of growth, yielded ?18O variations in spine bulk organic material from 38° to 50° (VSMOW) and in ?13C from ° to 11.5° (VPDB). The ?18O and ?13C values were positively correlated over the entire record (linear regression, r2 = 0.22, P < 0.0001). These variations occurred at or near an annual frequency. The most negative ?18O and ?13C values in bulk spine organic material from the naturally occurring cactus were observed in spines grown shortly following the 1983 and 1993 strong El Niño winter precipitation events in Tucson, suggesting that isotopes in spine tissue are a good proxy of these climate anomalies. We found similar ?18O, ?13C and F14C variations and relationships in a longer record (172 spines) from a 4.1 m tall saguaro 30 km distant. Temporal isotopic records from saguaro and potentially other long-lived succulent plants may provide useful high-frequency records of ecological responses to climate variation in desert environments where other such records are lacking.

  20. Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

  1. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  2. Fish and wildlife to determine endangered status of San Rafael Cactus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed to determine the endangered status of the San Rafael Cactus. Although the only known occurrences of the species do not appear to fall within the boundaries of the San Rafael Swell Special Tar Sands Area, nearby combined hydrocarbon leasing could be impacted. There are two known populations of Pediocactus despainii, about 25 miles apart and each containing 2000 to 3000 individuals. Both occur in central Utah (Emery County), mainly in areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management. This rare species is being sought be cactus collectors, one population is heavily impacted by recreational off-road vehicles, and approximately one-half of each population is in areas covered by oil and gas leases and/or mining claims for gypsum. If the species is determined to be endangered, then the Fish and Wildlife Service could define a critical habitat for its preservation.

  3. Divergence in Olfactory Host Plant Preference in D. mojavensis in Response to Cactus Host Use

    PubMed Central

    Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S.; Rollmann, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

  4. Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1981-02-18

    Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

  5. Cactus, Pixies, 04 Sept 09 Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor

    E-print Network

    Reiners, Peter W.

    Cactus, Pixies, 04 Sept 09 Em Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor G Em just wishin' that I had that dress when you di-yi-yi-yi-yine Em Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor G Em just wishin' that I had it to me Em Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor G Em just wishin' that I had something you wore #12;

  6. Intestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of pulp and seeds of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Moreno, E; Hervert-Hernández, D; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Díez-Marqués, C; Goñi, I

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the intestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of cactus pear using an in vitro gastrointestinal model. The amount of polyphenols released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes was about 69-83% in pulp and 0-14% in seeds. The rest of polyphenols was associated with indigestible compounds conferring antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that these compounds could reach the colon and induce healthy effects. PMID:22013923

  7. CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN PEACHES AND NECTARINES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two high-temperature, forced air treatments under controlled atmosphere conditions, were developed for control of all life stages of codling moth and oriental fruit moth infesting peaches and nectarines. These treatments were used in efficacy and confirmation tests to kill over 5,000 4th instar ori...

  8. Dark matter and gamma rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, Lars; Hooper, Dan

    2006-03-01

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to nonthermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco’s dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  9. Dark matter and gamma-rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, Lars; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma-rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma-rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to non-thermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  10. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Kelly R.; Kus, Barbara E.; Preston, Kristine; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence.

  11. Dark Matter and Gamma-Rays From Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    E-print Network

    Lars Bergstrom; Dan Hooper

    2006-01-03

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma-rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma-rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to non-thermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  12. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus).

    PubMed

    Barr, Kelly R; Kus, Barbara E; Preston, Kristine L; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy G

    2015-05-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence. PMID:25819510

  13. Transcriptional variation associated with cactus host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Kim; Matzkin, Luciano M; Bono, Jeremy M

    2015-10-01

    Although the importance of host plant chemistry in plant-insect interactions is widely accepted, the genetic basis of adaptation to host plants is not well understood. Here, we investigate transcriptional changes associated with a host plant shift in Drosophila mettleri. While D. mettleri is distributed mainly throughout the Sonoran Desert where it specializes on columnar cacti (Carnegiea gigantea and Pachycereus pringleii), a population on Santa Catalina Island has shifted to chemically divergent coastal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia littoralis). We compared gene expression of larvae from the Sonoran Desert and Santa Catalina Island when reared on saguaro (C. gigantea), coastal prickly pear and laboratory food. Consistent with expectations based on the complexity and toxicity of cactus relative to laboratory food, within-population comparisons between larvae reared on these food sources revealed transcriptional differences in detoxification and other metabolic pathways. The majority of transcriptional differences between populations on the cactus hosts were independent of the rearing environment and included a disproportionate number of genes involved in processes relevant to host plant adaptation (e.g. detoxification, central metabolism and chemosensory pathways). Comparisons of transcriptional reaction norms between the two populations revealed extensive shared plasticity that likely allowed colonization of coastal prickly pear on Santa Catalina Island. We also found that while plasticity may have facilitated subsequent adaptive divergence in gene expression between populations, the majority of genes that differed in expression on the novel host were not transcriptionally plastic in the presumed ancestral state. PMID:26384860

  14. Dark matter and gamma rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstroem, Lars; Hooper, Dan

    2006-03-15

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to nonthermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  15. Unusual presentation of cactus spines in the flank of an elderly man: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Splinters and spines of plant matter are common foreign bodies in skin wounds of the extremities, and often present embedded in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue. Vegetative foreign bodies are highly inflammatory and, if not completely removed, can cause infection, toxic reactions, or granuloma formation. Older patients are at increased risk for infection from untreated plant foreign bodies. The most common error in plant splinter and spine management is failure to detect their presence. Case presentation Here we report a case of cactus spines in an 84-year-old Caucasian man presenting on the right flank as multiple, red papules with spiny extensions. This presentation was unusual both in location and the spinous character of the lesions, and only after punch biopsy analysis was a diagnosis of cactus matter spines made. Conclusions Our patient presented with an unusual case of cactus spines that required histopathology for identification. Skin lesions with neglected foreign bodies are a common cause of malpractice claims. If not removed, foreign bodies of the skin, particularly in elderly individuals, can result in inflammatory and infectious sequela. This report underscores the importance of thoroughly evaluating penetrating skin lesions for the presence of foreign bodies, such as splinters and spines. PMID:20500838

  16. Bacteria Associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) Larvae and Their Cactus Host Isolatocereus dumortieri

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durbán, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Antón, Josefa; Marcos-García, María de los Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity. PMID:22132101

  17. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  18. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  19. Processing of Pheromone Information in Related Species of Heliothine Moths.

    PubMed

    Berg, Bente G; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    In heliothine moths, the male-specific olfactory system is activated by a few odor molecules, each of which is associated with an easily identifiable glomerulus in the primary olfactory center of the brain. This arrangement is linked to two well-defined behavioral responses, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecific females and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. The chance of comparing the characteristic properties of pheromone receptor proteins, male-specific sensory neurons and macroglomerular complex (MGC)-units in closely-related species is especially intriguing. Here, we review studies on the male-specific olfactory system of heliothine moths with particular emphasis on five closely related species, i.e., Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:26462937

  20. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids ( E)-?-caryophyllene, ( E)-?-farnesene and ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

  1. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  2. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  3. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to ‘cheat’ females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  4. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  6. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths. PMID:23913945

  7. Validation of CME Detection Software (CACTus) by Means of Simulated Data, and Analysis of Projection Effects on CME Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonte, K.; Jacobs, C.; Robbrecht, E.; de Groof, A.; Berghmans, D.; Poedts, S.

    2011-05-01

    In the context of space weather forecasting, an automated detection of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) becomes more and more important for efficiently handling a large data flow which is expected from recently-launched and future solar missions. In this paper we validate the detection software package "CACTus" by applying the program to synthetic data from our 3D time-dependent CME simulations instead of observational data. The main strength of this study is that we know in advance what should be detected. We describe the sensitivities and strengths of automated detection, more specific for the CACTus program, resulting in a better understanding of CME detection on one hand and the calibration of the CACTus software on the other hand, suggesting possible improvements of the package. In addition, the simulation is an ideal tool to investigate projection effects on CME velocity measurements.

  8. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. II. Growth promotion of cactus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Li, C Y; Bashan, Y

    2004-09-01

    Four bacterial species isolated from the rhizoplane of cacti growing in bare lava rocks were assessed for growth promotion of giant cardon cactus seedlings (Pachycereus pringlei). These bacteria fixed N(2), dissolved P, weathered extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone, and significantly mobilized useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in rock minerals. Cardon cactus seeds inoculated with these bacteria were able to sprout and grow normally without added nutrients for at least 12 months in pulverized extrusive igneous rock (ancient lava flows) mixed with perlite. Cacti that were not inoculated grew less vigorously and some died. The amount of useful minerals (P, K, Fe, Mg) for plant growth extracted from the pulverized lava, measured after cultivation of inoculated plants, was significant. This study shows that rhizoplane bacteria isolated from rock-growing cacti promote growth of a cactus species, and can help supply essential minerals for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375736

  9. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S

    2014-04-01

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae), were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone were attractive to P. orphisalis, whereas benzyl acetate, eugenol, cis-jasmone, limonene, linalool, methyl-2-methoxybenzoate, methyl salicylate, beta-myrcene, and 2-phenylethanol were not. When used in combination with phenylacetaldehyde, 4-oxoisophorone and methyl-2-methoxybenzoate increased catches of P. orphisalis in traps by -50%, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. A second crambid species, the false celery leaftier moth, Udea profundalis Packard, was also attracted to phenylacetaldehyde, but was not attracted to any other single-chemical lure. Cis-jasmone, limonene, and 4-oxoisophorone increased catches of U. profundalis by -50% when presented in traps with phenylacetaldehyde, while linalool increased the catch 2.5-fold, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. Both sexes of each species were similarly attracted to most of these lures. These findings provide chemical lures for trapping males and females of both P. orphisalis and U. profundalis. PMID:24772546

  10. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry. PMID:25977013

  11. Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

  12. Cryptically Patterned Moths Perceive Bark Structure When Choosing Body Orientations That Match Wing Color Pattern to the Bark Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang-ku; Moon, Jong-yeol; Lee, Sang-im; Jablonski, Piotr G.

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths’ behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

  13. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the...Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement...residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the...Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement...residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the...Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement...residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on...

  16. A Ph.D. studentship Changes in biodiversity of moths along an altitudinal gradient of Mt. Cameroon

    E-print Network

    A Ph.D. studentship Changes in biodiversity of moths along an altitudinal gradient of Mt. Cameroon and functional diversity of moth communities on Mt. Cameroon. The student will actively participate on field sampling (about 2 months every year) of selected groups of moths and their subsequent processing

  17. First-Order, Networked Control Models of Swarming Silkworm Moths Musad A. Haque, Magnus Egerstedt, and Clyde F. Martin

    E-print Network

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    First-Order, Networked Control Models of Swarming Silkworm Moths Musad A. Haque, Magnus Egerstedt to predict observed, biological behaviors. In particular, we study the silkworm moth, the Bombyx Mori, and we model these moths as first-order networks in which the male- male interactions are defined through

  18. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the...Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement...residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the...Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement...residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  2. Masting and trophic cascades: interplay between rowan trees, apple fruit moth, and their parasitoid in southern Norway

    E-print Network

    Masting and trophic cascades: interplay between rowan trees, apple fruit moth, and their parasitoid. 2004. Masting and trophic cascades: interplay between rowan trees, apple fruit moth of the dominant seed predator and its parasitoid. The apple fruit moth, Argyresthia conjugella Zeller, is a pre

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 53, NO. 4, AUGUST 2004 1113 Explosives Detection With Hard-Wired Moths

    E-print Network

    Daly, Kevin Charles

    Detection With Hard-Wired Moths Tony L. King, Member, IEEE, Frank M. Horine, Kevin C. Daly, and Brian H. Smith Abstract--Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled

  4. Studies of several species of moths have begun to reveal the physiological basis that underlies behavioral responses of

    E-print Network

    Daly, Kevin Charles

    Studies of several species of moths have begun to reveal the physiological basis that underlies tuned subsystem within the male moth's olfactory system, which presumably evolved because of the reliability of the pheromonal signal over evolutionary time (Smith, 1996). Moths like Manduca sexta, also

  5. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  8. Classification of Live Moths Combining Texture, Color and Shape Primitives Gustavo E. A. P. A. Batista, Bilson Campana, Eamonn Keogh

    E-print Network

    Batista, Gustavo

    Classification of Live Moths Combining Texture, Color and Shape Primitives Gustavo E. A. P. A malaria, beetles destroying forest or moths ruining crops, rely on knowing the locations of outbreaks) The adult Light Brown Apple Moth is harm- less to agriculture, however its larval form (right) causes

  9. Positive Interaction of a Feeding Attractant and a Host Kairomone for Trapping the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moths are attracted to acetic acid, and to ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester. Acetic acid is a product of microbial fermentation of sugars, and ethyl (E,Z)-decadienoate is an odorant of pear, which is a host of codling moth larvae. Many more male and female codlling moths were att...

  10. Summary We examined the effects of fertilization and gyp-sy moth defoliation on condensed tannin concentration (%CT)

    E-print Network

    Parry, Dylan

    control) and fertilization treatments (100 kg nitrogen (N) ha­1 and an unfertilized control). Gypsy moth of severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and of N fertilization on fine root condensedSummary We examined the effects of fertilization and gyp- sy moth defoliation on condensed tannin

  11. Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae A. M. Liebhold, K. F. Raffa* and A. L. Diss

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae A. M. Liebhold, K. F. Raffa* and A. L. Diss in low-density gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), popula- tions in established populations in north densities. 2 We compared small mammal communities and levels of predation on gypsy moth pupae among five

  12. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature-grown red and sugar maple on gypsy moth performance

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature-grown red and sugar maple on gypsy moth performance R A Y bagged larvae of the gypsy moth on leaves of red and sugar maple growing in open-top chambers in four CO2 water content of sugar maple leaves. Gypsy moth larval responses were dependent on tree species. Larvae

  13. Author's personal copy Mapping asynchrony between gypsy moth egg-hatch and forest leaf-out: Putting

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    Author's personal copy Mapping asynchrony between gypsy moth egg-hatch and forest leaf-out: Putting asyn- chrony from 2000 to 2010. Maps compared MODIS derived leaf-out with gypsy moth egg-hatch from the BioSIM insect phenology model. Mean temporal differences between gypsy moth egg-hatch and leaf

  14. SPECIAL FEATURE: REVIEW Allee Effects: Mating and Invasion The role of Allee effects in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.),

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    SPECIAL FEATURE: REVIEW Allee Effects: Mating and Invasion The role of Allee effects in gypsy moth causes of the Allee effect in the gypsy moth and highlight the importance of mate-finding failure dynamics of the gypsy moth system, which conceptually could serve as a model system for understanding how

  15. Geographical variation in the periodicity of gypsy moth outbreaks Derek M. Johnson, Andrew M. Liebhold and Ottar N. Bjrnstad

    E-print Network

    Geographical variation in the periodicity of gypsy moth outbreaks Derek M. Johnson, Andrew M variation in the periodicity of gypsy moth outbreaks. Á Ecography 29: 367Á374. The existence of periodic the range of a single Lepidopteran species. The exotic gypsy moth is an introduced foliage- feeding insect

  16. Biocontrol Characteristics of Bacillus Species in Suppressing Stem Rot of Grafted Cactus Caused by Bipolaris cactivora

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sooil; Kim, Sang Gyu; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important limiting factors for the production of the grafted cactus in Korea is the qualitative and quantitative yield loss derived from stem rots especially caused by Bipolaris cactivora. This study is aimed to develop microbial control agents useful for the control of the bipolaris stem rot. Two bacteria (GA1-23 and GA4-4) selected out of 943 microbial isolates because of their strong antibiotic activity against B. cactivora were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, respectively, by the cultural characteristics, Biolog program and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. Both bacterial isolates significantly inhibited the conidial germination and mycelial growth of the pathogen with no significant difference between the two, of which the inhibitory efficacies varied depending on the cultural conditions such as temperature, nutritional compositions and concentrations. Light and electron microscopy of the pathogen treated with the bacterial isolates showed the inhibition of spore germination with initial malformation of germ tubes and later formation of circle-like vesicles with no hyphal growth and hyphal disruption sometimes accompanied by hyphal swellings and shrinkages adjacent to the bacteria, suggesting their antibiotic mode of antagonistic activity. Control efficacy of B. subtilis GA1-23 and B. amyloliquefaciens GA4-4 on the cactus stem rot were not as high as but comparable to that of fungicide difenoconazole when they were treated simultaneously at the time of pathogen inoculation. All of these results suggest the two bacterial isolates have a good potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for the bipolaris stem rot of the grafted cactus. PMID:25288927

  17. Biocontrol Characteristics of Bacillus Species in Suppressing Stem Rot of Grafted Cactus Caused by Bipolaris cactivora.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sooil; Kim, Sang Gyu; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-03-01

    One of the most important limiting factors for the production of the grafted cactus in Korea is the qualitative and quantitative yield loss derived from stem rots especially caused by Bipolaris cactivora. This study is aimed to develop microbial control agents useful for the control of the bipolaris stem rot. Two bacteria (GA1-23 and GA4-4) selected out of 943 microbial isolates because of their strong antibiotic activity against B. cactivora were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, respectively, by the cultural characteristics, Biolog program and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. Both bacterial isolates significantly inhibited the conidial germination and mycelial growth of the pathogen with no significant difference between the two, of which the inhibitory efficacies varied depending on the cultural conditions such as temperature, nutritional compositions and concentrations. Light and electron microscopy of the pathogen treated with the bacterial isolates showed the inhibition of spore germination with initial malformation of germ tubes and later formation of circle-like vesicles with no hyphal growth and hyphal disruption sometimes accompanied by hyphal swellings and shrinkages adjacent to the bacteria, suggesting their antibiotic mode of antagonistic activity. Control efficacy of B. subtilis GA1-23 and B. amyloliquefaciens GA4-4 on the cactus stem rot were not as high as but comparable to that of fungicide difenoconazole when they were treated simultaneously at the time of pathogen inoculation. All of these results suggest the two bacterial isolates have a good potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for the bipolaris stem rot of the grafted cactus. PMID:25288927

  18. DISRUPTION OF MATING IN CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) BY AN ANTHRANILAMID INSECTICIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of the anthranilamid insecticide, DPX-E2Y45, was evaluated against the adult stage of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Insecticide residues sprayed in plastic cups had a minimal effect on adult survivorship or fecundity, however, significantly fewer female moths were mated in treated v...

  19. MATING DISRUPTION FOR CONTROL OF THE INDIANMEAL MOTH IN A WAREHOUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timed release of (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate using Michigan State Microsprayer system was tested for control of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, in an organically certified dried bean warehouse. Moth prevalence was monitored by three methods: 1) pheromone baited flight traps; 2) o...

  20. Feeding attractant lures to trap moths under the Alaska midnight sun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling moths in Alaska can be difficult due to the long days and short nights that might affect noctuid activity and capture. This trial was established to study noctuid activity in interior Alaska (20:04, light:dark cycle). Universal moth traps (UniTrap®, white bucket, yellow cone, green lid) wer...

  1. 76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United...regulated articles from generally infested areas to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth. Section 301.45-3 of the...

  2. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested...generally infested areas to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth. In accordance...area will be adequate to prevent the artificial interstate spread of infestations...

  3. 78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United...regulated articles from generally infested areas to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth. Section 301.45-3 of the...

  4. 75 FR 78587 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Ohio, and Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested...generally infested areas to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth. In accordance...area will be adequate to prevent the artificial interstate spread of infestations...

  5. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested...generally infested areas to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth. In accordance...area will be adequate to prevent the artificial interstate spread of infestations...

  6. Sterile Pink Bollworm Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Pheromone Emission and Courtship Success

    E-print Network

    Sterile Pink Bollworm Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Pheromone Emission and Courtship Success, California 92521 Environ Entomol 19(1):21-25 (1990) ABSTRACT Sterile female pink bollworm moths, Pectinophora not significantly different from field-collected females Sterile males ftom the same shipments were as successful

  7. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  8. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more p...

  9. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  10. Good News? Codling Moth Exhibits Negative Cross Resistance Between Guthion and Rimon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of adult codling moth from several field-collected populations and a laboratory-reared colony to residues of Rimon were evaluated in plastic cup adult bioassays. Both fecundity and successful egg hatch varied among populations. Populations of codling moth that exhibited the highest LC5...

  11. Revisiting an old question: Is the natural blend best for disruption of pheromone communication in moths?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-lived microlepidoptera must, by force, be very good at finding their mate and reproducing. Insects are very good at this and moths, in particular, are highly evolved to use volatile signals (pheromones) to communicate and locate conspecifics. The chemical structures of many pheromones of moths...

  12. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula;

    E-print Network

    Segraves, Kari A.

    Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula Received 2 October 2006; accepted for publication 30 May 2007 The yucca moths (Tegeticula of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically

  13. Replicated host-race formation in bogus yucca moths: genetic and ecological

    E-print Network

    Althoff, David M.

    Replicated host-race formation in bogus yucca moths: genetic and ecological divergence of Prodoxus quinquepunctellus on yucca hosts Glenn P. Svensson, 1,2 * David M. Althoff 1 and Olle Pellmyr 1 1 Department of Yucca elata and Y. rostrata in west Texas, USA. Results: Moths on the two yuccas differed significantly

  14. Geographic isolation trumps coevolution as a driver of yucca and yucca moth diversification.

    PubMed

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Smith, Christopher I; Leebens-Mack, James; Pellmyr, Olle

    2012-03-01

    Coevolution is thought to be especially important in diversification of obligate mutualistic interactions such as the one between yuccas and pollinating yucca moths. We took a three-step approach to examine if plant and pollinator speciation events were likely driven by coevolution. First, we tested whether there has been co-speciation between yuccas and pollinator yucca moths in the genus Tegeticula (Prodoxidae). Second, we tested whether co-speciation also occurred between yuccas and commensalistic yucca moths in the genus Prodoxus (Prodoxidae) in which reciprocal evolutionary change is unlikely. Finally, we examined the current range distributions of yuccas in relationship to pollinator speciation events to determine if plant and moth speciation events likely occurred in sympatry or allopatry. Co-speciation analyses of yuccas with their coexisting Tegeticula pollinator and commensalistic Prodoxus lineages demonstrated phylogenetic congruence between both groups of moths and yuccas, even though moth lineages differ in the type of interaction with yuccas. Furthermore, Yucca species within a lineage occur primarily in allopatry rather than sympatry. We conclude that biogeographic factors are the overriding force in plant and pollinator moth speciation and significant phylogenetic congruence between the moth and plant lineages is likely due to shared biogeography rather than coevolution. PMID:22178365

  15. Host specificity and reproductive success of yucca moths (Tegeticula spp. Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae) mirror patterns

    E-print Network

    Smith, Chris

    Host specificity and reproductive success of yucca moths (Tegeticula spp. Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae) mirror patterns of gene flow between host plant varieties of the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia: Agavaceae the role of natural selection on phenotype matching between yuccas and yucca moths (Tegeticula spp

  16. An aerial-hawking bat uses stealth echolocation to counter moth hearing.

    PubMed

    Goerlitz, Holger R; ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Zeale, Matt R K; Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2010-09-14

    Ears evolved in many nocturnal insects, including some moths, to detect bat echolocation calls and evade capture [1, 2]. Although there is evidence that some bats emit echolocation calls that are inconspicuous to eared moths, it is difficult to determine whether this was an adaptation to moth hearing or originally evolved for a different purpose [2, 3]. Aerial-hawking bats generally emit high-amplitude echolocation calls to maximize detection range [4, 5]. Here we present the first example of an echolocation counterstrategy to overcome prey hearing at the cost of reduced detection distance. We combined comparative bat flight-path tracking and moth neurophysiology with fecal DNA analysis to show that the barbastelle, Barbastella barbastellus, emits calls that are 10 to 100 times lower in amplitude than those of other aerial-hawking bats, remains undetected by moths until close, and captures mainly eared moths. Model calculations demonstrate that only bats emitting such low-amplitude calls hear moth echoes before their calls are conspicuous to moths. This stealth echolocation allows the barbastelle to exploit food resources that are difficult to catch for other aerial-hawking bats emitting calls of greater amplitude. PMID:20727755

  17. Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-01-01

    Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%. PMID:22096534

  18. Attraction of the gypsy moth to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Dahurian larch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Valimaki, Sanna; Shi, Juan; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Heliovaara, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory responses of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a major defoliator of deciduous trees, were examined in Inner Mongolia, China. We studied whether the gypsy moth adults are attracted by the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch) foliage and compared the attractiveness of the plant volatiles with that of the synthetic sex pheromone. Our results indicated that the VOCs of the Dahurian larch were effective in attracting gypsy moth males especially during the peak flight period. The VOCs also attracted moths significantly better than the sex pheromone of the moth. Our study is the first trial to show the responses of adult gypsy moths to volatile compounds emitted from a host plant. Electroantennogram responses of L. gmelinii volatiles on gypsy moths supported our field observations. A synergistic effect between host plant volatiles and sex pheromone was also obvious, and both can be jointly applied as a new attractant method or population management strategy of the gypsy moth. PMID:23016284

  19. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, K.W.

    1993-02-02

    The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

  20. Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Light brown apple moth Epiphyas postvittana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The light brown apple moth and agricultural commodities. Michigan risk maps for exotic plant pests. Other common names apple leafroller

  1. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for control for codling moth control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies evaluated the lethal effectiveness of combining yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV). Apples were treated with CpGV and three yeast species, including Metschnikowia pulcherrima Pitt and Miller, Cryptococcus tephrensis...

  2. Attractiveness of floral compounds to male and female moths in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl a...

  3. Attractiveness of binary blends of floral odorant compounds to moths in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl...

  4. CHEMICAL ATTRACTANTS FOR MOTHS, U.S. PATENT NO. 6.344.191

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositions and lures are described which provide synthetic chemical attractants which function as highly effective attractants for male and female moths, primarily moths of the family Noctuidae. In one aspect, the attractants provide an effective attractant amount of vapor of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3...

  5. The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

  6. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and...shadehouse or greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises...shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and larval damage;...

  7. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

  8. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined areas...of a State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector...reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

  9. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined areas...of a State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector...reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

  10. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and...shadehouse or greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises...shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and larval damage;...

  11. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

  12. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined areas...of a State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector...reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

  13. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined areas...of a State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector...reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

  14. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

  15. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and...shadehouse or greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises...shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and larval damage;...

  16. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and...shadehouse or greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises...shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and larval damage;...

  17. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

  18. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits. (a) An... greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises outside of a shadehouse or... 3 to 5 days prior to shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and...

  19. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  20. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits. (a) An... greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises outside of a shadehouse or... 3 to 5 days prior to shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and...

  1. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  2. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  3. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits. (a) An... greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises outside of a shadehouse or... 3 to 5 days prior to shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and...

  4. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits. (a) An... greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises outside of a shadehouse or... 3 to 5 days prior to shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and...

  5. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits. (a) An... greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises outside of a shadehouse or... 3 to 5 days prior to shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and...

  6. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  7. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  8. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined areas...of a State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector...reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

  9. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...the interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of...

  10. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jia; Zhang, Ziang; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin Wang, Dapeng

    2014-05-28

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  11. On the correlation of moth flight to characteristics of a turbulent plume

    E-print Network

    Hadad, Tal; Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Several mechanisms control male moth's navigation towards a female releasing sex pheromone. Optomotor anemotaxis is a visual mechanism for the moth flight direction relative to the ground, mechanoreceptors are used for calculating its speed relative to the air current and chemoreceptors on the antennae for sampling the pheromone concentration in the air. All together result in a zigzagging flight pattern of the male moth that depends on the characteristics of its encounters with the pheromone plume. The zigzagging flight pattern includes constant counter-turnings across the wind line in an angle up to 90 degree (casting). In this paper we address how air turbulence manifests the male flight behavior in respect to the streamwise current that carries the pheromone, emphasizing a relationship between the flight speed and the turbulent plume properties. The interaction between the moth flight and the flow field characteristics was examined in a wind tunnel where moth trajectory was recorded. Particle image veloci...

  12. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Dapeng; Weng, Zhankun

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  13. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

    2012-01-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

  14. Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a seri-ous pest of hardwoods in our state. Although this insect

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a seri- ous pest of hardwoods in our state in moth populations in 2000. This population increase serves as a reminder that, in areas where gypsy moth low to be noticed. Gypsy moth is a native of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. It was accidentally

  15. Development of high-throughput silicon lens and grism with moth-eye antireflection structure for mid-infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Imada, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Okada, Kazushi; Wada, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki

    2012-09-01

    We have been developing high-throughput optical elements with the moth-eye structures for mid-infrared optical systems. The moth-eye structures are optimized for the wavelength of 25-45?m. It consists of cones with a height of 15-20?m arranged at an interval of 5?m. They are formed on silicon substrate by electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. As a verification of the usefulness of moth-eye, a double-sided moth-eye silicon plane was fabricated. It shows a transmittance increase of 60% compared with the unprocessed silicon plane. As the first trial of the moth-eye optical element, two silicon lenses with single-sided moth-eye were fabricated. One is a plane-convex lens with the moth-eye on the convex surface. The size of the moth-eye formed region is 30 mm x 30 mm. Its focal length is 186 mm. The other one is a biconvex lens with moth-eye formed region of ? 33 mm and a focal length of 94 mm. Uniform moth-eye pattern was fabricated especially for the second lens sample. Imaging test with the first sample showed that neither image degradation nor focal length variation was induced by the moth-eye fabrication. As a step to grism with moth-eye, a moth-eye grating sample was fabricated. The grating pattern (Grating constant: 124.9?m, Blaze angle: 4 deg) was successfully fabricated with anisotropic etching. Moth-eye patterns were fabricated on the grating surface. Although the resulted moth-eye was successfully fabricated in the most regions, some non-uniformity was found. It can be attributed to unevenness of resist coating, and improvement of coating method is needed.

  16. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations appear buffered at present from potential deleterious effects of climate change by other ecological forces. PMID:24421221

  17. Use of Spineless Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for Dairy Goats and Growing Kids: Impacts on Milk Production, Kid's Growth, and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Mahouachi, M.; Atti, N.; Hajji, H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5?kg of hay and 0.4?kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5?kg of hay and 0.4?kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600?g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130?g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260?g?CP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485?ml for Control group and 407?ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones. PMID:22536135

  18. Avalanche dynamics of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus graph

    E-print Network

    Gregory Gauthier

    2012-04-29

    We investigate the avalanche dynamics of the abelian sandpile model on arbitrarily large balls of the expanded cactus graph (the Cayley graph of the free product $\\mathbb{Z}_3 * \\mathbb{Z}_2$). We follow the approach of Dhar and Majumdar (1990) to enumerate the number of recurrent configurations. We also propose the filling method of enumerating all the recurrent configurations in which adding a grain to a designated origin vertex (far enough away from the boundary vertices) causes topplings to occur in a specific cluster (a connected subgraph that is the union of cells, or copies of the 3-cycle) within the first wave of an avalanche. This filling method lends itself to combinatorial evaluation of the number of positions in which a certain number of cells topple in an avalanche starting at the origin, which are amenable to analysis using well-known recurrences and corresponding generating functions. We show that, when counting cells that topple in the avalanche, the cell-wise first-wave critical exponent of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus is 3/2.

  19. Dark Matter and the CACTUS Gamma-Ray Excess from Draco

    E-print Network

    Stefano Profumo; Marc Kamionkowski

    2006-02-16

    The CACTUS atmospheric Cherenkov telescope collaboration recently reported a gamma-ray excess from the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Draco features a very low gas content and a large mass-to-light ratio, suggesting as a possible explanation annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Draco dark-matter halo. We show that with improved angular resolution, future measurements can determine whether the halo is cored or cuspy, as well as its scale radius. We find the relevant WIMP masses and annihilation cross sections and show that supersymmetric models can account for the required gamma-ray flux. The annihilation cross section range is found to be not compatible with a standard thermal relic dark-matter production. We compute for these supersymmetric models the resulting Draco gamma-ray flux in the GLAST energy range and the rates for direct neutralino detection and for the flux of neutrinos from neutralino annihilation in the Sun. We also discuss the possibility that the bulk of the signal detected by CACTUS comes from direct WIMP annihilation to two photons and point out that a decaying-dark-matter scenario for Draco is not compatible with the gamma-ray flux from the Galactic center and in the diffuse gamma-ray background.

  20. Dark Matter and the CACTUS Gamma-Ray Excess from Draco

    E-print Network

    Profumo, S; Kamionkowski, Marc; Profumo, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The CACTUS atmospheric Cherenkov telescope collaboration recently reported a gamma-ray excess from the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Draco features a very low gas content and a large mass-to-light ratio, suggesting as a possible explanation annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Draco dark-matter halo. We show that with improved angular resolution, future measurements can determine whether the halo is cored or cuspy, as well as its scale radius. We find the relevant WIMP masses and annihilation cross sections and show that supersymmetric models can account for the required gamma-ray flux. We compute for these supersymmetric models the resulting Draco gamma-ray flux in the GLAST energy range and the rates for direct neutralino detection and for the flux of neutrinos from neutralino annihilation in the Sun. We also discuss the possibility that the bulk of the signal detected by CACTUS comes from direct WIMP annihilation to two photons and point out that a decaying-dark-matter scena...

  1. Are cactus growth forms related to germination responses to light? A test using Echinopsis species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Aparicio-González, Mónica; Galíndez, Guadalupe; del Fueyo, Patricia; Sühring, Silvia; Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of light regimen (white light vs. darkness) on the germination of 12 species of the Echinopsis genus (tribe Trichocereeae, Cactaceae). This genus presents a variety of growth forms and relatively small and uniform seed size. These traits allowed us to test, within the same linage and removing seed mass effect, the hypothesis that the germination response to light (indifferent to light or positive photoblastic) is related to growth form. Our results reject this hypothesis since no seeds germinated in darkness, so all of the species can be classified as being positively photoblastic. The proportion of seed germination with white light was significantly different among cactus growth forms. Columnar cacti (arborescent, creeping and short) showed a greater proportion of seed germination than barrel and globose cacti. The germination rate differed among growth forms and species. At constant temperatures, creeping columnar cacti presented a significantly higher germination rate than the other growth forms. With alternating temperatures, columnar cacti showed higher germination rates than the other growth forms. The low proportion of seeds that germinated for some species indicates that they show seed dormancy. Our results suggest that germination responses to light in the cactus family could be related to seed mass and phylogenetic constraints.

  2. The cactus worm : experiments with dynamic resource discovery and allocation in a grid environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.; Angulo, D.; Foster, I.; Lanfermann, G.; Liu, C.; Radke, T.; Seidel, E.; Shalf, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Albert-Einstein-Inst.; Univ. of Chicago; LBNL

    2001-01-01

    The ability to harness heterogeneous, dynamically available grid resources is attractive to typically resource-starved computational scientists and engineers, as in principle it can increase, by significant factors, the number of cycles that can be delivered to applications. However, new adaptive application structures and dynamic runtime system mechanisms are required if we are to operate effectively in grid environments. To explore some of these issues in a practical setting, the authors are developing an experimental framework, called Cactus, that incorporates both adaptive application structures for dealing with changing resource characteristics and adaptive resource selection mechanisms that allow applications to change their resource allocations (e.g., via migration) when performance falls outside specified limits. The authors describe the adaptive resource selection mechanisms and describe how they are used to achieve automatic application migration to 'better' resources following performance degradation. The results provide insights into the architectural structures required to support adaptive resource selection. In addition, the authors suggest that the Cactus Worm affords many opportunities for grid computing.

  3. Effect of extrusion cooking on bioactive compounds in encapsulated red cactus pear powder.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha G; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Ruiz-Anchondo, Teresita de J; Báez-González, Juan G; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen O

    2015-01-01

    Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C) and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm) using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm), color (L*, a*, b*), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the -0.0188 to -0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of -0.0122 to -0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products. PMID:25993418

  4. Effective directional self-gathering of drops on spine of cactus with splayed capillary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengcheng; Xue, Yan; Chen, Yuan; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    We report that the fast droplet transport without additional energy expenditure can be achieved on the spine of cactus (Gymnocalycium baldianum) with the assistance of its special surface structure: the cactus spine exhibits a cone-like structure covered with tilted scales. A single scale and the spine surface under it cooperatively construct a splayed capillary tube. The arrays of capillary tube formed by the overlapping scales build up the out layer of the spine. The serial drops would be driven by the asymmetric structure resulted from tilt-up scales-by-scales on the cone-shaped spine, and move directionally toward the bottom from top of spine, by means of the Laplace pressure in differences. In addition, after the past of the first droplet, thin liquid film of drop is trapped in the splayed capillary micro-tube on the surface of spine, which greatly reduces the friction of subsequential droplet transport in efficiency. This finding provides a new biological model which could be used to transport droplet spontaneously and directionally. Also this work offers a way to reduce the surface adhesion by constructing liquid film on the surface, which has great significance in prompting droplet transport efficiency. PMID:26639758

  5. Influence of Abscisic Acid and Sucrose on Somatic Embryogenesis in Cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma mostruosa

    PubMed Central

    Lema-Rumi?ska, J.; Goncerzewicz, K.; Gabriel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Having produced the embryos of cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma monstruosa at the globular stage and callus, we investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100??M on successive stages of direct (DSE) and indirect somatic embryogenesis (ISE). In the indirect somatic embryogenesis process we also investigated a combined effect of ABA (0, 0.1, 1??M) and sucrose (1, 3, 5%). The results showed that a low concentration of ABA (0-1??M) stimulates the elongation of embryos at the globular stage and the number of correct embryos in direct somatic embryogenesis, while a high ABA concentration (10–100??M) results in growth inhibition and turgor pressure loss of somatic embryos. The indirect somatic embryogenesis study in this cactus suggests that lower ABA concentrations enhance the increase in calli fresh weight, while a high concentration of 10??M ABA or more changes calli color and decreases its proliferation rate. However, in the case of indirect somatic embryogenesis, ABA had no effect on the number of somatic embryos and their maturation. Nevertheless, we found a positive effect of sucrose concentration for both the number of somatic embryos and the increase in calli fresh weight. PMID:23843737

  6. Phylogeography of the Cactophilic Drosophila and Other Arthropods Associated with Cactus Necroses in the Sonoran Desert

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiler, Edward; Markow, Therese A.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera) and arachnids (order Pseudoscorpiones). For most taxa studied, little genetic structure and high dispersal ability are found in populations inhabiting the mainland and Baja California peninsula regions of the Sonoran Desert, consistent with the availability of the rotting cactus microhabitat which is patchily distributed and ephemeral. There is evidence, however, that the Gulf of California, which bisects the Sonoran Desert, has played a role in limiting gene flow and promoting speciation in several taxa, including histerid beetles, whereas other taxa, especially Drosophila nigrospiracula and D. mettleri, apparently are able to freely cross the Gulf, probably by taking advantage of the Midriff Islands in the northern Gulf as dispersal “stepping stones”. Genetic evidence has also been found for historical population expansions dating to the Pleistocene and late Pliocene in several taxa. Overall, these studies have provided important insights into how arthropods with different life history traits, but generally restricted to a necrotic cactus microhabitat, have evolved in an environmentally harsh and tectonically active region. In addition, they suggest some taxa for further, and more detailed, hypothesis driven studies of speciation. PMID:26467624

  7. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. PMID:24621296

  8. Cactus pear cladodes powders as a source of dietary fibre: purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Carmen; Yoong, Maylin; Figuerola, Fernando; Chiffelle, Italo; María Estevez, Ana

    2012-05-01

    Cactus pear cladodes of 2-3 years were used to obtain a natural purified dietary fibre and their physical, chemical and technological properties were determined. The effect of particle size and washing temperature on the technological properties was studied. Purification produces a decrease in green colour (a*) and an increase in total dietary fibre but reduces the total phenolic compounds, mainly when cladodes are washed at higher temperatures. Technological properties did not present changes in the water retention capacity (WRC), water adsorption capacity and cationic exchange capacity, but it did in swelling capacity (SC), oil absorption capacity, apparent density and setting density, which were influenced by the particle size of the cactus powders. The purified fibre shows a high WRC between 5.20 and 5.86 g g(- 1) and a high SC (7.02-8.27 mL g(- 1)). Purified fibre with a particle size between 600 and 1200 ?m, independent of the washing temperature had better insoluble to soluble dietary fibre ratio, total phenolic content and technological properties. PMID:21995545

  9. Effective directional self-gathering of drops on spine of cactus with splayed capillary arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Xue, Yan; Chen, Yuan; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    We report that the fast droplet transport without additional energy expenditure can be achieved on the spine of cactus (Gymnocalycium baldianum) with the assistance of its special surface structure: the cactus spine exhibits a cone-like structure covered with tilted scales. A single scale and the spine surface under it cooperatively construct a splayed capillary tube. The arrays of capillary tube formed by the overlapping scales build up the out layer of the spine. The serial drops would be driven by the asymmetric structure resulted from tilt-up scales-by-scales on the cone-shaped spine, and move directionally toward the bottom from top of spine, by means of the Laplace pressure in differences. In addition, after the past of the first droplet, thin liquid film of drop is trapped in the splayed capillary micro-tube on the surface of spine, which greatly reduces the friction of subsequential droplet transport in efficiency. This finding provides a new biological model which could be used to transport droplet spontaneously and directionally. Also this work offers a way to reduce the surface adhesion by constructing liquid film on the surface, which has great significance in prompting droplet transport efficiency. PMID:26639758

  10. Veterinary pediatrics of butterflies, moths, and other invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Emmel, Thomas C

    2012-05-01

    In the life cycle of invertebrate animals, the typical life history includes the egg and larval stage, which may be called the pediatric phases, representing development up to the point where the animal reaches adulthood with fully functional reproductive organs and full adult characteristics of morphology, coloration, physiology, and behavior. These typical immature or pediatric stages are found in both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. This article reviews the factors that impact the health and survival of juvenile stages of butterflies and moths in particular, and what can be done to extend veterinarian care and advice to clients to invertebrate problems. PMID:22640542

  11. Analysis of factors that affect the potential of star fruit (Averhoa Bilimbi) and cactus (Gymnocalycium Hossei) extracts as alternative battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, Sitti; Agnesstacia

    2014-03-01

    This research analyzes the factors that affect the work of the battery from the star fruit extract and the cactus extract. The value voltage and current generated are measure the work of the battery. Voltage measurement based on the electrode distance function, and electrode surface area. Voltage as a surface area electrode function and electrode distance function determined the current density and the voltage generated. From the experimental results obtained that the battery voltage is large enough, it is about 1.8 V for the extract of star fruit, and 1.7 V for the extract of cactus, which means that the juice extract from star fruit and the juice extract of cactus can become an alternative as battery replacement. The measurements with different electrode surface area on the star fruit and cactus extract which has the depth of the electrode 0.5 cm to 4 cm causes a decrease in the electric current generated from 12.5 mA to 1.0 mA, but obtained the same voltage.

  12. Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2005-04-01

    The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naive big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable-an aposematic signal. PMID:15772807

  13. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold. PMID:21989514

  14. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Breinholt, Jesse W.

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly–moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  15. A recombination suppressor contributes to ecological speciation in OSTRINIA moths.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, C B; Li, X; Dopman, E B

    2015-06-01

    Despite unparalleled access to species' genomes in our post-genomic age, we often lack adequate biological explanations for a major hallmark of the speciation process-genetic divergence. In the presence of gene flow, chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions are thought to promote divergence and facilitate speciation by suppressing recombination. Using a combination of genetic crosses, phenotyping of a trait underlying ecological isolation, and population genetic analysis of wild populations, we set out to determine whether evidence supports a role for recombination suppressors during speciation between the Z and E strains of European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis). Our results are consistent with the presence of an inversion that has contributed to accumulation of ecologically adaptive alleles and genetic differentiation across roughly 20% of the Ostrinia sex chromosome (~4 Mb). Patterns in Ostrinia suggest that chromosomal divergence may involve two separate phases-one driving its transient origin through local adaptation and one determining its stable persistence through differential introgression. As the evolutionary rate of rearrangements in lepidopteran genomes appears to be one of the fastest among eukaryotes, structural mutations may have had a disproportionate role during adaptive divergence and speciation in Ostrinia and in other moths and butterflies. PMID:25626887

  16. Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests. PMID:24662468

  17. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  18. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  19. [Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. in the South Urals: Patterns in population dynamics and modelling].

    PubMed

    Soukhovolsky, V G; Ponomarev, V I; Sokolov, G I; Tarasova, O V; Krasnoperova, P A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is conducted on population dynamics of gypsy moth from different habitats of the South Urals. The pattern of cyclic changes in population density is examined, the assessment of temporal conjugation in time series of gypsy moth population dynamics from separate habitats of the South Urals is carried out, the relationships between population density and weather conditions are studied. Based on the results obtained, a statistical model of gypsy moth population dynamics in the South Urals is designed, and estimations are given of regulatory and modifying factors effects on the population dynamics. PMID:26201216

  20. Mapping and recombination analysis of two moth colour mutations, Black moth and Wild wing spot, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Katsuma, S; Kuwazaki, S; Jouraku, A; Fujimoto, T; Sahara, K; Yasukochi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tabunoki, H; Yokoyama, T; Kadono-Okuda, K; Shimada, T

    2016-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects exhibit body colour variations, where the high phenotypic diversity observed in the wings and bodies of adults provides opportunities for studying adaptive morphological evolution. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, two genes responsible for moth colour mutation, Bm and Ws, have been mapped to 0.0 and 14.7?cM of the B. mori genetic linkage group 17; however, these genes have not been identified at the molecular level. We performed positional cloning of both genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the moth wing- and body-colour patterns in B. mori. We successfully narrowed down Bm and Ws to ~2-Mb-long and 100-kb-long regions on the same scaffold Bm_scaf33. Gene prediction analysis of this region identified 77 candidate genes in the Bm region, whereas there were no candidate genes in the Ws region. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis in Bm mutant detected chromosome inversion, which explains why there are no recombination in the corresponding region. The comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the candidate regions of both genes shared synteny with a region associated with wing- and body-colour variations in other lepidopteran species including Biston betularia and Heliconius butterflies. These results suggest that the genes responsible for wing and body colour in B. mori may be associated with similar genes in other Lepidoptera. PMID:26219230

  1. The effects of cactus inspired spines on the aerodynamics of a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Benjamin; Liu, Yingzheng

    2013-05-01

    The effect of cactus-like spines on the topology and the dynamics of the flow past a stationary or pivoted cylinder are experimentally studied. The experiments are performed either in a water channel or a wind tunnel at low to moderate Reynolds number (390-12 500). The instantaneous velocity field is recorded using TR-PIV and investigated for three different configurations: no spines, short spines (0.1D) and long spines (0.2D). The results show how the spines are able to slow the flow past the cylinder and then increase the recirculation area by up to 128% while the maximum fluctuating kinetic energy intensity is decreased by up to 35%. Moreover, the spines have a significant effect on the vortex shedding and the dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder, thus significantly reducing both the amplitude and the frequency at which a pivoted cylinder oscillates.

  2. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

    2002-05-07

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

  3. Corrective action plan for CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) verbally requested approval for the schedule to be accelerated from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1997. Currently, field closure activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963.

  4. A cactus-derived toxin-like cystine knot Peptide with selective antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Aboye, Teshome L; Strömstedt, Adam A; Gunasekera, Sunithi; Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham; Rosengren, K Johan; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    Naturally occurring cystine knot peptides show a wide range of biological activity, and as they have inherent stability they represent potential scaffolds for peptide-based drug design and biomolecular engineering. Here we report the discovery, sequencing, chemical synthesis, three-dimensional solution structure determination and bioactivity of the first cystine knot peptide from Cactaceae (cactus) family: Ep-AMP1 from Echinopsis pachanoi. The structure of Ep-AMP1 (35 amino acids) conforms to that of the inhibitor cystine knot (or knottin) family but represents a novel diverse sequence; its activity was more than 500 times higher against bacterial than against eukaryotic cells. Rapid bactericidal action and liposome leakage implicate membrane permeabilisation as the mechanism of action. Sequence homology places Ec-AMP1 in the plant C6-type of antimicrobial peptides, but the three dimensional structure is highly similar to that of a spider neurotoxin. PMID:25821084

  5. The origins of an important cactus crop, Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae): new molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Griffith, M Patrick

    2004-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica is a long-domesticated cactus crop that is important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. The biogeographic and evolutionary origins of this species have been obscured through ancient and widespread cultivation and naturalization. The origin of O. ficus-indica is investigated through the use of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nrITS DNA sequences. These analyses support the following hypotheses: that O. ficus-indica is a close relative of a group of arborescent, fleshy-fruited prickly pears from central and southern Mexico; that the center of domestication for this species is in central Mexico; and that the taxonomic concept of O. ficus-indica may include clones derived from multiple lineages and therefore be polyphyletic. PMID:21652337

  6. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive. PMID:24650181

  7. Water availability and the competitive effect of a columnar cactus on its nurse plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Martínez, Arturo; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador

    1998-02-01

    A field study was conducted in a semi-arid tropical ecosystem in Mexico to test whether competition for soil water is the causal mechanism underlying the negative effect of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia tetetzo on its nurse plant Mimosa luisana and to examine how this relationship varies over time. The effect of irrigation was evaluated by recording the production of leaves, modules (i.e. internodes with an axillary bud), inflorescences and fruits in shrubs growing either isolated or associated with juvenile or adult columnar cacti. 4 001 of water, in five doses of 801 each every 15 d, were added to the treatment plants; no water other than rainfall was added to control plants. Additionally, to evaluate how the effect of the columnar cacti on the shrubs may vary among years we made a comparison of the production of plant structures between 2 years of contrasting rainfall. The irrigation treatment increased the production of modules, inflorescences and fruits, but not of leaves. Shrub response to watering was also dependent on class of association: those associated with juvenile cacti showed a higher response to irrigation than any other treatment. Our results show that water addition increases the production of structures and partially reduces the negative effect of the cactus on nurse shrub, thus supporting the hypothesis of competition for water. The negative effect of the cacti on their nurse plants was present during both years of observations, but the intensity of the negative effect varies from relatively wet to dry years. The results are discussed in relation to how temporal changes in resource availability affect the results of competitive interactions and the importance of this mechanism in the structure and dynamics of this dryland community.

  8. Differences in Tolerance to Host Cactus Alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ignacio M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M.; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  9. Differences in tolerance to host cactus alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ignacio M; Carreira, Valeria P; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  10. INSECT FLIGHT. Luminance-dependent visual processing enables moth flight in low light.

    PubMed

    Sponberg, Simon; Dyhr, Jonathan P; Hall, Robert W; Daniel, Thomas L

    2015-06-12

    Animals must operate under an enormous range of light intensities. Nocturnal and twilight flying insects are hypothesized to compensate for dim conditions by integrating light over longer times. This slowing of visual processing would increase light sensitivity but should also reduce movement response times. Using freely hovering moths tracking robotic moving flowers, we showed that the moth's visual processing does slow in dim light. These longer response times are consistent with models of how visual neurons enhance sensitivity at low light intensities, but they could pose a challenge for moths feeding from swaying flowers. Dusk-foraging moths avoid this sensorimotor tradeoff; their nervous systems slow down but not so much as to interfere with their ability to track the movements of real wind-blown flowers. PMID:26068850

  11. Floral CO2 emission may indicate food abundance to nectar-feeding moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerenstein, Pablo G.; Yepez, Enrico A.; van Haren, Joost; Williams, David G.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2004-07-01

    As part of a study of the roles of the sensory subsystem devoted to CO2 in the nectar-feeding moth Manduca sexta, we investigated CO2 release and nectar secretion by flowers of Datura wrightii, a preferred hostplant of Manduca. Datura flowers open at dusk and wilt by the following noon. During the first hours after dusk, when Manduca feeds, the flowers produce considerable amounts of nectar and emit levels of CO2 that should be detectable by moths nearby. By midnight, however, both nectar secretion and CO2 release decrease significantly. Because nectar production requires high metabolic activity, high floral CO2 emission may indicate food abundance to the moths. We suggest that hovering moths could use the florally emitted CO2 to help them assess the nectar content before attempting to feed in order to improve their foraging efficiency.

  12. Onboard computers in moths and seaslugsmay revolutionize neurobiology and computer science

    E-print Network

    Combes, Stacey A.

    #12;Onboard computers in moths and seaslugsmay revolutionize neurobiology and computer science I. In addition, the information gained ftom these onboard devices may help inspire the design of future computers

  13. Moth eye antireflection coated GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Arto; Tommila, Juha; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Niemi, Tapio; Guina, Mircea

    2014-09-01

    The performance of a GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell incorporating AlInP moth eye antireflection coating is reported and compared with the performance of a similar cell comprising TiO2/SiO2 antireflection coating. The moth eye coating exhibits an average reflectance of only 2% within the spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm. EQE measurements revealed absorption-related losses in the AlInP moth eye coating at wavelengths below 510 nm. Short wavelength absorption decreases the current generation in the top GaInP junction by 10%. Despite the absorption losses, the moth eye patterned GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell exhibited higher current generation under AM1.5G real sun illumination.

  14. Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

  15. Susceptibility of the Strawberry Crown Moth Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the strawberry crown moth, Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) larvae to two species of entomopathogenic nematodes(Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) Agriotos and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Steiner) Oswego). Nematodes...

  16. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl ?11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  17. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  18. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended. PMID:24026215

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  20. q-deformations and the dynamics of the larch bud-moth population cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Sudharsana V.; Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of q-deformation of numbers is applied here to improve and modify a tritrophic population dynamics model to understand defoliation of the coniferous larch trees due to outbreaks of the larch bud-moth insect population. The results are in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, with the larch needle lengths, bud-moth population and parasitoid populations all showing 9-period cycles which are mutually synchronized.