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1

Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

2

VIRUSES IN LABORATORY-REARED CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Successful rearing of large numbers of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is vital to the success of a control program against this moth. Moths are partially sterilized by exposure to radiation and then released to mate with wild individuals. The progeny of wild and irradiated moths are sterile...

3

Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

4

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

5

Trail marking by larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum.  

PubMed

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bio- assays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intra- specific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

Fitzgerald, Terrence D; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

2014-01-01

6

Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the number of times that males of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) mate under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were provided to each male at 24 h intervals until male death. Females removed from the containers were dissected to ascertain their mating ...

7

Mating frequency of the male cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the effects of three constant temperatures (20°, 25° and 30°C) on the rate of development and life history of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). Results from these laboratory experiments were used to predict C. cactorum rate of development in the field during...

8

Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

9

Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

SciTech Connect

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Laboratory, PO Box 748, Tifton, GA 31794 (United States); Styer, E.L. [University of Georgia, Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, PO Box 1389, Tifton, GA 31794 (United States)

2007-03-15

10

Trail marking by the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to t...

11

COMPARATIVE PHENOLOGY OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM AND MELITARA PRODENIALIS (LEPIDOPTERA): PESTS OF CACTUS IN FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We surveyed native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta) at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL from September 2006 – September 2007 for the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum and the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis. Every week, we visually counted the numbers and reco...

12

75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The South American cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) is a grayish-brown moth with a wingspan of 22 to 35 millimeters (approximately 0.86 to 1.4 inches) that is indigenous to Argentina, southern Brazil,...

2010-12-27

13

The Multiple 'Personalities' of Cactoblastis cactorum: A Multi-Disciplinary Response to the Biological Impacts of the Moth's Geographical Wanderings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus feeding pyralid Cactoblastis cactorum is perhaps the most well know successful classical biological control agent against weeds when attacking non-native prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.). However, the moth has become a pest in North America where it attacks native Opuntia spp.; threat...

14

CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE VALIDATION STUDY RESULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, in 1989 this moth was detected in the Florida Keys and has now become an invasive pest in the southea...

15

Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) as a possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern United States as we...

16

LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS FOR CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IMMATURES AND ADULTS UNDER FIVE DIFFERENT CONSTANT TEMPERATURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported in Florida in 1989, and is expanding its geographical range in the United States to threaten Opuntia cactus in the southwestern states and Mexico where it is an important economic crop. Laboratory life history studie...

17

EXPANDING GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Observational surveys and virgin female-baited traps have identified the continued spread of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The moth is infesting native and ornamental cacti north to Charleston, SC and west to St. George Island, FL. ...

18

SURVEY FOR EGG PARASITOIDS ATTACKING CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN NORTH FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in the natural enemies of Cactoblastis cactorum, a cactus moth native from Argentina, has increased since its accidental introduction to Bahia Honda Key, Florida, in October 1989. In 1957, C. cactorum was introduced onto the Caribbean islands of the Greater Antilles to manage the invasive p...

19

Rearing Cactoblastis cactorum on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum Berg, is an invasive species that threatens economically and ecologically important native cacti in Mexico and the U.S. southwest. The insect presently occurs along the coastal U.S. from Charleston, SC, to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL, and in the interi...

20

Effect of temperature and length of exposure time on percent egg hatch of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The oligophagous cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), has been recognized as a serious and immediate threat to Opuntia cacti in Florida and the southeastern United States. The moth has successfully colonized new geographical ranges with lower annual temperatures north of the Florida Keys wher...

21

Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.  

PubMed

As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations. PMID:24665701

López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

2014-02-01

22

Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...

23

A CHARACTER DEMONSTRATING THE OCCURRENCE OF MATING IN MALE CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arrival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), in the southeastern United States in 1989 (Mahr 2001), and its steady progress westward to the Opuntia -growing re- gions of Mexico and the southwestern United States have resulted in research on the develop- ment of control measures to halt or slow the movement of the insect. The most promising con-

G. M ARTI; J AMES

24

A CHARACTER DEMONSTRATING THE OCCURRENCE OF MATING IN MALE CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small footb...

25

Geographic patterns of genetic diversity from the native range of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) support the documented history of invasion and multiple introductions for invasive populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spread of the invasive cactus-feeding moth Cactoblastis cactorum has been well documented since its export from Argentina to Australia as a biocontrol agent, and records suggest that all\\u000a non-native populations are derived from a single collection in the moth’s native range. The subsequent global spread of the\\u000a moth has been complex, and previous research has suggested multiple introductions into North

Travis D. MarsicoLisa; Lisa E. Wallace; Gary N. Ervin; Christopher P. Brooks; Jessica E. McClure; Mark E. Welch

2011-01-01

26

Diversity in Control and Management Techniques for Cactoblastis cactorum and Its Response in its Adventive North American Range  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp. However, multiple unintentional arrivals of C. cactorum in North America represent an economical and ecological threat to native Opun...

27

Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for the Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A CLIMEX was developed for the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records, and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX “growth indices” against field measur...

28

76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Since the South American cactus moth larvae are internal feeders, they are difficult to detect during...that source. Nevertheless, APHIS and Agricultural Marketing Service internal reports, as well as informed APHIS staff,...

2011-02-23

29

The evolution of obligate pollination mutualisms: senita cactus and senita moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new obligate pollination mutualism involving the senita cactus, Lophocereus schottii (Cactaceae, Pachyceereae), and the senita moth, Upiga virescens (Pyralidae, Glaphyriinae) in the Sonoran Desert and discuss the evolution of specialized pollination mutualisms. L. schottii is a night-blooming, self-incompatible columnar cactus. Beginning at sunset, its flowers are visited by U. virescens females, which collect pollen on specialized abdominal

Theodore H. Fleming; J. Nathaniel Holland

1998-01-01

30

A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

SciTech Connect

The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Protection and Management Research Service, P.O. Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793 (United States)

2007-03-15

31

Cactus  

SciTech Connect

The CACTUS project (computer-aided control, tracking, and updating system) was initiated by the Bendix Kansas City Division to address specific work-in-process problems encountered in a cable department. Since then, the project has been expanded to additional electrical manufacturing departments because of potential productivity gains from the system. The philosophy of CACTUS is to add an element of distributed data proessing to the centralized data processing system currently in use for control of work in process. Under this system, the existing chain of communications between the host computer and the CRT terminals in a department is severed. A mini-computer established in the department communicates directly with the central system, and departmental communication is then established with the mini-computer. The advantages, disadvantages, operation performance, and economics of the system are discussed.

Sexton, R.L.

1983-03-01

32

Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

33

75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection; South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY: Animal...prevent the spread of South American cactus moth. DATES: We will consider all comments...prevent the spread of South American cactus moth, contact Dr. Robyn Rose, Program...

2010-11-19

34

Selecting for Tolerance against Pathogens and Herbivores to Enhance Success of Reintroduction  

E-print Network

amphibian chytrid fungus ( Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]) and the other on the herbivorous cactus moth, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Cactoblastis cactorum, cactus moth, captive breeding, chytridiomycosis, non

Rohr, Jason

35

Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates.  

PubMed

Invasive pests, such as the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), have not reached equilibrium distributions and present unique opportunities to validate models by comparing predicted distributions with eventual realized geographic ranges. A CLIMEX model was developed for C. cactorum. Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX "growth indices" against field measurements of larval growth. Globally, CLIMEX predicted limited potential distribution in North America (from the Caribbean Islands to Florida, Texas, and Mexico), Africa (South Africa and parts of the eastern coast), southern India, parts of Southeast Asia, and the northeastern coast of Australia. Actual records indicate the moth has been found in the Caribbean (Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands), Cuba, Bahamas, Puerto Rico, southern Africa, Kenya, Mexico, and Australia. However, the model did not predict that distribution would extend from India to the west into Pakistan. In the United States, comparison of the predicted and actual distribution patterns suggests that the moth may be close to its predicted northern range along the Atlantic coast. Parts of Texas and most of Mexico may be vulnerable to geographic range expansion of C. cactorum. Larval growth rates in the field were estimated by measuring differences in head capsules and body lengths of larval cohorts at weekly intervals. Growth indices plotted against measures of larval growth rates compared poorly when CLIMEX was run using the default historical weather data. CLIMEX predicted a single period conducive to insect development, in contrast to the three generations observed in the field. Only time and more complete records will tell whether C. cactorum will extend its geographical distribution to regions predicted by the CLIMEX model. In terms of small scale temporal predictions, this study suggests that CLIMEX indices may agree with field-specific population dynamics, provided an adequate metric for insect growth rate is used and weather data are location and time specific. PMID:20388265

Legaspi, Benjamin C; Legaspi, Jesusa Crisostomo

2010-04-01

36

Insect Systematics & Evolution (Group 3) Phylogeny of the cactus-feeding phycitines and their relatives  

E-print Network

© Insect Systematics & Evolution (Group 3) Phylogeny of the cactus-feeding phycitines Simonsen, T.J.: Phylogeny of the cactus-feeding phycitines and their relatives (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae 1399-560X. The cactus-feeding Phycitinae are a New World group of moth genera that has long been

Simonsen, Thomas

37

Cholla Cactus  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A Cholla cactus growing in Pine Creek Canyon. Red Rock Canyon is a National Conservation Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management, located just outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. It is part of the Mojave Desert....

38

TURNING THE TIDE – USING THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MITIGATE AN UNWANTED WEED BIOCONTROL AGENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically contr...

39

The Brownian cactus I Scaling limits of discrete cactuses  

E-print Network

The Brownian cactus I Scaling limits of discrete cactuses Nicolas Curien, Jean-Fran¸cois Le Gall, Gr´egory Miermont February 19, 2011 Abstract The cactus of a pointed graph is a discrete tree-tree called the contin- uous cactus of E. We prove under general assumptions that the cactus of random planar

Le Gall, Jean-François

40

The Brownian cactus I Scaling limits of discrete cactuses  

E-print Network

The Brownian cactus I Scaling limits of discrete cactuses Nicolas Curien, Jean-Fran¸cois Le Gall, Gr´egory Miermont February 20, 2011 Abstract The cactus of a pointed graph is a discrete tree-tree called the contin- uous cactus of E. We prove under general assumptions that the cactus of random planar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

Bird's Nest in Cactus  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A bird's nest in a cholla cactus in Pine Creek Canyon. The bird is likely a cactus wren, a species that nests specifically in cacti. Pine Creek Canyon is a remnant ecosystem of loblolly pines. A remnant ecosystem is the last vestige of an ecosystem type that used to be more widespred. Red Rock Can...

42

The Brownian Cactus I. Scaling limits of discrete cactuses  

E-print Network

The cactus of a pointed graph is a discrete tree associated with this graph. Similarly, with every pointed geodesic metric space $E$, one can associate an $\\R$-tree called the continuous cactus of $E$. We prove under general assumptions that the cactus of random planar maps distributed according to Boltzmann weights and conditioned to have a fixed large number of vertices converges in distribution to a limiting space called the Brownian cactus, in the Gromov-Hausdorff sense. Moreover, the Brownian cactus can be interpreted as the continuous cactus of the so-called Brownian map.

Curien, Nicolas; Miermont, Grégory

2011-01-01

43

Cactus Tools for Grid Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus is an open source problem solving environment designed for scientists and engineers... portals, such as those already developed for Cactus, will open the door to global computing resources for scientific users.

Gabrielle Allen; Werner Benger; Thomas Dramlitsch; Tom Goodale; Hans-christian Hege; Gerd Lanfermann; André Merzky; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel; John Shalf

2001-01-01

44

Yeast communities of the cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae and associated insects in the Sandy Coastal Plains of Southeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast communities from necrotic tissues, decaying flowers and fruits, and from larval feeding sites of the mothSigelgaita sp. in the cactusPilosocereus arrabidae were surveyed in three restinga ecosystems in Southeastern Brazil. Insects associated with these substrates were sampled to verify the vectoring of yeasts. The cactusPilosocereus arrabidae was shown to have four different yeast communities associated with it. Necrotic

Carlos A. Rosa; Paula B. Morais; Allen N. Hagler; Leda C. Mendonça-Hagler; Ricardo F. Monteiro

1994-01-01

45

Identifying the C. cactorum Pheromone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), is an invasive pest of Opuntia spp. Since its arrival in the Florida Keys in 1989, it has moved rapidly up the east and west coasts of Florida, threatening to invade the southwestern United States and Mexico. Female moths produce a sex pheromone that ...

46

Performance Profiling with Cactus Sasanka Madiraju  

E-print Network

Performance Profiling with Cactus Benchmarks Sasanka Madiraju April 6th, 2006 System Science Master.3 Contributions and People Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Cactus Toolkit: Benchmarks 6 2.1 Cactus Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2 Types

Allen, Gabrielle

47

UK Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprehensive guide to the moths of Great Britain and Ireland, with photographs of live specimens, common and scientific names, and notes on biology. The aim of the site is to illustrate as many species of British moths as possible and to provide this information in an accessible format.

Kimber, Ian

48

Waxworm moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waxworm moths emerge from the silk cocoon and are able to mate. The females lay eggs. A female moth can invade a weak honeybee hive and lay her eggs there. After they hatch, the larvae will eat the honey and the hive wax, destroying the hive.

T. W. Davies (California Academy of Sciences;)

2005-01-01

49

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. Müller (None;)

2002-05-18

50

Peppered Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the peppered moth activity is to model the effects of natural selection on the appearance and genetic make-up of a natural population. By adjusting the amount of pollution in the environment, the student is able to see the differences in the frequencies of light and dark moths in the population. The student may also investigate the survival differences between dominant and recessive genes when one phenotype has a selective advantage over the other.

Maryland Virtual High School

51

Cactus Graphs for Genome Comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a data structure, analysis and visualization scheme called a cactus graph for comparing sets of related genomes. Cactus graphs capture some of the advantages of de Bruijn and breakpoint graphs in one unified framework. They naturally decompose the common substructures in a set of related genomes into a hierarchy of chains that can be visualized as multiple alignments and nets that can be visualized in circular genome plots.

Paten, Benedict; Diekhans, Mark; Earl, Dent; St. John, John; Ma, Jian; Suh, Bernard; Haussler, David

52

Betalains from Christmas cactus.  

PubMed

The presence of 14 betalain pigments have been detected by their characteristic spectral properties in flower petals of Christmas cactus (Schlumbergera x buckleyi). Along with the known vulgaxanthin I, betalamic acid, betanin and phyllocactin (6'-O-malonylbetanin), the structure of a new phyllocactin-derived betacyanin was elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques and carbohydrate analyses as betanidin 5-O-(2'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-6'-O-malonyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosid e. Among the more complex betacyanins occurring in trace amounts, the presence of a new diacylated betacyanin ¿betanidin 5-O-[(5"-O-E-feruloyl)-2'-O-beta-D- apiofuranosyl-6'-O-malonyl)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside¿ has been ascertained. Furthermore, the accumulation of betalains during flower development and their pattern in different organs of the flower has been examined. PMID:10897484

Kobayashi, N; Schmidt, J; Nimtz, M; Wray, V; Schliemann, W

2000-06-01

53

Cactus: HPC infrastructure and programming tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cactus provides computational scientists and engineers with a collaborative, modular and portable programming environment for parallel high performance computing. Cactus can make use of many other technologies for HPC, such as Samrai, HDF5, PETSc and PAPI, and several application domains such as numerical relativity, computational fluid dynamics and quantum gravity are developing open community toolkits for Cactus.

Collaborative Effort

2011-02-01

54

The Cactus Framework: Design, Applications and  

E-print Network

1 The Cactus Framework: Design, Applications and Future Directions Gabrielle Allen gallen 7/22/06 Cactus Code · Freely available, modular, portable and manageable environment/22/06 Cactus User Community Goddard Penn State Wash UAEI TACTuebingen Southampton SISSA Thessaloniki Earth

Allen, Gabrielle

55

Component Specification in the Cactus Framework: The Cactus Configuration Language  

E-print Network

Component frameworks are complex systems that rely on many layers of abstraction to function properly. One essential requirement is a consistent means of describing each individual component and how it relates to both other components and the whole framework. As component frameworks are designed to be flexible by nature, the description method should be simultaneously powerful, lead to efficient code, and be easy to use, so that new users can quickly adapt their own code to work with the framework. In this paper, we discuss the Cactus Configuration Language (CCL) which is used to describe components ("thorns'') in the Cactus Framework. The CCL provides a description language for the variables, parameters, functions, scheduling and compilation of a component and includes concepts such as interface and implementation which allow thorns providing the same capabilities to be easily interchanged. We include several application examples which illustrate how community toolkits use the CCL and Cactus and identify nee...

Allen, Gabrielle; Löffler, Frank; Rideout, David; Schnetter, Erik; Seidel, Eric L

2010-01-01

56

Learning about Moths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

1996-01-01

57

CACTUS-Clustering Categorical Data Using Summaries Venkatesh Ganti* Johannes Gehrket Raghu Ramakrishnant  

E-print Network

CACTUS-Clustering Categorical Data Using Summaries Venkatesh Ganti* Johannes Gehrket Raghu calledCACTUS thatdiscoversexactly suchclusters in the data. CACTUS hastwo important characteristics.Our experimentson avariety of datasetsshowthat CACTUS outperformspreviouswork by afactorof 3 to 10. Second, CACTUS

Hinneburg, Alexander

58

Cactus seed germination: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review tries to give a general overview of the available information on cactus seed germination. First, information about the family Cactaceae is discussed, concerning aspects such as distribution and general characteristics. Seed distinctive features are mentioned, such as colour, form, and size. Aspects of seed physiology, such as germination and dormancy, as well as seed dynamics including dispersal,

Mariana Rojas-Aréchiga; Carlos Vázquez-Yanes

2000-01-01

59

Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

60

Laboratory biological parameters of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichogramma fuentesi Torre was identified attacking Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), a serious pest of Opuntia spp. in North America, raising the possibility of using this egg parasitoid as an inundative biological control agent. Studies were conducted to assess the biological parameters of this para...

61

"Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

62

Cactus Grid Computing: Review of Current Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus is an open source problem solving environment designed for scientists and engineers. Its modular structure facilitates parallel computation across di erent architectures and collaborative code development between different groups. Here we detail some of the various Grid Tools which have been developed around the Cactus Code, and describe the Grid experiments which have been performed to test their application.

Gabrielle Allen; Werner Benger; Thomas Dramlitsch; Tom Goodale; Hans-christian Hege; Gerd Lanfermann; André Merzky; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel

2001-01-01

63

Cactus Application: Performance Predictions in Grid Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cactus software is representative for a whole class of scientific applications; typically those that are tightly coupled, have reg- ular space decomposition, and huge memory and processor time require- ments. Cactus proved to be a valuable tool for astrophysicists, who first initiated its development. However, today's fastest supercomputers are not powerful enough to perform realistically large astrophysics simula- tions

Matei Ripeanu; Adriana Iamnitchi; Ian T. Foster

2001-01-01

64

An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, the ethanol extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) showed potent anti-inflammatory action. In the present study, following fractionation of the methanol extract of cactus stems guided by adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation model in mice, an active anti-inflammatory principle has been isolated and identified as ?-sitosterol.

Eun-Hee Park; Ja-Hoon Kahng; Sang Hyun Lee; Kuk-Hyun Shin

2001-01-01

65

Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu  

E-print Network

Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu Implementation of Level Set Methods in Cactus Framework By Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu #12;Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan Corneliu be a powerful tool to handle such problems computationally #12;Level set methods in Cactus Carbunescu Razvan

Allen, Gabrielle

66

Cactus: Algorithms for genome multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Much attention has been given to the problem of creating reliable multiple sequence alignments in a model incorporating substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Far less attention has been paid to the problem of optimizing alignments in the presence of more general rearrangement and copy number variation. Using Cactus graphs, recently introduced for representing sequence alignments, we describe two complementary algorithms for creating genomic alignments. We have implemented these algorithms in the new “Cactus” alignment program. We test Cactus using the Evolver genome evolution simulator, a comprehensive new tool for simulation, and show using these and existing simulations that Cactus significantly outperforms all of its peers. Finally, we make an empirical assessment of Cactus's ability to properly align genes and find interesting cases of intra-gene duplication within the primates. PMID:21665927

Paten, Benedict; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Diekhans, Mark; Zerbino, Daniel; Haussler, David

2011-01-01

67

DOES URBANIZATION AFFECT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CACTUS WREN ROOST NESTS? Cactus Wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) are a common bird native to  

E-print Network

DOES URBANIZATION AFFECT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CACTUS WREN ROOST NESTS? Cactus Wrens in the urban environment. A characteristic behavior of Cactus Wrens is they build and maintain roost nests. This was a preliminary investigation to determine if Cactus Wren roost nests serve to maintain an internal microclimate

Hall, Sharon J.

68

CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

1984-01-01

69

Use of cactus in mortars and concrete  

SciTech Connect

Natural polymers have been used in ancient times to improve the durability of lime-based mortars and concretes. The natural polymers used were locally available. In this work, cactus extract from Mexico has been tested in a Portland cement mortar. It is seen that cactus extract increases the plasticity of the mortar and improves water absorption and freeze-salt resistance. Calcium hydroxide produced by Portland cement hydration interacts with the components of cactus extract, polysaccharides or proteins, and forms complexes. It affects the crystallization process. Painting of the concrete with this extract has also shown improved water resistance.

Chandra, S. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eklund, L. [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Villarreal, R.R. [Univ. of Nuevo Leon, Monterry (Mexico)] [Univ. of Nuevo Leon, Monterry (Mexico)

1998-01-01

70

Cholla cactus from the Sonora desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cacti have few leaves and waxy skin to reduce water loss, shallow root systems, and the ability to store water. The cholla cactus has thousands of spines for shade and to keep predators from eating it.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

71

A cactus theorem for end cuts  

E-print Network

Dinits-Karzanov-Lomonosov showed that it is possible to encode all minimal edge cuts of a graph by a tree-like structure called a cactus. We show here that minimal edge cuts separating ends of the graph rather than vertices can be `encoded' also by a cactus. We apply our methods to finite graphs as well and we show that several types of cuts can be encoded by cacti.

Evangelidou, Anastasia

2011-01-01

72

Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O'Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. (US Geological Survey (US)); Kreidler, T.J. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1990-01-01

73

CACTUS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizes LOGO to teach the concept of inequalities by programing the turtle to take random walks in the coordinate plane restricted to predetermined regions defined by inequalities. The students task is to discover the inequalities that define the illegal areas into which the turtle must not move. Provides examples and corresponding computer…

Hyde, Hartley

1992-01-01

74

Cactus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cacti are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Cacti use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce.

N/A N/A (None; )

2005-07-17

75

Supporting Efficient Execution in Heterogeneous Distributed Computing Environments with Cactus  

E-print Network

Supporting Efficient Execution in Heterogeneous Distributed Computing Environments with Cactus-enabled computational framework based on Cactus, the MPICH-G2 Grid-enabled message-passing library, and a variety

Southern California, University of

76

Exploration of Constantly Connected Dynamic Graphs Based on Cactuses  

E-print Network

Exploration of Constantly Connected Dynamic Graphs Based on Cactuses David Ilcinkas, Ralf Klasing consider the same problem and we suppose that the underlying graph is a cactus graph (a connected graph

Ilcinkas, David

77

Implementation of a Binary Tree Driver (OAKc) in Cactus  

E-print Network

Implementation of a Binary Tree Driver (OAKc) in Cactus Jeff DeReus Center for Computation requirements #12;Cactus Code Framework · http://www.cactuscode.org · Open source development designed primarily Allen ­ Assistant Director for Computing Applications · Tom Goodale ­ Chief Architect of the Cactus Code

Allen, Gabrielle

78

The Cactus Worm: Experiments with Dynamic Resource Discovery and Allocation  

E-print Network

The Cactus Worm: Experiments with Dynamic Resource Discovery and Allocation in a Grid Environment an experimental framework, called Cactus, that incorporates both adaptive application structures for dealing suggest that this "Cactus Worm" is an interesting challenge problem for Grid computing. 1 Introduction

Angulo, Dave

79

CACTUS: Automated Tutorial Course Generation for Software Applications  

E-print Network

CACTUS: Automated Tutorial Course Generation for Software Applications Federico García Escuela difficulties in mastering current highly interactive systems. In this paper we describe CACTUS, an interactive system used to develop tutorial courses for software applications. CACTUS tutorial courses provide more

80

Integration of Trilinos Into The Cactus Code Framework  

E-print Network

Integration of Trilinos Into The Cactus Code Framework Josh Abadie Research programmer Center for Computation & Technology Louisiana State University #12;Summary · Motivation · Objectives · The Cactus Code in Scientific Computing because of this complexity · Frameworks, like Cactus and libraries, like Trilinos

Allen, Gabrielle

81

The De Havilland "Moth"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

1926-01-01

82

Gypsy Moth in North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Sandy Liebhold at the USDA's Forest Service Northeastern Research Station (Forestry Sciences Laboratory), this Gypsy Moth site provides background information on Gypsy Moths, from their introduction to North America in the 1800s through current management efforts to control them. Ecological information on the moths' life cycle, forest relationships, and natural enemies is provided, in addition to several useful and informative maps on distribution. A selection of Gypsy Moth links are also included.

83

An action of the cactus group  

E-print Network

We construct an action of the big cactus group (the fundamental group of the Deligne-Mumford compactification of the moduli space of real curves of genus zero with n undistinguished marked points) on Fock-Goncharov's SL_m analog of the decorated Teichmuller space of ideal n-gons.

Henriques, Andre

2007-01-01

84

Phytochemical and nutritional significance of cactus pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses cactus pear fruit with special emphasis on its functional components. Besides their nutritional importance, their significance in plant physiology is also described. Opuntia sp. is characterized by high levels of amino acids, especially proline and taurine. The latter was recently re-evaluated in nutritional science as a conditional amino acid and was hitherto virtually unknown in plant tissues.

Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; R. Carle

2001-01-01

85

Oak Processionary Moth -Thaumetopoea processionea  

E-print Network

Oak Processionary Moth - Thaumetopoea processionea Summary of activity 2007 to 2009 #12;23 March and traps - 2008 Total Nests - 506 Total Moths -182 #12;23 March Interested Parties Meeting6 Pheromone Traps of nests and traps - 2009 Map 2 Year Nests 2009 2400 2008 506 2007 708 Moths 2009 166 (*136 traps) 2008 182

86

Genetic differentiation, speciation, and phylogeography of cactus flies (Diptera: Neriidae: Odontoloxozus) from  

E-print Network

Genetic differentiation, speciation, and phylogeography of cactus flies (Diptera: Neriidae differentiation, systematics, and population structure of cactus flies (Diptera: Neriidae: Odontoloxozus) from', are common inhabitants of Sonoran Desert cactus necroses, and indepth studies on these species have provided

Markow, Therese

87

The cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) in Southern California| Haplotype comparisons among coastal and inland populations.  

E-print Network

?? The Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus : Troglodytidae), a highly sedentary, nonmigratory bird is distributed among cactus-dominated habitats of the southwest United States and Mexico,… (more)

Teutimez, Matthew Robert

2012-01-01

88

Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance  

E-print Network

GM-6 Gypsy Moths--Forest Threat & Public Nuisance Gypsy moths are insects with a big appetite for oaks and other common trees. Gypsy moth caterpillars, which grow up to 2 inches long, can strip trees the air. Gypsy moths like to hide their eggs in cracks and crevices. Look for gypsy moth on anything

Ginzel, Matthew

89

Gypsy Moth Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

Hamel, Dennis R.

90

Chemistry of Moth Repellents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

Pinto, Gabriel

2005-01-01

91

Banded Sunflower Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

92

Annealing a Magnetic Cactus into Phyllotaxis  

E-print Network

The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by 2-D Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental "magnetic cactus" precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single spiral) phyllotaxis.

Nisoli, Cristiano; Lammert, Paul E; Maynard, J D; Crespi, Vincent H

2010-01-01

93

Annealing a Magnetic Cactus into Phyllotaxis  

E-print Network

The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by 2-D Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental "magnetic cactus" precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single spiral) phyllotaxis.

Cristiano Nisoli; Nathaniel M. Gabor; Paul E. Lammert; J. D. Maynard; Vincent H. Crespi

2010-02-03

94

Annealing a magnetic cactus into phyllotaxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone, and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental “magnetic cactus” precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single-spiral) phyllotaxis.

Nisoli, Cristiano; Gabor, Nathaniel M.; Lammert, Paul E.; Maynard, J. D.; Crespi, Vincent H.

2010-04-01

95

Doing numerical cosmology with the Cactus code  

E-print Network

The article presents some aspects concerning the construction of a new thorn for the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. This thorn is completely dedicated to numerical simulations in cosmology, that means it can provide evolutions of different cosmological models, mainly based on Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric. Some numerical results are presented, testing the convergence, stability and the applicability of the code.

Vulcanov, D N

2002-01-01

96

Doing numerical cosmology with the Cactus code  

E-print Network

The article presents some aspects concerning the construction of a new thorn for the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. This thorn is completely dedicated to numerical simulations in cosmology, that means it can provide evolutions of different cosmological models, mainly based on Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric. Some numerical results are presented, testing the convergence, stability and the applicability of the code.

D. N. Vulcanov

2002-10-02

97

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus Wren  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Short, Henry L.

1985-01-01

98

Betacyanins from vine cactus Hylocereus polyrhizus.  

PubMed

The presence of betacyanin pigments and their isoforms has been detected in the fruit of Hylocereus polyrhizus, a vine cactus native to South America. Along with the known betanin and phyllocactin (6'-O-malonylbetanin), a new betacyanin was structurally elucidated as betanidin 5-O-[6'-O-(3"-hydroxy-3"-methyl-glutaryl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (proposed trivial name hylocerenin) by means of electrospray MS/MS, HPLC, and NMR techniques. PMID:11738409

Wybraniec, S; Platzner, I; Geresh, S; Gottlieb, H E; Haimberg, M; Mogilnitzki, M; Mizrahi, Y

2001-12-01

99

The Cactus Code: A Problem Solving Environment for the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus is an open source problem solving environment designed for scientists and engineers. Its modular structure facilitates parallel computation across different architectures and collaborative code development between different groups. The Cactus Code originated in the academic research community, where it has been developed and used over many years by a large international collaboration of physicists and computational scientists. We discuss

Gabrielle Allen; Werner Benger; Tom Goodale; Hans-christian Hege; Gerd Lanfermann; André Merzky; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel; John Shalf

2000-01-01

100

The Cactus Framework and Toolkit: Design and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe Cactus, a framework for building a variety of computing applications in science and engineering, including astrophysics, relativity and chemical engineering. We first motivate by example the need for such frameworks to support multi-platform, high performance applications across diverse communities. We then describe the design of the latest release of Cactus (Version 4.0) a complete rewrite of earlier versions,

Tom Goodale; Gabrielle Allen; Gerd Lanfermann; Joan Massó; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel; John Shalf

2002-01-01

101

Using Memory Mapping to Support Cactus Stacks in Work-Stealing Runtime Systems  

E-print Network

Using Memory Mapping to Support Cactus Stacks in Work-Stealing Runtime Systems I-Ting Angelina Lee a "cactus stack," wherein a function's accesses to stack variables properly respect the func- tion's calling, and · bounded and efficient use of memory for the cactus stack. We have addressed this cactus-stack problem

Huang, Zhiyi

102

Using Memory Mapping to Support Cactus Stacks in WorkStealing Runtime Systems  

E-print Network

Using Memory Mapping to Support Cactus Stacks in Work­Stealing Runtime Systems I­Ting Angelina Lee a ``cactus stack,'' wherein a function's accesses to stack variables properly respect the func­ tion, and . bounded and efficient use of memory for the cactus stack. We have addressed this cactus­stack problem

Leiserson, Charles E.

103

Caterpillars and moths.  

PubMed

Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies, and caterpillars) are an uncommon cause of adverse reactions in humans. Most reactions to Lepidoptera are mild and self-limited; however, reactions in sensitive individuals and reactions to particular species can be severe and life threatening. Specific syndromes caused by Lepidoptera include erucism (cutaneous reactions from contact with caterpillars, moths, or cocoons), lepidopterism (systemic involvement), ophthalmia nodosa (ocular involvement), dendrolimiasis and pararamose (each with joint symptoms relating to a specific species of caterpillar), lonomism (a severe hemorrhagic disease related to Lonomia species), and seasonal ataxia (related to ingestion of Anaphe venata). In most cases, reactions to Lepidoptera can be treated symptomatically with prompt removal of offending hairs. Antipruritic or anesthetic topical preparations, topical steroids, and oral antihistamines are often used. In the case of potentially fatal Lonomia envenomation, an effective antivenin has been manufactured. PMID:19580579

Hossler, Eric W

2009-01-01

104

Red clover with moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Red clover plants are producers. This means that they make their own energy and food and do not need to eat other organisms to gain energy and live. Red clover use the sun, water, and carbon dioxide to go through photosynthesis and make their own energy to grow, bloom, and reproduce. The moth drinking nectar from the bloom is a consumer because it relies on other organisms for energy.

Sage Ross (None;)

2007-09-23

105

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations and  

E-print Network

Oriental fruit moth in tree fruit The Oriental fruit moth has three full generations. The moths overwinter as full-grown larvae in cocoons in tree bark crevices, weed stems, trash on the ground. Are conditions right for Oriental fruit moth? Forecast models for Oriental fruit moth are available at Enviro

106

Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

GM-2-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q A GYPSY MOTH Q IN A COUNTY THAT IS QUARANTINED FOR GYP- SY MOTH. CAN I SHIP TREES TO UNINFESTED COUN- TIES? Not unless you get your crop inspected and certified as being free of all viable gypsy moth life stages from either

Ginzel, Matthew

107

Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

GM-1-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology THE GYPSY MOTH IN INDIANA Clifford S. Sadof Resources, Divsion of Entomology and Plant Pathology Gypsy Moth, the most serious forest and urban landscape food, but gypsy moth caterpillars can eat the foliage of 500 species of trees and plants. While most

Ginzel, Matthew

108

Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

GM-5-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q&A'S ABOUT PHEROMONES & CONTROLLING GYPSY MOTH Cliff Sadof, Department of Entomology, Purdue University Joe N. Caudell, Wildlife Biologist WHAT IS GYPSY MOTH PHEROMONE ? Gypsy moth pheromone (pronounced fair-o-moan) is a powerful scent

Ginzel, Matthew

109

Automatic species identification of live moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by

Michael Mayo; Anna T. Watson

2007-01-01

110

Tiger moth jams bat sonar.  

PubMed

In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects. PMID:19608920

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

2009-07-17

111

Duponchelia fovealisDuponchelia fovealis (Zeller)(Zeller) European Pepper MothEuropean Pepper Moth  

E-print Network

Duponchelia fovealisDuponchelia fovealis (Zeller)(Zeller) European Pepper MothEuropean Pepper Moth Agriculture Pest Survey program). The photographs of the European pepper moth were used with permission from

Watson, Craig A.

112

Butterflies and Moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn the different steps in the life cycle of a butterfly. Students will understand some of the differences between a moth and a butterfly BUTTERFLIES -Use the website below to find out information about the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterflies -Print off this worksheet and color the pictures of the life cycle of a butterfly. Butterfly Life Cycle Coloring Page -Click the link to the video. -Watch the video of a real butterfly going through the life cycle. Butterfly Life Cycle Video OR -If the video isn't ...

Sessions, Mrs.

2009-04-06

113

Moth hearing and sound communication.  

PubMed

Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals. PMID:25261361

Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

2015-01-01

114

DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

115

Determination of Antioxidant Constituents in Cactus Pear Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin,\\u000a myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids

José A. Fernández-López; Luís Almela; José M. Obón; Rosario Castellar

2010-01-01

116

Exploitation of Opuntia cactus by birds on the Galápagos  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1)There is a close association between Opuntia helleri (cactus) and Geospiza conirostris (cactus finch) on Isla Genovesa, and between Opuntia echios and Geospiza scandens on Isla Daphne Major. The two finch species consume nectar and pollen, pollinate the obligatorily out-crossing flowers, consume the aril around the seeds, crack the seeds and occasionally disperse them.(2)In the dry season the two finch

B. R. Grant; P. R. Grant

1981-01-01

117

Reproductive biology of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Mexico and USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apanteles opuntiarum, a parasitoid of cactus-feeding lepidopteran larvae, was incorrectly identified as A. alexanderi during the last 50 years. The discovery of A. opuntiarum as a new and separate species was followed by studies of its native host range. These studies revealed that the host range o...

118

Comparative cactus architecture and par interception  

SciTech Connect

Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1987-07-01

119

Moth Repellent Chemicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The featured molecules this month come from the paper The chemistry of moth repellents by Gabriel Pinto. Several of the molecules exhibit interesting structural features that students should explore. Hexachloroethane, not surprisingly, has energy minima in the staggered form that is shown. Students could be asked to look at the models for empenthrin and permethrin to see if they can see similar staggered arrangements in these more complex molecules. Camphor is a good way to introduce strained structures, and students can use the Jmol version of the model to measure bond angles to see if they can identify some of the consequences of this strain. The carbonyl moiety in camphor is interesting as it is non-planar.

120

Cactus and Visapult: An Ultra-High Performance Grid-Distributed Visualization Architecture  

E-print Network

1 Cactus and Visapult: An Ultra-High Performance Grid-Distributed Visualization Architecture Using to study gravitational waveforms of colliding black holes; The Cactus code. These improvements have boosted

121

Evolutionary consequences of dispersal ability in cactus-feeding insects Christopher Irwin Smith1,2,  

E-print Network

Evolutionary consequences of dispersal ability in cactus-feeding insects Christopher Irwin Smith1 and macroevolutionary patterns; this prediction is borne out by comparisons of species diversity in cactus

Farrell, Brian D.

122

Static and Dynamical Phyllotaxis in a Magnetic Cactus Cristiano Nisoli,1,3  

E-print Network

Static and Dynamical Phyllotaxis in a Magnetic Cactus Cristiano Nisoli,1,3 Nathaniel M. Gabor,2- pearance of the Fibonacci sequence and golden mean in the disposition of spines on a cactus is replicated

123

2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 1 ECOLOGY OF EASTERN PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS  

E-print Network

2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 1 ECOLOGY OF EASTERN PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS (OPUNTIA HUMIFUSA) IN OAK W. Central Ave. Toledo, OH 43615 ABSTRACT Opuntia humifusa (eastern prickly pear cactus) is listed. humifusa habitat in this region. INTRODUCTION Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. (eastern prickly pear cactus

Abella, Scott R.

124

American Journal of Botany 92(7): 11771188. 2005. BASAL CACTUS PHYLOGENY: IMPLICATIONS OF  

E-print Network

1177 American Journal of Botany 92(7): 1177­1188. 2005. BASAL CACTUS PHYLOGENY: IMPLICATIONS OF PERESKIA (CACTACEAE) PARAPHYLY FOR THE TRANSITION TO THE CACTUS LIFE FORM1 ERIKA J. EDWARDS,2,4 RETO, is generally viewed as representing the ``ancestral cactus,'' although its placement within Cactaceae has

Edwards, Erika J.

125

Efficient algorithms for generating all minimum cuts and the cactus representation of a graph  

E-print Network

Efficient algorithms for generating all minimum cuts and the cactus representation of a graph() time, where is the size of any min-cut. We discuss various properties of the cactus, and the algorithm by Karzanov and Timofeev to construct the cactus of an unweighted, undirected graph in O(n2 ) time. Here we

Prasad, Sanjiva

126

Plant Science Bulletin 53(2) 2007 The Organ Pipe Cactus. Yetman, David A. 2006.  

E-print Network

74 Plant Science Bulletin 53(2) 2007 The Organ Pipe Cactus. Yetman, David A. 2006. University and succinct account of the organ pipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi), especially its interactions with humans this charismatic cactus species as though he knows it personally, which ­ after almost a half century acquaintance

Gorelick, Root

127

International Association for Ecology Seasonal Patterns of Acid Fluctuations and Resource Storage in the Arborescent Cactus  

E-print Network

in the Arborescent Cactus Opuntia excelsa in Relation to Light Availability and Size Author(s): Manuel T. Lerdau, N of acid fluctuations and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia excelsa in relation to light light availability, diel acid fluctuation, and resource storage in the arborescent cactus Opuntia

Holbrook, N. Michele

128

Demography of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia macrocephala: a comparative approach using population projection matrices  

E-print Network

Demography of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia macrocephala: a comparative approach using is a long-lived columnar cactus endemic to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley in south-central Mexico. This plant predation could be some factors that limit the distribution and abun- dance of this columnar cactus

Banuet, Alfonso Valiente

129

126 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal RooT GoRELICK  

E-print Network

126 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal RooT GoRELICK Special Issue: Eastern Brazil Brasilicereus­6 meters tall, looking like an Amedeo Modigliani version of an organ pipe cactus. The primary trunks with watery, translucent pulp2, a somewhat useful character if you like to snack on cactus fruits in the field

Gorelick, Root

130

The Cactus Approach to Building Configurable Middleware Services Matti A. Hiltunen and Richard D. Schlichting  

E-print Network

The Cactus Approach to Building Configurable Middleware Services Matti A. Hiltunen and Richard D describe Cactus, a system that realizes this approach, and discuss some of the challenges in providing a number of different middleware services imple- mented using Cactus and outline some of the on-going work

Schlichting, Richard D.

131

The Brownian cactus II. Upcrossings and local times of super-Brownian motion  

E-print Network

The Brownian cactus II. Upcrossings and local times of super-Brownian motion Jean-François Le Gall the density at r of the profile of distances from the root. In terms of the Brownian cactus, this gives be reformulated in terms of the Brownian cactus discussed in [5]. Recall that, with any pointed geodesic compact

Le Gall, Jean-François

132

Compact Cactus-Shaped Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) Monopole on Organic Symeon Nikolaou*(1)  

E-print Network

Compact Cactus-Shaped Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) Monopole on Organic Substrate Symeon Nikolaou*(1, U.S.A. simos@ece.gatech.edu Abstract: The implementation of a novel cactus-shaped monopole antenna-segments broadband antennas proposed in [4-5] do not cover the whole UWB range. In this paper, a compact cactus

Tentzeris, Manos

133

Optimal Data Structures for Farthest-Point1 eries in Cactus Networks2  

E-print Network

Optimal Data Structures for Farthest-Point1 eries in Cactus Networks2 Prosenjit Bose Jean-Lou De, cycles, uni-cyclic networks, and cactus networks.11 1 Introduction12 Consider the continuum of points, and cactus networks. We begin with data structures for simple22 networks and then use them as building blocks

Smid, Michiel

134

Aerodynamic loads on cactus-shaped cylinders at low Reynolds numbers Pradeep Babu and Krishnan Mahesha  

E-print Network

Aerodynamic loads on cactus-shaped cylinders at low Reynolds numbers Pradeep Babu and Krishnan numerical simulations of flow past cactus-shaped cylinders are performed at Reynolds numbers of 20, 100. The cavities in the cactus-shaped cylinders are seen to reduce the forces acting on them. At Reynolds number

Mahesh, Krishnan

135

RealTime Issues in Cactus \\Lambda Matti A. Hiltunen, Xiaonan Han, and Richard D. Schlichting  

E-print Network

Real­Time Issues in Cactus \\Lambda Matti A. Hiltunen, Xiaonan Han, and Richard D. Schlichting­configurable real­time channel abstraction built using this approach is also given. This work is part of the Cactus­time operating system [16] on a cluster of Pentium PCs. 2 Configurable Real­Time Services The focus of the Cactus

Schlichting, Richard D.

136

American Journal of Botany 92(7): 1177-1188. 2005. BASAL CACTUS PHYLOGENY: IMPLICATIONS OF  

E-print Network

American Journal of Botany 92(7): 1177-1188. 2005. BASAL CACTUS PHYLOGENY: IMPLICATIONS OF PERESKIA (CACTACEAE) PARAPHYLY FOR THE TRANSITION TO THE CACTUS LIFE FORM' ERIKA J. EDWARDS, 2 '4 RETO NYFFELER, 3 as representing the "ancestral cactus," although its placement within Cactaceae has remained uncertain. Here we

Donoghue, Michael

137

A role for CKII phosphorylation of the Cactus PEST domain in dorsoventral  

E-print Network

A role for CKII phosphorylation of the Cactus PEST domain in dorsoventral patterning proteolysis of Cactus, the cytoplasmic inhibitor of the Rel-related transcription factor Dorsal, is an essential step in patterning of the Drosophila embryo. Signal-induced Cactus degradation frees Dorsal

138

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 56 A Magical Cactus Trip  

E-print Network

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 56 A Magical Cactus Trip Michael Cera clutches a San Pedro cactus, the object of his character's quest. (Photo courtesy of Diroriro Production Company.) #12;CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES, UC BERKELEY 57Spring 2014 A Magical Cactus Trip by James Gerardo Lamb

Kammen, Daniel M.

139

Automatic Species Identification of Live Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species,\\u000a was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature\\u000a vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by

Michael Mayo; Anna T. Watson

2007-01-01

140

Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

GM-4-W Gypsy Moth in Indiana Department of Entomology Q A Q A Q A Q A Q&A'S ABOUT USING BTK TO CONTROL GYPSY MOTH Cliff Sadof & Adam Witte, Department of Entomology, Purdue University Jodie Ellis, Executive Director at Idaho Board of Veterinary Medicine WHAT IS THE GYPSY MOTH, AND WHY IS IT A PROB- LEM

Ginzel, Matthew

141

Antennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths  

E-print Network

Antennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths Sanjay P. Sane,1 * Alexandre Dieudonné,1 from the antennae serves a similar role during flight in hawk moths, which are four-winged insects. The antennae of flying moths vibrate and experience Coriolis forces during aerial maneuvers. The antennal

Daniel, Tom

142

Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae)  

E-print Network

Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae) The oak processionary moth is a major defoliator of oak in Europe. The larvae (caterpillars) feed on the foliage of many growing next to severely defoliated oaks. Oak processionary moth is also a risk to human health

143

Introduction The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella  

E-print Network

Introduction The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is considered to be the most are tiny, colorless to Diamondback Moth in Virginia Roberto J. Cordero, Graduate Student, Department of Entomology, Eastern Shore AREC, Virginia Tech. Fig. 1. Diamondback moth eggs. yellow, and have a dark head

Liskiewicz, Maciej

144

EGRES Quick-Proof No. 2009-03 1 A quick proof for the cactus representation of  

E-print Network

EGRES Quick-Proof No. 2009-03 1 A quick proof for the cactus representation of mincuts Tam by a cactus, a graph built up from edge-disjoint circuits in a tree-like manner. Keywords: minimum cut, cactus-mail: frank@cs.elte.hu April 2009 #12;T. Fleiner and A. Frank: A quick proof for the cactus representation

Frank, András

145

Implementing Integrated FineGrain Customizable QoS using Cactus Matti A. Hiltunen, Richard D. Schlichting, and Gary Wong  

E-print Network

Implementing Integrated Fine­Grain Customizable QoS using Cactus Matti A. Hiltunen, Richard D attributes in tradeoff situa­ tions. 2. The Cactus approach The Cactus approach to constructing highly of prototypes of the Cactus model have been implemen

Schlichting, Richard D.

146

The flow past a cactus-inspired grooved cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The star-shaped cross section of giant cylindrical cactus plants is thought to be aerodynamically favorable for protection against toppling by strong winds. Particle image velocimetry is used to investigate the flow details within the surface grooves and in the immediate wake of a cactus-inspired model cylinder with eight longitudinal grooves, at biologically relevant Reynolds numbers between 50 × 103 and 170 × 103. The wake flow is analyzed and compared to a similarly sized circular cylinder. At the lowest Re tested, the wakes from the two geometries are similar. At higher Re, the cactus wake exhibits superior behavior as seen from the mean and turbulent velocities, suggesting that the flow mechanisms are Re dependent. The flow within the surface grooves reveals counter rotating rollers, while the geometrical ridges act as vortex generators known to help with the surface flow attachment. Lastly, a simplistic analysis is described to recover, qualitatively, certain time-dependent flow features from the randomly acquired PIV realizations.

El-Makdah, Adnan M.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

2013-02-01

147

Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

NONE

1997-02-01

148

Auditory system of noctuid moths.  

PubMed

Insect-eating bats find their aerial food by sonar, through emitting ultrasonic chirps and locating sources of echoes. Certain moths have ears sensitive to these chirps and can detect bats well beyond the range of the bats' sonar. On hearing a distant bat, many moths turn and fly directly away from the source of ultrasound. Only one sense cell in each ear of a moth provides the primary nervous information for this response. This article describes my initial attempts to find out how a moth's central nervous system processes the train of chirps reaching its two ears. The ear of a restrained moth is exposed to a sequence of artifically generated ultrasonic pulses that approximates the cries made by a bat. This stimulus can be varied with respect to ultrasonic frequency (pitch), pulse intensity, pulse duration, the interval between pulses, and pulse-train duration. The more sensitive acoustic sense cell responds to all frequencies between about 15,000 and 80,000 cycles per second, but the signal that it transmits to the moth's central nervous system contains no measure of frequency within this range. However, this nerve signal reports variations in the other parameters of the stimulus. The acoustic fiber connects, in the central nervous system, with various nerve cells that transform the signal farther. The signal from a pulse-marker neuron contains no measures of pulse intensity or pulse duration, reporting only changes in interpulse interval and pulse-train duration. A train-marker neuron reports only the duration of the pulse train. The stimulus parameters may be likened to keys, each of which is necessary to gain admittance through a given door but becomes superfluous once this door has been passed. This analogy suggests one of the ways in which a signal is transformed in its passage through the nervous system, and how its specificity is assured in eliciting a given response. In addition to undergoing this kind of transformation, neural signals generated in the two directionally sensitive ears must be combined if a flying moth is to steer a course away from a distant bat. Neurons have been discovered in the central ganglia which summate signals from the right and left ears. Other neurons are inhibited in their activity by stimulation of one ear. The moth may combine signals from these neurons with motor-nerve information on the attitude of its own wings, which act as oscillating baffles modifying its directional acoustic sensitivity 20 to 40 times a second as it flaps an erratic path through the darkness. PMID:5924920

Roeder, K D

1966-12-23

149

Codling moth of apples and pears The codling moth is a pest of apples and pears in the  

E-print Network

Codling moth of apples and pears The codling moth is a pest of apples and pears in the United or scaffolds. The first moth of the season usually appears shortly in late bloom or petal fall. Moths emerge, where the insecticides do not affect them. Are conditions right for codling moth? Forecast models

150

HISTORICAL GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION FREQUENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These da...

151

The pollination spectrum in the southwestern American cactus flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cacti of the American Southwest, defined as the region from southern California to Texas, are surveyed for types of pollination systems and their frequencies. Four types of pollination systems are known to occur in the southwestern cactus flora: bee, hummingbird, hawkmoth, and bat pollination. Two other modes are suspected but not documented: miscellaneous smallinsect pollination and autogamy.—Bee flowers comprise

Verne Grant; Karen A. Grant

1979-01-01

152

Mating system of Pachycereus pringlei: an autotetraploid cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mating system of the Mexican subdioecious columnar cactus, Pachycereus pringlei (Cardón), was examined by allozyme analysis. Tetrasomic patterns of inheritance were found for all polymorphic loci, indicating that the species is an autotetraploid. A model is presented that expands Ritland's (1990a) mixed mating model for autotetraploids to incorporate an arbitrary number of alleles per locus. This model is applied

Darlyne A Murawski; Theodore H Fleming; Kermit Ritland; J L Hamrick

1994-01-01

153

Cactus pear fruit: A new source for a natural sweetener  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus indica L.) to obtain a new natural liquid sweetener was studied. The juice of the fruit (16.5 ° Brix) was clarified with enzymes, treated with active carbon to take out the color and vacuum concentrated to obtain a 60 °Brix syrup or liquid sweetener. Physical and chemical characteristics determined included: aw; reducing

C. Sáenz; A. M. Estévez; E. Sepúlveda; P. Mecklenburg

1998-01-01

154

CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer simulation, CACTUS, that was developed in the United Kingdom to help police with command and control training for large crowd control incidents. Use of the simulation for pre-event planning and decision making is discussed, debriefing is described, and the role of the trainer is considered. (LRW)

Hartley, J. R.; And Others

1992-01-01

155

Prickly pear desert cactus flower in the Mojave desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The prickly pear cactus is a desirable meal for many desert organisms because of its water storing capability. Cacti have no leaves which reduces water loss. However, it has many spines and thorns for shade and to keep predators from eating it.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

156

Cactus Pear: A Fruit of Nutraceutical and Functional Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constantly increasing demand for nutraceuticals is paralleled by a more pronounced request for natural ingredients and health-promoting foods. The multiple functional properties of cactus pear fit well this trend. Recent data revealed the high content of some chemical constituents, which can give added value to this fruit on a nutritional and technological functionality basis. High levels of betalains, taurine,

Antonio Piga

2004-01-01

157

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport Endophytic Fungi Abstract Claviceps paspali, a common fungal pathogen of Paspalum grasses, attracts moth vectors Fusarium species that may negatively influence C. paspali fitness. We examined the potential for moths

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

158

A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae)... 29 A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera,  

E-print Network

A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae)... 29 A new genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae) with Afrotropical and Australasian distribution Jadranka Rota1, , Scott E. Miller2 genus of metalmark moths (Lepidoptera, Choreutidae) with Afrotropical and Australasian distribution. Zoo

159

Valeur alimentaire de rgimes base de cactus inerme (Opunfia ficus indica var. Inermis) et  

E-print Network

Valeur alimentaire de régimes à base de cactus inerme (Opunfia ficus indica var. Inermis) et d régimes à base de cactus inerme (Opuntia ficus indica, var. Inermis) et d'Atriplex nummularia. Quinze aléatoire en trois lots de cinq têtes chacun. Chaque lot a reçu un régime composé d'atriplex et de cactus en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

160

La complmentation azote du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote  

E-print Network

La complémentation azotée du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote A Nefzaoui1 H ARIANA, Tunisie 2Direction des Ressources Alimentaires, OEP, rue Alain Savary - TUNIS, Tunisie Le cactus cactus et de comparer l'effet de différentes sources d'azote (urée, tourteau de soja, Atriplex halimus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

161

Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M. [Deptartment of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2006-07-11

162

How important is clonal recruitment for population maintenance in rare plant species?: The case of the narrow endemic cactus,  

E-print Network

of the narrow endemic cactus, Stenocereus eruca, in Baja California, Me´xico Ricardo Clark-Tapia a , Maria C, Mexico Received 12 February 2004 Abstract Stenocereus eruca is a postrate columnar cactus whose

Mandujano, María del Carmen

163

77 FR 26000 - Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1604-000] Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Cactus Energy LLC's application for market-based rate...

2012-05-02

164

Cactus (Opuntia dillenii Grahm) stem: a new source of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrochemical cell has been fabricated using cactus stem as an electrlolyte. A study of the discharge characteristics reveals that, at a current drain of 100 ?A, the cell gives an optimum energy density of 175 mWh kg-1. The power generated by these cells is sufficient to run piezoelectric buzzer and a LCD calculator for a few hours. This work opens up a new interdisciplinary area for physicists, botanists and electro-chemists.

Deshpande, V. K.; Joshi, A. M.

165

Antioxidant compounds from four Opuntia cactus pear fruit varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant compounds in extracts from four cactus (Opuntia species) fruit varieties were investigated. Conjugated flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin), ascorbic acid, and carotenoids were isolated from the extracts. Quercetin was the most abundant in all varieties [O. ficus-indica (green-skinned), O. lindheimeri (purple-skinned), O. streptacantha (red-skinned), and O. stricta var. stricta (yellow-skinned)] examined. Kaempferol was found in green-skinned, purple-skinned and

Joseph O Kuti

2004-01-01

166

Randomized Online File Allocation on Uniform Cactus Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the online file allocation problem on ring networks. In this paper, we present a 7-competitive randomized algorithm against an adaptive online adversary on uniform cactus graphs. The algorithm is deterministic if the file size is 1. Moreover, we obtain lower bounds of 4.25 and 3.833 for a deterministic algorithm and a randomized algorithm against an adaptive online adversary, respectively, on ring networks.

Kawamura, Yasuyuki; Matsubayashi, Akira

167

The anionic glycan from the cactus cereus peruvianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The columnar cactusCereus peruvianus provides various compounds of interest that account for most of its 10% dry wt content. Included are acidic gum and cellulose\\u000a as the highly polymerized carbohydrate components, and a complex waxy lipid fraction. The major gum fraction (1.5 g% of the\\u000a fresh phytobiomass on single aqueous extraction) is an uronylated rhamnoarabinogalactan whose intrinsic viscosity may exceed

Mauro Alvarez; Silvio C. Costa; Hiroshi Utumi; Anton Huber; Roland Beck; José D. Fontana

1992-01-01

168

In vitro propagation of cactus (Cereus peruvianus l.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various treatments on the behaviour of in vitro consecutive micropropagation stages of cactus was studied. The statistical analysis of data revealed that for shootlet proliferation stage; recycling the in vitro culture of shootlets for six times at monthly intervals on MS medium amended with BAP at 5 mg\\/l plus NAA at 0.1 mg\\/l concentration significantly augmented the

S. Sayed; T. A. Abou-Dahab; E. M. A. Youssef

2005-01-01

169

Extensive Ribosomal DNA Genic Variation in the Columnar Cactus Lophocereus  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Sequence analysis of the hypervariable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is commonly used\\u000a to gain insights into plant and animal population structure and phylogeny. We characterized ITS1, ITS2, and the 5.8S coding\\u000a region of 18 senita (Lophocereus) individuals from 12 different populations in Baja as well as from closely related cactus species. Analyses of multiple

Stefanie Hartmann; John D. Nason; Debashish Bhattacharya

2001-01-01

170

Short Communication Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations  

E-print Network

Short Communication Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from: Nucleopolyhedrovirus Winter moth Operophtera brumata Polyhedron gene Covert infections a b s t r a c t Winter moth. brumata nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpbuNPV) in winter moth larvae collected from field sites in Massachusetts

Elkinton, Joseph

171

Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Standard: Adaptation and natural selection.  

E-print Network

Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Grade: 4th Standard: Adaptation and natural selection. Supplements: Peppered Moth introduction slides http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf Materials to trace Sticky tape to stick moths onto surfaces Overview 1. Divide class into 2 groups 2. Each kid

172

Automatic Species Identification of Live Moths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by species using the feature vectors. Whereas a previous analysis of this image dataset reported in the literature [1] required that each moth's least worn wing region be highlighted manually for each image, WEKA was able to achieve a greater level of accuracy (85%) using support vector machines without manual specification of a region of interest at all. This paper describes the features that were extracted from the images, and the various experiments using different classifiers and datasets that were performed. The results show that data mining can be usefully applied to the problem of automatic species identification of live specimens in the field.

Mayo, Michael; Watson, Anna T.

173

USDA Forest Service: Gypsy Moth Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Forest Service compiled information from its gypsy moth suppression, eradication, and slow-the-spread projects to provide you with a comprehensive informational website on gypsy moths. Information on the gypsy moth is organized here by state, and year. You can also browse topics using the menu on the right side of the page, which offers selections like, "Defoliation," "Maps and Charts," "Eradication," "Online Resources," and "Photo Gallery" among others. The gypsy moth has become a problem in 19 states so far, destroying oak, poplar, and birch trees among others. Resources on this site are geared toward students, professionals, homeowners and anyone else seeking information on gypsy moths, and range from basic introductory information to specific problems and topics.

1969-12-31

174

A plant factory for moth pheromone production  

PubMed Central

Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

175

A plant factory for moth pheromone production.  

PubMed

Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

2014-01-01

176

miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.  

PubMed

miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development. PMID:25366556

Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

2014-11-01

177

Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.  

PubMed

An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food. PMID:20811778

Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario

2010-09-01

178

Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the Corrective Action Unit No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action. The scope of this investigation will include drilling and collecting subsurface samples from within and below the trenches. Sampling locations will be biased toward the areas most likely to be contaminated. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Site is identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. This test was the first of four storage-transportation tests conducted in 1963 as part of Operation Roller Coaster. The experiment involved the use of live animals to assess the inhalation intake of a plutonium aerosol.

NONE

1997-02-01

179

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing...prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the quarantined area...prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined area:...

2011-01-01

180

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing...prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the quarantined area...prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined area:...

2014-01-01

181

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing...prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the quarantined area...prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined area:...

2013-01-01

182

7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing...prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the quarantined area...prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined area:...

2012-01-01

183

How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?  

PubMed

The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (?15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

2011-07-15

184

arXiv:1110.2197v2[math.AG]25Oct2011 THE CACTUS RANK OF CUBIC FORMS  

E-print Network

arXiv:1110.2197v2[math.AG]25Oct2011 THE CACTUS RANK OF CUBIC FORMS ALESSANDRA BERNARDI, KRISTIAN notions of rank, such as cactus rank and border rank, appear in the study of higher secant varieties and are closely related to the rank. The cactus rank is the minimal length of an apolar subscheme to F, while

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Building Chain and Cactus Representations of All Minimum Cuts from Hao-Orlin in the Same Asymptotic Run Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cactus is a simple data structure that represents all minimum cuts of a weighted, undirectedgraph in linear space. We describe the first algorithm that can build a cactus from theasymptotically fastest deterministic algorithm that finds all minimum cuts in a weighted graph--- the Hao-Orlin minimum cut algorithm. This improves the time to construct the cactus ingraphs with n vertices

Lisa Fleischer

1998-01-01

186

Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science DMTCS vol. 12:3, 2010, 3540 The Laplacian spread of Cactuses  

E-print Network

spread of Cactuses Ying Liu College of Mathematics and Information, Shanghai Lixin University of Commerce one common vertex are called cactuses. In this paper, we continue the work on Laplacian spread of graphs, and determine the graph with maximal Laplacian spread in all cactuses with n vertices. Keywords

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

CCCG 2013, Waterloo, Ontario, August 810, 2013 Optimal Data Structures for Farthest-Point Queries in Cactus Networks  

E-print Network

in Cactus Networks Prosenjit Bose Jean-Lou De Carufel Carsten Grimm Anil Maheshwari Michiel Smid Abstract and the farthest points on trees, cycles, uni-cyclic networks and cactus networks. 1 Introduction 1.1 Problem = u + (1 - )v. We study trees, cycles, uni-cyclic networks and cactus networks. A uni-cyclic network

Smid, Michiel

188

Building Chain and Cactus Representations of All Minimum Cuts from Hao-Orlin in the Same Asymptotic Run Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cactus is a simple data structure that represents all minimum cuts of a weighted, undirected graph in linear space. We describe the first algorithm that can build a cactus from the asymptotically fastest deterministic algorithm that finds all minimum cuts in a weighted graph—the Hao–Orlin minimum cut algorithm. This improves the deterministic time to construct the cactus in graphs

Lisa Fleischer

1999-01-01

189

vol. 167, no. 6 the american naturalist june 2006 Pereskia and the Origin of the Cactus Life-Form  

E-print Network

vol. 167, no. 6 the american naturalist june 2006 Pereskia and the Origin of the Cactus Life September 2, 2005; Accepted February 21, 2006; Electronically published April 28, 2006 abstract: The cactus and trees that are thought to represent the original cactus condition. Recent phylo- genetic work has shown

Donoghue, Michael

190

Developmental changes in composition and quality of prickly pear cactus cladodes (nopalitos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and quality of edible tender stems or cladodes of 3 Prickly Pear Cactus species (Opuntia amyclaea, O. ficus-indica, and O. inermis) were studied at different stages of development. This traditional Mexican vegetable is called “nopalitos” in Spanish and “cactus leaves” in English. Cladodes harvested when 20 cm in length have the following average composition per 100 g: 91.7

Armida Rodriguez-Felix; Marita Cantwell

1988-01-01

191

Physical properties of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus india L.) grown wild in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the physical properties of cactus pear, which is grown wild in Turkey, is necessary for the design of equipment for harvesting, transporting, cleaning, packing, storing, processing etc. of the fruit. In this study, some physical properties of cactus pears were determined, and the effects of different water contents on the properties were investigated. At water content levels from

Onder Kabas; Aziz Ozmerzi; Ibrahim Akinci

2006-01-01

192

Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in the Clover Improved Lattice Formulation of QCD  

E-print Network

We extend to the clover improved lattice formulation of QCD the resummation of cactus diagrams, i.e. a certain class of tadpole-like gauge invariant diagrams. Cactus resummation yields an improved perturbative expansion. We apply it to the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators improving their one-loop perturbative estimates.

H. Panagopoulos; E. Vicari

1998-09-02

193

204 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal n the CSSA's 2007 post-conven-  

E-print Network

204 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal O n the CSSA's 2007 post-conven- tion tour of Baja California, Jon floral throat character specified in Henrickson's monograph. 65 3 4 #12;206 CaCtus and suCCulent Journal

Gorelick, Root

194

Processing technologies: an alternative for cactus pear ( Opuntia spp.) fruits and cladodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cactus pear has become an important fruit crop in many semi-arid lands of the world. The fruit and the young cladodes (‘nopalitos’) have commonly been consumed fresh, but the last decade's research studies on cactus pear processing have produced another alternative which prevents damage to the fruit and, in spite of technological characteristics that make processing a challenge (high

Carmen Saenz

2000-01-01

195

Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in the Clover Improved Lattice Formulation of QCD  

E-print Network

We extend to the clover improved lattice formulation of QCD the resummation of cactus diagrams, i.e. a certain class of tadpole-like gauge invariant diagrams. Cactus resummation yields an improved perturbative expansion. We apply it to the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators improving their one-loop perturbative estimates.

Panagopoulos, H

1999-01-01

196

An I?B homologue (FcCactus) in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

PubMed

This study firstly reports the characterization of a functional I?B homologue, FcCactus in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The full length cDNA of FcCactus consists of a 1359 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 453 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight (MW) of 48.46 kDa and theoretical pI of 5.23. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple alignments revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of FcCactus cDNA had high similarities to Cactus or I?B reported in seven other arthropods. Genomic DNA sequence of FcCactus was also obtained with a length of more than 17698 bp and constituted of seven exons and six introns. Analysis on 5'-upstream regulatory region of its DNA sequence revealed that it contained the core promoter sequence with the TATA-box and transcription start site existing in it; furthermore, various transcription factor binding sites (HSF, Hb, BR-C Z, Dfd, CF2-II, Croc, Ttk, Dorsal, and c-Rel) were predicted. Spatial expression profiles showed that FcCactus mRNA had the highest expression level in muscle, hemocytes, heart and lymphoid organ. Gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus lysodeikticus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio anguillarium) injection to shrimp caused the modulation of FcCactus at the transcription level. DsRNAi (double-strand RNA interference) approach was used to study the function of FcCactus and the data showed that FcCactus could regulate the expression of different antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and antiviral factor (AV). The present data showed that FcCactus might play important roles in regulating the immune response of shrimp. PMID:23276882

Wang, Dongdong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Chi, Yanhong; Wen, Rong; Feng, Ningning; Xiang, Jianhai

2013-04-01

197

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Foliar Chemistry and Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), Herbivory and nutrient uptake, and the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), to measure herbivore suitability. Gypsy moth exactacostinplantgrowthandproductivityforthischestnuthybrid,andmayenhanceplantsuitability for a generalist herbivore. Additionally, enhanced gypsy moth

Rieske-Kinney, Lynne K.

198

FUTURE RISK OF GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from the suitable habitit combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation....

199

Introduced and invasive cactus species-a global review.  

PubMed

Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive and why are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context-dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimise future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on bioclimatic data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognised in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species), and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion - in particular parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in two of the three major phylogenetic clades, and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade. Moreover, all invasive species are from five of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their native range. These results suggest fairly robust correlates of invasiveness that can be used for proactive management and risk assessments. PMID:25471679

Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Robertson, Mark P; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

2014-12-01

200

Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in the Enewetak Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The survey was strictly a visual survey, backed up by digital photos and a written description of the current condition.

Douglas Miller, Terence Holland

2008-10-31

201

Sex Pheromone of the Oriental Fruit Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chemistry and specificity of sex pheromones in two subfamilies of the lepidopterous family Tortricidae1,2 have been studied because of the large number of economically important insects included. We identified the pheromone structure of the red-banded leaf roller moth, Argyrotaenia velutinana (subfamily Tortricinae), as cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate3, and now report the pheromone structure of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (subfamily

Wendell L. Roelofs; André Comeau; Robert Selle

1969-01-01

202

Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears  

PubMed Central

Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a ?-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

2011-01-01

203

Calpain A modulates Toll responses by limited Cactus/I?B proteolysis  

PubMed Central

Calcium-dependent cysteine proteases of the calpain family are modulatory proteases that cleave their substrates in a limited manner. Among their substrates, calpains target vertebrate and invertebrate I?B proteins. Because proteolysis by calpains potentially generates novel protein functions, it is important to understand how this affects NF?B activity. We investigate the action of Calpain A (CalpA) on the Drosophila melanogaster I?B homologue Cactus in vivo. CalpA alters the absolute amounts of Cactus protein. Our data indicate, however, that CalpA uses additional mechanisms to regulate NF?B function. We provide evidence that CalpA interacts physically with Cactus, recognizing a Cactus pool that is not bound to Dorsal, a fly NF?B/Rel homologue. We show that proteolytic cleavage by CalpA generates Cactus fragments lacking an N-terminal region required for Toll responsiveness. These fragments are generated in vivo and display properties distinct from those of full-length Cactus. We propose that CalpA targets free Cactus, which is incorporated into and modulates Toll-responsive complexes in the embryo and immune system. PMID:23864715

Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Oliveira, Danielle; Buffolo, Márcio; Perlman, David H.; Schupbach, Trudi; Araujo, Helena

2013-01-01

204

Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.  

PubMed

Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a ?-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

2011-01-01

205

Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target ef...

206

Examination of Gunnison River influences on Cactus Park Lake Beds using Heavy Mineral and Geochemical Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unaweep Canyon is an enigmatic wind gap across the Uncompahgre Plateau in western Colorado. It is widely accepted that the ancestral Gunnison River once flowed through Unaweep Canyon and Cactus Park, a tributary to Unaweep Canyon. Newly discovered lake deposits in Cactus Park raise several important questions regarding the timing of events leading to the abandonment of Unaweep Canyon by the ancestral Gunnison River. Heavy minerals and trace elements of Cactus Park lake beds and ancestral Gunnison River sediments were compared to determine whether or not the ancestral Gunnison River was present at the time the Cactus Park Lake was filling with sediment. It is possible that the formation of this lake facilitated the eventual abandonment of Cactus Park and Unaweep Canyon by the ancestral Gunnison River. Alternatively, abandonment could have preceded the formation of the lake. In the latter scenario, the composition of the lake beds should differ significantly from modern or ancient Gunnison River deposits. Results of the analyses show that the Gunnison River and Cactus Park Lake samples form two distinct groups based on differences in elemental concentrations and heavy mineral percentages. Gunnison River sediments associated with volcanic terrains contain elevated copper and manganese concentrations with 7.5 times more manganese and 4.5 times more copper normalized to aluminum compared to samples of Mancos Shale. Mancos Shale is a likely source for the Cactus Park lake beds . These values would require the Cactus Park lake beds to be composed of 70-92 percent Mancos material,. The Gunnison River heavy mineral percentages are: total weathered grains (16.94-18.75), augite plus hornblende (21.43-32.26%), ZTR (31.45-32.14), hornblende (16.07-17.74%) and tourmaline (26.79-29.84%). Cactus Park lake bed samples have more weathered grains (26.56-46.83%), less augite plus hornblende (5.47-17.50), lower ZTR values (15.63-22.67), less hornblende (1.48-9.33%) and less tourmaline (11.11-16.00%). In conclusion, the results suggest that the provenance of the Cactus Park lake beds was not primarily the Gunnison River, which suggests that the Cactus Park Lake could have formed after the abandonment of Cactus Park and Unaweep Canyon.

Schoepfer, S. D.; Benage, M. C.

2008-12-01

207

Testing The Cactus code on exact solutions of the Einstein field equations  

E-print Network

We discuss a series of numerical simulations of exact solutions of the Einstein equations performed using the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. We describe an application (``thorn'') for the Cactus code that can be used for evolving a variety of exact solutions, with and without matter, including solutions used in modern cosmology for modelling the early stages of the universe. Our main purpose has been to test the Cactus code on these well-known examples, focusing mainly on the stability and convergence of the code.

Vulcanov, D N; Vulcanov, Dumitru N.; Alcubierre, Miguel

2001-01-01

208

Testing the Cactus code on exact solutions of the Einstein field equations  

E-print Network

The article presents a series of numerical simulations of exact solutions of the Einstein equations performed using the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. We describe an application (``thorn'') for the Cactus code that can be used for evolving a variety of exact solutions, with and without matter, including solutions used in modern cosmology for modeling the early stages of the universe. Our main purpose has been to test the Cactus code on these well-known examples, focusing mainly on the stability and convergence of the code.

Dumitru N. Vulcanov; Miguel Alcubierre

2002-03-04

209

Oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea) -life cycle & control  

E-print Network

March 2010 Oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea) - life cycle & control #12;March 2010 distances. Readily caught in pheromone traps or light traps. Adult moths #12;March 2010 Pppppp ppp Pppppp

210

Moth using proboscis to get food from flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not only bees pollinate flowers. Moths have a specialized mouth structure called a proboscis that is used to extract nectar and pollinate the flower. The moth benefits by getting food and the flower benefits by being pollinated.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2006-12-30

211

INTRODUCTION Since the gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston  

E-print Network

267 INTRODUCTION Since the gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston in 1868 or 1869, it has and result in severe ecological and economic effects. It is inevitable that the gypsy moth will continue. 750 km from the expanding front of gypsy moth defoliation. Based on an historical rate of spread of ca

Liebhold, Andrew

212

Butterflies and moths are known to be valuable indi-  

E-print Network

Butterflies and moths are known to be valuable indi- cators of the changes af- fecting the wider since 1990. Woodlands are one of the most important habitats for butterflies and moths. Woodland are specifi- cally reliant on woodland. Over 500 species of the larger Brit- ish moths occur regularly

213

Echolocation assemblagesand their effects on moth auditory systems JAMESH. FULLARD  

E-print Network

Echolocation assemblagesand their effects on moth auditory systems JAMESH. FULLARD Department, 1982 FULLARD,J. H. 1982. Echolocation assemblages and their effects on moth auditory systems. Can. J. Zool. 60: 2572-2576. I analyzed the auditory characteristics of a variety of tympanate moths from areas

Fullard, James H.

214

PEST MANAGEMENT Douglas-fir pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis  

E-print Network

PEST MANAGEMENT Douglas-fir pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in North trap types and at different loads for trapping the Douglas-Ã?r pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis Columbia. This moth causes considerable problems in lodgepole pine seed orchards at this location. No signi

Lindgren, Staffan

215

POPULATION ECOLOGY Comparative Predation on Naturally Occurring Gypsy Moth  

E-print Network

POPULATION ECOLOGY Comparative Predation on Naturally Occurring Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera(2): 293Ð296 (2006) ABSTRACT Predation is an important factor in the dynamics of gypsy moth (Lymantria. Here we compare predation rates on freeze-dried gypsy moth pupae af�xed with beeswax to pieces

Berkowitz, Alan R.

216

ORIGINAL PAPER Defoliation by processionary moth significantly reduces tree  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Defoliation by processionary moth significantly reduces tree growth: a quantitative and cedar processionary moths (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae). & Method We conducted a meta-analysis based on 45 study cases, to estimate the effect of processionary moth defolia- tion on tree growth. & Result

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth. Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth.

Jeffrey K. Waage; G. Gene Montgomery

1976-01-01

218

Cryptoses choloepi: A Coprophagous Moth That Lives on a Sloth.  

PubMed

The larvae of the sloth moth, Cryptoses choloepi, live in the dung of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus infuscatus. Adult female moths apparently leave the fur of the sloth to oviposit when the sloth descends, once a week, to the forest floor to defecate. Newly emerged moths fly from the dung pile into the forest canopy to find a sloth. PMID:17759254

Waage, J K; Montgomery, G G

1976-07-01

219

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought-and  

E-print Network

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought winter rainfall, and drought conditions, which reduce leach- ing of salts away from the root zone. Across

220

Using memory mapping to support cactus stacks in work-stealing runtime systems  

E-print Network

Many multithreaded concurrency platforms that use a work-stealing runtime system incorporate a "cactus stack," wherein a function's accesses to stack variables properly respect the function's calling ancestry, even when ...

Lee, I-Ting Angelina

221

A near-linear time algorithm for constructing a cactus representation of minimum cuts  

E-print Network

We present an Õ(m) (near-linear) time Monte Carlo algorithm for constructing the cactus data structure, a useful representation of all the global minimum edge cuts of an undirected graph. Our algorithm represents a fundamental ...

Panigrahi, Debmalya

222

Planarity of the 2-level Cactus Model Sabine Cornelsen 1 , Ye m Dinitz 2 , and Dorothea Wagner 1  

E-print Network

Planarity of the 2-level Cactus Model Sabine Cornelsen 1 , Ye#12;m Dinitz 2 , and Dorothea Wagner 1.Cornelsen,Dorothea.Wagner}@uni-konstanz.de 2 Ben-Gurion University, Dept. of Computer Science dinitz@cs.bgu.ac.il Abstract. The 2-level cactus of the 2-level cactus, which can be used, e.g., in graph drawing. We give a new suÃ?cient planarity

Brandes, Ulrik

223

Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

1980-01-01

224

Cactus Framework: Black Holes to Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are intense narrowly-beamed flashes of gamma-rays of cosmological origin. They are among the most scientifically interesting astrophysical systems, and the riddle concerning their central engines and emission mechanisms is one of the most complex and challenging problems of astrophysics today. In this article we outline our petascale approach to the GRB problem and discuss the computational toolkits and numerical codes that are currently in use and that will be scaled up to run on emerging petaflop scale computing platforms in the near future. Petascale computing will require additional ingredients over conventional parallelism. We consider some of the challenges which will be caused by future petascale architectures, and discuss our plans for the future development of the Cactus framework and its applications to meet these challenges in order to profit from these new architectures.

Schnetter, Erik; Allen, Gabrielle; Diener, Peter; Goodale, Tom; Radke, Thomas; Seidel, Edward; Shalf, John

2007-01-01

225

Gelechiidae Moths Are Capable of Chemically Dissolving the Pollen of Their Host Plants: First Documented  

E-print Network

Gelechiidae Moths Are Capable of Chemically Dissolving the Pollen of Their Host Plants: First the moths and plants phylogenetically and confirmed that larvae were those of the pollinating moths; molecular clock dating suggests that the moth clade is younger than the plant clade. Captive moths

Renner, Susanne

226

Pheromone-Regulated Anemotaxis in Flying Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain male moths flying upwind toward a scent-producing female appear to be guided anemotactically by optomotor reactions to the ground pattern. Loss of the odor stimulus changes the anemotactic angle from into wind to across wind with left-right reversals.

J. S. Kennedy; D. Marsh

1974-01-01

227

MASS REARING CODLING MOTHS: IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modifications of the diet, oviposition cages, rearing containers, diapause induction and adult handling are described for a rearing colony of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), maintained at the USDA-ARS facility in Wapato, Washington (USA), for over 40 years for use in f...

228

Pheromone-regulated anemotaxis in flying moths.  

PubMed

Certain male moths flying upwind toward a scent-producing female appear to be guided anemotactically by optomotor reactions to the ground pattern. Loss of the odor stimulus changes the anemotactic angle from into wind to across wind with left-right reversals. PMID:4826172

Kennedy, J S; Marsh, D

1974-05-31

229

Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

230

Enum eration et g en eration al eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet , Cedric Chauve y , Gilles Schae er z  

E-print Network

Enum#19;eration et g#19;en#19;eration al#19;eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet #3; , Cedric multidimensionnelle pour donner une explication combinatoire de deux formules d'#19;enum#19;eration de cactus m algorithme de g#19;en#19;eration al#19;eatoire pour ces structures. 1 Introduction Un m-cactus est un graphe

Schaeffer, Gilles

231

Enum eration et g en eration al eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet 1 , Cedric Chauve 2 , Gilles Schae er 3  

E-print Network

Enum#19;eration et g#19;en#19;eration al#19;eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet 1 , Cedric;eration al#19;eatoire de cactus m-aires Michel Bousquet 1 , Cedric Chauve 2 , Gilles Schae#11;er 3 1 La;eration de cactus m-aires, selon la distribution des couleurs et selon la distribution des degr#19;es

Chauve, Cedric

232

76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection; Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...INFORMATION: Title: Gypsy Moth Identification Worksheet. OMB Number: 0579-0104. Type of...completes a gypsy moth identification worksheet (PPQ Form 305), which...

2011-04-04

233

7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

2011-01-01

234

Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four  

E-print Network

Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four, 2009) Long distance sexual communication in moths has fascinated biologistsbecauseofthe complex the genetic architecture of sexual isolation in males of two congeneric moths, Heliothis subflexa

235

7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

2010-01-01

236

7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

2012-01-01

237

7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

2014-01-01

238

7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45-10 ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for,...

2013-01-01

239

Abscission Layer Formation as a Resistance Response of Peruvian Apple Cactus Against Glomerella cingulata.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Stem disks from 2-year-old cacti Cereus tetragonus (susceptible) and C. peruvianus (resistant) were inoculated in the center (pith) with Glomerella cingulata isolated from Colletotrichum stem rot in three-angled cacti. The susceptible cactus became extensively colonized, whereas colonization was limited to a small area in the resistant cactus. The resistant cactus formed prominent abscission layers (ALs) in parenchyma internal to the inoculation site. Ethanol extracts of the fungal culture also stimulated AL formation in the resistant cactus. Initial cell division followed at 2 to 4 days after treatment, and layering of multiple cells at 7 days after treatment. After 10 days, the outer layers were sometimes sloughed from the inner layers. No AL formation was induced in susceptible C. tetragonus treated with ethanol extract or in untreated control cacti. Light and electron microscopy revealed that initial cell division occurred by cell wall formation, and that an additional cell wall was layered in pre-existing parenchyma cells without ordinary cell division. Later, separation layers formed in ALs where inner cell walls appeared to be thickened secondarily, and the cell walls and middle lamella within the layer dissolved. These results suggest that AL formation in the resistant cactus is induced by fungal metabolites, and that it serves as a histological barrier against anthracnose pathogens. PMID:18944021

Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang-Hyung

2002-09-01

240

Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. PMID:24799205

Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

2014-10-01

241

Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

2012-12-01

242

Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

2013-12-01

243

Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P? and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P? and S, the critical exponents ?k and ?k for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, ?k and ?k are the critical exponents for P? and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are ?2 = 1.79(3), ?2 = 0.88(1), ?3 = 1.35(5) and ?3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (?? = 1 and ?? = 1), we also find ?? < ?3 < ?2 and ?? > ?3 > ?2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

2013-08-01

244

Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions  

PubMed Central

Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as combinatorial signals and use the integrated floral traits from their memory traces to mediate future foraging decisions. PMID:23991154

Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

2013-01-01

245

Pheromone binding and inactivation by moth antennae.  

PubMed

The antennae of male silk moths are extremely sensitive to the female sex pheromone such that a male moth can find a female up to 4.5 km away. This remarkable sensitivity is due to both the morphological and biochemical design of these antennae. Along the branches of the plumose antennae are the sensilla trichodea, each consisting of a hollow cuticular hair containing two unbranched dendrites bathed in a fluid, the receptor lymph ,3. The dendrites and receptor lymph are isolated from the haemolymph by a barrier of epidermal cells which secreted the cuticular hair. Pheromone molecules are thought to diffuse down 100 A-wide pore tubules through the cuticular wall and across the receptor lymph space to receptors located in the dendritic membrane. To prevent the accumulation of residual stimulant and hence sensory adaptation, the pheromone molecules are subsequently inactivated in an apparent two-step process of rapid 'early inactivation' followed by much slower enzymatic degradation. The biochemistry involved in this sequence of events is largely unknown. We report here the identification of three proteins which interact with the pheromone of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus: a pheromone-binding protein and a pheromone-degrading esterase, both uniquely located in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla; and a second esterase common to all cuticular tissues except the sensilla. PMID:18074618

Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M

246

Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a cactus.  

PubMed

A novel high G+C actinobacterium, designated strain OS1-21(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a cactus (Opuntia fiscus-indica var. sanboten) and the taxonomic status was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain OS1-21(T) were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming, non-motile rods; colonies of the cells were circular, translucent, smooth and moderate yellow in colour. LL-Diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C(16?:?0), iso-C(16?:?0) 2-OH, 10-methyl C(17?:?0), 10-methyl C(18?:?0) and C(17?:?1)cis9. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 73.7 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Nocardioides panacihumi Gsoil 616(T) (98.7% sequence similarity) and Nocardioides terrae VA15(T) (97.8%), followed by Nocardioides marinus CL-DD14(T) (97.1%). DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain OS1-21(T) with the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours were low (<16.0%). Combined data of polyphasic taxonomic analyses revealed that the organism could be assigned to a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OS1-21(T) (?=?KCTC 19804(T)?=?NBRC 107915(T)). PMID:24670898

Lee, Soon Dong; Seong, Chi Nam

2014-06-01

247

Extensive ribosomal DNA genic variation in the columnar cactus Lophocereus.  

PubMed

Sequence analysis of the hypervariable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is commonly used to gain insights into plant and animal population structure and phylogeny. We characterized ITS1, ITS2, and the 5.8S coding region of 18 senita (Lophocereus) individuals from 12 different populations in Baja as well as from closely related cactus species. Analyses of multiple clones demonstrated extensive paralogy in the senita rDNA gene family. We identified at least two putatively non-recombining rDNA operons in senita as well as multiple paralogous sequences within each operon. Usage of PCR, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, Southern blot, primary sequence analyses of the 18S rDNA gene, and secondary structure analyses of the 5.8S rRNA showed that one of the operons encodes rDNA pseudogenes in a low copy-number (Truncated), whereas the second operon encodes an expressed rRNA (Functional). Surprisingly, we found extensive paralogy not only in the ITS regions but also in the 5.8S coding regions in senita both within and between operons. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the second rDNA operon originated prior to the divergence of Lophocereus. A significant (p < 0.05) divergence-rate acceleration was found in the Lophocereus 5.8S rDNA coding region in the Functional operon in comparison to Pereskiopsis porteri (Cactaceae) and Portulaca molokiniensis (Portulacaceae) with Silene dioica and Spinacia oleracea as the outgroups. PMID:11479683

Hartmann, S; Nason, J D; Bhattacharya, D

2001-08-01

248

Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

2011-12-01

249

Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

Hershkowitz, Gerald

1979-01-01

250

Sex Attractant of the Codling: Moth: Characterization with Electroantennogram Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

trans-8, trans-10-Dodecadien-1-ol is a sex attractant of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella. Antennal responses (electroantennograms) to a series of monounsaturated compounds were used in determining the location and configuration of the two double bonds. The synthetic compound is very attractive to male codling moths in the field.

Wendell Roelofs; Andre Comeau; Ada Hill; G. Milicevic

1971-01-01

251

Auditory encoding during the last moment of a moth's life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simple auditory system of noctuoid moths has long been a model for anti-predator studies in neuroethology, although these ears have rarely been experimentally stimulated by the sounds they would encounter from naturally attacking bats. We exposed the ears of five noctuoid moth species to the pre-recorded echolocation calls of an attacking bat (Eptesicus fuscus) to observe the acoustic encoding

James H. Fullard; Jeff W. Dawson; David S. Jacobs

2003-01-01

252

Worldwide Variability of Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Codling Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Known resistance mechanisms including the action of detoxifying enzymes and insensitive variants of target proteins were examined in individual male and female moths from 29 populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L collected in 11 countries in Africa, Europe, North America and the Australian c...

253

ANOTHER TOOL TO MANAGE CODLING MOTH: ULV GROUND PHEROMONE SPRAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of a microencapsulated formulation of codling moth’s sex pheromone in a low-pressure ultra low volume (ULV) application (1.25 gallons per acre) versus with the standard air blast method was found to deposit 6-10 times more capsules in the canopy and to significantly improve the perfo...

254

Monitoring and Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted in two ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with sex pheromone in southern Oregon to implement the use of site-specific management practices for codling moth. The density of monitoring traps was increased and insecticide sprays were applied based on moth catch thresholds. Only porti...

255

CAPTURE OF NOCTUID AND PYRALID MOTHS USING FEEDING ATTRACTANT LURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field tests of floral chemicals dispensed in two-component lures were used to capture noctuid and pyralid moths in north-central Florida. Blends of phenylacetaldehyde plus '-myrcene, cis jasmone, linalool, and methyl-2-methoxy benzoate were successful in capturing large numbers of several moth spec...

256

Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.  

PubMed Central

The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

1992-01-01

257

First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

258

Parasite, 2012, 19, 117-128 THE MOTH HYLESIA METABUS AND FRENCH GUIANA LEPIDOPTERISM  

E-print Network

117Review Parasite, 2012, 19, 117-128 THE MOTH HYLESIA METABUS AND FRENCH GUIANA LEPIDOPTERISM of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

Announcing a new book: Rearing codling moth for the sterile insect technique  

E-print Network

Announcing a new book: Rearing codling moth for the sterile insect technique The codling moth Cydia for Lepidopteran pests is very often underestimated. There has been an increasing interest to develop codling moth series compiles and summarizes available information on the rearing of the codling moth in relation

Ray, David

260

1 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18/05/11 Pine-tree Lappet Moth  

E-print Network

1 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18/05/11 Pine-tree Lappet Moth Pine-tree Lappet Moth Outbreak S attending in place of David Jardine. A 2 A A #12;Pine-tree Lappet Moth 2 | Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 18 outstanding from the fifth meeting held on 20 December 2011: Item 5: Research Update: Origin of the Moth Tom

261

Survey and intervention in relation to different phases of the oak processionary moth life cycle.  

E-print Network

Survey and intervention in relation to different phases of the oak processionary moth life cycle Life cycle of oak processionary moth (OPM): note that the timings of the various stages are approximate.uk/pdf/fr_advice_note_oak_processionary_moth.pdf/$FILE/fr_advice_ note_oak_processionary_moth

262

Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity 4th Grade Life Sciences 2.3  

E-print Network

Peppered Moth Scavenger Hunt Activity Standard 4th Grade Life Sciences 2.3 Evidence Outcomes: Use: Peppered Moth introduction slides http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf Materials Several to trace Sticky tape to stick moths onto surfaces Overview 1. Divide class into 2 groups 2. Each kid

263

Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America  

E-print Network

Mathematical models of biological invasions A case study of gypsy moth in North America Masha to Biological invasions Gypsy moth- biology and formulation of mathematical model SI model results Predator invasion #12;Gypsy moth #12;Gypsy moth: introduction Introduced in late 1860s and currently occupies all

264

INTRODUCTION Many moths possess ears that enable them to detect the echolocation  

E-print Network

3808 INTRODUCTION Many moths possess ears that enable them to detect the echolocation calls towards the prey's incidental sounds (e.g. wing fanning) may be at an advantage in capturing eared moths and moths co-habit (Roeder and Fenton, 1973). In a North American mine, the noctuid moth, Scoliopteryx

Fullard, James H.

265

Survey and intervention in relation to different phases of the oak processionary moth life cycle.  

E-print Network

Survey and intervention in relation to different phases of the oak processionary moth life cycle (revised 2011) Life cycle of oak processionary moth (OPM): note that the timings of the various stages://www.forestresearch.gov.uk/pdf/fr_advice_note_oak_processionary_moth.pdf/$FILE/fr_advice_ note_oak_processionary_moth

266

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian  

E-print Network

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation@credit.erin.utoronto.ca) The islands of Hawai`i o¡er a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded

Fullard, James H.

267

CLOTHES MOTHS AND CARPET BEETLES Gary W. Bennett and Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologists  

E-print Network

CLOTHES MOTHS AND CARPET BEETLES Gary W. Bennett and Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologists Department of Entomology Household & Structural E-18-W PURDUE EXTENSION CLOTHES MOTH CONTROL The clothes moth and feathers. Damage done will depend upon the type of item being fed upon and the species of clothes moth

Ginzel, Matthew

268

Behaviors of Western Spruce Budworm Moths ( Choristoneura occidentalis ) as Defences Against Bat Predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated potential defense behaviors of adult western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis), a non-auditive lepidopteran, against bat predation. Although western spruce budworm moths started to fly before sunset, earlier than many species of moths, temporal isolation of flying moths from foraging bats was incomplete as moths were most active after sunset once bats were foraging. Flying C. occidentalis were most

Natasha Lloyd; Joanna M. Wilson; Robert M. R. Barclay

2006-01-01

269

Five-Year Monitoring Study of Siler's Pincushion Cactus (Pediocactus sileri) in Kane County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siler's pincushion cactus (Pediocuctus sileri) occurs primarily on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands in Washington and Kane Counties in southwestern Utah and across the border in northwestern Arizona. This 5 year (1993-1997) monitoring study was set up as a challenge cost-share project between Red Butte Garden and the Utah State BLM Office in Salt Lake City. A permanent study

ALYCE M. HREHA; THERESE B. MEYER

270

Thermal energy exchange model and water loss of a barrel cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of various diurnal stomatal opening patterns, spines, and ribs on the stem surface temperature and water economy of a CAM succulent, the barrel cactus Ferocactus acanthodes, were examined using an energy budget model. To incorporate energy exchanges by shortwave and longwave irradiation, latent heat, conduction, and convection as well as the heat storage in the massive stem, the

D. A. Lewis; P. S. Nobel

1977-01-01

271

Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber. PMID:22899620

Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

2012-08-01

272

A purified extract from prickly pear cactus ( Opuntia fuliginosa) controls experimentally induced diabetes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypoglycemic activity of a purified extract from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fuliginosa Griffiths) was evaluated on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced to normal values by a combined treatment of insulin and Opuntia extract. When insulin was withdrawn from the combined treatment, the prickly pear extract alone maintained normoglycemic state in the diabetic rats.

Augusto Trejo-González; Genaro Gabriel-Ortiz; Ana María Puebla-Pérez; María Dolores Huízar-Contreras; María del Rosario Munguía-Mazariegos; Silvia Mejía-Arreguín; Edmundo Calva

1996-01-01

273

Vivipary and offspring survival in the epiphytic cactus Epiphyllum phyllanthus (Cactaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vivipary, the germination of seeds before they are shed from the parent plant, is a rare event in angio- sperms involving complex ecophysiological pro- cesses. Pseudovivipary and cryptovivipary occur in approximately 30 (2%) species of the cactus family. A remarkable case of vivipary in Epiphyllum phyllanthus is described here. Information is provided regarding the biology of viviparous fruits, morphology, mortality,

J. Hugo Cota-Sanchez; Deusa D. Abreu

2007-01-01

274

1 Cactus Framework: Black Holes to Gamma Ray Bursts 7 Erik Schnetter1,2  

E-print Network

Contents 1 Cactus Framework: Black Holes to Gamma Ray Bursts 7 Erik Schnetter1,2 , Christian D. Ott.1 Left: Gravitational waves and horizons in a binary black hole inspiral simulation. Simulation by AEI, USA, 2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, 202 Nicholson Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton

275

Obtention of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Product from Cactus (Opuntia boldinghii Britton and Rose) Cladodes Whole Flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to obtain an enzymatically hydrolyzed product from cactus cladodes whole flour (Opuntia boldinghii Britton and Rose). The whole flour was subjected to the action of th e commercially prepared enzymes Pectinex® Ultra SP-L and Cellubrix® L (1:1 ratio). The experiments were carried out under fixed conditions of temperature of 50 C ± 1 C

C. A. Padron Pereira; M. J. Moreno Alvarez; C. A. Medina-Martinez; D. M. Garcia Pantaleon

2009-01-01

276

Supporting efficient execution in heterogeneous distributed computing environments with cactus and globus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in the performance of processors and networks make it both feasible and interesting to treat collections of workstations, servers, clusters, and supercomputers as integrated computational resources, or Grids. However, the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of such Grids can make application development difficult. Here we describe an architecture and prototype implementation for a Grid-enabled computational framework based on Cactus,

Gabrielle Allen; Thomas Dramlitsch; Ian T. Foster; Nicholas T. Karonis; Matei Ripeanu; Edward Seidel; Brian R. Toonen

2001-01-01

277

Water relations and photosynthesis of a barrel cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes , in the Colorado desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural characteristics, water relations, and photosynthesis of Ferocactus acanthodes (Lemaire) Britton and Rose, a barrel cactus exhibiting Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), were examined in its native habitat in the western Colorado desert. Water storage in its succulent stem permitted nighttime stomatal opening ot continue for about 40 days after the soil water potential became less than that of the

Park S. Nobel

1977-01-01

278

Population structure in the coral Pavona cactus : clonal genotypes show little phenotypic plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic data were used to examine the relationship between genotype and growth form, and to assess the contribution of asexual reproduction to recruitment within six local populations of the agaricid coral Pavona cactus from the central and northern Great Barrier Reef. The data revealed the presence of highly replicated clonal genotypes in the five densest populations. In three cases, samples

D. J. Ayre; B. L. Willis

1988-01-01

279

Seasonal temperature acclimation of a prickly-pear cactus in south-central Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide exchange patterns of prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia phaeacantha var. discata) were studied throughout the year to determine temperature influences on and seasonal responses of the process. Cacti exhibit CAM which permits nighttime carboxylation of CO2 to malate and daytime decarboxylation of malate to CO2. The gas exchange studies were done on plants harvested near Mesa, Arizona, and placed in

Robert A. Nisbet; Duncan T. Patten

1974-01-01

280

Evaluation of colour properties and chemical quality parameters of cactus juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and visual appearance of cactus fruits from the genera Opuntia and Hylocereus were investigated. Colour properties were assessed in solutions with pH ranging from 1 to 8 and expressed as chroma, hue and colour shade. Between pH 3 and 7, all samples were stable as indicated by hue and chroma values. The colour shade of the red

Florian C. Stintzing; Andreas Schieber; Reinhold Carle

2003-01-01

281

Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

282

Changes in ascorbic acid, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in minimally processed cactus pear fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cv. ‘Gialla’) were manually peeled, then placed in plastic boxes sealed with a film with high permeability to gases, and kept at 4°C for 9 days. After 3, 6 and 9 days, chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters, total phenols, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity were determined. In-package gas concentrations were measured almost

A Piga; A. Del Caro; I Pinna; M Agabbio

2003-01-01

283

Demographic analysis of a rare columnar cactus ( Neobuxbaumia macrocephala) in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we used population projection matrices to evaluate the conservation status of Neobuxbaumia macrocephala, a columnar cactus endemic to a small region in the Tehuacan Valley, in central Mexico. Demographic data included 2-year observations on growth, fecundity and survival of individuals classified by size. Our results indicate that the population is comprised of 70% juveniles. Population growth rate

Ligia Esparza-Olgu??n; Teresa Valverde; Elena Vilchis-Anaya

2002-01-01

284

Reproductive behavior of the cactus fly, Odontoloxozus longicornis , male territoriality and female guarding as adaptive strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Mating behavior in the cactus fly, Odontoloxozus longicornis Bigot, is investigated using a model modified from Parker (1974). Male territoriality at oviposition sites, repeated matings, and postcopulatory guarding behaviors are described for a population utilizing giant saguaro cacti (Carnega gigantea) in Pima County, Arizona. Observations of flies under varying physical conditions indicate that the males follow two general copulatory patterns.

Robert L. Mangan

1979-01-01

285

Effect of temperature on shelf life and microbial population of lightly processed cactus pear fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using cactus pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cv. Gialla) to produce ready-to-eat fruit was investigated. Changes in sensory quality and proliferation of spoilage microorganisms on lightly processed and packaged fruit as a function of storage temperature and modified atmosphere packaging were measured. The shelf life of the samples was kinetically modelled in order to check the

M. R Corbo; C Altieri; D D’Amato; D Campaniello; M. A Del Nobile; M Sinigaglia

2004-01-01

286

CONFIRMATION AND EFFICACY TESTS AGAINST CODLING MOTH AND ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH IN APPLES USING COMBINATION HEAT AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE TREATMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth and oriental fruit moth are serious pests of apples grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where they do not appear, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the accidental introduction of these insects. The treatment consists of hot forced mo...

287

Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones  

PubMed Central

The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

288

Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.  

PubMed

Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts. PMID:25232708

El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

2014-01-01

289

Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.  

PubMed Central

The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity involved, it has been assumed that the association arose once, although it has been suggested that within the prodoxid moths as a whole, pollinators have arisen from seed predators more than once. We show, by using phylogenies generated from three molecular data sets, that the supposed restriction of the yucca moths and their allies to the Agavaceae is an artifact caused by an incorrect circumscription of this family. In addition we provide evidence that Yucca is not monophyletic, leading to the conclusion that the modern Yucca-yucca moth relationship developed independently more than once by colonization of a new host. PMID:7624333

Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

1995-01-01

290

Supplementation with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit decreases oxidative stress in healthy humans: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit contains vi- tamin C and characteristic betalain pigments, the radical-scavenging properties and antioxidant activities of which have been shown in vitro. Objective: We investigated the effects of short-term supplementa- tion with cactus pear fruit compared with vitamin C alone on total- body oxidative status in healthy humans. Design: In a randomized, crossover, double-treatment study,

Luisa Tesoriere; Daniela Butera; Anna Maria Pintaudi; Mario Allegra; Maria A Livre

291

A gradient of cytoplasmic Cactus degradation establishes the nuclear localization gradient of the dorsal morphogen in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dorsoventral axis formation in the Drosophila embryo is established by a signal transduction pathway that comprises the products of at least 12 maternal genes. Two of these genes, dorsal and cactus, show homology to the mammalian transcription factor NF-?B and its inhibitor I?B, respectively. As in the case for I?B and NF-?B, Cactus inhibits Dorsal by retaining it in the

Andreas Bergmann; David Stein; Robert Geisler; Susanne Hagenmaier; Bettina Schmid; Nielsen Fernandez; Beate Schnell; Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

1996-01-01

292

Sujet : Recherche d'information distribue : utilisation de clusters Contact : Josiane Mothe, IRIT 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, mothe@irit.fr  

E-print Network

Sujet : Recherche d'information distribuée : utilisation de clusters Contact : Josiane Mothe, IRIT 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, mothe@irit.fr Ce projet s'inscrit dans le cadre des moteurs de

Grigoras, .Romulus

293

Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

A series of studies were conducted to examine the residual activity and toxicity of the ecdysone agonists tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in North Carolina apple systems. Methoxyfenozide exhibited greater activity than tebufenozide against codling moth eggs in dose-response bioassays, with a 4.5- and 5.3-fold lower LC50 value to eggs laid on fruit treated before or after oviposition, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs were 57- and 12-fold less sensitive to methoxyfenozide than were codling moth eggs on fruit treated before and after oviposition, respectively. Methoxyfenozide was effective in reducing larval entries of both codling moth and oriental fruit moth in field residual activity bioassays, exhibiting activity for at least 28 d after application. Residue breakdown on fruit was approximately 80% at 28 d after treatment for both methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, with the most rapid residue decline (60%) occurring during the first 14 d after application. Two applications of methoxyfenozide applied at 14-d intervals provided better canopy coverage and higher residue levels than one application. Spray volume (683 versus 2,057 liters/ha) did not affect the efficacy of methoxyfenozide. Leaf and fruit expansion during the season was measured to determine potential plant-growth dilution effects on residual activity. There was very little increase in leaf area after mid May, but increase in fruit surface area over the season was described by a second order polynomial regression. Implications for codling moth and oriental fruit moth management programs are discussed. PMID:15384347

Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G; Long, John W

2004-08-01

294

The biology of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst)  

E-print Network

et al. (1962) modified the Ackisson et al. (1960) wheat germ media by substituting ascorbic acid for sodium alginate. Russell (1961) found that salted pistachio nuts made a simple rearing medium for the Indian meal moth, Plodia inter unctella...

Baxter, Michael Celus

2012-06-07

295

The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

Briggs, James

1984-01-01

296

Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths  

PubMed Central

Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

2013-01-01

297

Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by "freezing", which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

2013-01-01

298

Divergence in Olfactory Host Plant Preference in D. mojavensis in Response to Cactus Host Use  

PubMed Central

Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S.; Rollmann, Stephanie M.

2013-01-01

299

Fish and wildlife to determine endangered status of San Rafael Cactus  

SciTech Connect

The US Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed to determine the endangered status of the San Rafael Cactus. Although the only known occurrences of the species do not appear to fall within the boundaries of the San Rafael Swell Special Tar Sands Area, nearby combined hydrocarbon leasing could be impacted. There are two known populations of Pediocactus despainii, about 25 miles apart and each containing 2000 to 3000 individuals. Both occur in central Utah (Emery County), mainly in areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management. This rare species is being sought be cactus collectors, one population is heavily impacted by recreational off-road vehicles, and approximately one-half of each population is in areas covered by oil and gas leases and/or mining claims for gypsum. If the species is determined to be endangered, then the Fish and Wildlife Service could define a critical habitat for its preservation.

Not Available

1986-09-01

300

Cactus, Pixies, 04 Sept 09 Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor  

E-print Network

Cactus, Pixies, 04 Sept 09 Em Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor G Em just wishin' that I had that dress when you di-yi-yi-yi-yine Em Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor G Em just wishin' that I had it to me Em Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor G Em just wishin' that I had something you wore #12;

Reiners, Peter W.

301

Neuroprotective Effects of Cactus Polysaccharide on Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation Induced Damage in Rat Brain Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The neuroprotective effect of cactus polysaccharide (CP) on oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation (REO)-induced\\u000a damage in the cortical and hippocampal slices of rat brain was investigated. 2. Cell viability was evaluated by using the\\u000a 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) method. The fluorescence of propidium iodide (PI) staining was used for quantification\\u000a of cellular survival, and lactate

Xianju Huang; Qin Li; Yingpei Zhang; Qing Lü; Lianjun Guo; Lin Huang; Zhi He

2008-01-01

302

Producing ice cream with concentrated cactus pear pulp: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) pulp was tested for some technological and chemical characteristics. The pulp was concentrated up to 30°Brix then added at four levels (0, 5, 10 and 15%) to basic ice cream mix. The basic mix contained 0.5% gelatin, 8% fat and 10.5% milk solids non-fat (MSNF), and 16% sucrose. Some of rheological parameters of both mixes

S. K. El-Samahy; K. M. Youssef; T. E. Moussa-Ayoub

2009-01-01

303

Influence of Storage Temperature on Shelflife of Minimally Processed Cactus Pear Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, cultivar Gialla) were manually peeled, placed in polystyrene trays and packaged with a heat-shrinkable film, then kept at 4 °C and 15 °C for 11 d. After 4, 8 and 11 d chemical-physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters were determined, while in-package gas concentrations were measured daily. Chemical-physical and sensorial parameters did not show

A. Piga; S. D'Aquino; M. Agabbio; G. Emonti; G. A. Farris

2000-01-01

304

Dipodascus stamen' sp. nov., a New Species of Yeast Occurring in Cactus Necroses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous publication describing the geographic distribution of yeasts associated with cactus necroses (W. T. Starmer, M.-A. Lachance, H. J. Phaff, and W. B. Heed, Evol. Biol. 24:253-296, 1990), 127 isolates were identified as strains of Candida ingens van der Walt et van Kerken on the basis of morphology and certain phenotypic characteristics. Here we show by using DNA

HERMAN J. PHAFF; JOHN BLUE; ALLEN N. HAGLER; CLETUS P. KURTZMAN

1997-01-01

305

A Linear Algorithm for the Pos\\/Neg-Weighted 1Median Problem on a Cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1-median problem on a network asks for a vertex minimizing the sum of the weighted shortest path distances from itself\\u000a to all other vertices, each associated with a certain positive weight. We allow fornegative weights as well and devise an exact algorithm for the resulting ‘pos\\/neg-weighted’ problem defined on a cactus. The algorithm\\u000a visits every vertex just once and

Rainer E. Burkard; Jakob Krarup

1998-01-01

306

Rheology and Aggregation of Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) Mucilage in Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucilage obtained from cactus is commonly described as water-soluble pectin-like polysaccharide. Although few potential uses of this material have been described, it is not an industrial hydrocolloid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rheological behavior of the polysaccharide isolated from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica. The polymer had a weight average molecular mass (Mw) of 3

A. Cárdenas; I. Higuera-Ciapara; F. M. Goycoolea

1997-01-01

307

A Gradient of Cactus Protein Degradation Establishes Dorsoventral Polarity in the DrosophilaEmbryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dorsoventral polarity in theDrosophilaembryo is established by a signaling pathway active on the ventral and ventrolateral surfaces of the embryo. Signal transduction via the protein kinase Pelle frees the Rel-related protein Dorsal from its cytoplasmic inhibitor Cactus, allowing Dorsal to translocate into ventral and ventrolateral nuclei and direct gene expression. Here, we show by immunochemical analyses that Pelle-mediated signaling induces

Michael Reach; Rene L. Galindo; Par Towb; Jerry L. Allen; Michael Karin; Steven A. Wasserman

1996-01-01

308

Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll  

SciTech Connect

Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

1981-02-18

309

Fruit quality and production of cactus pear ( Opuntia spp.) fruit clones selected for increased frost hardiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal limitation to cultivation of cactus for fruit in the south-western United States is lack of hardiness to freezing weather. This field trial compared 22Opuntiaclones selected for increased cold hardiness, fruit yield, and fruit quality, i.e. pH, sugar content and seed content. Mexican accessions 1380, 1277, 1281 and 1300 had the highest yields averaging between 2·5 and 5·2 kg

John Parish; Peter Felker

1997-01-01

310

A membrane-based process for the clarification and the concentration of the cactus pear juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear fruit is a food of nutraceutical and functional importance. Unfortunately, the low acidity and the high soluble solids content make the pulp of this fruit a very attractive media for growth of microorganisms requiring a thermal treatment (115.5°C or higher) to obtain a good control of the microbial invasion. A relatively long thermal treatment (100°C for 20min) can

A. Cassano; C. Conidi; R. Timpone; M. D’Avella; E. Drioli

2007-01-01

311

The cuticle of the cactus Cereus peruvianus as a source of a homo-?- d -galacturonan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waxy pecto-cellulosic cuticle of cladodes of the columnar cactusCereus peruvianus (19% of the whole phytobiomass; dry wt) is a source of an ?-d-polygalacturonic or pectic acid (35–40% yield, on a dry wt based on the wax-free pectocellulose layer). Warm EDTA\\/oxalate\\u000a or room temperature strong acid\\/alkali cycles are efficient for pectic acid extraction, since divalent cation (mainly Ca2+) is a

Mauro Alvarez; Silvio C. Costa; Anton Huber; Madalena Baron; José D. Fontana

1995-01-01

312

Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.  

PubMed

Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5?Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded. PMID:24651317

Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

2014-01-01

313

Dark Matter and Gamma-Rays From Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS  

E-print Network

The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma-rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma-rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to non-thermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

Lars Bergstrom; Dan Hooper

2006-01-03

314

Dark matter and gamma-rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS  

SciTech Connect

The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma-rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma-rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to non-thermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

Bergstrom, Lars; /Stockholm U.; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

2005-12-01

315

Dark matter and gamma rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS  

SciTech Connect

The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to nonthermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

Bergstroem, Lars [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Particle Astrophysics Center, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2006-03-15

316

Bacteria Associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) Larvae and Their Cactus Host Isolatocereus dumortieri  

PubMed Central

We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity. PMID:22132101

Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durbán, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Antón, Josefa; Marcos-García, María de los Ángeles

2011-01-01

317

Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) phenology and management with methoxyfenozide in North Carolina apples.  

PubMed

The phenology of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), on apple (Malus spp.) in North Carolina was studied using pheromone traps and egg sampling in abandoned and commercial orchards in 2000 and 2001, with subsequent development of an oviposition degree-day model and management studies in relation to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), phenology. Oriental fruit moth eggs were found in greater numbers on leaves early and on fruit later in the growing season, on the top versus the bottom of the leaf surface, and on the calyx area versus the side or stem end of the fruit. A degree-day (DD) model to predict oriental fruit moth oviposition was developed based on temperature accumulations from peak moth trap capture of the first (overwintering) generation, by using 7.2 and 32.2 degrees C as the temperature limits. The model predicted four ovipositing generations of oriental fruit moth with the second beginning 507 DD after peak moth catch. Using predictions of the oriental fruit moth and codling moth degree-day oviposition models, an experiment was conducted to determine the level of second generation oriental fruit moth control with methoxyfenozide applied under different scenarios for first generation codling moth. Methoxyfenozide was equally effective in managing codling moth and oriental fruit moth for all treatment timings. PMID:15384348

Borchert, Daniel M; Stinner, Ronald E; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

2004-08-01

318

Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared. Other common name gamma moth Systematic position Insecta > Lepidoptera > Noctuidae > Autographa gamma (Linnaeus). Global distribution Widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Northern Africa. Quarantine status

319

BIOLOGICAL CONTROLPARASITOIDS AND PREDATORS Effect of Host Diet and Insect Source on Synergy of Gypsy Moth  

E-print Network

of Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Mortality to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki pesticides. KEY WORDS Bacillus thuringiensis, zwittermicin A, Lymantria dispar, gypsy moth, synergism, host management programs throughout the region (Montgomery and Wallner 1989). Bacillus thuringiensis subsp

Handelsman, Jo

320

Slade et al Running head: Landscape-scale moth movements1  

E-print Network

characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest36 fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding and larval feeding guild predicted macro-37 moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

321

Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

2011-01-01

322

Colorado Exotic Insect Detection and Identification Fact Sheet Series Gypsy Moth in Colorado -Identification of  

E-print Network

Colorado Exotic Insect Detection and Identification Fact Sheet Series Gypsy Moth in Colorado - Identification of Insects and Damage of Similar Appearance Matt Camper and Whitney Cranshaw The gypsy moth for important forest species including aspen, poplars, and oak. Gypsy moth is also a regulated insect subject

323

Type 3 functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing?  

E-print Network

Type 3 functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing? Eric M. Schauber functional response of mice to gypsy moth pupae: is it stabilizing? Á/ Oikos 107: 592Á/602. We conducted (Peromyscus leucopus) to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) pupae is decelerating (e.g. type 2) or accelerating (e

324

Using entomopathogenic nematodes to manage codling moth in organic apple orchards in Michigan  

E-print Network

Using entomopathogenic nematodes to manage codling moth in organic apple orchards in Michigan equipment. The codling moth (Cydia Pomonella [L.]) is a serious pest of apples worldwide and is of critical concern in commercial apple production. Codling moth larvae pupate and overwinter in silk cocoons under

325

NOTE / NOTE A potential cost of responding to bats for moths  

E-print Network

NOTE / NOTE A potential cost of responding to bats for moths flying over water Cassandra Guignion and James H. Fullard Abstract: Although the evasive flight of eared moths to attacking bats has received. We examined the fate of moths that land upon the surface of a lake in a simulation of an evasive

Fullard, James H.

326

Component Information Is Preserved in Glomerular Responses to Binary Odor Mixtures in the Moth Spodoptera littoralis  

E-print Network

Component Information Is Preserved in Glomerular Responses to Binary Odor Mixtures in the Moth+ concentration to binary blends of plant-related substances in individually identified glomeruli in the moth at the first stage of olfactory processing in this moth species. Key words: glomeruli, mixture interaction

Pearce, Tim C.

327

"Lagring av Solenergi" Kasper Moth-Poulsen, PhD, FoAss  

E-print Network

"Lagring av Solenergi" Kasper Moth-Poulsen, PhD, FoAss Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-years) · Energy Density Comparable to that of Batteries (but heat) #12;#12;MOST: basic concepts #12;Moth.5) Liquid Collection Outlet Inlet Syrringe pump Microfluidic Solar Collector Device Moth-Poulsen, K., oso, D

Lemurell, Stefan

328

REMOTE CONTROL OF A CYBORG MOTH USING CARBON NANOTUBE-ENHANCED FLEXIBLE NEUROPROSTHETIC PROBE  

E-print Network

REMOTE CONTROL OF A CYBORG MOTH USING CARBON NANOTUBE-ENHANCED FLEXIBLE NEUROPROSTHETIC PROBE W to evoke multi-directional, graded abdominal motions in the moths thus altering their flight path. 1 on the remote control of insects, including cockroaches [5], beetles [2] and moths [3, 4], have used thin metal

Voldman, Joel

329

Does butterfly diversity predict moth diversity? Testing a popular indicator taxon at local scales  

E-print Network

Does butterfly diversity predict moth diversity? Testing a popular indicator taxon at local scales group, the moths, at a local scale relevant to many conservation decisions (100 ­101 km2 ). We sampled butterflies and moths at 19 sites representing the three major terrestrial habitats in sub-alpine Colorado

Vermont, University of

330

Gypsy Moth Egg Mass Sampling for Decision-Making: A Users' Guide  

E-print Network

Gypsy Moth Egg Mass Sampling for Decision-Making: A Users' Guide Andrew Liebhold1 Kevin Thorpe2 America in 1868 or 1869, the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), has become one of the most destructive forest insects in the northeastern U.S. In the wake of the gypsy moth's continuously expanding infested

Liebhold, Andrew

331

Interaction of cellular and network mechanisms for efficient pheromone coding in moths  

E-print Network

Interaction of cellular and network mechanisms for efficient pheromone coding in moths Hana. The pheromone subsystem of the olfactory system of moths is a partic- ularly well-defined example in which rapid. It is not clear how cellular and network mechanisms in the moth antennal lobe contribute to coding efficiency

Martinez, Dominique

332

Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats  

E-print Network

Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats John M. Ratcliffe1 University, Ithaca, New York, NY 14853, USA Moths and butterflies flying in search of mates risk detection bats. During such encounters, the toxic dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera uses the received intensity

Hoy, Ronald R.

333

agronomie: plant genetics and breeding A melanic form of the European grape vine moth,  

E-print Network

agronomie: plant genetics and breeding A melanic form of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia) Summary — A melanic form of the European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, is described from INTRODUCTION The grape vine moth Lobesia botrana Den and Schiff is known as the most important grape pest

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Chapter VII Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth  

E-print Network

111 Chapter VII Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth Sofia Gripenberg1 structure of the leaf-mining moth Tischeria ekebladella, a specialist herbivore of the pedunculate oak by two means: larvae drift through the landscape inside absiced leaves, and adult moths disperse actively

Helsinki, University of

335

Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth Derek M. Johnson1  

E-print Network

LETTERS Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth Derek M. Johnson1 , Andrew M. Liebhold2- systems1 and cause substantial economic losses2 . A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth and 2004 alone3 . The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most

Liebhold, Andrew

336

76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2010-0075] Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in...the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary...prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United...

2011-09-29

337

Minutes of the Meeting of the Oak Processionary Moth Outbreak Management Team  

E-print Network

Minutes of the Meeting of the Oak Processionary Moth Outbreak Management Team 2pm, 7 February 2008 Processionary Moth Outbreak Management Team. Minutes of the First Meeting 2. The Team agreed the Minutes pheromone traps and the fact that the traps used at Kew had caught moths but that the different type

338

The evolution of hearing in moths: the ears of Oenosandra boisduvalii1 (Noctuoidea: Oenosandridae)2  

E-print Network

The evolution of hearing in moths: the ears of Oenosandra boisduvalii1 (Noctuoidea: Oenosandridae)2 boisduvalii (Oenosandridae), as a representative of8 this heretofore unstudied family of moths, were electrophysiologically examined from9 specimens captured in South Australia. Males and female moths possess ears with two

Fullard, James H.

339

Detection Versus Perception: Physiological and Behavioral Analysis of Olfactory Sensitivity in the Moth (Manduca sexta)  

E-print Network

in the Moth (Manduca sexta) Kevin C. Daly, Lynnsey A. Carrell, and Esther Mwilaria West Virginia University of sensory transduction and psychophysical measures of salient odor perception using the moth (Manduca sexta). Moths were conditioned to respond to a single monomolecular odor and then tested across a dilution

Daly, Kevin Charles

340

NOTES AND COMMENTS Oak mast seeding as a direct cause of gypsy moth outbreaks?  

E-print Network

NOTES AND COMMENTS Oak mast seeding as a direct cause of gypsy moth outbreaks? A response to Sela on the dynamics of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) populations in North America. This paper highlighted a previously developed hypothesis, namely that gypsy moth outbreaks are caused by decreased rates of predation

Liebhold, Andrew

341

Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1  

E-print Network

Slow the Spread: A National Program to Manage the Gypsy Moth 15 Andrew M. Liebhold1 , Alexei A. Sharov2 , and Patrick C. Tobin1 Introduction The gypsy moth in North America (Elkinton and Liebhold 1990 species. The gypsy moth is an excellent species for illustrating the population processes operating during

Liebhold, Andrew

342

Fossilized Biophotonic Nanostructures Reveal the Original Colors of 47-Million-Year-Old Moths  

E-print Network

Fossilized Biophotonic Nanostructures Reveal the Original Colors of 47-Million-Year-Old Moths Maria among animals and have been studied most extensively in butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), which-Million-Year- Old Moths. PLoS Biol 9(11): e1001200. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001200 Academic Editor

Cao, Hui

343

Declines in dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams (19882003): Gypsy moth defoliation stimulates diatoms?  

E-print Network

Declines in dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams (1988­2003): Gypsy moth with the timing of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation event. We develop a conceptual model centered in the more silica-rich streams. Gypsy moth defoliation led to greater sunlight penetration and enhanced

Scanlon, Todd

344

POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera  

E-print Network

POPULATION ECOLOGY Does Forest Thinning Affect Predation on Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Predation on larvae and pupae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) was studied in a leading dispar, Peromyscus, Sorex, predation, small mammals, exclosures THE GYPSY MOTH, Lymantria dispar (L

Liebhold, Andrew

345

The oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), a native of mainland Europe, is  

E-print Network

The oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), a native of mainland Europe, is breeding, the caterpillars can pose a risk to human and animal health. Caterpillars of the oak processionary moth ­ named Alert Help us eradicate this pest Oak processionary moth For more information visit: www

346

78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0075] Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in...SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin...the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

2013-04-26

347

he gypsy moth (Lymantria dis-par) is probably the most de-  

E-print Network

T he gypsy moth (Lymantria dis- par) is probably the most de- structive forest defoliator in the United States. More than 81 million acres of forests have been defoliated by the gypsy moth since 1924). During gypsy moth outbreaks, many species of hard- woods may be defoliated; repeated de- foliation causes

Liebhold, Andrew

348

78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0075] Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in...the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary...prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United...

2013-10-24

349

POPULATION ECOLOGY Factors Influencing Larval Survival of the Invasive Browntail Moth  

E-print Network

POPULATION ECOLOGY Factors Influencing Larval Survival of the Invasive Browntail Moth (Lepidoptera is the browntail moth Euproctis chry- sorrhoea L, which was discovered in the eastern United States in 1897. Its, cold inland winter temperatures may also help to restrict browntail moth populations. We surveyed

Parry, Dylan

350

1 | Minutes | Stewart Snape | 24/02/2011 Oak Processionary Moth  

E-print Network

1 | Minutes | Stewart Snape | 24/02/2011 Oak Processionary Moth Notes from the 8th Meeting of the Oak Processionary Moth Outbreak Management Team 12:30pm, 24 February 2011 Richmond Park, London problems had been reported. Barry also #12;Oak Processionary Moth 2 | Minutes | Stewart Snape | 24

351

Successes in conserving the Barberry Carpet moth Pareulype berberata (D. & S.) (Geometridae) in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the 19th century the Barberry Carpet moth (Pareulype berberata) has declined from being widespread and fairly well distributed in England to highly localised and endangered, due mainly to large-scale removal of the sole larval foodplant Berberis vulgaris. In the 1980s the moth appeared to be restricted to a single site. Since 1987 the moth has been

Paul Waring

2004-01-01

352

COMPARATIVE ACTIVITY OF THE CODLING MOTH GRANULOVIRUS AGAINST GRAPHOLITA MOLESTA AND CYDIA POMONELLA (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The granulovirus of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is highly virulent and now commercialized for codling moth control in pome fruit in the USA and Canada. Comparative assays of the Cyd-X formulation of this virus against another introduced tortricid pest, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta,...

353

ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND SYNTHESIS OF SEX PHEROMONE COMPONENTS OF THE CAROB MOTH, ECTOHYELOIS CERATOSIAE  

E-print Network

ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND SYNTHESIS OF SEX PHEROMONE COMPONENTS OF THE CAROB MOTH, ECTOHYELOIS/OSU, Booster, Ohio, USA Summary: The sex pheromone of females of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae)-9-tetradecenal in the ratio of 10:l:l. A synthetic blend proved to be attractive. The carob moth, Ectomyelois

354

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

355

Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)  

E-print Network

1916 Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Lucy R pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1916. T. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Can

356

Association of pitch moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae and Pyralidae) with rust diseases in a  

E-print Network

Association of pitch moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae and Pyralidae) with rust diseases in a lodgepole that the western pine moth, Dioryctria cambiicola (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was the most prevalent pitch. Also present were the Douglas-fir pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis (Hy. Edwards) (Lepidoptera

Lindgren, Staffan

357

The population ecology of the Cinnabar Moth, Tyria jacobaeae L. (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a study of the factors determining the abundance and distribution of the Cinnabar Moth in Britain. The main part of the study was on a population of the moth at Weeting Heath in Norfolk. This is an area of sandy heath which is heavily overgrazed by rabbits. Here the moth fluctuates violently in number

J. P. Dempster

1971-01-01

358

Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. II. Growth promotion of cactus seedlings.  

PubMed

Four bacterial species isolated from the rhizoplane of cacti growing in bare lava rocks were assessed for growth promotion of giant cardon cactus seedlings (Pachycereus pringlei). These bacteria fixed N(2), dissolved P, weathered extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone, and significantly mobilized useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in rock minerals. Cardon cactus seeds inoculated with these bacteria were able to sprout and grow normally without added nutrients for at least 12 months in pulverized extrusive igneous rock (ancient lava flows) mixed with perlite. Cacti that were not inoculated grew less vigorously and some died. The amount of useful minerals (P, K, Fe, Mg) for plant growth extracted from the pulverized lava, measured after cultivation of inoculated plants, was significant. This study shows that rhizoplane bacteria isolated from rock-growing cacti promote growth of a cactus species, and can help supply essential minerals for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375736

Puente, M E; Li, C Y; Bashan, Y

2004-09-01

359

Validation of CME Detection Software (CACTus) by Means of Simulated Data, and Analysis of Projection Effects on CME Velocity Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of space weather forecasting, an automated detection of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) becomes more and more important for efficiently handling a large data flow which is expected from recently-launched and future solar missions. In this paper we validate the detection software package "CACTus" by applying the program to synthetic data from our 3D time-dependent CME simulations instead of observational data. The main strength of this study is that we know in advance what should be detected. We describe the sensitivities and strengths of automated detection, more specific for the CACTus program, resulting in a better understanding of CME detection on one hand and the calibration of the CACTus software on the other hand, suggesting possible improvements of the package. In addition, the simulation is an ideal tool to investigate projection effects on CME velocity measurements.

Bonte, K.; Jacobs, C.; Robbrecht, E.; de Groof, A.; Berghmans, D.; Poedts, S.

2011-05-01

360

Resolving The Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths  

E-print Network

HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.9 arcsec that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution. The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constr...

Ricarte, Angelo; Hughes, A Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P; Andrews, Sean M; Wilner, David J

2013-01-01

361

Resolving the Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the "wings" observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

2013-09-01

362

RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS  

SciTech Connect

HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-09-01

363

Rapid inactivation of a moth pheromone.  

PubMed

We have isolated, cloned, and expressed a male antennae-specific pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) [Antheraea polyphemus PDE (ApolPDE), formerly known as Sensillar Esterase] from the wild silkmoth, A. polyphemus, which seems essential for the rapid inactivation of pheromone during flight. The onset of enzymatic activity was detected at day 13 of the pupal stage with a peak at day 2 adult stage. De novo sequencing of ApolPDE, isolated from day 2 male antennae by multiple chromatographic steps, led to cDNA cloning. Purified recombinant ApolPDE, expressed by baculovirus, migrated with the same mobility as the native protein on both native polyacrylamide and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. Concentration of ApolPDE (0.5 microM) in the sensillar lymph is approximately 20,000 lower than that of a pheromone-binding protein. Native and recombinant ApolPDE showed comparable kinetic parameters, with turnover number similar to that of carboxypeptidase and substrate specificity slightly lower than that of acetylcholinesterase. The rapid inactivation of pheromone, even faster than previously estimated, is kinetically compatible with the temporal resolution required for sustained odorant-mediated flight in moths. PMID:16172410

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

2005-09-27

364

Introduction The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwoods in New Hampshire. A native of Europe and  

E-print Network

Gypsy Moth Introduction The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwoods in New Hampshire. A native of Europe and Asia, the gypsy moth was introduced into NorthAmerica in 1869 when specimens were accidentally released in Medford, Massachusetts. Gypsy moth feeds on the leaves of many tree

New Hampshire, University of

365

Characterizing Psychophysical Measures of Discrimination Thresholds and the Effects of Concentration on Discrimination Learning in the Moth  

E-print Network

of Concentration on Discrimination Learning in the Moth Manduca sexta Kevin C. Daly, Lynnsey A. Carrell and Esther in the moth Manduca sexta. Moths were differentially conditioned to respond to one odor (CS+) but not another postconditioning, moths were tested for the presence of a conditioned response (CR) with a blank, then the CS

Daly, Kevin Charles

366

Moth's eye anti-reflection gratings on germanium freeform surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germanium is commonly used for optical components in the infrared, but the high refractive index of germanium causes significant losses due to Fresnel reflections. Anti-reflection (AR) surfaces based on subwavelength "moth's eye" gratings provide one means to significantly increase optical transmission. As found in nature, these gratings are conformal to the curved surfaces of lenslets in the eye of the moth. Engineered optical systems inspired by biological examples offer possibilities for increased performance and system miniaturization, but also introduce significant challenges to both design and fabrication. In this paper, we consider the design and fabrication of conformal moth's eye AR structures on germanium freeform optical surfaces, including lens arrays and Alvarez lenses. Fabrication approaches and limitations based on both lithography and multi-axis diamond machining are considered. Rigorous simulations of grating performance and approaches for simulation of conformal, multi-scale optical systems are discussed.

Liu, Meng; Shultz, Jason A.; Owen, Joseph D.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

2014-09-01

367

Phenotypic plasticity in sexual communication signal of a noctuid moth.  

PubMed

Variability within sex pheromone signalling systems is generally believed to be low because of strong stabilizing selection; yet the noctuid moth Heliothis subflexa (Hs) shows significant intraspecific variation. One possible explanation is that females may alter their sex pheromone blend depending on prevailing olfactory cues in the habitat, which we termed the 'experience hypothesis'. This could be adaptive if Hs females experiencing the pheromone of another species, Heliothis virescens (Hv), responded to reduce the frequency of heterospecific matings. We exposed Hs females to no pheromone, Hs pheromone or Hv pheromone in the first 3 days of their adult lives. Hs females in the latter treatment produced significantly more of the acetate Z11-16:OAc, which inhibits the attraction of Hv males. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing adaptive phenotypic plasticity in a moth sex pheromone and suggests that behavioural differentiation may precede genetic divergence in the sexual signals of moths. PMID:21121086

Groot, A T; Classen, A; Staudacher, A; Schal, C; Heckel, D G

2010-12-01

368

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

2010-12-01

369

Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

2002-08-01

370

Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth.  

PubMed

1. The spatial structure of natural populations may profoundly influence their dynamics. Depending on the frequency of movements among local populations and the consequent balance between local and regional population processes, earlier work has attempted to classify metapopulations into clear-cut categories, ranging from patchy populations to sets of remnant populations. In an alternative, dichotomous scheme, local populations have been classified as self-sustaining populations generating a surplus of individuals (sources) and those depending on immigration for persistence (sinks). 2. In this paper, we describe the spatial population structure of the leaf-mining moth Tischeria ekebladella, a specialist herbivore of the pedunculate oak Quercus robur. We relate moth dispersal to the distribution of oaks on Wattkast, a small island (5 km(2)) off the south-western coast of Finland. 3. We build a spatially realistic metapopulation model derived from assumptions concerning the behaviour of individual moths, and show that the model is able to explain part of the variation in observed patterns of occurrence and colonization. 4. While the species was always present on large trees, a considerable proportion of the local populations associated with small oaks showed extinction-recolonization dynamics. The vast majority of moth individuals occur on large trees. 5. According to model predictions, the dominance of local vs. regional processes in tree-specific moth dynamics varies drastically across the landscape. Most local populations may be defined broadly as 'sinks', as model simulations suggest that in the absence of immigration, only the largest oaks will sustain viable moth populations. Large trees in areas of high oak density will contribute most to the overall persistence of the metapopulation by acting as sources of moths colonizing other trees. 6. No single 'metapopulation type' will suffice to describe the oak-moth system. Instead, our study supports the notion that real populations are often a mix of earlier identified categories. The level to which local populations may persist after landscape modification will vary across the landscape, and sweeping classifications of metapopulations into single categories will contribute little to understanding how individual local populations contribute to the overall persistence of the system. PMID:18422557

Gripenberg, Sofia; Ovaskainen, Otso; Morriën, Elly; Roslin, Tomas

2008-07-01

371

Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

1984-01-01

372

The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

2013-10-01

373

Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?  

PubMed

Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth. PMID:22691198

Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

2012-06-01

374

Influence of Abscisic Acid and Sucrose on Somatic Embryogenesis in Cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma mostruosa  

PubMed Central

Having produced the embryos of cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma monstruosa at the globular stage and callus, we investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100??M on successive stages of direct (DSE) and indirect somatic embryogenesis (ISE). In the indirect somatic embryogenesis process we also investigated a combined effect of ABA (0, 0.1, 1??M) and sucrose (1, 3, 5%). The results showed that a low concentration of ABA (0-1??M) stimulates the elongation of embryos at the globular stage and the number of correct embryos in direct somatic embryogenesis, while a high ABA concentration (10–100??M) results in growth inhibition and turgor pressure loss of somatic embryos. The indirect somatic embryogenesis study in this cactus suggests that lower ABA concentrations enhance the increase in calli fresh weight, while a high concentration of 10??M ABA or more changes calli color and decreases its proliferation rate. However, in the case of indirect somatic embryogenesis, ABA had no effect on the number of somatic embryos and their maturation. Nevertheless, we found a positive effect of sucrose concentration for both the number of somatic embryos and the increase in calli fresh weight. PMID:23843737

Lema-Rumi?ska, J.; Goncerzewicz, K.; Gabriel, M.

2013-01-01

375

Avalanche dynamics of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus graph  

E-print Network

We investigate the avalanche dynamics of the abelian sandpile model on arbitrarily large balls of the expanded cactus graph (the Cayley graph of the free product $\\mathbb{Z}_3 * \\mathbb{Z}_2$). We follow the approach of Dhar and Majumdar (1990) to enumerate the number of recurrent configurations. We also propose the filling method of enumerating all the recurrent configurations in which adding a grain to a designated origin vertex (far enough away from the boundary vertices) causes topplings to occur in a specific cluster (a connected subgraph that is the union of cells, or copies of the 3-cycle) within the first wave of an avalanche. This filling method lends itself to combinatorial evaluation of the number of positions in which a certain number of cells topple in an avalanche starting at the origin, which are amenable to analysis using well-known recurrences and corresponding generating functions. We show that, when counting cells that topple in the avalanche, the cell-wise first-wave critical exponent of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus is 3/2.

Gregory Gauthier

2011-10-28

376

Dark Matter and the CACTUS Gamma-Ray Excess from Draco  

E-print Network

The CACTUS atmospheric Cherenkov telescope collaboration recently reported a gamma-ray excess from the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Draco features a very low gas content and a large mass-to-light ratio, suggesting as a possible explanation annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Draco dark-matter halo. We show that with improved angular resolution, future measurements can determine whether the halo is cored or cuspy, as well as its scale radius. We find the relevant WIMP masses and annihilation cross sections and show that supersymmetric models can account for the required gamma-ray flux. We compute for these supersymmetric models the resulting Draco gamma-ray flux in the GLAST energy range and the rates for direct neutralino detection and for the flux of neutrinos from neutralino annihilation in the Sun. We also discuss the possibility that the bulk of the signal detected by CACTUS comes from direct WIMP annihilation to two photons and point out that a decaying-dark-matter scena...

Profumo, S; Kamionkowski, Marc; Profumo, Stefano

2006-01-01

377

Dark Matter and the CACTUS Gamma-Ray Excess from Draco  

E-print Network

The CACTUS atmospheric Cherenkov telescope collaboration recently reported a gamma-ray excess from the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Draco features a very low gas content and a large mass-to-light ratio, suggesting as a possible explanation annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Draco dark-matter halo. We show that with improved angular resolution, future measurements can determine whether the halo is cored or cuspy, as well as its scale radius. We find the relevant WIMP masses and annihilation cross sections and show that supersymmetric models can account for the required gamma-ray flux. The annihilation cross section range is found to be not compatible with a standard thermal relic dark-matter production. We compute for these supersymmetric models the resulting Draco gamma-ray flux in the GLAST energy range and the rates for direct neutralino detection and for the flux of neutrinos from neutralino annihilation in the Sun. We also discuss the possibility that the bulk of the signal detected by CACTUS comes from direct WIMP annihilation to two photons and point out that a decaying-dark-matter scenario for Draco is not compatible with the gamma-ray flux from the Galactic center and in the diffuse gamma-ray background.

Stefano Profumo; Marc Kamionkowski

2006-02-16

378

Are cactus growth forms related to germination responses to light? A test using Echinopsis species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the effect of light regimen (white light vs. darkness) on the germination of 12 species of the Echinopsis genus (tribe Trichocereeae, Cactaceae). This genus presents a variety of growth forms and relatively small and uniform seed size. These traits allowed us to test, within the same linage and removing seed mass effect, the hypothesis that the germination response to light (indifferent to light or positive photoblastic) is related to growth form. Our results reject this hypothesis since no seeds germinated in darkness, so all of the species can be classified as being positively photoblastic. The proportion of seed germination with white light was significantly different among cactus growth forms. Columnar cacti (arborescent, creeping and short) showed a greater proportion of seed germination than barrel and globose cacti. The germination rate differed among growth forms and species. At constant temperatures, creeping columnar cacti presented a significantly higher germination rate than the other growth forms. With alternating temperatures, columnar cacti showed higher germination rates than the other growth forms. The low proportion of seeds that germinated for some species indicates that they show seed dormancy. Our results suggest that germination responses to light in the cactus family could be related to seed mass and phylogenetic constraints.

Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Aparicio-González, Mónica; Galíndez, Guadalupe; del Fueyo, Patricia; Sühring, Silvia; Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana

2010-05-01

379

The cactus worm : experiments with dynamic resource discovery and allocation in a grid environment.  

SciTech Connect

The ability to harness heterogeneous, dynamically available grid resources is attractive to typically resource-starved computational scientists and engineers, as in principle it can increase, by significant factors, the number of cycles that can be delivered to applications. However, new adaptive application structures and dynamic runtime system mechanisms are required if we are to operate effectively in grid environments. To explore some of these issues in a practical setting, the authors are developing an experimental framework, called Cactus, that incorporates both adaptive application structures for dealing with changing resource characteristics and adaptive resource selection mechanisms that allow applications to change their resource allocations (e.g., via migration) when performance falls outside specified limits. The authors describe the adaptive resource selection mechanisms and describe how they are used to achieve automatic application migration to 'better' resources following performance degradation. The results provide insights into the architectural structures required to support adaptive resource selection. In addition, the authors suggest that the Cactus Worm affords many opportunities for grid computing.

Allen, G.; Angulo, D.; Foster, I.; Lanfermann, G.; Liu, C.; Radke, T.; Seidel, E.; Shalf, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Albert-Einstein-Inst.; Univ. of Chicago; LBNL

2001-01-01

380

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. PMID:24621296

Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

2014-04-01

381

Analysis of factors that affect the potential of star fruit (Averhoa Bilimbi) and cactus (Gymnocalycium Hossei) extracts as alternative battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research analyzes the factors that affect the work of the battery from the star fruit extract and the cactus extract. The value voltage and current generated are measure the work of the battery. Voltage measurement based on the electrode distance function, and electrode surface area. Voltage as a surface area electrode function and electrode distance function determined the current density and the voltage generated. From the experimental results obtained that the battery voltage is large enough, it is about 1.8 V for the extract of star fruit, and 1.7 V for the extract of cactus, which means that the juice extract from star fruit and the juice extract of cactus can become an alternative as battery replacement. The measurements with different electrode surface area on the star fruit and cactus extract which has the depth of the electrode 0.5 cm to 4 cm causes a decrease in the electric current generated from 12.5 mA to 1.0 mA, but obtained the same voltage.

Rahmawati, Sitti; Agnesstacia

2014-03-01

382

Evaluation of the conservation status of a rare cactus ( Mammillaria crucigera) through the analysis of its population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used population projection matrices to analyse the demography of Mammillaria crucigera, a rare cactus endemic to a small region in Central Mexico. Matrices were based on a 2-year period of observations on survival, growth and reproduction. No seed germination or seedling survival were observed; thus, these matrix entries were experimentally estimated. Population growth rate (?) was lower than unity

Cinthya Contreras; Teresa Valverde

2002-01-01

383

Asexual reproduction and genetic determination of growth form in the coral Pavona cactus : biochemical genetic and immunogenic evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue grafting and electrophoresis were used to study the genotypic structure of a population of the scleractinian coral, Pavona cactus. Three growth forms were distinguished within one continuous population of this morphologically variable species. Both techniques provided evidence of localized asexual reproduction within each growth form, a result consistent with numerous field observations of naturally occurring fragments. A perfect association

Bette L. Willis; David J. Ayre

1985-01-01

384

Young Scientists Explore Butterflies and Moths. Book 4 Primary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on butterflies and moths and their stages of development. The first section contains exercises on recognizing insect body…

Penn, Linda

385

The De Havilland "Tiger Moth"a low wing monoplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a speed of 186.5 M.P.H. and an operational altitude of 20,000 feet the De Havilland Tiger Moth has caused comment as it was introduced just before the King's Cup race of 1927. It is a single seater with unusual control configuration due to the cramped cockpit area.

1927-01-01

386

Functional Specialization of Olfactory Glomeruli in a Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific function of the glomerular structures present in the antennal lobes or olfactory bulbs of organisms ranging from insects to humans has been obscure because of limitations in neuronal marking methods. By tracing individual neurons in the moth Agrotis segetum, it was determined that physiologically distinct types of pheromone receptor neurons project axons to different regions of the macroglomerular

Bill S. Hansson; Hakan Ljungberg; Eric Hallberg; Christer Lofstedt

1992-01-01

387

MICROBIAL CONTROL OF THE POTATO TUBER MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tuber moth (PTM) is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Pathogens that are specific to insects offer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. A diverse spectrum of microscopic and multicellular organisms (bact...

388

Nun moth Lymantria monacha Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

of coniferous trees in Central Europe. Its hosts also extend to deciduous trees. Michigan is a high risk zone if this exotic moth becomes established in North America. Tree stands in natural forests, recreational hosts A wide range of coniferous and deciduous trees including Acer, Betula, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus

389

78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Agriculture's (USDA) Forest Service and Animal...proposal to add the insecticide tebufenozide (trade...unidentified and unregistered insecticides, not available at...moth, if the proposed insecticides are within the range...covered by the EIS. The Forest Service and APHIS...

2013-04-22

390

Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.  

PubMed

The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed. PMID:18284745

Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

2007-10-01

391

Adult motor patterns produced by moth pupae during development.  

PubMed

Muscle potentials were recorded extracellularly from developing pupae and adults of the saturniid moths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi and the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. During the week prior to the terminal ecdysis, developing moths still enclosed within the pupal cuticle produced motor patterns similar to those recorded from adults during flight and shivering. The pupal patterns had a longer cycle time and were more variable than the adult motor patterns. Characteristic inter-family differences in adult motor patterns were apparent in pupal motor patterns. Development of motor patterns was followed over several days by observing individuals with chronically implanted leads. Early in the pupal period potentials were small and infrequent. The amount of activity gradually increased and became more patterned. As development proceeded adult patterns were produced for increasing lengths of time, although the patterns changed quickly and spontaneously. Restricting the wing movements of A. polyphemus adults increased the cycle time, increased the number of spikes per burst in muscles opposing the restraint, and did not alter the interspike interval within a burst. The flight patterns produced by pharate moths, in which the wings are also immobile, also have a longer cycle time than that of adult flight, but the number of spikes per burst the same and the interspike interval is longer than in adult flight. These observations suggest that the differences between pupal and adult patterns are not necessarily due to the confinement of the wings by the pupal cuticle. PMID:993706

Kammer, A E; Rheuben, M B

1976-08-01

392

Trans-2-hexenal: mating stimulant for polyphemus moths.  

PubMed

The volatile compound from oak leaves which stimulates the female polyphemus moth to release her sex pheromone has been isolated and identified as trans-2-hexenal. Although leaves of other food plants contain trans-2-hexenal, they also release masking odors which block the activity of the hexenal. PMID:6054815

Riddiford, L M

1967-10-01

393

CONTROLLING BANDED ASH CLEARWING MOTH BORER USING ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banded ash clearwing moth, Podosesia aureocincta, in 24 green ash growing in a nursery were treated with the nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (strain 25) at two different rates. Eight infested green ash were controls in the field trial. Nematodes were applied in July using a back- pack sprayer. Applications of entomopathogenic nematodes significantly reduced the number of living larvae associated

Stanton Gill; John Davidson; Wanda MacLachian; Will Potts

394

Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

395

An Overview of Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has resulted in the development of resistance in potato tuber moth populations, safety risks to farm workers, the food supply, and the environment. An integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, in which natural enemies of pest arthropods and other alterna...

396

Mosquito Feeding Affects Larval Behaviour and Development in a Moth  

E-print Network

Mosquito Feeding Affects Larval Behaviour and Development in a Moth Ve´ronique Martel1 *¤ , Fredrik investigated the impact of a terrestrial micropredator, the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, on its unusual of mosquitoes showed a slower development and reached a smaller pupal weight when compared to a control without

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

MANAGING THE ZIMMERMAN PINE MOTH Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

be detected by the presence of resin masses covered with white, sawdust-sized crumbs near the whorls the caterpillars are deep in the trunk, wounds are gummy and covered with white crumbs of caterpillar excrement no spines. It is found at the end of a tunnel just beneath the bark. TREES ATTACKED The Zimmerman pine moth

Ginzel, Matthew

398

Bin sterilization to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine efficacious temperatures of hot water baths to prevent adult emergence, found baths at 80°C for > ...

399

Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

400

Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

401

Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

402

Biological control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most destructive cosmopolitan insect pests of brassicaceous crops. It was the first crop insect reported to be resistant to DDT and now, in many crucifer producing regions, it has shown significant resistance to almost every synthetic insecticide applied in the field. In certain parts of the world,

Muhammad Sarfraz; Andrew B Keddie; Lloyd M Dosdall

2005-01-01

403

SYSTEMATICS Biology of a New Panamanian Bagworm Moth (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)  

E-print Network

SYSTEMATICS Biology of a New Panamanian Bagworm Moth (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) with Predatory Larvae and morphology of all stages of a new species of Psychidae from Panama, Perisceptis carnivora Davis (Lepidoptera are proposed. KEY WORDS egg case, life history, morphology, predation Whereas adult Lepidoptera depend upon

Davis, Don R.

404

CONTROL OF INDIANMEAL MOTH USING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Indianmeal moth is an important economic pest in food storage facilities. Once the larva reaches the final stage, it will often wander in search of a pupation site. This stage is extremely difficult to kill with residual insecticides. Recent research with the insect growth regulators hydroprene...

405

Cold storage to control codling moth larvae in fresh apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), found in exported apples, Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf., can disrupt international markets. Cold storage at 1.1°C was examined for possible control on three physiological larval states in ‘Fuji’ apples: diapausing ...

406

EFFECT OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH, PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-eight strains of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for toxicity against the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. Bt strains were cultured on agar plates, examined for the presence of crystals and then harvested in water. Samples of Bt spore/crystal preparations...

407

Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the potato tuber moth (PTM) (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is considered the most damaging potato pest. Larvae mine both leaves and tubers, in the field and in storage making the pest difficult to control. Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has...

408

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions. Administrator...article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved interstate to any destination...The presence of the South American cactus moth or the existence of circumstances...

2010-01-01

409

76 FR 30089 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Inspection Service Title: South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations. OMB Control...interstate movement of South American cactus moth host material including nursery stock and...artificial spread of South American cactus moth into non-infested areas of the...

2011-05-24

410

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions. Administrator...article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved interstate to any destination...The presence of the South American cactus moth or the existence of circumstances...

2013-01-01

411

7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined areas...State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which...believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

2013-01-01

412

7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of this...

2012-01-01

413

7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined areas...State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which...believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

2011-01-01

414

7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined areas...State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which...believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

2014-01-01

415

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions. Administrator...article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved interstate to any destination...The presence of the South American cactus moth or the existence of circumstances...

2012-01-01

416

7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of this...

2014-01-01

417

7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined areas...State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which...believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

2012-01-01

418

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions. Administrator...article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved interstate to any destination...The presence of the South American cactus moth or the existence of circumstances...

2011-01-01

419

7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of this...

2013-01-01

420

7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of this...

2011-01-01

421

7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3 Quarantined areas...State, in which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which...believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the...

2010-01-01

422

7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions. Administrator...article is free of South American cactus moth and may be moved interstate to any destination...The presence of the South American cactus moth or the existence of circumstances...

2014-01-01

423

7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles...articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living stage of its development...interstate movement of South American cactus moths are contained in part 330 of this...

2010-01-01

424

Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

2008-01-01

425

Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense  

SciTech Connect

Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

2006-11-20

426

Bin sanitizer - An effective way to reduce codling moth and fungal decay sporesation to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Blue mold caused by Penicillum spp. is a major postharvest disease of apples and pears. An applied test conducted at a commercial packing h...

427

TIMING OF EGG HATCH BY EARLY-SEASON CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) PREDICTED BY MOTH CATCH IN PEAR ESTER AND CODLEMONE-BAITED TRAPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Timing of moth catch in traps to predict the start of egg hatch by first generation codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosaceae) was evaluated with ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadieonate (pear ester) and (E, E)-8,10- dodecadien-1-ol (codlemon...

428

The effectiveness of chemical herbicides for the control of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) in the vicinity of the Sonora Ranch Experiment Station  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHEHICAL HERMCIDES FOR THE CONTROL OF PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS (~tia spp. ) IN THE VICINITY OF THE SONORA RANCH EXPERINENT STATION A Thesis LONELL S ~ GLEASCN Approved as to style and content bF Chairaan of Cosssittee August..., 19&1 THE EFFHCTIVENEM OF CHENICAL HERBICINES FCR THE CONTROL OF PRICRLI PEAR CACTUS (/gratia spp. ) IN THE VICINITY OF THE SONORA BAlCH EXPERINENT STATION LONELL S, GLEASON A Thesis Subsitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural aud...

Gleason, Lowell S

2012-06-07

429

Supplementation with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit decreases oxidative stress in healthy humans: a comparative study with vitamin C  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Background: Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit contains vi- tamin C and characteristic betalain pigments, the radical-scavenging properties and antioxidant activities of which have been shown,in vitro. Objective: We investigated the effects of short-term supplementa- tion with cactus pear fruit compared,with vitamin C alone on total- body oxidative status in healthy humans. Design: In a randomized, crossover, double-treatment study, 18

Luisa Tesoriere; Daniela Butera; Anna Maria Pintaudi; Mario Allegra; Maria A Livrea

430

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein–bombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moth’s antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

431

Rate of realized interception of pheromone pulses in different wind speeds modulates almond moth orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interception of a pheromone filament induces flying moths to surge briefly nearly straight upwind; in the absence of\\u000a pheromone moths cease upwind progress and zigzag crosswind. We tested males of the almond moth, Cadra cautella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), in a low-turbulence wind tunnel in wind velocities of 20, 40 and 80?cm s?1. A mechanical pulse generator was set to produce

A. Mafra-Neto; R. T. Cardé

1998-01-01

432

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.  

PubMed

Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive. PMID:24650181

Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

2014-08-01

433

Corrective action plan for CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) verbally requested approval for the schedule to be accelerated from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1997. Currently, field closure activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963.

NONE

1997-09-01

434

Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols  

SciTech Connect

This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

2002-05-07

435

The effects of cactus inspired spines on the aerodynamics of a cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of cactus-like spines on the topology and the dynamics of the flow past a stationary or pivoted cylinder are experimentally studied. The experiments are performed either in a water channel or a wind tunnel at low to moderate Reynolds number (390-12 500). The instantaneous velocity field is recorded using TR-PIV and investigated for three different configurations: no spines, short spines (0.1D) and long spines (0.2D). The results show how the spines are able to slow the flow past the cylinder and then increase the recirculation area by up to 128% while the maximum fluctuating kinetic energy intensity is decreased by up to 35%. Moreover, the spines have a significant effect on the vortex shedding and the dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder, thus significantly reducing both the amplitude and the frequency at which a pivoted cylinder oscillates.

Levy, Benjamin; Liu, Yingzheng

2013-05-01

436

Water availability and the competitive effect of a columnar cactus on its nurse plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field study was conducted in a semi-arid tropical ecosystem in Mexico to test whether competition for soil water is the causal mechanism underlying the negative effect of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia tetetzo on its nurse plant Mimosa luisana and to examine how this relationship varies over time. The effect of irrigation was evaluated by recording the production of leaves, modules (i.e. internodes with an axillary bud), inflorescences and fruits in shrubs growing either isolated or associated with juvenile or adult columnar cacti. 4 001 of water, in five doses of 801 each every 15 d, were added to the treatment plants; no water other than rainfall was added to control plants. Additionally, to evaluate how the effect of the columnar cacti on the shrubs may vary among years we made a comparison of the production of plant structures between 2 years of contrasting rainfall. The irrigation treatment increased the production of modules, inflorescences and fruits, but not of leaves. Shrub response to watering was also dependent on class of association: those associated with juvenile cacti showed a higher response to irrigation than any other treatment. Our results show that water addition increases the production of structures and partially reduces the negative effect of the cactus on nurse shrub, thus supporting the hypothesis of competition for water. The negative effect of the cacti on their nurse plants was present during both years of observations, but the intensity of the negative effect varies from relatively wet to dry years. The results are discussed in relation to how temporal changes in resource availability affect the results of competitive interactions and the importance of this mechanism in the structure and dynamics of this dryland community.

Flores-Martínez, Arturo; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador

1998-02-01

437

Differences in tolerance to host cactus alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii.  

PubMed

The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

Soto, Ignacio M; Carreira, Valeria P; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M; Hasson, Esteban

2014-01-01

438

Pheromone reception in moths: from molecules to behaviors.  

PubMed

Male moths detect and find their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. Olfaction plays a vital role in this behavior. Since the first discovery of an insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, great efforts have been spent on understanding the sensing of the pheromones in vivo. Much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects in the past few decades. In this review, we focus on pheromone reception and detection in moths, from the molecular to the behavioral level. We trace the information pathway from the capture of pheromone by male antennae, binding and transportation to olfactory receptor neurons, receptor activation, signal transduction, molecule inactivation, through brain processing and behavioral response. We highlight the impact of recent studies and also provide our insights into pheromone processing. PMID:25623339

Zhang, Jin; Walker, William B; Wang, Guirong

2015-01-01

439

Antennal carboxylesterases in a moth, structural and functional diversity  

PubMed Central

Pheromone-degrading enzymes (PDEs) are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly degrading pheromone molecules. Because esters are widespread insect pheromone components, PDEs belonging to the carboxylesterase (CCE) family have been the most studied. However, only two CCEs were both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized as PDEs until recently. In the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis, we have identified an unsuspected diversity of antennal CCEs, with a total number of 30 genes. Two CCEs, enriched in antennae and belonging to distinct clades, were shown to present different substrate specificities toward pheromone and plant compounds. A same CCE was also shown to efficiently degrade both pheromone and plant components. Our results suggest that the structural evolution of antennal CCEs reflects their functional diversity and that a complex set of CCE-mediated reactions take place is the olfactory organs of moths. PMID:22896794

Durand, Nicolas; Chertemps, Thomas; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

2012-01-01

440

New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems. PMID:16365714

Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

2005-12-01

441

Predator Mimicry: Metalmark Moths Mimic Their Jumping Spider Predators  

PubMed Central

Cases of mimicry provide many of the nature's most convincing examples of natural selection. Here we report evidence for a case of predator mimicry in which metalmark moths in the genus Brenthia mimic jumping spiders, one of their predators. In controlled trials, Brenthia had higher survival rates than other similarly sized moths in the presence of jumping spiders and jumping spiders responded to Brenthia with territorial displays, indicating that Brenthia were sometimes mistaken for jumping spiders, and not recognized as prey. Our experimental results and a review of wing patterns of other insects indicate that jumping spider mimicry is more widespread than heretofore appreciated, and that jumping spiders are probably an important selective pressure shaping the evolution of diurnal insects that perch on vegetation. PMID:17183674

Rota, Jadranka; Wagner, David L.

2006-01-01

442

Structureactivity relationships in sex attractants for north American noctuid moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex attractants known for 145 species of noctuid moths have many common features both as to chemical constituents and to their relationships in blends. The great majority of constituents are straight-chain (Z)-alkenols, -alkenals, or -alkenyl acetates of even carbon number (10 through 16). The unsaturation is nonterminal in odd-numbered positions (5 through 11). In effective lures, these components are blended

Warren Steck; E. W. Underhill; M. D. Chisholm

1982-01-01

443

Quantifying an anti-bat flight response by eared moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using near-infrared videotaping we measured the nocturnal flight times of six species of eared moths (Amphipyra pyramidoidesGuenée, Caenurgina erechtea (Cramer), Feltia jaculifera (Guenée), Phlogophora periculosa Guenée, Lymantria dispar (Linné), and Ennomos magnaria Guenée) in cages in which they flew, under randomized conditions, fo r3hi n theabsence an d3hi n thepresence of simulated bat-attack sounds. When exposed to the ultra- sound,

J. H. Fullard; K. E. Muma; J. W. Dawson

2003-01-01

444

Detection of certain African, insectivorous bats by sympatric, tympanate moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tympanic organs of moths we studied in Zimbabwe responded differentially to the echolocation\\/hunting signals of sympatric, insectivorous bats. Bats employing very high frequencies (> 110 kHz) and\\/or low intensity cries tend to be first detected by tympanal preparations at distances considerably less than those with more intense, mid-frequency (20–60 kHz) cries. There appears to be some positive correlation between

James H. Fullard; Donald W. Thomas

1981-01-01

445

Horizontal Transmission of Entomopathogenic Fungi by the Diamondback Moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative potential of the pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Zoophthora radicans for use as autodisseminated biological control agents of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) was compared. The LC50 of B. bassiana conidia to third instar larvae was 499 conidia\\/mm2 of leaf surface and individual cadavers of mycosed fourth instar larvae yielded a mean of 67.5 × 106 (±7.5 ×

Michael J Furlong; Judith K Pell

2001-01-01

446

Cactus Wheel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners explore the concept of population density. Using a simple hunt-and-walk technique, learners will count several kinds of desert plants and compare their population densities. This activity is designed for desert areas but can be adapted to other ecosystems. Also, check your local botanical gardens, they may have a desert plant section.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1980-01-01

447

Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth  

PubMed Central

Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

2013-01-01

448

Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth.  

PubMed

Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant-insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids (E)-beta-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones. PMID:16450082

Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

2006-03-01

449

Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids ( E)-?-caryophyllene, ( E)-?-farnesene and ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

2006-03-01

450

Hearing and bat defence in geometrid winter moths.  

PubMed Central

Audiograms and behavioural responses to ultrasound reveal that male geometrid winter moths (Agriopis and Erannis spp.; Ennominae, and Alsophila aescularia; Oenochrominae), which have large wings and a slow flight, have good, broadly tuned ultrasonic hearing with best frequencies at 25-40 kHz, coinciding with the frequencies used by most sympatric aerial-hawking bats. Ultrasonic pulses (27 kHz 110 dB at 1 m) delivered at distances of 1-12 m evoked consistent reactions of free flying, male A. marginaria in the lab as well as in the field; those at < 5 m resulted in the moth spiralling or diving towards the ground, those at 5-12 m resulted in one or several changes in the flight path, but did not end on the ground. The differential reaction probably reflects whether the moth is likely to have been detected by the bat or not. The micropterous (and flightless), and hence cryptic, females have strongly reduced tympanic organs and are virtually deaf. Sexual dimorphism in hearing and behavioural reactions to ultrasound reflect differential natural selection on males and females by bats. Natural selection on the hearing of the males thus seems to occur although they fly in late autumn and early spring, when bat activity is much reduced. PMID:9061963

Rydell, J; Skals, N; Surlykke, A; Svensson, M

1997-01-01

451

Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.  

PubMed

Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

2014-08-22

452

Characterization and comparison of serratia marcescens isolated from edible cactus and from silkworm for virulence potential and chitosan susceptibility.  

PubMed

Representative strains of Serratia marcescens from an edible cactus plant and silkworms were characterized and a comparison based on their cellular fatty acid composition, 16S rRNA and groE gene sequence analysis as well as silkworm virulence and chitosan susceptibility was carried out. Results from this study indicate that there are no significant differences between the phenotypic and molecular characterization, virulence and chitosan susceptibility of the S. marcescens strains from the cactus plant and silkworms. Silkworms inoculated with S. marcescens from either plant or silkworm resulted in nearly 100% mortality. Chitosan solution exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. marcescens. This activity increased with the increase of chitosan concentration and incubation time regardless of the strain source. Also, the results indicate that the plant associated S. marcescens maybe plays a possible role in the contamination of humans and animals, in particular silkworms, while chitosan showed a potential to control the contamination caused by S. marcescens. PMID:24031610

Li, Bin; Yu, Rongrong; Liu, Baoping; Tang, Qiaomei; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

2011-01-01

453

The Dorsoventral Regulatory Gene Cassette spätzle\\/Toll\\/cactus Controls the Potent Antifungal Response in Drosophila Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytokine-induced activation cascade of NF-?B in mammals and the activation of the morphogen dorsal in Drosophila embryos show striking structural and functional similarities (Toll\\/IL-1, Cactus\\/I-?B, and dorsal\\/NF-?B). Here we demonstrate that these parallels extend to the immune response of Drosophila. In particular, the intracellular components of the dorsoventral signaling pathway (except for dorsal) and the extracellular Toll ligand, spätzle,

Bruno Lemaitre; Emmanuelle Nicolas; Lydia Michaut; Jean-Marc Reichhart; Jules A Hoffmann

1996-01-01

454

Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1  

SciTech Connect

The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

NONE

1997-06-01

455

Daily to decadal patterns of precipitation, humidity, and photosynthetic physiology recorded in the spines of the columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic analyses of cactus spines grown serially from the apex of long-lived columnar cactuses may be useful for climatological and ecological studies if time series can be reliably determined from spines. To characterize the timescales over which spines may record this information, we measured spine growth in saguaro cactus over days, months, and years with time-lapse photography, periodic marking, and postbomb radiocarbon dating and then analyzed isotopic variability over these same timescales and compared these measurements to local climate. We used daily increments of growth, visible as transverse bands of light and dark tissue in spines, as chronometers to develop diurnally resolved ?13C and ?18O records from three spines grown in series over a 70 day period. We also constructed a 22 year record of ?13C variations from spine tips arranged in chronological sequence along the side of a 4 m tall, single-stemmed saguaro. We evaluated two mechanisms potentially responsible for daily, weekly, and annual variability in ?13C values of spines; both related to vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Our data suggest that stomatal conductance is unlikely to be the determinant of ?13C variation in spines. We suggest that either VPD-induced changes in the balance of nighttime- and daytime-assimilated CO2 or mesophyll-limited diffusion of CO2 at night are the most likely determinant of ?13C variation in spines. Intra-annual and interannual variability of ?18O in spine tissue appears to be controlled by the mass balance of 18O-depleted water taken up after rain events and evaporative enrichment of 18O in tissue water between rains. We were able to estimate the annual growth and areole generation rate of a saguaro cactus from its 22 yearlong isotopic record because VPD, rainfall, and evaporation exhibit strong annual cycles in the Sonoran Desert and these variations are recorded in the oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of spines.

English, Nathan B.; Dettman, David L.; Sandquist, Darren R.; Williams, David G.

2010-06-01

456

Spray-Drying of Cactus Pear Juice (Opuntia streptacantha): Effect on the Physicochemical Properties of Powder and Reconstituted Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

A D-optimal experimental design with three center points was used to evaluate the influence of spray-drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of a powdered product obtained by drying cactus pear juice. Drying was performed in a laboratory spray-dryer (Pulvis GB 22 model) at two inlet air temperatures (205 and 225°C), and two compressor air pressures (0.10 and 0.20 MPa). Commercial

G. R. Rodríguez-Hernández; R. González-García; A. Grajales-Lagunes; M. A. Ruiz-Cabrera; M. Abud-Archila

2005-01-01

457

S-Linalool synthase activity in developing fruit of the columnar cactus koubo [ Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller, Cactaceae] is a commercially grown columnar cactus that produces an apple-sized, berry-like, edible fruit. The unique aroma of this fruit is largely due to (S)-linalool and linalool derivatives. Cell-free extracts obtained from koubo fruits produced linalool from geranyl diphosphate (GDP) (apparent Km 18?M) in enzymatic assays containing the divalent ion cofactor Mn2+ or Mg2+. The

Yaron Sitrit; Racheli Ninio; Einat Bar; Einav Golan; Olga Larkov; Uzi Ravid; Efraim Lewinsohn

2004-01-01

458

Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P<0.01) decreased the body, testis, and accessory sex organ weights, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, histological analysis revealed pronounced morphological alterations with tubular necrosis and reduction in the number of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of sodium dichromate-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, exposure to sodium dichromate significantly (P<0.01) increased LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testis. Interestingly, pretreatment with CCE significantly (P<0.01) restored the serum testosterone level, sperm count, and motility to the levels of the control group. Moreover, CCE administration was capable of reducing the elevated level of LPO and significantly (P<0.01) increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in testis. Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis. PMID:24752970

Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

2014-06-01

459

Many species of moths defend themselves against the attacks of hunting bats with simple ears that detect the bats'  

E-print Network

Many species of moths defend themselves against the attacks of hunting bats with simple ears that detect the bats' echolocation calls (Roeder, 1967; Miller, 1983; Fullard, 1987a; Surlykke, 1988). Moth and their species-specific echolocation calls cover a wide range of frequencies (Fenton and Bell, 1981), moth ears

Fullard, James H.

460

Survey for Winter Moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Northeastern North America With Pheromone-Baited Traps and Hybridization With  

E-print Network

FORUM Survey for Winter Moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Northeastern North America pheromone-baited traps to survey the distribution of winter moth, Operoph- tera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera. In 2005, we recovered winter moths at sites stretching from eastern Long Island, southeastern Connecticut

Elkinton, Joseph

461

Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae A. M. Liebhold, K. F. Raffa* and A. L. Diss  

E-print Network

Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae A. M. Liebhold, K. F. Raffa* and A. L. Diss in low-density gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), popula- tions in established populations in north densities. 2 We compared small mammal communities and levels of predation on gypsy moth pupae among five

Liebhold, Andrew

462

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 119 RELATIVE POTENCIES OF GYPSY MOTH  

E-print Network

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 119 RELATIVE POTENCIES OF GYPSY MOTH Research Station, Delaware, OH 43015 ABSTRACT Gypchek is a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) - specific-spectrum pesticides for gypsy moth management. Gypchek is a lyophilized powder produced from larvae that have been

463

Pine-tree lappet moth (Dendrolimus pini) future climate Duncan Ray1, Yvonne Grieve2 and Roger Moore1  

E-print Network

Pine-tree lappet moth (Dendrolimus pini) future climate evaluation Duncan Ray1, Yvonne Grieve2;30/11/20112 Dendrolimus pini ­ Pine-tree Lappet Moth · Serious defoliator of pine forests in central and eastern Europe ­ Kiltarlity, near Inverness · First record - 1 male moth caught in light trap - Inverness- July 2004 · 2004

464

SPECIAL FEATURE: REVIEW Allee Effects: Mating and Invasion The role of Allee effects in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.),  

E-print Network

SPECIAL FEATURE: REVIEW Allee Effects: Mating and Invasion The role of Allee effects in gypsy moth moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), inva- sion of North America. In this review, we examine the potential causes of the Allee effect in the gypsy moth and highlight the importance of mate-finding failure

Liebhold, Andrew

465

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 53, NO. 4, AUGUST 2004 1113 Explosives Detection With Hard-Wired Moths  

E-print Network

Detection With Hard-Wired Moths Tony L. King, Member, IEEE, Frank M. Horine, Kevin C. Daly, and Brian H. Smith Abstract--Insects, such as moths, can be trained to respond to explosives odors. A prototype system that can use trained insects such as moths to detect explosives was designed, assembled

Daly, Kevin Charles

466

Habitat Use of Macro-Moths Centre for Wildlife Assessment & Conservation E-Journal (2007) 1: 1-9.  

E-print Network

Habitat Use of Macro-Moths Centre for Wildlife Assessment & Conservation E-Journal (2007) 1: 1-9. 1 are now commonly used indicators of climate change. Macro-moths in the UK also have an extensive data of terrestrial insects in Britain (Conrad et al., 2006). Population data on British macro-moths has been

Merckx, Thomas

467

Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Evolution of the Integral Membrane Desaturase Gene Family in Moths and Flies  

E-print Network

Gene Family in Moths and Flies Douglas C. Knipple,*,1 Claire-Lise Rosenfield,* Rasmus Nielsen, Kyung, on average, six unique desaturase-encoding sequences in moth pheromone glands, the same number as is found). It is apparent male moths and released at appropriate times to attract that desaturases are particularly

Nielsen, Rasmus

468

Noctuoid moths possess simple ears consisting of a tympanic membrane serviced by one (in the Notodontidae) or  

E-print Network

Noctuoid moths possess simple ears consisting of a tympanic membrane serviced by one (in the moths to detect the echolocation calls of aerially hunting bats (Roeder, 1967, 1974) and, in exceptional of the A2 cell, differences that supposedly provide the moths with the ability to discriminate between far

Fullard, James H.

469

Abstract Chronic herbivory by the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella) alters the sexual expression of a  

E-print Network

Abstract Chronic herbivory by the stem-boring moth (Dioryctria albovittella) alters the sexual function. Observa- tions and long-term moth removal experiments show that 55% of susceptible trees can lose all female function. Moth herbivory has little effect on male function in young trees, but has

Gehring, Catherine "Kitty"

470

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2014-07-01

471

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2013-07-01

472

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2010-07-01

473

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2012-07-01

474

40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance...microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

2011-07-01

475

Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

476

EFFECTS OF PARENTAL AGE AT MATING ON THE REPRODUCTIVE RESPONSE OF THE GYPSY MOTH PARASITOID GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GLYPTAPANTELES FLAVICOXIS (Marsh) is an oligophagous, gregarious, larval parasitoid of the Indian gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA OBFUSCATA (Walker), which readily attacks the European gypsy moth, LYMANTRIA DISPAR (L.). This species is believed to have potential for inundative releases against gypsy moth pop...

477

Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84 days in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P?cactus-Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P?cactus could be used to improve poor quality roughage intakes in goats, and therefore, there is need to promote its use in periods of feed deficit especially in smallholder sector. PMID:25023231

Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

2014-10-01

478

Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

479

Identification of the Sex Pheromone of the Diurnal Hawk Moth, Hemaris affinis.  

PubMed

Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth. PMID:25533775

Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

480

Forty million years of mutualism: Evidence for Eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association  

PubMed Central

The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 ± 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0–6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 ± 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 ± 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available. PMID:10430916

Pellmyr, Olle; Leebens-Mack, James

1999-01-01

481

Limiting the costs of mutalism: multiple modes of interaction between yuccas and yucca moths  

PubMed Central

In pollination–seed predation mutualisms between yuccas and yucca moths, conflicts of interest exist for yuccas, because benefits of increased pollination may be outweighed by increased seed consumption. These conflicts raise the problem of what limits seed consumption, and ultimately what limits or regulates moth populations. Although the current hypothesis is that yuccas should selectively abscise flowers with high numbers of yucca-moth eggs, within-inflorescence selective abscission occurs in only one of the three moth–yucca systems that we studied. It occurs only when oviposition directly damages developing ovules, and does not, therefore, provide a general explanation for the resolution of moth–yucca conflicts. Within-locule egg mortality provides an alternative and stronger mechanism for limiting seed damage, and generating density-dependent mortality for yucca-moth populations. However, the most important feature of moth–yucca systems is that they are diverse, encompassing multiple modes of interaction, each with different consequences for limiting and regulating yucca moths.

Addicott, J. F.; Bao, T.

1999-01-01

482

EFFECTS OF GYPSY MOTH POPULATION DENSITY AND HOST-TREE SPECIES ON PARASITISM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is a defoliator of deciduous forests throughout most of Eurasia and the northeastern part of the USA. In Poland, the economic importance of the gypsy moth is rather low. Sporadically it causes local outbreaks, which are suppressed by a complex of natural enemie...

483

“This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

484

MATING DISRUPTION FOR CONTROL OF THE INDIANMEAL MOTH IN A WAREHOUSE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Timed release of (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate using Michigan State Microsprayer system was tested for control of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, in an organically certified dried bean warehouse. Moth prevalence was monitored by three methods: 1) pheromone baited flight traps; 2) o...

485

Foraging pattern of pine siskins and its influence on winter moth survival in an apple orchard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging by migratory pine siskins in an apple orchard infested with varying densities of winter moth was observed, and winter moth mortality in the presence and absence of birds was recorded. Time spent foraging in a tree and number of birds foraging per tree was positively related to larval density but number of larvae removed per leaf cluster or per

Jens Roland; Susan J. Hannon; M. Angela Smith

1986-01-01

486

Forest Response to Stress and Damage (FORSTAD) Gypsy Moth Data 1980-2004 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS  

E-print Network

collection. SAMPLING DESIGN Plots are sampled between November and April, after leaf drop and before the eggs Studies PO Box AB Millbrook, NY 12545 Telephone: (845) 677-5343 CODES Density = gypsy moth egg mass density DATA DESCRIPTION Gypsy moth density is presented in egg masses/hectare for each year of data

Canham, Charles D.

487

DISRUPTION OF MATING IN CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) BY AN ANTHRANILAMID INSECTICIDE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of the anthranilamid insecticide, DPX-E2Y45, was evaluated against the adult stage of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Insecticide residues sprayed in plastic cups had a minimal effect on adult survivorship or fecundity, however, significantly fewer female moths were mated in treated v...

488

LABORATORY INFESTATION OF SWEET CHERRY BY CODLING MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE): FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory methods have been developed to rear the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.), to better understand host susceptibility relationships. The status of cherry as a true host for codling moth has been debated because of the limited...

489

GRIZZLY BEAR USE OF ARMY CUTWORM MOTHS IN THE YELLOWSTONE ECOSYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they

STEVEN P. FRENCH; MARILYNN G. FRENCH; RICHARD R. KNIGHT

490

European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets and other berry fruits; larvae feed on and pupate in berries. Invasion of this exotic moth may disrupt 1984 and 2003 (Venette et al. 2003). This insect is listed as an exotic organism of high invasive risk

491

Biochemical Mechanisms of Azinphosmethyl Resistance in the Tufted Apple Bud Moth Platynota idaeusalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential mechanisms of resistance to azinphosmethyl, an organophosphate insecticide, were examined in five field populations of the tufted apple bud moth Platynota idaeusalis (Walker). Adult male moths from resistant and susceptible populations were collected on sex pheromone traps and analyzed for glutathione transferase, general carboxylesterase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Kinetics and inhibition profiles for acetylcholinesterase were also compared among

E. J. Carlini; B. A. Mcpheron; C. M. Felland; L. A. Hull

1995-01-01

492

CONTROL OF THE WAX MOTH GALLERIA MELLONELLA ON BEECOMB BY H-SEROTPYE V  

E-print Network

CONTROL OF THE WAX MOTH GALLERIA MELLONELLA ON BEECOMB BY H-SEROTPYE V BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS, England SUMMARY Mature broodcombs were protected from attack by larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella was much less in laboratory assays made directly on sheets of foundation wax. Dipicolinic acid, penicillin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

493

Calorimetric investigations on thermoregula-tion and growth of wax moth larvae (Galleria  

E-print Network

Calorimetric investigations on thermoregula- tion and growth of wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) The larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella are living in honeybee colonies where they feed on wax, honey, pollen and other organic matter. Mass-invasions of larvae can occur in weak bee colonies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

494

Harmful Occurrence of Rosy Rustic Moth (Hydraecia micacea) (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) on Hop in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

ŠEDIVÝ J., BORN P., VOST ?EL J. (2005): Harmful occurrence of Rosy rustic moth (Hydraecia micacea) (Noc- tuidae: Lepidoptera) on hop in the Czech Republic. Plant Protect. Sci., 41: 150-157. The Rosy rustic moth ( Hydraecia micacea) has been a pest of hop in Czech hop regions for a long time. It causes most severe damages in hop gardens infested

JOSEF ŠEDIV Ý; PETR BORN

495

Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate mountain landscape  

E-print Network

Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate mountain landscape: vegetation. C. Miller, and J. A. Jones. 2013. Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate.1890/ ES12-00384.1 Abstract. Macromoth diversity, abundance, and community structure in the topographically

496

POPULATION ECOLOGY Parasitism of Native Luna Moths, Actias luna (L.) (Lepidoptera  

E-print Network

POPULATION ECOLOGY Parasitism of Native Luna Moths, Actias luna (L.) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae Lepidoptera (Culver 1919), and in recent discussions of nontarget effects of biological control, C. concinnata potential neg- ative impact on native Lepidoptera. First, the Ã?y is multivoltine, while the gypsy moth

Fink, Linda S.

497

Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

Gottschalk, K.W.

1993-02-02

498

The peppered moth: a black and white story after all Preprint from Genetics Society News 50: 34-38, January 2004  

E-print Network

1 The peppered moth: a black and white story after all Preprint from Genetics Society News 50: 34 example of natural selection is the story of industrial melanism in the peppered moth. Recently there has moth could hardly be bettered. Peppered moth melanism ­ the classic story of natural selection

Mallet, James

499

[pp. 367-380. In WE Wallner (ed.), PROCEEDINGS Lymantriidae: A Comparison of Features of New and Old World Tussock Moths. New Haven,  

E-print Network

and Old World Tussock Moths. New Haven, CT. 1989, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-125 include three introduced species which have become established in North America, the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), the browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea L. and the satin moth, Leucoma salicis (L

Kunkel, Joseph G.

500

Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a seri-ous pest of hardwoods in our state. Although this insect  

E-print Network

Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a seri- ous pest of hardwoods in our state in moth populations in 2000. This population increase serves as a reminder that, in areas where gypsy moth low to be noticed. Gypsy moth is a native of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. It was accidentally

Liskiewicz, Maciej