Sample records for cadmium copper iron

  1. Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N.-G.. Ilbaeck; U. Lindh; R. Minqin; G. Friman; F. Watt

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is

  2. Effect of dietary phytic acid and cadmium on the availability of cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, and manganese to rats

    SciTech Connect

    Turecki, T.; Ewan, R.C.; Stahr, H.M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The main route of cadmium intake for general population, both human and animal, is via ingestion. The intestinal absorption of cadmium is relatively low, 6% of a single oral dose for humans and less than 2% for various animal species. However, due to poor excretion, accumulation of cadmium occurs, primarily in kidney. The chronic exposure even to low levels of dietary cadmium can lead to the development of renal disturbances. Fox (1988) suggests that phytic acid might be a dietary component capable to influence the intestinal absorption of cadmium. Phytic acid naturally occurs as the major phosphorus storage constituent of most cereals, legumes, and oilseeds. At physiological pH, phytic acid is ionized and has a strong affinity for divalent cations. The potential of phytic acid to decrease the availability of Zn has been for long time of concern for nutritionists. Phytic acid has also been reported to decrease the availability of other trace metals. For nonessential elements, reduced availability of lead has been observed. The experimental data concerning the effect of dietary phytic acid on the availability of dietary cadmium are limited to the work of Rose and Quarterman (1984). The objective of this experiment was to examine: (1) the effect of dietary phytic acid on the availability of cadmium under conditions of chronic dietary exposure of rats to cadmium, and (2) the effect of dietary phytic acid and of chronic dietary exposure to cadmium on the availability of zinc, copper, iron, and manganese to rats. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Concentration of Copper, Iron, Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, and Nickel in Boar Semen and Relation to the Spermatozoa Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Massányi; Jozef Trandžík; Pavol Nad; Beáta Koréneková; Magdaléna Skalická; Robert Toman; Norbert Luká?; Peter Strapák; Marko Halo; Ján Tur?an

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel as well as its relation to spermatozoa quality was investigated. The semen samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentration of copper in boar semen was 1.64 ± 0.28 mg kg and of iron 16.14 ± 10.35 mg kg. The concentration of zinc in boar semen reached an average value of 171.74 ± 64.72 mg kg and the level of

  4. Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Ilbaeck, N.-G. [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden) and Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: nils-gunnar.ilback@slv.se; Lindh, U. [Research in Metal Biology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Minqin, R. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Friman, G. [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Watt, F. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2006-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is known to be associated with certain pathological conditions of the brain. However, whether nonessential trace elements could influence the balance of essential trace elements in the brain is unknown. In this study the brain Fe, Cu, and Cd contents were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their distributions determined by nuclear microscopy in the early phase (day 3) of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in nonexposed and in Cd-exposed female Balb/c mice. In CB3 infection the brain is a well-known target that has not been studied with regard to trace element balance. The brain concentration of Cu compared with that of noninfected control mice was increased by 9% (P<0.05) in infected mice not exposed to Cd and by 10% (not significant) in infected Cd-exposed mice. A similar response was seen for Fe, which in infected Cd-exposed mice, compared to noninfected control mice, tended to increase by 16%. Cu showed an even tissue distribution, whereas Fe was distributed in focal deposits. Changes in Cd concentration in the brain of infected mice were less consistent but evenly distributed. Further studies are needed to define whether the accumulation and distribution of trace elements in the brain have an impact on brain function.

  5. Inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric method is described for the determination of six elements in a variety of geological materials. Sixteen reference materials are analysed by this technique to demonstrate its use in geochemical exploration. Samples are decomposed with nitric, hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids, and the residue dissolved in hydrochloric acid and diluted to volume. The elements are determined in two groups based on compatibility of instrument operating conditions and consideration of crustal abundance levels. Cadmium, Cu, Pb and Zn are determined as a group in the 50-ml sample solution under one set of instrument conditions with the use of scatter correction. Limitations of the scatter correction technique used with the fluorescence instrument are discussed. Iron and Mn are determined together using another set of instrumental conditions on a 1-50 dilution of the sample solution without the use of scatter correction. The ranges of concentration (??g g-1) of these elements in the sample that can be determined are: Cd, 0.3-500; Cu, 0.4-500; Fe, 85-250 000; Mn, 45-100 000; Pb, 5-10 000; and Zn, 0.4-300. The precision of the method is usually less than 5% relative standard deviation (RSD) over a wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy is shown by the agreement between values obtained and those recommended for the reference materials.

  6. STUDIES ON THE DETERMINATION OF TRACE OF ELEMENTS IN IRON AND STEELS. VII. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF MICRO AMOUNTS OF CADMIUM IN CAST IRON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Maekawa; Y. Yoneyama

    1961-01-01

    An absorption photometric method for the determination of cadmium in ; cast iron by extraction as a dithizonate is described. The sample is decomposed ; by perchloric acid. After an addition of citric acid, ammonium hydroxide is ; added up to pH 9. Cadmium is extracted together with copper and nickel by ; dithizone --chloroform solution. From the extract, cadmium

  7. Minimizing iron and copper deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1975-01-01

    A major cause of tube failures in high-pressure subcritical boilers is uncontrolled deposition of corrosion products in internal tube surfaces. The predominant corrosion products are iron oxides, copper, and copper oxides. A water treatment program that controls corrosion products can increase availability and reliability by reducing tube failures and acid cleaning frequency. Such a program includes corrosion product dispersion in

  8. ACUTE LETHALITY OF COPPER, CADMIUM, AND ZINC TO NORTHERN SQUAWFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 micrograms/liter for copper, 1,104 micrograms/liter for cadmium, and 3,693 micrograms/liter...

  9. Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass and crustaceans. Arsenic showed some evidence of biomagnifica- tion. Total arsenic concentrations are similar

  10. Molecular mediators governing iron-copper interactions.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Sukru; Collins, James F

    2014-01-01

    Given their similar physiochemical properties, it is a logical postulate that iron and copper metabolism are intertwined. Indeed, iron-copper interactions were first documented over a century ago, but the homeostatic effects of one on the other has not been elucidated at a molecular level to date. Recent experimental work has, however, begun to provide mechanistic insight into how copper influences iron metabolism. During iron deficiency, elevated copper levels are observed in the intestinal mucosa, liver, and blood. Copper accumulation and/or redistribution within enterocytes may influence iron transport, and high hepatic copper may enhance biosynthesis of a circulating ferroxidase, which potentiates iron release from stores. Moreover, emerging evidence has documented direct effects of copper on the expression and activity of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. This review summarizes current experimental work in this field, with a focus on molecular aspects of iron-copper interplay and how these interactions relate to various disease states. PMID:24995690

  11. Metabolic crossroads of iron and copper

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James F; Prohaska, Joseph R; Knutson, Mitchell D

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between the essential dietary metals, iron and copper, have been known for many years. This review highlights recent advances in iron-copper interactions with a focus on tissues and cell types important for regulating whole-body iron and copper homeostasis. Cells that mediate dietary assimilation (enterocytes) and storage and distribution (hepatocytes) of iron and copper are considered, along with the principal users (erythroid cells) and recyclers of red cell iron (reticuloendothelial macrophages). Interactions between iron and copper in the brain are also discussed. Many unanswered questions regarding the role of these metals and their interactions in health and disease emerge from this synopsis, highlighting extensive future research opportunities. PMID:20384844

  12. Electrolytic Corrosion of Iron and Copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Higgins

    1954-01-01

    IT is generally accepted that if cast iron and copper are coupled together in a brine solution, the iron, being the less noble member, is likely to suffer corrosion. The copper, on the other hand, will be made `more negative' by contact with the iron and will be prevented in greater or less degree from corroding. The classical work on

  13. Cadmium

    Cancer.gov

    Cadmium is a natural element found in tiny amounts in air, water, soil, and food. All soils and rocks, including coal and mineral fertilizers, contain some cadmium. Most cadmium used in the United States is extracted during the production of other metals such as zinc, lead, and copper. Cadmium does not corrode easily and has been used to manufacture batteries, pigments, metal coatings, and plastics.

  14. Equilibrium Speciation of Cadmium, Copper, and Lead in Soil Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Ge; Sébastien Sauvé; William H. Hendershot

    2005-01-01

    Determination of chemical speciation of trace metals may help us to better understand the bioavailability and toxicity to living organisms in terrestrial and aquatic environments. This paper reports the speciation data of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in soil solutions sampled from areas around metal smelters. A column ion exchange technique (IET) using a cation exchange resin was

  15. Desorption of copper and cadmium from soils enhanced by organic acids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Xi, Zhimin; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Jinzhong; Wu, Chan; Zheng, Zhonghua; Lu, Xiaohua

    2007-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption behavior of copper and cadmium on soils was investigated in this study. The adsorption isotherm of copper and cadmium conformed to Langmuir equation better than Freundlich equation. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and organic acid, including ethylenediamine tetraacetic disodium acid salt (EDTA), citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, on the desorption of copper and cadmium was studied. The desorption of copper and cadmium increased with the increase of ionic strength, while the desorption decreased with the rise of pH. The desorption of copper and cadmium enhanced by organic acids was influenced by pH. EDTA showed excellent enhancement on the desorption of both copper and cadmium; citric acid demonstrated great enhancement on the desorption of copper but negligible enhancement on the desorption of cadmium; oxalic acid enhanced the desorption of copper only at pH around 6.4 and enhanced the desorption of cadmium in the pH range from 6.4 to 10.7; tartaric acid slightly enhanced the desorption of copper but negligibly enhanced the desorption of cadmium. The desorption mechanism in the presence of organic acids were explained as the competition of complexation, adsorption and precipitation. The net effect determined the desorption efficiency. This study provided guidance for the selection of organic acids to enhance the electrokinetic (EK) remediation of copper and cadmium from contaminated soils. PMID:17349675

  16. Effects of time, soil organic matter, and iron oxides on the relative retention and redistribution of lead, cadmium, and copper on soils.

    PubMed

    Diagboya, Paul N; Olu-Owolabi, Bamidele I; Adebowale, Kayode O

    2015-07-01

    In order to predict the bioavailability of toxic metals in soils undergoing degradation of organic matter (OM) and iron oxides (IOs), it is vital to understand the roles of these soil components in relation to metal retention and redistribution with time. In this present work, batch competitive sorptions of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) were investigated between 1 and 90 days. Results showed that competition affected Cd(II) sorption more than Cu(II) and Pb(II). The sorption followed the trend Pb(II) >?>?Cu(II)?>?Cd(II), irrespective of aging, and this high preference for Pb(II) ions in soils reduced with time. Removal of OM led to reduction in distribution coefficient (K d) values of ?33 % for all cations within the first day. However, K d increased nearly 100 % after 7 days and over 1000 % after 90-day period. The enhanced K d values indicated that sorptions occurred on the long run on surfaces which were masked by OM. Removal of IO caused selective increases in the K d values, but this was dependent on the dominant soil constituent(s) in the absence of IO. The K d values of the IO-degraded samples nearly remained constant irrespective of aging indicating that sorptions on soil components other than the IO are nearly instantaneous while iron oxides played greater role than other constituents with time. Hence, in the soils studied, organic matter content determines the immediate relative metal retention while iron oxides determine the redistribution of metals with time. PMID:25721528

  17. Effects of cadmium and copper biosorption on Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Fabiano C P; da Costa, Péricles N M; Brondi, Ariadne M; Pilau, Eduardo J; Gozzo, Fábio C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Trevisan, Marcello G; Garcia, Jerusa S

    2014-10-01

    Changes in protein levels and lipid compositions in algal cells indicate the severity of stress related to toxic concentrations of heavy metals. In this study, the effects of exposure to cadmium and copper on Chlorella vulgaris and its capacity to remove metals were evaluated. The data revealed ion removal activity by microalgae under all treatments and different levels of protein expression after 48 h of exposure. Furthermore, we analyzed lipids contents to characterize them. PMID:25151280

  18. Cadmium, copper and zinc in octopuses from Kerguelen Islands, Southern Indian Ocean

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cadmium, copper and zinc in octopuses from Kerguelen Islands, Southern Indian Ocean P. Bustamante1-en-Bois, France ABSTRACT: Concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc were measured in 34 octopuses over a large showed that the high levels of Cd in Kerguelen octopuses resulted from very high levels of the metal

  19. Contamination of soil and vegetation near a zinc smelter by zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn J. Buchauer

    1973-01-01

    Metal oxide fumes escaping from two zinc smelters in Palmerton, Pa., have highly contaminated soil and vegetation with zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead. Within 1 km of the smelters, 135,000 parts per million (ppm) zinc, 1750 ppm cadmium, 2000 ppm copper, and 2000 ppm lead have been measured in the Oâ horizon. Approximately 90% of metals deposited on the soil

  20. Selenium, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc Concentrations in Sediments and Mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the Southern Basin of Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    Selenium, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc Concentrations in Sediments and Mullet (Mugil cephalus) from. Selenium, cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in sediments and the tissues of mullet­19; cadmium, 14­42; copper, 1.5­3.6; zinc, 0.77­2.2 times background). Selenium, cadmium, and copper in Lake

  1. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals. PMID:25051614

  2. Determination of copper, cadmium, lead and bismuth in phosphoric acid solutions by atomic-absorption spectrometry after extraction with diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate and butyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, B; Jordanov, N

    1982-10-01

    The possibility of applying diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate and butyl acetate for the extraction of copper, cadmium, lead and bismuth from molar solutions of orthophosphoric acid, and from solutions containing up to 55% pyrophosphoric acid and 20% tripolyphosphoric acid has been investigated. Some characteristics of the various diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate-butyl acetate-phosphoric acid systems are described. Suitable conditions have been found for flame atomic-absorption spectrometric determination of the ions extracted. This extraction/AAS approach has been used to determine copper, cadmium, lead and bismuth in some iron-, aluminium- and tin-containing samples dissolved in concentrated orthophosphoric acid. The same approach is used for determining 10(-5)-10(-6)% copper, cadmium and lead in orthophosphoric acid and in alkali-metal mono and dihydrogen phosphates. PMID:18963249

  3. Copper Substituted Iron Telluride: A Phase Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, Patrick; SSRL Beamline 2-1 Collaboration; NIST Bt-1 Collaboration; Birgeneau Group Team

    2014-03-01

    Investigations of superconductivity in the FeCh family (Ch =S,Se,Te) have produced rich physics and notable materials challenges despite the ostensible simplicity of thE system. We have studied the effects of copper substitution in iron-telluride. We map out basic physical parameters of this phase diagram and invesitgate structure-property relationships through a variety of transport and diffraction measurements.

  4. TOXICOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF NATURAL AND CULTURED POPULATIONS OF ARACTIA TONSA TO CADMIUM, COPPER, AND MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultured Acartia tonsa manifested a reproducible toxicological response through six generations. There were no statistically significant differences in the responses of F1 and F6 generations to cadmium, copper, and mercury. Cultured and field populations (parental) exposed to cad...

  5. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in clams and oysters: collaborative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Capar

    1977-01-01

    A collaborative study to determine the accuracy and precision of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in clams and oysters is detailed. Samples containing levels of lead and cadmium too low to be measured by direct atomic absorption spectrophotometry were first extracted as the l-pyrrolidinecarbodithioate complex into n-butyl acetate before measurement. Computation of recoveries used

  6. Baseline toxicity data for freshwater bryozoa exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Pardue, W.J. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL); Wood, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    Four heavy metals - copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc - were used to determine baseline toxicity data for three species of phylactolaemate bryozoa. Techniques used in germinating test organisms are described, and baseline toxicity data are presented. Minimal interspecific variation in toxicity was noted for each heavy metal. In general, copper was most toxic, followed by cadmium, chromium, and zinc. Available data indicate that bryozoans are more sensitive to these metals than many other invertebrates and fish.

  7. Copper and Cadmium Biosorption by Dried Seaweed Sargassum sinicola in Saline Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Patrón-Prado; Baudilio Acosta-Vargas; Elisa Serviere-Zaragoza; Lía C. Méndez-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Rates of biosorption of cadmium and copper ions by nonliving biomass of the brown macroalga Sargassum sinicola under saline conditions were studied. Batch experiments show that the ability to remove cadmium is significantly diminished\\u000a (from 81.8% to 5.8%), while the ability to remove copper remains high (from 89% to 80%) at a range of salinity from 0 to 40 psu.\\u000a Maximum

  8. High contents of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper in popular fishery products sold in Turkish supermarkets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ufuk Çelik; Jörg Oehlenschläger

    2007-01-01

    Selected toxic (cadmium, lead) and essential (zinc and copper) trace metals were determined by means of differential pulse stripping anodic voltammetry (DPSAV) in some different brands and kinds of fishery products purchased from the popular supermarkets of Turkey. Among the fishery products, the highest concentration of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper were found in the frozen anchovy (494.2?g\\/kg, 314.2?g\\/kg, 566mg\\/kg,

  9. Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Garcia Moscoso, Jose Luis; Kumar, Sandeep; Cao, Xiaoyan; Mao, Jingdong; Schafran, Gary

    2012-10-30

    Biochar produced from switchgrass via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was used as a sorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution. The cold activation process using KOH at room temperature was developed to enhance the porous structure and sorption properties of the HTC biochar. The sorption efficiency of HTC biochar and alkali activated HTC biochar (HTCB) for removing copper and cadmium from aqueous solution were compared with commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The present batch adsorption study describes the effects of solution pH, biochar dose, and contact time on copper and cadmium removal efficiency from single metal ion aqueous solutions. The activated HTCB exhibited a higher adsorption potential for copper and cadmium than HTC biochar and PAC. Experiments conducted with an initial metal concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 5.0 and contact time of 24 h resulted in close to 100% copper and cadmium removal by activated HTCB at 2 g/L, far greater than what was observed for HTC biochar (16% and 5.6%) and PAC (4% and 7.7%). The adsorption capacities of activated HTCB for cadmium removal were 34 mg/g (0.313 mmol/g) and copper removal was 31 mg/g (0.503 mmol/g). PMID:22687632

  10. Iron and copper release in drinking-water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoyou; Taylor, James S

    2007-09-01

    A large-scale pilot study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of changes in water source and treatment process on iron and copper release in water distribution systems. Finished surface waters, groundwaters, and desalinated waters were produced with seven different treatment systems and supplied to 18 pipe distribution systems (PDSs). The major water treatment processes included lime softening, ferric sulfate coagulation, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and integrated membrane systems. PDSs were constructed from PVC, lined cast iron, unlined cast iron, and galvanized pipes. Copper pipe loops were set up for corrosion monitoring. Results showed that surface water after ferric sulfate coagulation had low alkalinity and high sulfates, and consequently caused the highest iron release. Finished groundwater treated by conventional method produced the lowest iron release but the highest copper release. The iron release of desalinated water was relatively high because of the water's high chloride level and low alkalinity. Both iron and copper release behaviors were influenced by temperature. PMID:17886579

  11. Acute and chronic exposure of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa to copper and cadmium: Effects on growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Visviki; J. W. Rachlin

    1994-01-01

    Effective copper and cadmium concentrations which limited the growth of two chlorophytes by 50%, EC(50)s, after 96 h of static exposure were determined. EC(50)s were 5.94 µgM copper and 4.55 µM cadmium for Dunaliella salina, and 0.78 µM copper and 0.025 µM cadmium for Chlamydomonas bullosa. The relationship of the two cations was synergistic towards the growth of both species.

  12. Bioconcentration and depuration of copper, cadmium, and zinc mixtures by the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shuhaimi-Othman; D. Pascoe

    2007-01-01

    The uptake and elimination of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) by the amphipod Hyalella azteca during exposure to the metals singly and in various combinations was examined in controlled laboratory experiments. In single metal exposures the accumulation of all metals was rapid and increased with exposure time. Copper elimination was slower compared to that for zinc and for

  13. Influence of clay on the adsorption of heavy metals like copper and cadmium on chitosan.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Nagan; Latha, Srinivasan; Sudha, Persu N; Renganathan, N Gopalan

    2013-02-01

    The influence of clay on the adsorption of heavy metals like copper and cadmium on chitosan from simulated industrial wastewater is evaluated. Chitosan-clay blend with ratio of (1:1), (1:2), and (2:1) have been prepared, and these were used as membranes to remove copper and cadmium ions from synthetic industrial wastewater. The chemical parameters for quantities of adsorption of heavy metal contamination have been done, and the kinetics of adsorption has also been carried out. Clay provides enough absorbable sites to overcome mass transfer limitations. The number of absorbable sites for cadmium is more compared to copper, and thus the rate of recovery of cadmium is faster than copper, and the percentage removal of cadmium is more than copper at all times on clay over nylon 6. This difference indicates the influence of clay in the adsorption of heavy metals in comparison to synthetic polymer nylon 6. Rate constant for first-order kinetics of adsorption, k (1), for copper and cadmium is less than that of clay, which clearly indicates that clay, which is a natural polymer, is more kinetically favored compared to synthetic polymer. The difference in the intraparticle diffusion in both the natural and synthetic polymer is not much, and it suggests that the particle diffusion mechanism is the same in both cases. Copper and cadmium recovery is parallel at all times. The percentage of removal of copper increased with an increase in pH from 3 to 5. In the case of cadmium containing wastewater, the maximum removal of metal occurred at pH 5. The uptake amount of Cu(2+) ions on chitosan increased rapidly with increasing the contact time from 0 to 360 min and then reaches equilibrium after 360 min, and the equilibrium constant for copper and cadmium ions are more or less the same for the adsorption reaction. There are more adsorption sites for cadmium in the presence of clay and mass transfer limitation is avoided without resorting to rotation, which is the highlight of the present work. And more so, this is pronounced in the case of natural polymer compared to synthetic polymer. PMID:22565982

  14. Impact of copper and cadmium on aerobic and anaerobic digestibility of sonicated sludge.

    PubMed

    Luo, M; Casellas, M; Leglise, F; Dagot, C

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the introduction of a sludge reduction process such as ultrasound on batch aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability after exposition to two metals (copper and cadmium) were investigated. The specific energy of ultrasonic treatment applied to the sludge was 200,000 kJ kg TS(-1). Ultrasonic treatment led to floc size reduction and to organic matter solubilization. Low copper (< 5 mg L(-1)) and cadmium (< 1 mg L(-1)) concentration improved aerobic biodegradability. For high metal concentration the maximal instantaneous biogas production rate q(max) inhibition by copper and cadmium was modeled by a saturation-type relationship under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, respiration inhibition was not affected by sonication. Cadmium inhibition (74%) was more than copper (58%). The positive effect of sonication on CO2 production was maintained after metal introduction. Under anaerobic conditions, metal introduction cancelled out the positive effect of the treatment. The sonicated sludge was 16% less sensitive to copper inhibition but 10% more sensitive to cadmium inhibition compared to non sonicated sludge. PMID:21902036

  15. Effects of copper and cadmium on electrophoretically detected enzymes in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Chagnon, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro effects of copper and cadmium on the activity of electrophoretically detected enzymes in 16 fish species from 7 locations were determined by adding the metals to the biochemical stains used to resolve the enzyme systems on a starch gel. This assay technique was used successfully to demonstrate the direct effects of copper on the activity of phosphoglucomutase-2 (PGM-2), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI-2), and isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (ICD-2) in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and to show that differences exist in the copper sensitivity of intraspecific PGM-2 allozymes and interspecific PGM-2 enzymes in a number of fish species tested. It was possible to detect copper sensitive and copper tolerant isoalleles at the PGM-2 locus in mosquitofish. Cadmium did not have any in vitro effects on the activity of the enzyme systems tested.

  16. Acute and chronic exposure of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa to copper and cadmium: Effects on ultrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Visviki; J. W. Rachlin

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa taking place after short term exposure to established copper and\\/or cadmium EC(50) or exposure to low levels of these cations for 8 months were examined. Cadmium had a greater impact on the ultrastructure of these species than copper. Metal stress affected a variety of cellular parameters including total cell volume, pyrenoid,

  17. Toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in Folsomia candida exposed to simulated soil solutions.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-12-01

    To improve our understanding of metal bioavailability to soil-living invertebrates, the effect of porewater composition on the toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in Folsomia candida (Collembola) was investigated. Assuming that porewater is the main exposure route, F. candida was exposed to simulated soil solutions of different composition. Toxicity of copper was slightly lower in a calcium-only solution than in a multication solution. With increasing copper concentrations from 0.005?mM to 1.37?mM, internal copper concentrations similarly increased in both exposure solutions, suggesting that a single cation nutrient solution is suitable for testing F. candida. In the second experiment, animals were exposed for 7 d to copper and cadmium in simplified soil solutions with different calcium (0.2?mM, 0.8?mM, 3.2?mM, 12.8?mM) and pH (5.0, 6.0, 7.0) levels. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values decreased with time in both the calcium and pH series. A hormetic-type effect was observed for copper in the second test, as well as in the calcium-only solution in the first experiment. Because of stronger hormesis, LC50s for copper were higher at lower calcium concentrations. For cadmium, LC50 values were higher at higher calcium concentrations, suggesting competition of calcium with the free cadmium ion. Toxicity of cadmium increased with decreasing pH, while copper was more toxic at intermediate pH. The results show that a toxicodynamics approach can help to improve the interpretation of metal toxicity to soil invertebrates, taking into account soil solution properties. PMID:23955663

  18. The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yan-Fei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhu, Cheng, E-mail: pzhch@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-08-14

    Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

  19. Iron Nanoparticles in Severe-plastic-deformed Copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Rempel; S. Z. Nazarova; A. I. Gusev

    1999-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles with a size of a few nanometers were produced in copper by severe plastic deformation. In a isochronal annealing experiment near a temperature of 450?K, which corresponds to the temperature of structural relaxation and the first step of grain growth (from 128 to 150?nm) of submicrocrystalline copper, an abrupt increase in the magnetic susceptibility is detected. This

  20. Mortality of copper cadmium alloy workers with special reference to lung cancer and non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system, 1946-92.

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, T; Lister, A; Gilthorpe, M S; Harrington, J M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify and quantify any relations between occupational exposure to cadmium oxide fume and mortalities from lung cancer and from chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system. METHODS--The mortality experience of 347 copper cadmium alloy workers, 624 workers employed in the vicinity of copper cadmium alloy work (vicinity workers), and 521 iron and brass foundry workers (all men) was investigated for the period 1946-92. All subjects were first employed in these types of work in the period 1922-78 and for a minimum period of one year at one of two participating factories. Two analytical approaches were used, indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. RESULTS--Compared with the general population of England and Wales, mortality from lung cancer among copper cadmium alloy workers was close to expectation (observed deaths 18, expected deaths 17.8, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 101, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 60 to 159). A significant excess was shown for lung cancer among vicinity workers but not among iron and brass foundry workers (vicinity workers: observed 55, expected 34.3, SMR 160, 95% CI 121 to 209, P < 0.01; iron and brass foundry workers: observed 19, expected 17.8, SMR 107, 95% CI 64 to 167). Increased SMRs for non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system were shown for each of the three groups (alloy workers: observed 54, expected 23.5, SMR 230, 95% CI 172 to 300, P < 0.001; vicinity workers: observed 71, expected 43.0, SMR 165, 95% CI 129 to 208, P < 0.001; iron and brass foundry workers: observed 34, expected 17.1, SMR 199, 95% CI 137 to 278, P < 0.01). Work histories of the copper cadmium alloy workers were combined with independent assessments of cadmium exposures over time to develop individual estimates of cumulative exposure to cadmium; this being a time dependent variable. Poisson regression was used to investigate risks of lung cancer and risks of chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system in relation to three levels of cumulative cadmium exposure (< 1600, 1600-4799, > or = 4800 micrograms.m-3.y). After adjustment for age, year of starting alloy work, factory, and time from starting alloy work, there was a significant positive trend (P < 0.01) between cumulative exposure to cadmium and risks of mortality from chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system. Relative to a risk of unity for the lowest exposure category, risks were 4.54 (95% CI 1.96 to 10.51) for the middle exposure category and 4.74 (95% CI 1.81 to 12.43) for the highest exposure category. There was a non-significant negative trend between cumulative cadmium exposure and risks of mortality from lung cancer. Relative to a risk of unity for the lowest exposure category, risks were 0.85 (95% CI 0.27 to 2.68) for the middle exposure category and 0.81 (95% CI 0.18 to 3.73) for the highest exposure category. Similar findings were obtained when adjustment was made for age only. CONCLUSIONS--The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium oxide fume increases risks of mortality from chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system. The findings do not support the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium oxide fume increases risks of mortality for lung cancer. PMID:8563843

  1. Reduction of copper sulphate with elemental iron for preparation of copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazim, Muhammad

    Reduction of copper sulphate with elemental iron also known as cementation is a well known process used for the recovery of copper for a long time. In this study, the kinetics of the reaction of copper sulphate with iron wire and iron powder has been investigated. The reaction kinetics was studied as a function of different process parameters such as initial concentration, temperature and pH. In this research work, the effects of the above three parameters were studied for both types of iron substrates. It was found that with the iron wire the reaction obeys first order kinetics with respect to copper concentration whereas with the iron powder the order was found to be 1.5. The initial concentration was found to have considerable effect on the reaction kinetics of copper sulphate with elemental iron. The rate of reaction increases with an increase in the initial copper concentration up to a certain level and then decreases for the case of iron wire. However, for the reaction of copper sulphate with iron powder, the reaction rate decreases with an increase in the initial copper concentration. The effect of temperature on the reaction rate of copper sulphate for both types iron substrates (iron wire and iron powder) has also been studied in the temperature range of 23-54ºC. In both the cases, the reaction rate increases with an increase in temperature according to Arrhenius law. The activation energy for the reactions of copper sulphate with iron wire and iron powder was found to be 25.36 kJ/mol and 26.32 kJ/mol, respectively. The copper cementation reaction was found to be suitable to operate at a pH of 2.5-3 for iron wire and a pH of 3-4 for iron powder considering possible inhibition by copper hydroxyl complex formation at higher pH and the possible excess iron consumption by hydrogen reduction at lower pH. The copper particles were produced by the reduction of copper sulphate with elemental iron. The produced copper particles were obtained in the micro to nano range. Nowadays, nano sized particles has potential applications in different engineering and industrial fields. In this research work, emphasis was given to produce copper nano-particles. The reaction of copper sulphate solution with iron wire was studied in the presence of different organic solvents to verify the size and purity of the produced copper particles. 1-butanol proved to be a competent solvent in producing nearly nano sized copper particles with particles size as small as 165 nanometers in the form of clusters and purity as high as 93.67 weight% of copper. In order to determine the copper particles with the smallest size (nano range) and copper purity to a considerable level, characterization was done with the produced copper particles. For this purpose, the effect of sonication, addition of surfactant and chelation by adding EDTA were studied. It can be concluded that nano size copper particles with size less than 100 nm with copper purity of 100% were produced by reaction of 5% copper sulphate solution in the presence of 2 ml surfactant with iron wire and sonication. These copper nano particles have potential applications as catalysts for different industrial organic reactions. Finally, optimization studies of the process parameters effect on the reaction yield of copper sulphate with both types of iron substrates (wire and powder) were carried out using MATLAB 7.0 software. In this study, the relationship between three process variables namely the initial concentration of copper, temperature and pH of solution with reaction yield of copper cementation reaction was investigated for both the cases. Cubic mixture models were developed by using three levels full factorial design to find out the main effects and interactions of these process variables on the reaction yields of copper. The validity of the cubic mixture regressed models have been verified with high regression coefficients and through normal probability curves for residuals. Finally, response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum operating conditions of the cementation re

  2. Effect of zinc on copper and iron bioavailability as influenced by dietary copper and fat source

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, A.C.; Jones, B.P.; Lin, F.; Sinthusek, G.; Frimpong, N.A.; Wu, S.

    1986-03-05

    In a number of experiments, they have observed that liver copper levels of young male rats fed low zinc diets were essentially the same as liver copper levels of rats fed adequate zinc. Liver iron levels of rats fed low zinc diets, however, tended to be markedly higher than liver iron levels of rats fed adequate zinc. Increases in dietary zinc (up to 200 ppm) were generally associated with decreases in liver iron deposition, but had little effect on liver copper deposition. Iron bioavailability appeared to be enhanced when fat sources high in saturated fatty acids were used, and there was evidence that the type of dietary fat influenced the effect of zinc on iron bioavailability. Liver copper deposition, however, did not appear to be markedly affected by the type of dietary fat suggesting that copper bioavailability is less affected by fat source. Increases in dietary copper were associated with increases in liver copper levels and decreases in liver iron levels of rats fed increasing levels of zinc. These data suggest that potential interrelationships between dietary factors not being considered as experimental variables could have significant effects on results and on the interrelationships between dietary variables which are being studied.

  3. In vitro effect of cadmium and copper on separated blood leukocytes of Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Vazzana, Mirella; Celi, Monica; Tramati, Cecilia; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Arizza, Vincenzo; Parrinello, Nicolò

    2014-04-01

    The immunotoxic effects of heavy metals on blood leukocytes of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were examined. The cells, separated by a discontinuous Percoll-gradients, were exposed in vitro to various sublethal concentrations of cadmium and copper (10(-7)M, 10(-5)M, and 10(-3)M) and their immunotoxic effect was then evaluated by measuring neutral red uptake, MTT assay, DNA fragmentation and Hsp70 gene expression. First of all, we demonstrated that the cells treated in vitro could incorporate Cd and Cu. A relationship between heavy metal exposure and dose-time-dependent alterations in responses of leukocytes from blood was found for both metals, but copper was more immunotoxic than cadmium in all assays performed. A significant reduction in the cells? ability to uptake neutral red and viability by MTT assay was recorded, indicating that both cadmium and copper could change the membrane permeability, inducing cellular apoptosis when the concentration of metals reached 10(-3)M. The apoptotic effect may also explain the high level of cytotoxicity found when the leukocytes were exposed to higher concentration of metals. These results demonstrated that toxic effect of copper and cadmium affect on the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity reducing the immune defences of the organism. PMID:24530726

  4. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  5. Loading estimates of lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc in urban runoff from specific sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen P Davis; Mohammad Shokouhian; Shubei Ni

    2001-01-01

    Urban stormwater runoff is being recognized as a substantial source of pollutants to receiving waters. A number of investigators have found significant levels of metals in runoff from urban areas, especially in highway runoff. As an initiatory study, this work estimates lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc loadings from various sources in a developed area utilizing information available in the literature,

  6. Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

    2003-03-01

    The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

  7. Analytical Approach to the Determination of Copper, Zinc, Cadmium and Lead in- Natural Fresh Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ihnat

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of a total analytical approach to the determination of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead in fresh natural waters of streams draining selected southern Ontario agricultural watersheds. Central to the attainment of accurate analytical information was the adoption of a data quality assurance program encompassing: (1) field and laboratory processing of control samples to establish filtration adsorption\\/contamination

  8. The speciation of dissolved copper, cadmium and zinc in Manila Bay, Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. B. Velasquez; G. S. Jacinto; F. S. Valera

    2002-01-01

    At present, there is a very limited information on the levels and distribution of dissolved metals in Manila Bay. In this study, the horizontal and vertical distribution of operationally defined species (labile, bound and total) of dissolved copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) were determined using differential pulse anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry in water samples obtained from 18

  9. Lead, zinc, cadmium, mercury, selenium and copper in Greenland caribou and reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Aastrup; F Riget; R Dietz; G Asmund

    2000-01-01

    Samples of caribou and reindeer muscle (127 samples) and liver (126 samples) were collected from four locations during two seasons plus 3 years in Greenland. The levels of lead, zinc, cadmium, mercury, selenium, and copper were determined, and analyzed in relation to location, two seasons, age and year of sampling. The lead concentrations (geometric mean) ranged from below the detection

  10. New Aspects of Copper and Iron Metabolism in the Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judit Várkonyi; Terézia Szabó; Piroska Sebestyén; Attila Tordai; Hajnalka Andrikovics; Géza Kollai; István Karádi

    2006-01-01

    Background: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is an iron overload condition. Copper deficiency itself might induce dysplastic changes and iron overload. The relationship between the iron and copper metabolism is analyzed in MDS patients. Methods: Copper, iron and ceruloplasmin levels were established, and transferrin saturation determination and HFE mutation analysis were performed in 32 MDS patients. Results: Eleven of 32 MDS patients

  11. Cadmium depletes cellular iron availability through enhancing ferroportin translation via iron responsive element.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Wang, Lixin; Wang, Zhe; He, Wei; Zhang, Shuping; Guo, Wenli; Qian, Yi; Ji, Hong; Rong, Haiqin; Liu, Sijin

    2015-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that has detrimental effects on various organs. The widespread contamination of Cd in the environment, crops and food sources poses a severe threat to human health. Acute toxicities of Cd have been extensively investigated; however, the health impact of chronic low?dose exposure to Cd, particularly exposure under non?toxic concentrations, has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the toxic threshold of Cd is currently unknown. Ferroportin is the only known iron exporter in vertebrate cells, and it has an essential role in controlling iron egress from cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to verify the regulation of ferroportin by Cd. Treatment with low?dose Cd (i.e. at sublethal concentrations, without undermining cell viability) increased the protein expression of ferroportin in macrophages, and this was associated with depleted cellular iron levels. Mechanistic investigations revealed that Cd modulated the ferroportin concentration at the translational level, via the iron responsive element located at the 5'?untranslated region of ferroportin. In conclusion, these data provide evidence for the molecular basis by which Cd alters cellular iron availability through elevating concentrations of ferroportin. PMID:25435269

  12. The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

    2014-07-01

    The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

  13. Aes, Leed, and UPS Studies of Fcc Iron Epitaxially Grown on COPPER(110) and COPPER(111)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hang-Gi. Min

    1988-01-01

    AES, LEED, and, UPS were used to investigate the growth mode, diffusion effect, diffraction pattern, work function, and electronic structure of iron deposited on copper (100) and (111) surfaces. Initially iron grows epitaxially in the fcc structure in an almost layer-by -layer mode for the first 17 layers on the Cu(100) face and 4 ~ 5 layers on the Cu(111)

  14. Iron deficiency increases blood cadmium levels in adolescents surveyed in KNHANES 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Suk Hwan; Kim, Nam-Soo; Ham, Jung-O; Kim, Yangho

    2014-06-01

    Discrepancies have been reported in the relationships between iron and cadmium concentrations. The distribution of blood cadmium concentrations was assessed in a representative sample of Korean adolescents participating in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2011, and the association between blood cadmium and iron concentrations was determined. This study was based on data from KNHANES, in which a rolling sampling design was used to perform a complex, stratified, multistage probability cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Serum ferritin was categorized as low (<15.0 ?g/L), low normal (15.0-<30.0 ?g/L for girls, 15.0-<50.0 ?g/L for boys), or normal (?30.0 ?g/L for girls, ?50.0 ?g/L for boys), and the association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium concentrations was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. The geometric mean (GM) of blood cadmium was significantly higher among both boys and girls in the low than in the normal ferritin group. After controlling for covariates, multiple regression analysis showed that blood cadmium concentration was inversely correlated with serum ferritin concentration in both boys and girls. In conclusion, iron deficiency is associated with increased blood cadmium concentrations in a representative sample of Korean adolescents, as evaluated in KNHANES. PMID:24797808

  15. Effect of oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride on friction behavior of copper-iron contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with an iron rider on a copper disk and a copper rider on an iron disk. The sputter cleaned iron and copper disk surfaces were saturated with oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride at atmospheric pressure. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the surfaces. Lower friction was obtained in all experiments with the copper rider sliding on the iron disk than when the couple was reversed. For both iron and copper disks, methyl mercaptan gave the best surface coverage and was most effective in reducing friction. For both iron and copper disks, methyl chloride was the least effective in reducing friction. With sliding, copper transferred to iron and iron to copper.

  16. SlowRelease Zeolite-Bound Zinc and Copper Fertilizers Affect Cadmium Concentration in Wheat and Spinach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Puschenreiter; Othmar Horak

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in crops is considered one of the major problems which agriculture faces in industrial and urban areas. This study was conducted to determine the influence of fertilization with slow-release zeolite-bound zinc and copper on the cadmium uptake of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Nandu) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Matador), two crops with higher tendency to

  17. The effects of copper and iron deficiencies in the chick 

    E-print Network

    McGhee, Flin Cameron

    1964-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF COPPER AND IRON DEFICIENCIES IN THE CHICK A Thesis By Flin C. McGhee Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1964... Major Subject: Biochemistry and Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF COPPER AND IRON DEFICIENCIES IN THE CHICK A Thesis By Flin C. McGhee Appro ed as o style and content by: UC C. M. Lym n, P . D M. Ferguso Ph. D. N. C, Rose, P . D. , . ~p...

  18. Determination of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead human renal calculi in both cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, I.; Itoh, M.; Tsukada, S.

    1987-08-01

    A number of investigators have reported about heavy metal contents in food, blood, urine, and animal tissues, including bone, hair, feather, and tooth. However, few data concerning calculi are reported as yet. Heavy metal contents in the calculi might reflect the level of metals absorbed from respiratory tract, skin and intestine. When absorbed metals from respiration are distributed in blood, a part of cadmium is accumulated in liver and kidney, and of lead is in bone, annular vessel and kidney. The remainder is excreted in the urine through the urinary tracts. From intestine, they are distributed by the blood to the liver, and excreted in the urine in the same manner of respiration. It is well known that renal calculi are produced in the urinary tract. The present study is focused on the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead in human renal calculi, samples collected from Hokuriku which is one of the most cadmium polluted areas and from Chugoku which is recognized as a non-polluted one in Japan.

  19. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of iron and copper in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Prá; Silvia Isabel Rech Franke; Raquel Giulian; Maria Lúcia Yoneama; Johnny Ferraz Dias; Bernardo Erdtmann; João Antonio Pêgas Henriques

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity of trace metals is still incompletely understood. We have previously shown that a single oral dose of iron or\\u000a copper induces genotoxic effects in mice in vivo, as detected by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Here, we report\\u000a the effect of these metals on subchronic exposure. Mice were gavaged for six consecutive days with either water, 33.2 mg\\/kg\\u000a iron,

  20. Multiple mechanisms account for lower plasma iron in young copper deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Pyatskowit, Joshua W.

    2009-01-01

    Copper deficiency lowers brain copper and iron during development. The reduced iron content could be due to hypoferremia. Experiments were conducted to evaluate plasma iron and “ferroxidase” hypotheses by determining copper and iron status of Holtzman albino rats following gestational/lactational copper deficiency. Copper deficient (Cu?) dams on treatment for 5 weeks, two of gestation and three of lactation, had markedly lower copper content of milk and mammary tissue, and lower milk iron. Newborn pups from Cu? dams had lower copper and iron concentrations. Compared to Cu+ pups, Cu? pups, analyzed between postnatal age (P) 0 and P26, were smaller, anemic, had lower plasma iron, cardiac hypertrophy, and near zero ceruloplasmin activity. Liver copper in Cu+ pups increased then decreased during development and major reductions were evident in Cu? pups. Liver iron in Cu+ pups decreased with age while nursing but increased after eating solid food. Liver iron was lower in Cu? pups at P0 and P13 and normal at P20 and P26. Small intestinal copper decreased with age in Cu+ pups and was lower in Cu? pups. Intestinal iron levels in Cu- pups were higher than Cu+ pups postweaning in some experiments. Reduction in plasma iron in Cu? pups is likely due to a decreased “ferroxidase” function leading to lower placental iron transport, a lower milk iron diet, and partial block in iron uptake from intestine but is not due to failure to mobilize hepatic iron, in contrast to older rats eating diet with adequate iron. PMID:18038202

  1. Lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and copper in chicken feathers from Tuskegee, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology; Love, M.J.; Booker, T. [Washington High School, Tuskegee, AL (United States); Mielke, H.W. [Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The feather has been widely used as a indicator tissue of metal exposure in birds. The feathers were collected from Tuskegee University poultry farm (TUPF) and Harrison Poultry farm (HPF) chicken and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper contaminations. The mean levels of lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper in TUPF chicken were 3.67, 0.13, 12.23, 0.22, and 7.71 ppm, respectively, and in HPF chicken were 5.32, 0.096, 11.03, 0.15, and 8.06 ppm, respectively. The mean levels of these metals did not show any significant difference between TUPF and HPF chicken.

  2. Multi?Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Sorbent for Flow Injection On?Line Microcolumn Preconcentration Coupled with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Determination of Cadmium and Copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    Multi?walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were used as sorbent for flow injection (FI) on?line microcolumn preconcentration coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for determination of trace cadmium and copper in environmental and biological samples. Effective preconcentration of trace cadmium and copper was achieved in a pH range of 4.5–6.5 and 5.0–7.5, respectively. The retained cadmium and copper were efficiently eluted

  3. Adsorption of copper, zinc, and cadmium on clay fraction of two acid soils: Surface complexation modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Spathariotis; Chariklia Kallianou

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) as a function of pH was studied on the clay fraction of two acid soils (Typic Rhodoxeralf and Aquic palexeralf), in two ionic strengths and two different metal concentrations. Specific surface area was determined by BET-N2 and EGME. The charge development on the clay surface was studied in the pH

  4. Cadmium and copper induction of oxidative stress and antioxidative response in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicon ) leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mediouni Chamseddine; Ben Ammar Wided; Houlné Guy; Chabouté Marie-Edith; Jemal Fatma

    2009-01-01

    We compare cadmium and copper induced oxidative stress in tomato leaves and the antioxidative enzyme response during a time\\u000a course of 96 h. Plants were subjected to 25 ?M of CdCl2 or CuSO4 and malondialdehyde (MDA) level and activity of guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase\\u000a and glutathione reductase were determined. The results showed that there was an early increase in

  5. Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo-Shu Chang; Robin Law; Chung-Cheng Chang

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the biosorption kinetics of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) ions on the biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21 (Rip64) was investigated. Effects of environmental factors and growth conditions on the biosorption were studied. Efficiency of metal ion recovery from metal-loaded biomass and subsequent regeneration of the biosorbent were also determined. The results show that, at pH

  6. Copper, Lead, Cadmium, and Zinc Sorption By Waterlogged and Air-Dry Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. Phillips

    1999-01-01

    Competitive sorption of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) was studied in three soils of contrasting chemical and physical properties under air-dry and waterlogged conditions. Competitive sorption was determined using the standard batch technique using six solutions, each with Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn concentrations of approximately 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 50?mg LWaterlogged soils tended

  7. EXTRACTION OF COPPER, CADMIUM AND RELATED METALS WITH POLY(SODIUM ACRYLATE - ACRYLIC ACID)HYDROGELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Rifi; M. J. F. Leroy; J. P. Brunette; C. Schloesser-Becker

    1994-01-01

    The extraction of copper, cadmium and related metals (M) with poly(sodium acrylate - acrylic acid) PAA hydrogels has been studied. pH variations are consistent with a cation exchange process. Saturation of the gel is achieved for a metal\\/carboxylate ratio R ? 1\\/2 and a gel swelling of ? 40 which is that of the uncharged gel : (-COO)2M complexes are

  8. Distinct signalling pathways for induction of MAP kinase activities by cadmium and copper in rice roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-Ming Yeh; Pei-Shan Chien; Hao-Jen Huang

    2007-01-01

    Plant growth is severely affected by toxic concentra- tions of heavy metals. On characterizing the heavy metal-induced signalling pathways, the effects of cadmium (CdCl2) and copper (CuCl2) on MBP (myelin basic protein) kinase activities in Oryza sativa L. cv. TNG67 were analysed and it was found that Cd2+- induced 42 kDa MBP kinase has the characteristics of a mitogen-activated protein

  9. Concentration and distribution of copper and cadmium in water, sediments, detritus, plants and animals in a hardwater lowland river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Smith; M.-H. Chen; R. G. Bailey; W. P. Williams

    1996-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) were examined in water, sediments, detritus, plants and animals in a small, lowland, hardwater river. Consistently higher concentrations of Cu and Cd were found in all types of samples from two sites. There were marked variations in metal concentrations between different types of samples, and between seasons. Copper and Cd

  10. Structure and reactivity of copper-zinc-cadmium chromite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Castiglioni; A. Vaccari; G. Fierro; M. Inversi; M. Lo Jacono; G. Minelli; I. Pettiti; P. Porta; M. Gazzano

    1995-01-01

    Different mixed oxides containing Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr were obtained by heating hydroxycarbonate precursors at various temperatures and in different atmospheres, and characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and BET and copper surface area analysis. The reduction process and the phase evolution during reduction of the mixed oxides was followed by temperature-programmed reduction and

  11. Copper-substituted iron telluride: A phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, Patrick N.; Kim, Min Gyu; Forrest, Thomas R.; Xu, Zhijun; Wang, Meng; Wu, Hui; Harringer, Leland W.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.; Birgeneau, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the structure, magnetic, and transport properties of copper-substituted iron telluride. Our results extend the range of copper substitution to 60% substitution per formula unit, which is far beyond previously stated solubility limits. Substitution of copper into antiferromagnetic iron telluride is found to suppress the signatures of the low-temperature transitions in susceptibility and resistance measurements, giving rise to an insulating, spin-glass state. Upon increasing the copper substitution from 4% to 6%, short-range antiferromagnetic order appears followed by the combined magnetic and structural transition at a lower temperature, although the magnetic order is ultimately not resolution limited with a correlation length of 250 Å in the 6% Cu-substituted sample, in contrast to the magnetic order of the 4% copper-substituted sample, which is resolution limited. Upon warming the 6% Cu-substituted sample in the presence of a 5 T magnetic field oriented along the b axis, magnetic and structural phase transitions are observed at a temperature much lower than those of the magnetic and structural transitions which occur in zero field. Furthermore, these transitions are absent upon cooling in this field. We discuss the field results in the most general terms possible, including possible random field effects.

  12. 1. Introduction Copper, along with iron active sites dominate the field of

    E-print Network

    Chen, Peng

    #12;1. Introduction Copper, along with iron active sites dominate the field of biological oxygen chemistry[1] and play important roles in homogeneous[2] and heterogeneous catalysis.[3, 4] Copper pro- teins heme ± iron centers).[8] The known copper proteins which are involved in dioxygen binding, activation

  13. LEACHING OF CADMIUM, TELLURIUM AND COPPER FROM CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2004-02-03

    Separating the metals from the glass is the first step in recycling end-of-life cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules and manufacturing scrap. We accomplished this by leaching the metals in solutions of various concentrations of acids and hydrogen peroxide. A relatively dilute solution of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide was found to be most effective for leaching cadmium and tellurium from broken pieces of CdTe PV modules. A solution comprising 5 mL of hydrogen peroxide per kg of PV scrap in 1 M sulfuric acid, gave better results than the 12 mL H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/kg, 3.2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution currently used in the industry. Our study also showed that this dilute solution is more effective than hydrochloric-acid solutions and it can be reused after adding a small amount of hydrogen peroxide. These findings, when implemented in large-scale operation, would result in significant savings due to reductions in volume of the concentrated leaching agents (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and of the alkaline reagents required to neutralize the residuals of leaching.

  14. Iron, Copper, and Zinc Distribution of the Cerebellum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bogdan F. Gh. Popescu; Christopher A. Robinson; Alex Rajput; Sheri L. Harder; Helen Nichol

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron rapid-scanning X-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is employed for the first time to simultaneously map iron, copper,\\u000a and zinc in the normal cerebellum. The cerebellum is a major repository of metals that are essential to normal function. Therefore,\\u000a mapping the normal metal distribution is an important first step towards understanding how multiple metals may induce oxidative\\u000a damage, protein aggregation, and neurotoxicity

  15. Copper, iron and zinc in Alzheimer's disease senile plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A Lovell; J. D Robertson; W. J Teesdale; J. L Campbell; W. R Markesbery

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the rims and cores of senile plaques (SP) and in the neuropil of the amygdala of nine Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in the neuropil of the amygdala of five neurologically normal control subjects using micro particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). Comparison of SP rim and core values revealed

  16. Methods for making a supported iron-copper catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst is described for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO+H.sub.2 utilizing a porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support impregnated with iron and copper and optionally promoted with an alkali metal. The use of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support results in the suppression of heavy waxes (C.sub.26 + hydrocarbons), particularly in slurry phase operation, when compared to unsupported or co-precipitated catalysts.

  17. The effect of copper precipitation on hydrogen embrittlement in iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Takano; Y. Yokka; F. Terasaki

    2004-01-01

    On the hydrogen embrittlement of Fe–1.0mol% Cu and Fe–1.5mol% Cu alloys, the effect of the copper precipitation hardening was studied. The hydrogen diffusivity in the solution treated Fe–Cu alloy is smaller than that in pure iron, and approaches it as the strength increases by aging. On the contrary, the hydrogen concentration in the solution treated Fe–Cu alloy is larger than

  18. Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum

    E-print Network

    Chorover, Jon

    Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum K. G precipitation; sorption; isotherms; X-ray diffraction; hydrous iron oxide; hydrous aluminum oxide; copper. INTRODUCTION Hydrous oxides of iron (HFO) and aluminum (HAO) are important mineral components of natural

  19. Copper, ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase and iron parameters in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tórsdóttir, G; Kristinsson, J; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, S; Snaedal, J; Jóhannesson, T

    1999-11-01

    In a previous study we found copper dyshomeostasis in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In this study, levels of copper in plasma, of ceruloplasmin in serum and ceruloplasmin oxidative activity as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in erythrocytes were determined in 40 patients with Parkinson's disease and their healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Copper concentrations did not differ significantly in the two groups, whereas both ceruloplasmin concentrations and ceruloplasmin oxidative activity were significantly lower in the patients, also relative to ceruloplasmin mass. SOD activity was not significantly different in the two groups but decreased significantly with the duration of disease. The same was found for ceruloplasmin oxidative activity. Ceruloplasmin oxidative activity and SOD activity did not decrease with age. Levels of serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were determined in about 30 of the patients and an equal number of controls and were not found to differ. Transferrin levels were significantly lower in the patients than in their controls but, conversely, the transferrin saturation was significantly higher in the patients. The results indicate that patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease have defective ceruloplasmin and SOD activities in common and that these defects are not necessarily associated with major disturbances in iron homeostasis. PMID:10608487

  20. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Do?ekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Do?ekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake. PMID:25618652

  1. Influences of water treatment process on iron and copper release in distribution system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoyou; Xiao, Weizhong; Taylor, James S

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the effect of water quality changes on iron and copper release in distribution systems. Three finished waters were prepared from groundwater source by conventional treatment, lime softening and reverse osmosis (RO). To mimic desalinated seawater, sea salts were added to RO treated water. Both lime softening and RO treatment significantly decreased the calcium concentration and alkalinity of groundwater. During a yearlong investigation, the impact of seasonal changes on iron and copper release was also evaluated. The results showed that groundwater after lime softening slightly increased iron release potential but significantly decreased copper release. Desalination water caused much higher iron release but lower copper release than conventionally treated groundwater. Blended water with conventional groundwater and desalination water resulted in intermediate iron release but much high copper release. Both iron and copper release could be accelerated by temperature increase. PMID:16835119

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron and copper disease states

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN); Clanton, J.A.; Smith, F.W.; Hutchison, J.; Mallard, J.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-11-01

    The tissue levels of paramagnetic ions are an important factor in the determination of T/sub 1/ values as observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The increased levels of iron present in human disease states such as hemochromatosis lead to decreased T/sub 1/ values. The mean liver T/sub 1/ of three patients with iron storage disease was determined to be 130 msec, significantly different from the value of 154 msec, the mean for 14 normal controls. Whether NMR will be able to detect the increased copper levels in liver and brain in Wilson disease remains for further clinical trials to evaluate. NMR imaging, however, does serve as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of states of iron overload and as a technique to follow progression of disease or response to medical therapy.

  3. Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake.

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, M; Akesson, A; Nermell, B; Vahter, M

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of intake and uptake of cadmium in relation to diet composition were carried out in 57 nonsmoking women, 20-50 years of age. A vegetarian/high-fiber diet and a mixed-diet group were constructed based on results from a food frequency questionnaire. Duplicate diets and the corresponding feces were collected during 4 consecutive days in parallel with dietary recording of type and amount of food ingested for determination of the dietary intake of cadmium and various nutrients. Blood and 24-hr urine samples were collected for determination of cadmium, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc. There were no differences in the intake of nutrients between the mixed-diet and the high-fiber diet groups, except for a significantly higher intake of fiber (p < 0.001) and cadmium (p < 0.002) in the high-fiber group. Fecal cadmium corresponded to 98% in the mixed-diet group and 100% in the high-fiber diet group. No differences in blood cadmium (BCd) or urinary cadmium (UCd) between groups could be detected. There was a tendency toward higher BCd and UCd concentrations with increasing fiber intake; however, the concentrations were not statistically significant at the 5% level, indicating an inhibitory effect of fiber on the gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium. Sixty-seven percent of the women had serum ferritin < 30 micrograms/l, indicating reduced body iron stores, which were highly associated with higher BCd (irrespective of fiber intake). BCd was mainly correlated with UCd, serum ferritin, age, anf fibre intake. UCd and serum ferritin explained almost 60% of the variation in BCd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713018

  4. Substituted catechols as complexing agents for the determination of bismuth, lead, copper and cadmium by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice Limson; Tebello Nyokong

    1997-01-01

    Copper, cadmium, lead and bismuth (> 5 ?g ml?1) are determined by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV) on a mercury film glassy carbon electrode, using catechol, 4-methylcatechol, 4-t-butylcatechol and resorcinol as complexing ligands. Complexes of lead, copper and bismuth with resorcinol showed the largest increase in current with increase in metal concentration, whereas complexes of these metals with 4-t-butylcatechol showed

  5. Evidence of maternal copper and cadmium transfer in two live-bearing fish species.

    PubMed

    Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

    2014-11-01

    We studied maternal transfer of an essential metal (copper) and a non-essential one (cadmium) in the live-bearing fishes Heterandria formosa and Gambusia affinis. The goals of this study were: (1) to determine whether metals are transferred from exposed females to their developing offspring; (2) to determine if this transfer differs between two fish species that differ in their degree of maternal provisioning during development; (3) to determine the duration of maternal metal transfer once females are no longer exposed; and (4) to determine whether copper and cadmium are transferred equivalently. We exposed gravid females to background levels (control) or 0.15 µM of metal for 10 days, and then transferred them to clean water. We allowed females to give birth to up to three broods, and then quantified metal levels in offspring born at least 3 days after the transfer. We detected maternal metal transfer for both metals and in both species. Offspring metal levels decreased as females spent more time in clean water. Similarly, metal levels were lower in later broods than in earlier ones. Maternal metal transfer was higher in H. formosa than in G. affinis. Our results constitute the first report of maternal metal transfer in live-bearing fishes, and show that developing embryos acquire both essential and non-essential metals from their mothers in both species. This shows that metal toxicity may be an issue for live-bearing fish in clean environments when the previous generation has encountered metal pollution. PMID:25194944

  6. Phytoplankton copper requirement under iron limited condition in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, H.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Kumar, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    Copper, a redox reactive transition metal, plays a vital role in many cellular redox reactions. Recent investigations show that many eukaryotic microorganisms including marine and coastal diatom utilize copper to perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism and the requirement of copper increases with decreasing iron concentrations. However, very less information is available about the role of copper in diatom physiology. Here we report for the first time about the copper utilization by coastal diatom during iron limited condition in the Bay of Bengal coast. The diatom Chaetoceros gracilis was isolated from the Visakhapatnam coast and was grown in different copper concentrations (15nM -1000nM). The concentration of total chlorophyll, the growth rate, the concentration of biogenic silica, the ratio of biogenic silica to particulate organic carbon and the ratio of total chlorophyll to particulate organic carbon were found to be increased with increasing copper concentration up to 125nM and decreased thereafter reaching a minimum value at 1000nM. 13C of Particulate organic carbon varied inversely with increasing copper concentrations indicating the signature of enhanced carbon fixation which is in agreement with the enhanced biomass and growth rate. However, to get a better understanding about the role of copper behind the enhanced growth, we had incubated the cells simultaneously in iron replete, copper replete and in varying copper concentration in presence of 200nM of iron. Surprisingly, in all cases significant enhancement in growth and biomass production was observed. The cells grown in only iron and added with copper showed very similar increase whereas, in presence of iron increasing copper concentration did not show any enhancement effect. Increased growth and biomass production in response to iron addition shows that phytoplankton growth is limited by iron in the study area. Furthermore, this observation indicates that in case of iron limitation the coastal diatom perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism where copper plays a vital role. Down regulation of high affinity iron acquisition mechanism was indicated by unaltered growth when copper was added in presence of iron. Collectively, our present study shows that copper likely plays an important role in the physiology of coastal diatom apart from the toxicological studies conducted earlier. A detailed investigation is needed to understand the high affinity iron acquisition mechanism existing in coastal diatom from the study area.

  7. Effect of cadmium on iron uptake in cucumber roots: A Mössbauer-spectroscopic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krisztina Kovács; Ern? Kuzmann; Attila Vértes; László Lévai; Ferenc Fodor

    2010-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of iron in cucumber roots exposed to cadmium were investigated with Fe sufficient and deficient\\u000a cucumber plants using Mössbauer spectroscopy, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ferric chelate reductase\\u000a activity measurements. Both Fe sufficient and Fe deficient plants were applied. In the case of Fe sufficient cucumber roots\\u000a grown in nutrient solution with 10 ?M Cd

  8. Recovery of iron from copper slag by deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-qing; Ping, Shuo; Wang, Hong-yu; Ni, Wen

    2013-11-01

    Aiming at recovering iron from high-iron-content copper slag, this article introduced a combination technology of deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation, investigated the iron recovery efficiency and optimized the technical conditions. When coke powder with 86wt% fixed carbon was used as a reductant, iron was successfully extracted from the copper slag. Under the optimized condition of the coke powder content of 14wt%, the calcium-to-silicon mass ratio (Ca/Si) of 0.2, the roasting temperature of 1300°C, the roasting time of 3 h, the grinding time of 20 min, and the magnetic field intensity of 61 kA·m-1, the iron recovery rate of the copper slag can reach 91.82%, and the extracted iron powder has an iron grade of 96.21%. With the characteristics of high iron grade and low impurity content, the extracted iron powder can be used as high-quality raw materials of weathering steel.

  9. A national survey for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, calcium, and magnesium in canadian drinking water supplies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean C. Meranger; Kunnath S. Subramanian; Chantal Chalifoux

    1979-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to determine the levels of cadmium, zinc, magnesium, calcium, lead, chromium, and copper in Canadian drinking water supplies. Samples of raw, treated, and distributed water, obtained from 70 municipalities throughout Canada, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of trace metals found were essentially the same for all three types of water samples. Median and

  10. ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT A MERCURY FILM ELECTRODE: BASELINE CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN SELECTED NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...

  11. Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Rainbow; S. L. White

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the comparative strategies of accumulation under standardised laboratory conditions of the essential metals zinc and copper, and the non-essential metal cadmium by three crustaceans of different taxa; vizPalaemon elegans Rathke (Malacostraca: Eucarida: Decapoda),Echinogammarus pirloti (Sexton & Spooner) (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda) and the barnacleElminius modestus Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

  12. Effect of complexation by natural phytoplankton exudates on the accumulation of cadmium and copper by the haptophyceae Cricosphaera elongata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Härdstedt-Roméo; M. Gnassia-Barelli

    1980-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium and copper by Cricosphaera elongata is determined in the absence and presence of natural phytoplankton exudates. The concentrations of metals accumulated increase with increasing concentrations of metals in the medium. Organic substances liberated into the culture medium by C. elongata are able to decrease the amounts of metals taken up.

  13. Simultaneous determination of copper, lead, and cadmium at hexagonal mesoporous silica immobilized quercetin modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fangquan; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Changli; Sun, Danzi; Dong, Yanmin; Liu, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    A new method was developed for simultaneous determination of copper, lead, and cadmium, based on their voltammetric response at a carbon paste electrode modified with hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) immobilized quercetin (HMS-Qu/CPE). Compared with quercetin modified carbon paste electrode (Qu/CPE) and quercetin ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (Qu-IL/CPE), the HMS-Qu/CPE exhibited improved selectivity and high sensitivity toward the detection of copper, lead, and cadmium. The properties of the HMS-Qu/CPE in 0.1 M HCOONa-HCl buffer solution (pH 4.7) were investigated by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (ASV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of copper, lead, and cadmium at the modified electrodes and factors affecting the preconcentration procedures were also investigated. Detection limits of 5.0, 0.8, 1.0 nM for copper, lead, and cadmium were obtained, respectively. The method is simple, fast, sensitive, and selective, and is successfully applied to soil sample. PMID:20445747

  14. Subcellular partitioning of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc in indigenous yellow perch ( Perca flavescens) sampled along a polymetallic gradient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anik Giguère; Peter G. C. Campbell; Landis Hare; Patrice Couture

    2006-01-01

    Sub-cellular metal distributions were studied in indigenous yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected from eight lakes located along a cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) concentration gradient. Ambient dissolved metal concentrations were measured to evaluate exposure and total hepatic metal concentrations were determined as a measure of metal bioaccumulation. Metal partitioning among potentially metal-sensitive fractions (cytosolic enzymes, organelles)

  15. The influence of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc on the distribution and evolution of metallophytes in the British Isles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. M. Baker; J. Proctor

    1990-01-01

    Mine spoils and other soils contaminated with cadmium, copper, lead and zinc show natural colonization by species which have strategies of avoidance or tolerance of metal toxicities. The distribution of plants on such substrata in the British Isles is examined in the light of present knowledge of such strategies. Evolutionary processes mediating the selection of tolerant individuals and ecotypic differentiation

  16. Beneficial Effect of Goat Milk on Nutritive Utilization of Iron and Copper in Malabsorption Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Barrionuevo; M. J. M. Alferez; I. Lopez Aliaga; M. R. Sanz Sampelayo; M. S. Campos

    2002-01-01

    The search for diets that improve the digestive and metabolic use of iron and copper in malabsorption syn- drome led us to study goat milk for particular nutri- tional characteristics and compare it with cow milk, which is usually supplied. We studied the metabolism of iron and copper in transected rats (control) and in resected rats (resection of 50% of

  17. Iron and copper transport in yeast and its relevance to human disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candice Askwith; Jerry Kaplan

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress in the field of copper and iron metabolism has resulted from a convergence of human and yeast genetics. The mechanisms of iron and copper transport are remarkably conserved between yeast and humans. Studies of the yeast homologs of human disease genes involved in metal homeostasis have shed light on the pathophysiology of these disorders.

  18. Hepatic iron overload may contribute to hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in copper-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Fields, M; Lewis, C G

    1997-04-01

    The present study was conducted in order to determine whether hepatic iron retention in rats fed a copper-deficient diet containing fructose is associated with hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia, and whether a reduction of iron intake will prevent elevation of blood triglycerides and cholesterol. Rats were fed from weaning either a copper-deficient (0.6 microgram Cu/g) or copper-adequate (6.0 micrograms Cu/g) diet for 4 weeks. Half the rats consumed either an adequate level of iron (50 micrograms Fe/g) or a low level (17 micrograms Fe/g). Reduction of iron intake reduced blood levels of both triglycerides and cholesterol in rats fed a copper-deficient diet containing fructose. In addition, hepatic lipid peroxidation was also decreased. The combination of high iron, low copper, and fructose may be responsible for increased levels of risk-factor metabolites associated with heart disease. PMID:9109839

  19. Studies on the role of iron in the reversal of zinc, cadmium, vanadium, nickel, and cobalt toxicities in boiler pullets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blalock

    1986-01-01

    Excess dietary iron reduced the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) in chicks. In order to gain further insight into this phenomenon, the toxicity of these elements was examined under conditions of dietary iron deficiency, ca. 10 ppm, and excess, ca. 1010 ppm. Graded levels of Cd, Co, Ni, V and also of zinc (Zn)

  20. Effect of copper and iron on the oxidative flavor deterioration of ice cream 

    E-print Network

    Miah, Md. Abdul Hamid

    1961-01-01

    , . TQliv OF CO?TEKTS IRTRODICTI( R, , . . . , , , , . . . . , . . . ~ Ri'VIEW OF LITERATURE Copper and Iron in FdIR . Oxidised Flavor Defects . 3 3 7 EXFERIV& NTPI WTHCDS ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Souroe of Samples . . Determination cf Copper cnd... Iron Thiobarbituric Acid Test (TRA) preparation oi' Ios Cream Elth and Vithcut Added Copper or Iren, WEanoleptic Examination Determination of Fet in Ioe Cream. . . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 15 15 15 18 20 21 21 P ~ EIFERIRE?TAL RFNCLTS...

  1. 77 FR 36980 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for Waterfowl...applied for our approval of shot composed of copper and iron as nontoxic for waterfowl hunting...shot contains a maximum of 44.1 percent copper by weight, with iron composing the...

  2. Field screening of chromium, cadmium, zinc, copper, and lead in sediments by stripping analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Wang, J.; Setladji, R.; Lu, J. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States))

    1994-11-01

    Stripping analysis (SA) was successfully employed for field verification of metals contaminants in soils and sediments at hazardous waste sites. Microwave digestion procedures were tailored to meet the needs of field activities and electrochemical measurements. An adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) scheme was used for monitoring total chromium and for chromium speciation, while conventional anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) were used for measuring cadmium, zinc, copper, and lead. The results demonstrate that SA is capable of on-site identification of contaminated layers in soils and sediments. Concentration values measured by SA correlated well with those obtained by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved atomic or mass spectroscopy methods. The remarkable sensitivity, portability, low-power need, and low cost of SA make it an attractive choice for on-site analysis of selected metals during site characterization and remediation activities. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in female and embryonic Pacific sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon longurio) tissues.

    PubMed

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Cardenas-Nava, N G; Márquez-Farías, J F; Osuna-López, J I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Voltolina, D

    2014-11-01

    In this work we compared the cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contents of muscle, liver and placenta of gestating females of the viviparous shark Rhizoprionodon longurio and of muscle, liver and umbilical cord of their respective embryos. The higher values of the essential Cu and Zn were in embryonic or embryo-related tissues (placenta and umbilical cord). Maternal muscle and liver had the highest values of Pb and Cd, respectively. There were significant direct correlations between the Zn and Cd concentrations of placenta and umbilical cord, as well as between maternal muscle and embryonic livers for Pb and Cd, but the relation between these tissues was inverse in the case of Zn. All correlations between the metal content of embryonic tissues and size of the embryos were negative, suggesting an inverse relation between the rate of mother-to-embryo metal transfer and embryonic growth. PMID:25151279

  4. Copper tolerance in iron-reducing bacteria: Implications for copper mobilization in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Markwiese, J.T.; Meyer, J.S.; Colberg, P.J.S. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Iron-reducing bacteria enriched from a Cu-contaminated sediment were more tolerant of Cu adsorbed to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) than were pristine-sediment bacteria. Tolerance was enhanced by increasing the Cu concentration in the culture medium over time, enabling the bacteria to begin reducing Cu-contaminated HFO sooner and at a faster rate than Cu-intolerant bacteria. Copper tolerance confers a greater ability to reduce contaminated HFO and may result in a greater potential for Cu mobilization in sediments.

  5. On-line solid phase extraction system using 1,10-phenanthroline immobilized on surfactant coated alumina for the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Ali Mohammed Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Dehghani, Zahra

    2009-09-15

    An on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) preconcentration system coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) was developed for determination of copper and cadmium at microg L(-1) level. The method is based on the on-line retention of copper and cadmium on a microcolumn of alumina modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1,10-phenanthroline and subsequent elution with ethanol and determination by FAAS. The effect of chemical and flow variables that could affect the performance of the system was investigated. The relative standard deviation (n=6) at 20 microg L(-1) level for copper and cadmium were 1.4 and 2.2% and the corresponding limits of detection (based on 3 sigma) were 0.04 and 0.14 microg L(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determination of copper and cadmium in human hair and water samples. PMID:19615510

  6. Characterization of biological iron sulfide composites and its application in the treatment of cadmium-contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Xie, Yifei; Li, Xudong

    2015-03-01

    A strain of sulfate reducing bacteria, which could generate biological iron sulfide composites, was applied for Cd (II) removal from wastewater. The influence of biological iron sulfide composites dosage, initial pH and temperature on the rate of Cd (II) removal from wastewater by biological iron sulfide composites were investigated. The microscopic morphological characteristics and elemental composition changes of the biological iron sulfide before and after treatment was compared, using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry, then the mechanism of Cd (II) removal was explored. The results showed that Cd (II) reduction rate increased with increase in dosage of biological iron sulfide composites and initial temperature. At 25 degrees C, pH 4.0, with dosage of sulfide and cadmium ions molar equal to 99.93% Cd (II) was removed from cadmium wastewater (100 mg l(-1)), and the residual concentration of cadmium reached Chinese Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). The present study revealed that bio- precipitation of FeS, the main component of biological iron sulfide composites, played leading role in the process of Cd (II) reduction. Therefore, it is prospective to apply biological iron sulfide composites in the emergency treatment of cadmium-contaminated wastewater. PMID:25895261

  7. Acclimation and deacclimation of brown trout (Salmo trutta) to zinc and copper singly and in combination with cadmium or copper.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Woodling, John D

    2014-08-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta) were chronically exposed to low and high levels of zinc (Zn) alone, copper (Cu) alone, a Zn-Cu mixture, and a Zn-cadmium (Cd) mixture all starting with eyed eggs and continuing through to the fingerling stage. Exposure to the metals and metal mixtures resulted in acclimation as measured by greater median lethal concentrations (LC50) values relative to metal-naïve fry. The degree of acclimation was similar between the low and high exposures except for Cu, where acclimation was observed at the high but not the low acclimation level. The increases in tolerance relative to metal-naïve controls were usually less than a factor of 2 and never exceeded a factor of 3. Acclimation exposures did not affect hatch or survival except for the high-acclimation regime of Zn plus Cu. Acclimation came at an apparent metabolic cost because growth was decreased by most acclimation exposures. Deacclimation, as evidenced by a return of LC50 values to naïve levels, occurred after 2-5 weeks in clean water. PMID:24770996

  8. Mössbauer Evidence for Ferromagnetic Ordering in Copper-Iron Cyanometallates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuan-Fu; Yu, Zhi; Song, Yong; Huang, Hong-Bo; You, Xiao-Zeng; Zhou, X. Z.; Li, Z. W.; Kunkel, H. P.; Williams, Gwyn

    2002-04-01

    A novel member of the Prussian blue family, Cu3II[ FeIII(CN)6]2.3NH3.6H2O, was synthesized, in which NH3 ligands are in stochastic distribution. We present x-ray diffraction data, zero-field-cooled magnetization and field-cooled magnetization curves, Mössbauer spectra with/without an external field of 5 T and a structural model. This Prussian blue analogue displays considerable magnetic hardness below the magnetic transition temperature Tc, which is about 19.8 K. The coercive field determined from the magnetization hysteresis loop at 5 K was 2.76 kOe. The copper-iron cyanometallates have potential applications in the design of novel magnetic systems.

  9. Hyperfine Field and Hyperfine Anomalies of Copper Impurities in Iron

    E-print Network

    V. V. Golovko; F. Wauters; S. Cottenier; M. Breitenfeldt; V. De Leebeeck; S. Roccia; G. Soti; M. Tandecki; E. Traykov; S. Van Gorp; D. Zákoucký; N. Severijns

    2011-07-29

    A new value for the hyperfine magnetic field of copper impurities in iron is obtained by combining resonance frequencies from experiments involving {\\beta}-NMR on oriented nuclei on 59-Cu, 69-Cu, and 71-Cu with magnetic moment values from collinear laser spectroscopy measurements on these isotopes. The resulting value, i.e., Bhf(CuFe) = -21.794(10) T, is in agreement with the value adopted until now but is an order of magnitude more precise. It is consistent with predictions from ab initio calculations. Comparing the hyperfine field values obtained for the individual isotopes, the hyperfine anomalies in Fe were determined to be 59{\\Delta}69=0.15(9)% and 71{\\Delta}69=0.07(11)%.

  10. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  11. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic study of copper hopping in doped bis(L-histidinato)cadmium dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Colaneri, Michael J; Vitali, Jacqueline; Kirschbaum, Kristin

    2013-04-25

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to study Cu(II) dynamic behavior in a doped biological model crystal, bis(L-histidinato)cadmium dihydrate, in order to gain better insight into copper site stability in metalloproteins. Temperature-dependent changes in the low temperature X-band EPR spectra became visible around 100 K and continued up to room temperature. The measured 298 K g-tensor (principal values: 2.17, 2.16, 2.07) and copper hyperfine coupling tensor (principal values: -260, -190, -37 MHz) were similar to the average of the 77 K tensor values pertaining to two neighboring histidine binding sites. The observed temperature dependence was interpreted using Anderson's theory of motional narrowing, where the magnetic parameters for the different states are averaged as the copper rapidly hops between sites. The EPR pattern was also found to undergo a sharp sigmoidal-shaped, temperature-dependent conversion between two species with a critical temperature T(c) ? 160 K. The species below T(c) hops between the two low temperature site patterns, and the one above T(c) represents an average of the molecular spin Hamiltonian coupling tensors of the two 77 K sites. In addition, the low and high temperature species hop between one another, contributing to the dynamic averaging. Spectral simulations using this 4-state model determined a hop rate between the two low temperature sites ?(h4) = 4.5 × 10(8) s(-1) and between the low and high temperature states ?(h2) = 1.7 × 10(8) s(-1) at 160 K. An Arrhenius relationship of hop rate and temperature gave energy barriers of ?E4 = 389 cm(-1) and ?E2 = 656 cm(-1) between the two low temperature sites and between the low and high temperature states, respectively. PMID:23530765

  12. Kinetic lattice Monte Carlo simulations of cascade aging in iron and dilute iron-copper alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, B.D.; Odette, G.R.

    1999-07-01

    Neutron hardening and embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is due to a high density of nm scale features, including copper-manganese-nickel rich precipitates and what are generally believed to be defect cluster-solute complexes. It has been postulated that the sub nanometer defect cluster-solute complexes form directly in displacement cascades. Cluster-complexes that are thermally unstable mediate the effect of flux on embrittlement kinetics. Larger cluster-complexes, that are relatively thermally stable for irradiation times up to 1 Gs, cause embrittlement in low copper steels. Robust characterization of these two types of so-called matrix defects has been an elusive goal. In this work, Kinetic Lattice Monte Carlo (KLMC) simulations of the long term evolution of the vacancy-rich cascade core regions were carried out for both pure iron and dilute iron-copper alloys at the nominal irradiation temperature of 563 K up to times when the vacancy clusters completely dissolve. Energetics were based on lattice embedded atom method potentials, Special time scaling and pulse annealing techniques were used to deal with the enormous range of inherent time scales involved, viz., rapid free vacancy jumps to slow emission from large complexes. Three-dimensional clusters rapidly form, containing a wide range of vacancies, as well as copper atoms in alloys. Small complexes are very mobile and growth takes place primarily by coalescence. The vacancy clusters ultimately dissolve at times from less than 0.1 to more than 100 MS. These simulations support the hypotheses that cascade cluster-complexes constitute both thermally stable and unstable matrix defect features.

  13. Synthesis of cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads as immunosensing probes for the detection of AFP, CEA and PSA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zifeng; Liu, Na; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-08-15

    A double-water-in-oil-emulsion procedure was designed to synthesize cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads less than 200nm diameter under mild conditions. The cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads can be activated to immobilize biomacromolecules and can directly produce distinctive electrochemical signals. Using the novel alginate nanobeads labeled with antibodies as electrochemical probes, a sandwich-type immunosensor was constructed using AFP, CEA and PSA as model analytes. This proposed immunosensor shows wide linear range with detection limits of 0.01, 0.0086 and 0.0075ngmL(-1) for AFP, CEA and PSA, respectively. Analysis of clinical serum samples using this immunosensor was well consistent with the data determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It suggested that the alginate nanobeads electrochemical probes could be generally extended to other multiple analytes detection. PMID:25797848

  14. Lipid production combined with biosorption and bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, manganese and zinc by oleaginous microalgae Chlorella minutissima UTEX2341.

    PubMed

    Yang, JinShui; Cao, Jing; Xing, GuanLan; Yuan, HongLi

    2014-11-01

    Algae lipid production combined with heavy metal removal is a cost-effective and environment-friendly method for algae biofuel production and hazardous waste treatment. Chlorella minutissima UTEX 2341 had strong resistance to cadmium, copper, manganese and zinc ions under heterotrophic culture condition and could efficiently remove them through intracellular accumulation and extracellular immobilization. Meanwhile, lipid accumulation was not inhibited by heavy metals. Instead, the algae lipid content significantly increased by 21.07% and 93.90%, respectively with the addition of cadmium and copper. Furthermore, the heavy metal residue in lipid was within ?g range and satisfied the commercial standard. This artificial wastewater-algae biofuel-heavy-metal integrated utilization technology offered a new alternative solution to the problems of energy shortage and environmental pollution. PMID:25459865

  15. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  16. Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Xin Sheng; Yen-Peng Ting; J. Paul Chen; Liang Hong

    2004-01-01

    The marine algae Sargassum sp., Padina sp., Ulva sp., and Gracillaria sp., harvested locally, were investigated for their biosorption performance in the removal of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel from dilute aqueous solutions. It was found that the biosorption capacities were significantly affected by solution pH, with higher pH favoring higher metal-ion removal. Kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried

  17. Stripping Potentiometry of Lead, Cadmium and Copper at a Nafion Coated Glassy Carbon Electrode with Encapsulated Mercury Acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Maccà; Mark Bradshaw; Arben Merkoci; Geoffrey Scollary

    1997-01-01

    The stripping potentiometric determination of lead, cadmium and copper with mercury film glassy-carbon electrodes coated with a Nafion membrane was investigated. The mercury film was plated using either mercury(II) acetate encapsulated within the Nafion membrane or a mercury(II) solution. Dissolved dioxygen was used as the stripping agent. The electrodes showed promising properties, particularly robustness and response repeatability. A linear dependence

  18. Application of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Zinc, Copper, and Cadmium Quantification in the Aqueous Humor: Implications of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassiliki S. Panteli; Dimitra G. Kanellopoulou; Sotirios P. Gartaganis; Petros G. Koutsoukos

    2009-01-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) procedure, using mercury film electrode, was optimized and applied to determine the concentrations\\u000a of zinc, cadmium, and copper in the aqueous humor. Concentration levels as low as 1 ppb of the test metals was possible to\\u000a be detected using short electrolysis times (120 s) and microquantities of aqueous humor (up to 35 ?L). As a first application\\u000a of the

  19. Suppression of Chlorella vulgaris Growth by Cadmium, Lead, and Copper Stress and Its Restoration by Endogenous Brassinolide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Bajguz

    2011-01-01

    Brassinosteroids play a significant role in the amelioration of various abiotic and biotic stresses. In order to elaborate\\u000a their roles in plants subjected to heavy metals stress, Chlorella vulgaris cultures treated with 10?8 M brassinolide (BL) were exposed to 10?6–10?4 M heavy metals (cadmium, lead and copper) application. Under heavy metals stress, the growth and chemical composition (chlorophyll,\\u000a monosaccharides, and

  20. OPT3 Is a Component of the Iron-Signaling Network between Leaves and Roots and Misregulation of OPT3 Leads to an Over-Accumulation of Cadmium in Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Xie, Qingqing; Akmakjian, Garo Z.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Patel, Ami; Stacey, Minviluz G.; Song, Lihui; Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Stacey, Gary; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and seeds are the main dietary sources of zinc, iron, manganese, and copper, but are also the main entry point for toxic elements such as cadmium into the food chain. We report here that an Arabidopsis oligopeptide transporter mutant, opt3-2, over-accumulates cadmium (Cd) in seeds and roots but, unexpectedly, under-accumulates Cd in leaves. The cadmium distribution in opt3-2 differs from iron, zinc, and manganese, suggesting a metal-specific mechanism for metal partitioning within the plant. The opt3-2 mutant constitutively up-regulates the Fe/Zn/Cd transporter IRT1 and FRO2 in roots, indicative of an iron-deficiency response. No genetic mutants that impair the shoot-to-root signaling of iron status in leaves have been identified. Interestingly, shoot-specific expression of OPT3 rescues the Cd sensitivity and complements the aberrant expression of IRT1 in opt3-2 roots, suggesting that OPT3 is required to relay the iron status from leaves to roots. OPT3 expression was found in the vasculature with preferential expression in the phloem at the plasma membrane. Using radioisotope experiments, we found that mobilization of Fe from leaves is severely affected in opt3-2, suggesting that Fe mobilization out of leaves is required for proper trace-metal homeostasis. When expressed in yeast, OPT3 does not localize to the plasma membrane, precluding the identification of the OPT3 substrate. Our in planta results show that OPT3 is important for leaf phloem-loading of iron and plays a key role regulating Fe, Zn, and Cd distribution within the plant. Furthermore, ferric chelate reductase activity analyses provide evidence that iron is not the sole signal transferred from leaves to roots in leaf iron status signaling. PMID:24880337

  1. OPT3 is a component of the iron-signaling network between leaves and roots and misregulation of OPT3 leads to an over-accumulation of cadmium in seeds.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Xie, Qingqing; Akmakjian, Garo Z; Jobe, Timothy O; Patel, Ami; Stacey, Minviluz G; Song, Lihui; Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S; Stacey, Gary; Schroeder, Julian I

    2014-09-01

    Plants and seeds are the main dietary sources of zinc, iron, manganese, and copper, but are also the main entry point for toxic elements such as cadmium into the food chain. We report here that an Arabidopsis oligopeptide transporter mutant, opt3-2, over-accumulates cadmium (Cd) in seeds and roots but, unexpectedly, under-accumulates Cd in leaves. The cadmium distribution in opt3-2 differs from iron, zinc, and manganese, suggesting a metal-specific mechanism for metal partitioning within the plant. The opt3-2 mutant constitutively up-regulates the Fe/Zn/Cd transporter IRT1 and FRO2 in roots, indicative of an iron-deficiency response. No genetic mutants that impair the shoot-to-root signaling of iron status in leaves have been identified. Interestingly, shoot-specific expression of OPT3 rescues the Cd sensitivity and complements the aberrant expression of IRT1 in opt3-2 roots, suggesting that OPT3 is required to relay the iron status from leaves to roots. OPT3 expression was found in the vasculature with preferential expression in the phloem at the plasma membrane. Using radioisotope experiments, we found that mobilization of Fe from leaves is severely affected in opt3-2, suggesting that Fe mobilization out of leaves is required for proper trace-metal homeostasis. When expressed in yeast, OPT3 does not localize to the plasma membrane, precluding the identification of the OPT3 substrate. Our in planta results show that OPT3 is important for leaf phloem-loading of iron and plays a key role regulating Fe, Zn, and Cd distribution within the plant. Furthermore, ferric chelate reductase activity analyses provide evidence that iron is not the sole signal transferred from leaves to roots in leaf iron status signaling. PMID:24880337

  2. Influences of petroleum on accumulation of copper and cadmium in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu-Hong; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Zhang, Qian-Ru

    2006-01-01

    Using the exposure simulation experiment, the action of petroleum affecting the accumulation of the trace metals including copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in littoral polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from the Shuangtaizi Estuary in Liaoning Province, China was examined. The results showed that there was a markedly non-linear relationship between the accumulation of Cu in worms and the experimental concentration of Cu in exposure solutions when the concentration of petroleum remained at 0, 100, and 220 microl/L, respectively. However, significantly non-linear relationship for worms exposed to Cd was observed only when the concentration of added petroleum was 0 and 220 microl/L. The accumulation of Cu in worms did not differ significantly among the three different levels of petroleum concentrations combined with various concentrations of Cu. So was the accumulation of Cd in worms (p > 0.05). However, the addition of petroleum in exposure solutions brought about an increase in the accumulation of Cu in Nereis diversicolor, in comparison with single Cu pollution. On the other hand, when the concentration of added petroleum remained at 100 microl/L, the accumulation of Cd in worms was lower than that in worms exposed to various concentrations of only cadmium. However, the worms exposed to Cd and petroleum 220 microl/L did not show obvious and identical increase in the accumulation of Cd, compared with single Cd exposure. The accumulation of both Cu and Cd in worms did not increase significantly with the increases in concentrations of Cu or Cd in exposure solutions combined with petroleum (0, 100, and 220 microl/L) under the experimental conditions. Although Nereis diversicolor is exposed to very high Cu and Cd in exposure solutions, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms are sufficient to cope with the extra metal influx in order to survive. PMID:20050557

  3. Direct determination of cadmium and copper in seawater using a transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with Zeeman-effect background corrector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei-Shu Chan; Shang-Da Huang

    2000-01-01

    Methods for the direct determination of copper and cadmium in seawater were described using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) and a longitudinal Zeeman effect background corrector. Ammonium nitrate was used as the chemical modifier to determine copper. The mixture of di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate and ammonium nitrate was used as the

  4. Copper and Iron are Mobilized Following Myocardial Ischemia: Possible Predictive Criteria for Tissue Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mordechai Chevion; Yandong Jiang; Ronit Har-El; Eduard Berenshtein; Gideon Uretzky; Nachum Kitrossky

    1993-01-01

    Direct evidence for substantial mobilization of copper in the coronary flow immediately following prolonged, but not short, cardiac ischemia is presented. In the first coronary flow fraction (CFF) of reperfusion (0.15 ml), after 35 min of ischemia, the level of copper (as well as of iron) was 8- to 9-fold higher than the preischemic value. The levels in subsequent CFFs

  5. Zinc, lead and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in Typha latifolia as affected by iron plaque on the root surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihong Ye; Alan J. M Baker; Ming-Hung Wong; Arthur J Willis

    1998-01-01

    The effects of iron plaque on the growth of Typha latifolia L. and its accumulation of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated under field conditions and in nutrient solution cultures in the laboratory. In the field, Zn concentrations (but not Cd) on the root surface were positively related to Fe concentrations on the root surface. In the

  6. THE COMPARATIVE EXCLUSION OF ZINC AND IRON FROM RICE GRAIN IN RELATION TO RICE GRAIN CADMIUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice grain samples collected from within an isolated and geo-physically unique Zinc/Cadmium (Zn/Cd) co-contaminated area in Thailand suggests that the rice plant effectively controls grain Zn and Iron (Fe) uptake even though concurrent aqua regia digested soil Zn and Fe concentrations ranged from 25...

  7. Assessment of mixture toxicity of copper, cadmium, and phenanthrenequinone to the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxi; Lampi, Mark A; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Gerhardt, Karen; Dixon, D George; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2009-04-01

    Transition metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are cocontaminants at many sites. Contaminants in mixtures are known to interact with biological systems in ways that can greatly alter the toxicity of individual compounds. The toxicities (individually and as mixtures) of copper (Cu), a redox-active metal; cadmium (Cd), a nonredox active metal; and phenanthrenequinone (PHQ), a redox-active oxygenated PAH, were examined using the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. We found that the cotoxicity of Cu/PHQ was dependent on the ratio of concentrations of each chemical in the mixture. Different interaction types (synergism, antagonism, and additivity) were observed with different combinations of these toxicants. The interaction types changed from antagonism at a low Cu to PHQ ratio (1:4), to additive at an intermediate Cu to PHQ ratio (2:3), to synergistic at higher Cu to PHQ ratios (3:2 and 4:1). In contrast to Cu/PHQ mixtures, the cotoxicity of Cd/PHQ did not change at different mixture ratios and was found for the most part to be additive. For the individual chemicals and their mixtures, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was observed in V. fischeri, suggesting that individual and mixture toxicity of Cu, Cd, and PHQ to V. fischeri involves ROS-related mechanisms. This study shows that mixture ratios can alter individual chemical toxicity, and should be taken into account in risk assessment. PMID:18561304

  8. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis.

  9. Rat brain iron concentration is lower following perinatal copper deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Joseph R.; Gybina, Anna A.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments performed with Holtzman rats demonstrated that brain iron (Fe) was lower by postnatal day 13 (P13) in pups born and nursed by dams that began copper-deficient (?Cu) treatment at embryonic day 7. Transcardial perfusion of P24– P26 males and females to remove blood Fe contamination revealed that brain Fe was still 20% lower in ?Cu than +Cu rats. Estimated blood content of brain for ?Cu rats was greater than for +Cu rats; for all groups, values ranged between 0.43 and 1.03%. Using group-specific data and regression analyses, r = 0.99, relating blood Fe to hemoglobin, brain Fe in non-perfused rats in a replicate study was lower by 33% at P13 and 39% at P24 in ?Cu rats. Brain extracts from these rats and from P50 rats from a post-weaning model were compared by immunobloting for transferrin receptor (TfR1). P24 brain ?Cu/+Cu TfR1 was 3.08, suggesting that brains of ?Cu rats were indeed Fe deficient. This ratio in P13 rats was 1.44, p < 0.05. No change in P50 ?Cu rat brain TfR1 or Fe content was detected despite a 50% reduction in plasma Fe. The results suggest that brain Fe accumulation depends on adequate Cu nutriture during perinatal development. PMID:15836628

  10. Iron, Manganese and Copper Release from Synthetic Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, Douglas W.

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic stir-flow dissolution experiments were performed on iron- (Fe-SHA), manganese- (Mn-SHA), and copper- (Cu-SHA) containing synthetic hydroxyapatites. Solution treatments consisted of de-ionized water, citric acid and DTPA. Initially, Mn concentrations were higher than Cu concentrations and Fe concentrations were the lowest in all treatments. At later times Mn and Cu concentrations dropped in the DTPA treatment while Fe rose to the concentration similar to Mn and Cu. At all times, metal release concentrations in the water and citric acid treatments followed the trend of Mn>Cu>Fe. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data and ^31P NMR indicated that the metals substituted for Ca in the SHA structure. However, EPR data suggested that a metal (hydr)oxide phase existed either on the SHA surface or between the SHA crystallites. The metal concentration trend of Mn>Cu>Fe suggested that the initial solution metal concentrations are dependent on the dissolution of (hydr)oxides from SHA surfaces or between SHA crystallites. Similar metal concentrations at later times in the DTPA experiments suggests that metal concentrations were controlled by the release of Mn, Cu, or Fe from the SHA structure.

  11. Iron and copper as virulence modulators in human fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chen; Festa, Richard A; Sun, Tian-Shu; Wang, Zhan-You

    2014-07-01

    Fungal pathogens have evolved sophisticated machinery to precisely balance the fine line between acquiring essential metals and defending against metal toxicity. Iron and copper are essential metals for many processes in both fungal pathogens and their mammalian hosts, but reduce viability when present in excess. However, during infection, the host uses these two metals differently. Fe has a long-standing history of influencing virulence in pathogenic fungi, mostly in regards to Fe acquisition. Numerous studies demonstrate the requirement of the Fe acquisition pathway of Candida, Cryptococcus and Aspergillus for successful systemic infection. Fe is not free in the host, but is associated with Fe-binding proteins, leading fungi to develop mechanisms to interact with and to acquire Fe from these Fe-bound proteins. Cu is also essential for cell growth and development. Essential Cu-binding proteins include Fe transporters, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and cytochrome c oxidase. Although Cu acquisition plays critical roles in fungal survival in the host, recent work has revealed that Cu detoxification is extremely important. Here, we review fungal responses to altered metal conditions presented by the host, contrast the roles of Fe and Cu during infection, and outline the critical roles of fungal metal homeostasis machinery at the host-pathogen axis. PMID:24851950

  12. Impairment of Interrelated Iron- and Copper Homeostatic Mechanisms in Brain Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Skjørringe, Tina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Iron and copper are important co-factors for a number of enzymes in the brain, including enzymes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and myelin formation. Both shortage and an excess of iron or copper will affect the brain. The transport of iron and copper into the brain from the circulation is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead to altered copper homeostasis in the brain. Similarly, changes in dietary copper affect the brain iron homeostasis. Moreover, the uptake routes of iron and copper overlap each other which affect the interplay between the concentrations of the two metals in the brain. The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) is involved in the uptake of both iron and copper. Furthermore, copper is an essential co-factor in numerous proteins that are vital for iron homeostasis and affects the binding of iron-response proteins to iron-response elements in the mRNA of the transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, all highly involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake, and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells that express various transporters. PMID:23055972

  13. Biochemical Evolution of Iron and Copper Proteins, Substances Vital to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes studies in the area of biochemical evolution of iron, copper, and heme proteins to provide an historical outline. Included are lists of major kinds of proteins and enzymes and charts illustrating electron flow in a cytochrome electron transport system and interconversion of jerrous to ferric ion in iron metabolism. (CC)

  14. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  15. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 ?m Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  16. IN-HOUSE CORROSION RESEARCH EMPHASIZING LEAD, COPPER AND IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead and copper are directly regulated via the "Lead and Copper Rule;" however, water suppliers must balance all water treatment processes in order to simultaneously comply with all regulations. Specific research needs for copper and lead chemistry still exist, as applications o...

  17. An experimental study for enhancing the catalytic effects of various copper forms on the oxidation of ferrous iron.

    PubMed

    Babak, Manizhe Moradi Shahre; Goharrizi, Ataallah Soltani; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Roayaei, Emad

    2013-01-01

    In this research the catalytic effect of copper compounds (ionic, oxide and oxide nanopowder) on the oxidation of ferrous iron by aeration was studied experimentally. When copper exists in solution, the oxidation rate of iron(II) will increase. The experimental results showed that the oxidation rate increases with an increasing copper concentration. From the experimental data it can be determined that the copper oxide nanopowder is the most effective for the oxidation reaction among the used copper forms. Aeration is the most economical oxidation method when water exhibits a high ferrous iron concentration. PMID:23530309

  18. A highly sensitive method for simultaneous determination of ultra trace levels of copper and cadmium in food and water samples with luminol as a chelating agent by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahryar Abbasi; Atousa Bahiraei; Freshteh Abbasai

    2011-01-01

    In the present study a selective method is presented for the simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium in food samples by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. In preliminary studies, it has been proven that the copper and cadmium react with 3-aminophthalhydrazide (luminol), giving rise to the formation of these complexes. These complexes have adsorptive characteristics on hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) and

  19. Stress-related physiological effects in fish exposed to combinations of copper and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelgrom, S.M.G.J.; Lock, R.A.C.; Balm, P.H.M.; Bonga, S.E.W. [Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Animal Physiology

    1995-12-31

    During waterborne exposure, heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are not only taken up by fish gills, but also exert their primary toxic effect on this tissue. When the adaptive responses of the animals are inadequate, symptoms of stress have been observed. Tolerance for toxicants depends on specific physiological and biochemical accommodation of this tissue, partly regulated hormonally by products from the pituitary-interrenal axis. Cortisol not only modulates bronchial ion mechanisms but also regulates intermediate metabolism. The hormone is released in response to various stressful stimuli, such as heavy metals, and has been put forward as a stress index. Despite the increasing knowledge about the toxic mechanisms of sublethal concentrations of either Cu or Cd for fish, little is known about the effects of combined Cu/Cd exposure. The potential toxic effects of mixtures of heavy metals for fish is a subject of growing interest. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects on fish exposed during 6 days to sublethal waterborne Cu and Cd concentrations, singly and in combination. It is demonstrated that although Cu and Cd have metal-specific effects, the effects observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish were not simple additive or synergistic, as demonstrated by metal accumulation in organs, chloride cell numbers, active ion transport activities and plasma ion composition. For several of these parameters, more deleterious effects were observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish than could have been predicted from effects observed in single Cu or Cd exposed fish. Plasma cortisol levels were increased in Cu-exposed fish, but an increase was not observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish. It is argued that the absence of this cortisol response contributes to the inadequate reaction of the combined Cu/Cd exposed fish.

  20. Sorption of cadmium by an acid soil amended with compost and copper-mine tailing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

    2009-04-01

    Humified materials from the compost industry and certain waste from mining operations can be used as low cost toxic metal adsorbents in soils having a very low sorption capacity. An experiment was designed to assess the sorption of cadmium (Cd) by an acid coarse-textured soil (pH 5.50) amended with peat moss-shrimp waste compost (PSC), and three copper-mine tailing samples rich in calcareous products, namely untreated tailing (MT), tailing + 10% of PSC (MTC-10) and tailing + 20% of PSC (MTC-20). The soil amendment rates ranged from 0 to 300 g/kg soil. The sorption measurement was carried out on 17 soils by adding 30 mL of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 100 mg Cd/L, as CdCl2, to 1.00 g of soil. The suspension was shaken for 30 min and equilibrated at room temperature for 7 days. After centrifuging, the Cd concentration in the supernatant was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The sorption coefficient (Ks) was used to interpret the sorption data. Triplicate samples of the soils were used throughout the sorption study. MT (pH 7.7) amendment treatment was more effective than PSC (pH 6.8) treatment in raising the pH of acid sandy soil. Sorption increased with amendment additions depending on the type and rate of amendment application. The compost alone had the highest affinity for Cd, while the tailing alone exhibited the least affinity. The increasing order of Cd sorbed after amendment was: PSC > MTC-20 > MTC-10 > MT. The results indicate that PSC and Cu-mine tailing amended with PSC can be used as effective sorbents for anthropogenic Cd in acid sandy soils.

  1. Ultrastructural changes in rat lungs exposed to combinations of cadmium, zinc, copper, and nickel.

    PubMed

    Murthy, R C; Holovack, M J

    1991-04-01

    The morphological effects of single intratracheal intubation of cadmium oxide (CdO) with oxides of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) at their threshold limit values on alveolar macrophages and type II cells were studied. The combinations used were: CdO + ZnO (0.1 mg + 5.0 mg); CdO + CuO (0.1 mg + 0.2 mg); and CdO + NiO (0.1 mg + 1.0 mg). Rats sacrificed after one week recovery period showed distinct morphological changes. Alveolar macrophages and type II cells exposed to CdO and ZnO showed an increase in number, shape, and size of vacuolar phagolysosomes. Multivesicular bodies and lamellar bodies were also seen, as well as the lack of distinct nucleoli. The CdO/CuO combination showed an increase in the number of dense vacuolar phagolysosomes and large aggregates of multivesicular bodies. Hypertrophy of mitochondria was also evident in this combination. The CdO/NiO combination showed more distinctive changes compared to the other two combinations in lysosomes, membranous whorls, multivesicular bodies, residual bodies, and number of mitochondria. Our findings using combination exposures of CuO and ZnO with CdO indicate the existence of competitive inhibition resulting in some form of protective action. On the other hand, the CdO/NiO exposure seemed to be additive showing structural modifications, premature aging, faster degeneration, and release of abnormal membrane structures. PMID:2070354

  2. The interactive toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to Ceriodaphnia dubia and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; Cohen, Adam S; Stubblefield, William A

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, aquatic toxicity studies examine the toxicity of a single chemical to an organism. Organisms in nature, however, may be exposed to multiple toxicants. Given this is a more realistic exposure scenario in situ, the authors sought to understand the interactive toxicity of multiple metals to aquatic organisms. The authors performed a series of studies using equitoxic mixtures of cadmium, copper, and zinc to 2 aquatic organisms, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Single metal toxicity tests were conducted to determine the acute median lethal concentration (LC50) values for O. mykiss and short-term, chronic median effective concentration (EC50) values for C. dubia. All 3 metals were then combined in equitoxic concentrations for subsequent mixture studies using a toxic unit (TU) approach (i.e., 1 TU?=?EC50 or LC50). For C. dubia, the mixture study showed greater-than-additive effects in hard water (TU-based EC50?=?0.74 TU), but less-than-additive effects in soft water (TU-based EC50?=?1.93 TU). The mixture effects for O. mykiss showed less-than-additive effects in both hard and soft waters, with TU-based LC50 values of 2.33 total TU and 2.22 total TU, respectively. These data are useful in helping understand metal mixture toxicity in aquatic systems and indicate that although in most situations the assumption of additivity of metal mixture toxicity is valid, under certain conditions it may not be sufficiently protective. PMID:25641563

  3. Evolution of Microstructures During Austempering of Ductile Irons Alloyed with Manganese and Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Ranjan Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Chakrabarti, Ajit Kumar

    2013-03-01

    The influences of relatively high manganese (0.45 through 1.0 wt pct) and copper (0.56 through 1.13 wt pct) contents on microstructure development and phase transformation in three austempered ductile irons have been studied. The experimental ductile irons alloyed with copper and manganese are found to be practically free from intercellular manganese segregation. This suggests that the positive segregation of manganese is largely neutralized by the negative segregation of copper when these alloying elements are added in appropriate proportions. The drop in unreacted austenite volume (UAV) with increasing austempering temperature and time is quite significant in irons alloyed with copper and manganese. The ausferrite morphology also undergoes a transition from lenticular to feathery appearance of increasing coarseness with the increasing austempering temperature and time. SEM micrographs of the austempered samples from the base alloy containing manganese only, as well as copper plus manganese-alloyed irons, clearly reveal the presence of some martensite along with retained austenite and ferrite. X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of these phases. SEM examination further reveals the presence of twinned martensite in the copper plus manganese-alloyed samples. The possibility of strain-induced transformation of austenite to martensite during austempering heat treatment is suggested.

  4. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fieten, H; Hugen, S; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Hendriks, W H; Vernooij, J C M; Bode, P; Watson, A L; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J

    2013-08-01

    Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson's disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson's disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to characterize both basal and D-penicillamine induced urinary copper, zinc and iron excretion in dogs in relation to hepatic copper concentration. Beagles, Beagle-Bedlington terrier cross-breeds homozygous for the COMMD1 gene mutation that causes copper toxicosis, and Labrador retrievers with normal or increased hepatic copper concentrations were investigated. The hepatic copper phenotype was determined by histological evaluation of liver biopsies and measurement of the hepatic copper concentration by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Urinary excretion of copper, iron and zinc was measured via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry under basal conditions and after oral administration of a single dose (20mg/kg bodyweight) of the chelator D-penicillamine. There was a rapid increase in urinary excretion of copper and zinc, but not iron after D-penicillamine administration. This increase was not different between dogs with high or normal hepatic copper concentrations. D-penicillamine-induced urinary copper excretion and the copper/creatinine ratio did not correlate with hepatic copper concentrations in the dogs studied, although basal urinary copper/zinc ratios did correlate with hepatic copper concentrations in Labrador retrievers. The latter parameter may be useful in diagnostic and follow-up protocols for copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers. PMID:23583003

  5. The iron-sulfur clusters of dehydratases are primary intracellular targets of copper toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Macomber, Lee; Imlay, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Excess copper is poisonous to all forms of life, and copper overloading is responsible for several human pathologic processes. The primary mechanisms of toxicity are unknown. In this study, mutants of Escherichia coli that lack copper homeostatic systems (copA cueO cus) were used to identify intracellular targets and to test the hypothesis that toxicity involves the action of reactive oxygen species. Low micromolar levels of copper were sufficient to inhibit the growth of both WT and mutant strains. The addition of branched-chain amino acids restored growth, indicating that copper blocks their biosynthesis. Indeed, copper treatment rapidly inactivated isopropylmalate dehydratase, an iron-sulfur cluster enzyme in this pathway. Other enzymes in this iron-sulfur dehydratase family were similarly affected. Inactivation did not require oxygen, in vivo or with purified enzyme. Damage occurred concomitant with the displacement of iron atoms from the solvent-exposed cluster, suggesting that Cu(I) damages these proteins by liganding to the coordinating sulfur atoms. Copper efflux by dedicated export systems, chelation by glutathione, and cluster repair by assembly systems all enhance the resistance of cells to this metal. PMID:19416816

  6. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (?68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  7. Iron and copper in progressive demyelination - New lessons from Skogholt's disease.

    PubMed

    Aspli, Klaus Thanke; Flaten, Trond Peder; Roos, Per M; Holmøy, Trygve; Skogholt, Jon H; Aaseth, Jan

    2015-07-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of progressive demyelinating disorders including multiple sclerosis are incompletely understood. Increasing evidence indicates a role for trace metals in the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. The study of Skogholt disease, a recently discovered demyelinating disease affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system, might shed some light on the mechanisms underlying demyelination. Cerebrospinal fluid iron and copper concentrations are about four times higher in Skogholt patients than in controls. The transit into cerebrospinal fluid of these elements from blood probably occurs in protein bound form. We hypothesize that exchangeable fractions of iron and copper are further transferred from cerebrospinal fluid into myelin, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of demyelination. Free or weakly bound iron and copper ions may exert their toxic action on myelin by catalyzing production of oxygen radicals. Similarities to demyelinating processes in multiple sclerosis and other myelinopathies are discussed. PMID:25563774

  8. Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

  9. 77 FR 59158 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ...51.1 tungsten, 44.4 copper, Rare Earth Magnet. 3.9 tin, and 0.6 iron...10-37 iron, Hot Shot[supreg] or Rare Earth Magnet. 9-16 copper, and 5-7...any proportions of Rare Earth Magnet. tungsten, tin, and...

  10. The effects of feeding by the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on copper and cadmium accumulation in broad bean ( Vicia faba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Crawford; Ian D. Hodkinson; Nicholas W. Lepp

    1990-01-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba L.), cultured hydroponically were supplied with 100 µg mL-1 copper or 50 µg mL-1 cadmium in nutrient solution. Samples of plant material from both nutrient regimes were analysed before and after infestation by the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.). Heavy aphid infestation resulted in a significant reduction in copper content of shoots in comparison with

  11. Copper, iron, and zinc interactions with chlorophyll in extracts of photosynthetic pigments studied by VIS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvezdanovi?, J.; Markovi?, D.

    2009-09-01

    Interactions of copper, iron and zinc with chlorophyll, the major photosynthesis pigment, were studied by VIS spectrophotometry in extracts of photosynthetic pigments (in vitro). Copper predominantly forms Cu-Chl complexes in all studied systems (Cu-, Cu/Fe-, Cu/Zn- and Cu/Fe/Zn-incubated pigment solutions). It is not clear whether iron forms Fe-Chl complexes or produces pheophytin. It’s effect is dominant over zinc (Fe/Zn-system) but highly minor compared to Cu-effect when all three metals are present (Cu/Fe/Zn-Chl system) in the same concentrations.

  12. Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

  13. Bioabsorption of cadmium, copper and lead by the red macroalga Gelidium floridanum: physiological responses and ultrastructure features.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Schmidt, Éder C; de L Felix, Marthiellen R; Polo, Luz K; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals, such as lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel, are among the most common pollutants found in both industrial and urban effluents. High concentrations of these metals cause severe toxic effects, especially to organisms living in the aquatic ecosystem. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) are the heavy metals most frequently implicated as environmental contaminants, and they have been shown to affect development, growth, photosynthesis and respiration, and morphological cell organization in seaweeds. This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of 50?M and 100?M of Cd, Pb and Cu on growth rates, photosynthetic pigments, biochemical parameters and ultrastructure in Gelidium floridanum. To accomplish this, apical segments of G. floridanum were individually exposed to the respective heavy metals over a period of 7 days. Plants exposed to Cd, Cu and Pb showed discoloration of thallus pigmentation, chloroplast alteration, especially degeneration of thylakoids, and decrease in photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, in samples treated with Cd and Cu. Moreover, cell wall thickness and the volume of plastoglobuli increased. X-ray microanalysis detected Cd, Cu and Pb absorption in the cell wall. The results indicate that Cd, Pb and Cu negatively affect metabolic performance and cell ultrastructure in G. floridanum and that Cu was more toxic than either Pb or Cd. PMID:24793517

  14. Arabidopsis Thaliana CARBOXYL-TERMINAL DOMAIN PHOSPHATASE-Like1 (CPL1) Mediates Responses to Iron Deficiency and Cadmium Toxicity

    E-print Network

    Aksoy, Emre

    2014-04-24

    ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA CARBOXYL-TERMINAL DOMAIN PHOSPHATASE- LIKE1 (CPL1) MEDIATES RESPONSES TO IRON DEFICIENCY AND CADMIUM TOXICITY A Dissertation by EMRE AKSOY Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas... CTD C-TERMINAL DOMAIN vi CPL1 CTD PHOSPHATASE-LIKE1 LUC luciferase GUS ?-glucuronidase GFP Green Fluorescent Protein ABA abscisic acid ICP-MS inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page...

  15. Effect of Cadmium and Iron on Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Plant in Chelator-Buffered Nutrient Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapan Adhikari; Elisha Tel-Or; Yael Libal; Moshe Shenker

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for differences in uptake and distribution of cadmium (Cd), nutrient-solution experiments were conducted with different varieties of rice (Oryza sativa), ‘Khitish’ and ‘CNRH3’. The plants were grown in a complete nutrient solution with different levels of pCd (-log free Cd activity) and pFe [-log free iron (Fe) activity]. The required concentrations of chelating agent

  16. Hepatic zinc, copper, and iron in the developing turkey embryo and newly hatched poult.

    PubMed

    Richards, M P; Weinland, B T

    1985-06-01

    The ontogeny of hepatic tissue growth and trace metal deposition was examined in the developing turkey embryo and newly hatched poult. Hepatic concentrations of zinc and iron in the embryo declined by about twofold between day 16 of incubation and hatching. Hepatic copper concentration increased approximately fourfold by day 23 of incubation and then declined rapidly through hatching. During the post-hatching period, hepatic zinc concentration increased twofold by day 10, whereas a small increase in hepatic iron concentration occurred just prior to hatching and continued through the third day post-hatching. A significant positive correlation existed between hepatic zinc and iron concentrations in the developing embryo. The concentrations of both these metals were inversely correlated with hepatic copper concentration during the same time. Total hepatic zinc and iron content increased throughout the entire time studied, whereas total copper content increased up to hatching and then declined during the first week post-hatching. The most rapid phase of hepatic metal accretion differed for each metal, with zinc being rapidly accumulated during the post-hatching period, copper during the last half of incubation and iron at about the time of hatching and the first few days post-hatching. Each of these metals demonstrated a specific relationship to hepatic tissue growth that changed between the embryonic and neonatal periods of development. PMID:24259162

  17. Simultaneous third-derivative spectrophotometric determination of copper and nickel in iron alloys and aluminium alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Liang, W; Qi, P

    1993-06-01

    A method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of copper and nickel by third-derivative spectrophotometry based on the absorption spectra of their complexes with cyanide ion in the ultraviolet range. The method allows the determination of 0.55-5.8 mug/ml of copper and 0.55-6.8 mug/ml of nickel. The relative standard deviation for 11 determinations of 1.5 mul/ml of copper and nickel were 0.78 and 0.72%, respectively. The detection limits were 0.10,mug/ml for nickel and 0.13 mug/ml for copper. The method has been applied to direct determination of copper and nickel in iron alloys and an aluminium alloy without any separation. PMID:18965724

  18. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. ?pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low ?pH50-100% when compared with surface ones, independently on metal ion type. ?pH50-100% indicated that Cu was preferentially adsorbed. pH50 values for Cd, Ni and Zn increased as the ionic strength increased, but not for Cu. This behavior indicated the weak electrostatic bonding mechanisms involved in the formation of outer-sphere complex between these metal ions and the soil adsorbents

  19. Inhibitory effect of ethanolamine plasmalogen on iron- and copper-dependent lipid peroxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Zommara; Nobuhiko Tachibana; Kosuke Mitsui; Noriaki Nakatani; Masanobu Sakono; Ikuo Ikeda; Katsumi Imaizumi

    1995-01-01

    The effect of ethanolamine plasmalogen (EtnPm) on lipid peroxidation was investigated in liposomal suspension of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine. EtnPm inhibited iron- and copper-dependent peroxidation in the presence of preformed hydroperoxides, although it was not effective for radical initiator mediated lipid peroxidation. EtnPm resulted in complete binding of iron to liposomal lipids, suggesting that EtnPm exerts its inhibitory effect on lipid

  20. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity in Wilson's disease reflects local copper, but not iron accumulation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Uwe; Skowro?ska, Marta; Litwin, Tomasz; Szpak, Gra?yna Maria; Jab?onka-Salach, Katarzyna; Skoloudík, David; Bulska, Ewa; Cz?onkowska, Anna

    2014-10-01

    In patients with Wilson's disease (WD) transcranial brain sonography typically reveals areas of increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity) of the lenticular nucleus (LN). Correlation with T2-hypointensity on magnetic resonance images suggested that LN hyperechogenicity in WD is caused by trace metal accumulation. Accumulation of both, copper and iron, in the brain of WD patients has been reported. The present study was designed to elucidate whether LN hyperechogenicity in WD reflects accumulation of copper or iron. Post-mortem brains of 15 WD patients and one non-WD subject were studied with ultrasonography in an investigator-blinded fashion. LN hyperechogenicity was measured planimetrically by manual tracing as well as using digitized image analysis. The putaminal copper content was determined in samples of 11 WD brains and the non-WD brains using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and iron content was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. LN was normal on ultrasonography only in the non-WD brain, but abnormal (hyperechogenic) in all WD brains. Digitized image analysis measures of LN hyperechogenicity and, by trend, manual measures correlated with putaminal copper content (Pearson test; digitized: r = 0.77, p = 0.04; manual: r = 0.57, p = 0.051) but not with iron content (each, p > 0.18). LN hyperechogenicity measures were unrelated to age at death of patients, age at onset of WD, WD duration, age of brain specimen, serum copper or serum ceruloplasmin (each, p > 0.1). We conclude that LN hyperechogenicity in WD reflects copper, but not iron accumulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the use of transcranial brain sonography for monitoring therapeutic effects of chelating agents in WD patients. PMID:24615184

  1. Iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, zinc and arsenic groundwater contents of Agbor and Owa communities of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyem, Hector Henry; Oyem, Ifeanyi Mirian; Usese, Amii Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium, and chromium heavy metals and arsenic contents of groundwater in area and surrounding environment, of Ika land in the Delta state, Nigeria was studied. Groundwater without any treatment is the predominant source of drinking water by inhabitants of these communities. However, the quality of this water source is not immediately known, raising questions of its safety. Results of a regional composite of groundwater obtained, shows high iron (27%) and zinc (36%) contents in Boji-Boji Agbor area, manganese (31%) was highest in Boji-Boji Owa. Alihame recorded the lowest value of zinc (8%), while manganese was lowest in Agbor Obi area (12%). Arsenic, cadmium, and chromium were below detection limit in all the sample sites. Correlational matrix analysis revealed no significant relationships between metal types studied. Analyses of chronic daily dose intake (CDI), and hazard index were all very low. A hazard index of 0.01 was obtained. One-way ANOVA show significant statistical difference in the mean concentrations of the heavy metals for the different sample sites, which indicate that different sites contribute differently to the mean concentrations of the groundwater in the study area. Four conclusions are drawn from this study. Indications are that the heavy metals present in the Nigerian aquifer are very much below the maximum concentration levels and guideline values of national and WHO standards. Secondly, there is a heavier load of these metals in the city centre than in the suburbs; with Boji-Boji area Agbor/Owa urban areas accounting for 27 and 20 percent of load respectively. Thirdly, the below detection limit results for some of the metal ions and the very low concentrations of those detected are pointers to the absence of industrial activities and mining. Finally, the groundwater in the study area is considered to be generally safe with respect to the contaminants studied and results posted for the composite samples. Inhabitants are therefore under no illusion of immediate or remote health challenges with regards to the heavy metals analyzed. More individual sampling, however, is recommended. PMID:25853026

  2. The common mussel Mytilus edulis as an indicator of pollution by zinc, cadmium, lead and copper. I. Effects of environmental variables on uptake of metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. H. Phillips

    1976-01-01

    The net uptake of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper by the common mussel Mytilus edulis (L.) exposed to different conditions was investigated with a view to using this species as an indicator of contamination of the marine environment by these metals. The variables studied were season, position of the mussel in the water column, water salinity, water temperature, and the

  3. Determination of Copper, Cadmium, Zinc And Lead In Arge? River In Romania During Four Seasons By Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry And Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anca-Iulia Stoica; P. Capot?; George-Emil Baiulescu

    2000-01-01

    The paper represents a continued study of selected heavy metals concentration in the Arge? River, the fifth river in length from Romania.For the determination of metal ion concentration in Arge? river was used Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for sodium, potassium and magnesium; Direct Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry for calcium; Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry for copper, cadmium, zinc, aluminium,

  4. A Simple Method Based on ICP-MS for Estimation of Background Levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Manganese, Nickel, Lead, and Selenium in Blood of the Brazilian Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana A. Nunes; Bruno L. Batista; Jairo L. Rodrigues; Naise M. Caldas; José A. G. Neto; Fernando Barbosa Jr

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, biomonitoring has become the standard for assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements as well as for responding to serious environmental public health problems. However, extensive biomonitoring surveys require rapid and simple analytical methods. Thus, a simple and high-throughput method is proposed for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead

  5. Accumulation and Soluble Binding of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in the Polychaete Hediste diversicolor from Coastal Sites with Different Trace Metal Bioavailabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Berthet; C. Mouneyrac; J. C. Amiard; C. Amiard-Triquet; Y. Berthelot; A. Le Hen; O. Mastain; P. S. Rainbow; B. D. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc was examined in common ragworms Hediste diversicolor from control (Bay of Somme, Blackwater) and metal-rich (Seine estuary, Boulogne harbor, Restronguet Creek) sites in France and the United Kingdom. The degree of exposure in the field was assessed by considering both total concentrations in superficial sediment and the quantities of metals which may be released

  6. Effects of copper and cadmium on cholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities of two marine gastropods (Monodonta lineata and Nucella lapillus).

    PubMed

    Cunha, I; Mangas-Ramirez, E; Guilhermino, L

    2007-05-01

    With the view of using Nucella lapillus and Monodonta lineata as bioindicators in biomonitoring programs in the NW coast of Portugal, the sensitivity to copper and cadmium of these two common species in Atlantic coasts of Europe was investigated. Assays based on mortality and on the activity of the enzymes cholinesterases (ChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) were used, as these biomarkers have been used in biomonitoring studies in the area. ChEs present in foot muscle of both species were characterised and found to show properties of both typical acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase. Cadmium LC50s for N. lapillus and M. lineata were 2.64 and 2.44 mg/L, respectively, while the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 1.53 mg/L for both species. LOEC value for cooper was 0.075 mg/L for both. Cadmium in vivo exposure increased ChE activity of N. lapillus, but had no effects on M. lineata ChE. No in vitro effects of cadmium on ChE activity of any of the tested species was observed. Copper had no significant in vivo effects on ChE activity, although it inhibited the ChE of both species in vitro, the IC50s being 5.87 and 12.17 mg/L for N. lapillus and M. lineata, respectively. Cadmium had no significant effects on GST activity of either species, while copper caused a significant reduction of N. lapillus GST (LOEC=0.044 mg/L) but had no effect on M. lineata GST. Results indicate that (i) N. lapillus and M. lineata have a similar acute sensitivity to cadmium and copper; (ii) ChE and GST of these species are sensitive to cadmium (iii) ChEs of both species are inhibited by copper at concentrations in the mg/L range and therefore, its use is limited to heavily polluted sites; (iv) N. lapillus GST does not seem to be a suitable biomarker for copper, at least in the range of concentrations tested, since it was inhibited by copper, but no clear concentration-response relationship was observed. PMID:17433783

  7. THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF ETHYLXANTHATE AND DIMETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE COMPLEXES OF IRON, COBALT, NICKEL AND COPPER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan T. Casey; Angelica M. Vecchio

    1988-01-01

    An electrochemical synthetic method has been developed to effect the one-step preparation of transition metal xanthates and dithiocarbamates by oxidation of the metal in an acetone solution of ethyl dixanthogen or tetramethylthiuram disulphide. Results are presented for O-ethylxanthate and N,N?-dimethyldithio-carbamate complexes of iron(III), cobalt(III), nickel(II) and copper(I, II).

  8. Metal passivity as mechanism of metal carcinogenesis: Chromium, nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, platinum, molybdenum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Richardson-Boedler

    2007-01-01

    For the transition metals chromium, nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, platinum, and molybdenum, mechanisms of stable bonding in biochemistry (emphasis on carcinogenic mechanisms), chemistry, industrial chemistry, as well as epidemiological, occupational, orthopedic (implant devices) effects related to carcinogenesis, were reviewed. Hypothetically, the propensity to stable bonding (inertness), which ensures the metals’ performance capacity for consumers and industrial application, relates to their

  9. Numerical simulation of plastic collapse of copper-cast iron canister for spent nuclear fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Martin; Karl-Fredrik Nilsson; Nikola Jakši?

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a finite element simulation of a spent fuel canister for geological disposal loaded in iso-static pressure until plastic collapse. The canister consists of a copper overpack and a ductile cast iron insert with steel cassettes where the spent fuel is placed. The highly non-linear finite element analysis is based on the explicit formulation and includes large deformations,

  10. Iron(II) and Copper(I) Coordination Polymers: Electrochromic Materials with and without Chiroptical Properties

    E-print Network

    Bernhard, Stefan

    Iron(II) and Copper(I) Coordination Polymers: Electrochromic Materials with and without Chiroptical of deterioration over 150 switching cycles. Additionally, in an effort to assemble an electrochromic device with chiroptical properties, the electrochromism of films generated from the enantiomerically pure CTPCT[FeII CTPCT

  11. Microelectrodes Based investigation of the Impacts of Water Chemistry on Copper and Iron Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of bulk drinking water quality on copper and iron pipe corrosion has been extensively studied. Despite past research, many have argued that bulk water quality does not necessarily reflect water quality near the water-metal interface and that such knowledge is necessary...

  12. Oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity of iron and copper: Role of Kupffer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A. Videla; Virginia Fernández; Gladys Tapia; Patricia Varela

    2003-01-01

    Iron- or copper-mediated catalysis leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can attack biomolecules directly, with the consequent enhancement in membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and protein oxidation. Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can also be formed, leading to nitration of aromatic structures in addition to the oxidative deterioration of cellular components. Kupffer cells, the resident macrophages of

  13. Influence of vegetative cycle of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) on copper, iron, zinc and manganese content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Amaro-Lopez; G. Zurera-Cosano; R. Moreno-Rojas; R. M. Garcia-Gimeno

    1995-01-01

    The essential elements copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) were analyzed in fresh asparagus to determine the effects of the vegetative cycle of the plant on the micronutrient content. Asparagus samples were classified in two groups by diameter (14 mm). Asparagus from a sample group with the same diameter were divided into two portions (apical and basal)

  14. Selenium, cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in sediments and mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the southern Basin of Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kirby, J; Maher, W; Krikowa, F

    2001-02-01

    Selenium, cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in sediments and the tissues of mullet (Mugil cephalus) collected from the southern basin of Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia. Trace metals in surficial sediments are enriched in trace metals relative to background concentrations (selenium, 3-19; cadmium, 14-42; copper, 1.5-3.6; zinc, 0.77-2.2 times background). Selenium, cadmium, and copper in Lake Macquarie mullet tissues are elevated compared to those in mullet collected from the Clyde River estuary, a relatively pristine location. Selenium and copper concentrations are also elevated compared to those reported in mullet tissues from other nonpolluted coastal environments. Zinc concentrations in Lake Macquarie mullet muscle tissues are significantly higher than those in muscle tissues of mullet from the Clyde River estuary, but mullet from both locations have similar zinc concentrations in other tissues. These results show that contamination of sediment with trace metals has resulted in elevated trace metals in the benthic feeding fish M. cephalus. Little of the variation of trace metal concentrations between fish was explained by variation in mass. Selenium concentrations in mullet are of concern in muscle tissues as they are above recommended acceptable limits for safe human consumption, while concentrations in tissues are at levels that may effect fish growth, reproduction, and survival. Copper concentrations in mullet tissues are also at levels that may reduce fish growth. PMID:11243327

  15. Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead in a temperate seagrass ecosystem from Lake Macquarie Estuary, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Barwick, M; Maher, W

    2003-10-01

    In this study the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass ecosystem in Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia, to determine if biomagnification of these trace metals is occurring and if they reach concentrations that pose a threat to the resident organisms or human consumers. Selenium was found to biomagnify, exceeding maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption within carnivorous fish tissue, the highest trophic level examined. Selenium concentrations measured within carnivorous fish were also above those shown to elicit sub-lethal effects in freshwater fish. As comparisons are made to selenium concentrations known to effect freshwater fish, inferences must be made with caution. There was no evidence of copper, cadmium, zinc or lead biomagnification within the food web examined. Copper, cadmium, zinc and lead concentrations were below concentrations shown to elicit adverse responses in biota. Copper concentrations within crustaceans M. bennettae and P. palagicus were found to exceed maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. It is likely that copper concentrations within these species were accumulated due to the essential nature of this trace metal for many species of molluscs and crustaceans. Arsenic showed some evidence of biomagnification. Total arsenic concentrations are similar to those found in other uncontaminated marine ecosystems, thus arsenic concentrations are unlikely to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are below maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. PMID:12860434

  16. MD description of damage production in displacement cascades in copper and ?-iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, D. J.; Osetsky, Yu. N.; Stoller, R.; Voskoboinikov, R. E.

    2003-12-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulation was applied for an extensive study of primary damage creation in displacement cascades in copper and ?-iron. Primary knock-on atom energy, Ep, of up to 25 keV in copper and 100 keV in iron was considered for irradiation temperatures in the range 100-900 K. Special attention was paid to comprehensive statistical treatment of the number and type of defects created in cascades by conducting multiple simulations for each value of energy and temperature. The total number of point defects per cascade is significantly lower than that predicted by the NRT model and rather similar in the two metals. The fraction of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies that agglomerate in clusters in the cascade process was analysed in detail. The clustered fraction of SIAs increases with temperature increase and is larger in copper than iron. SIA clusters have a variety of forms in both metals and, although most are glissile clusters of parallel crowdions, a significant fraction are sessile. The latter include Frank dislocation loops in copper. Tightly packed arrangements of vacancies do not form in iron, and so the fraction of clustered vacancies depends strongly on the range within which point defects are defined to be near-neighbours. Arrangements of vacancies in first-neighbour sites are common in copper. Most are irregular stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs). In 53 simulations of cascades with Ep=25 keV at 100 K, the largest cluster formed contained 89 vacancies. The size spectrum of SFT-like clusters is similar to that found experimentally in neutron-irradiated copper, suggesting that the SFTs observed in experiment are formed directly in the cascade process.

  17. MD description of damage production in displacement cascades in copper and ?-iron.

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, David J [University of Liverpool; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Voskoboinikov, Roman E [University of Liverpool

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulation was applied for an extensive study of primary damage creation in displacement cascades in copper and {alpha}-iron. Primary knock-on atom energy, E{sub p}, of up to 25 keV in copper and 100 keV in iron was considered for irradiation temperatures in the range 100-900 K. Special attention was paid to comprehensive statistical treatment of the number and type of defects created in cascades by conducting multiple simulations for each value of energy and temperature. The total number of point defects per cascade is significantly lower than that predicted by the NRT model and rather similar in the two metals. The fraction of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies that agglomerate in clusters in the cascade process was analysed in detail. The clustered fraction of SIAs increases with temperature increase and is larger in copper than iron. SIA clusters have a variety of forms in both metals and, although most are glissile clusters of parallel crowdions, a significant fraction are sessile. The latter include Frank dislocation loops in copper. Tightly packed arrangements of vacancies do not form in iron, and so the fraction of clustered vacancies depends strongly on the range within which point defects are defined to be near-neighbours. Arrangements of vacancies in first-neighbour sites are common in copper. Most are irregular stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs). In 53 simulations of cascades with E{sub p} = 25 keV at 100 K, the largest cluster formed contained 89 vacancies. The size spectrum of SFT-like clusters is similar to that found experimentally in neutron-irradiated copper, suggesting that the SFTs observed in experiment are formed directly in the cascade process.

  18. Zinc Pyrithione Inhibits Yeast Growth through Copper Influx and Inactivation of Iron-Sulfur Proteins?†

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Nancy L.; Kaplan, Jerry; Xu, Jun; Youngquist, R. Scott; Wallace, Jared; Hu, Ping; Juhlin, Kenton D.; Schwartz, James R.; Grant, Raymond A.; Fieno, Angela; Nemeth, Suzanne; Reichling, Tim; Tiesman, Jay P.; Mills, Tim; Steinke, Mark; Wang, Shuo L.; Saunders, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is an antimicrobial material with widespread use in antidandruff shampoos and antifouling paints. Despite decades of commercial use, there is little understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. We used a combination of genome-wide approaches (yeast deletion mutants and microarrays) and traditional methods (gene constructs and atomic emission) to characterize the activity of ZPT against a model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ZPT acts through an increase in cellular copper levels that leads to loss of activity of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. ZPT was also found to mediate growth inhibition through an increase in copper in the scalp fungus Malassezia globosa. A model is presented in which pyrithione acts as a copper ionophore, enabling copper to enter cells and distribute across intracellular membranes. This is the first report of a metal-ligand complex that inhibits fungal growth by increasing the cellular level of a different metal. PMID:21947398

  19. A test battery approach to the ecotoxicological evaluation of cadmium and copper employing a battery of marine bioassays.

    PubMed

    Macken, Ailbhe; Giltrap, Michelle; Ryall, Kim; Foley, Barry; McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; Davoren, Maria

    2009-05-01

    Heavy metals are ubiquitous contaminants of the marine environment and can accumulate and persist in sediments. The toxicity of metal contaminants in sediments to organisms is dependent on the bioavailability of the metals in both the water and sediment phases and the sensitivity of the organism to the metal exposure. This study investigated the effects of two metal contaminants of concern (CdCl(2) and CuCl(2)) on a battery of marine bioassays employed for sediment assessment. Cadmium, a known carcinogen and widespread marine pollutant, was found to be the least toxic of the two assayed metals in all in vivo tests. However, CdCl(2) was found to be more toxic to the fish cell lines PLHC-1 and RTG-2 than CuCl(2). Tisbe battagliai was the most sensitive species to both metals and the Microtox and cell lines were the least sensitive (cadmium was found to be three orders of magnitude less toxic to Vibrio fischeri than to T. battagliai). The sensitivity of Tetraselmis suecica to the two metals varied greatly. Marine microalgae are among the organisms that can tolerate higher levels of cadmium. This hypothesis is demonstrated in this study where it was not possible to derive an EC(50) value for CdCl(2) and the marine prasinophyte, T. suecica. Conversely, CuCl(2) was observed to be highly toxic to the marine alga, EC(50) of 1.19 mg l(-1). The genotoxic effect of Cu on the marine phytoplankton was evaluated using the Comet assay. Copper concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 2.50 mg l(-1) were used to evaluate the effects. DNA damage was measured as percent number of comets and normal cells. There was no significant DNA damage observed at any concentration of CuCl(2) tested and no correlation with growth inhibition and genetic damage was found. PMID:19283472

  20. The ColRS signal transduction system responds to the excess of external zinc, iron, manganese, and cadmium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ColRS two-component system has been shown to contribute to the membrane functionality and stress tolerance of Pseudomonas putida as well as to the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and plant pathogenic Xanthomonas species. However, the conditions activating the ColRS pathway and the signal(s) sensed by ColS have remained unknown. Here we aimed to analyze the role of the ColRS system in metal tolerance of P. putida and to test whether ColS can respond to metal excess. Results We show that the ColRS system is necessary for P. putida to tolerate the excess of iron and zinc, and that it also contributes to manganese and cadmium tolerance. Excess of iron, zinc, manganese or cadmium activates ColRS signaling and as a result modifies the expression of ColR-regulated genes. Our data suggest that the genes in the ColR regulon are functionally redundant, as several loci have to be deleted to observe a significant decrease in metal tolerance. Site-directed mutagenesis of ColS revealed that excess of iron and, surprisingly, also zinc are sensed by a conserved ExxE motif in ColS’s periplasmic domain. While ColS is able to sense different metals, it still discriminates between the two oxidation states of iron, specifically responding to ferric and not ferrous iron. We propose a signal perception model involving a dimeric ColS, where each monomer donates one ExxE motif for metal binding. Conclusions Several transition metals are essential for living organisms in certain amounts, but toxic in excess. We show that ColRS is a sensor system which detects and responds to the excess of physiologically important metals such as zinc, iron and manganese. Thus, the ColRS system is an important factor for metal homeostasis and tolerance in P. putida. PMID:24946800

  1. Precipitation of copper in iron under swift ion irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbu, A.; Pareige, P.; Jacquet, V.

    1998-12-01

    After irradiation was carried out on the Fe1.34 at% Cu supersaturated solution with 2.5 MeV electrons and 188 MeV oxygen ions at 290°C, we report new results about copper precipitation under 5.07 GeV krypton irradiation. The precipitation observed on line by electrical resistivity and after irradiation by tomographic atom probe experiments and microhardness measurements, shows that the kinetics of copper precipitation (in term of dpa calculated using the modified Kinchin-Pease model) is hundred times larger with GeV krypton ions than with MeV electrons and is the same under oxygen and electron irradiations. We show that such a behaviour can be explained only by assuming that the energy deposited in electronic excitations along the path of swift ions is actually able to induce precipitation in metallic supersaturated solid solutions.

  2. DETERMINATION OF ZINC, CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN WATER BY ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tennessee Valley Authority developed a method of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for determining total concentrations of cadmium and lead in water samples from ash ponds at steam-electric generating plants. After digestion of the sample and addition of reagent...

  3. Studies on the role of iron in the reversal of zinc, cadmium, vanadium, nickel, and cobalt toxicities in boiler pullets

    SciTech Connect

    Blalock, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    Excess dietary iron reduced the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) in chicks. In order to gain further insight into this phenomenon, the toxicity of these elements was examined under conditions of dietary iron deficiency, ca. 10 ppm, and excess, ca. 1010 ppm. Graded levels of Cd, Co, Ni, V and also of zinc (Zn) were added to achieve toxicities of these heavy metals. In every case the iron-supplemented chicks were less susceptible to the every case the iron-supplemented chicks were less susceptible to the toxicities of these elements than were those chicks receiving the iron-deficient diet. The results of these studies revealed that Fe alters the metabolism of Zn, Cd, V, Ni and Co in livers and kidneys of chicks. The data further show that Zn, Cd, and Co alter Fe metabolism in chick livers and kidneys. Additionally, hemoglobin concentration was altered by Zn, Cd, and V, as well as Fe, in chicks. The locus of these interactions was more clearly defined using the radioactive tracers /sup 109/Cd, /sup 60/Co, /sup 63/Ni, /sup 48/V, and /sup 65/Zn. Iron deficiency increased absorption of Co and Ni, reduced liver retention of Cd, and Zn without affecting absorption and increased blood and liver levels of V, possibly as a result of decreased bone uptake. The alteration of liver metabolism of Cd and Zn in iron deficiency was investigated using column chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Adequate dietary iron appears to act synergistically with Cd and Zn to induce metallothionein in the liver. Increased dietary Fe was observed to result in an increased liver influx of Zn and Cd. It is possible that iron acts in this manner to induce metallothionein synthesis.

  4. Copper, nickel, and iron in plumage of three upland gamebird species from non-contaminated environments

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.H.

    1985-12-01

    High levels of atmospheric contamination and particulate fallout characterizing the Industrial Basin of the copper-nickel smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, were shown to be reflected in the feather chemistry of resident ruffed grouse populations. Of considerable concern, however, is the paucity of information on background concentrations of elemental metals that could be considered normal for non-contaminated environments. The present report examines concentrations of copper, nickel and iron in the plumage of three tetraonid species collected from remote and undisturbed areas in Northern Ontario and Quebec.

  5. Fabrication of a nanocomposite from in situ iron nanoparticle reinforced copper alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zidong; Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Qiangsong; Shih, I.; Xu, J. J.

    2009-02-01

    In situ iron nanoparticle reinforced Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy has been fabricated by centrifugal casting in a vacuum chamber with a medium frequency electrical furnace. The microstructure of this alloy was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and the results show that the grains of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy without iron have a typical dendrite structure with dimensions from 500 to 1500 µm, and the grains of the alloy with the addition of 1% iron are small and equiaxed, with dimensions from 20 to 60 µm. Then, the relatively uniform dispersed particles in the copper matrix were identified with the HRTEM to be pure iron with dimensions in the order of 2-20 nm. The mechanical properties of the alloys were measured and the results show a significant increase in the tensile strength of the alloy with iron nanoparticles and a slight increase of the elongation compared to that without iron. The mechanism of formation of the iron nanoparticles was analyzed by thermodynamic and dynamic theories, and the results indicate that the in situ iron nanoparticles of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy can reasonably form during solidification in the centrifugal casting technique.

  6. Fabrication of a nanocomposite from in situ iron nanoparticle reinforced copper alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zidong; Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Qiangsong; Shih, I; Xu, J J

    2009-02-18

    In situ iron nanoparticle reinforced Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy has been fabricated by centrifugal casting in a vacuum chamber with a medium frequency electrical furnace. The microstructure of this alloy was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and the results show that the grains of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy without iron have a typical dendrite structure with dimensions from 500 to 1500 microm, and the grains of the alloy with the addition of 1% iron are small and equiaxed, with dimensions from 20 to 60 microm. Then, the relatively uniform dispersed particles in the copper matrix were identified with the HRTEM to be pure iron with dimensions in the order of 2-20 nm. The mechanical properties of the alloys were measured and the results show a significant increase in the tensile strength of the alloy with iron nanoparticles and a slight increase of the elongation compared to that without iron. The mechanism of formation of the iron nanoparticles was analyzed by thermodynamic and dynamic theories, and the results indicate that the in situ iron nanoparticles of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy can reasonably form during solidification in the centrifugal casting technique. PMID:19417426

  7. Electronic structure of face-centered-tetragonal iron in ferromagnetic iron-copper multilayers S. J. Lloyd and R. E. Dunin-Borkowski*

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Electronic structure of face-centered-tetragonal iron in ferromagnetic iron-copper multilayers S. J are shown to depend on Fe-layer thickness, with the Fe expanded by up to 7% over its cubic lattice parameter. S0163-1829 99 05903-2 I. INTRODUCTION The properties of synthetic multilayers with individual layer

  8. Kinetics and deposit morphology of gold cemented on magnesium, aluminum, zinc, iron and copper from ammonium thiosulfate–ammonia solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Karavasteva

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of gold cementation by magnesium aluminum, zinc, iron and copper at equal conditions as well as the morphology of cementation products and the dissolution of cementing agents were investigated. Both the effect of cementing agents on gold cementation rate and the dissolution of metals decrease in order Cu>Zn>Mg>Fe>Al. High dissolution of magnesium, zinc, iron and copper per mol

  9. Serum ceruloplasmin protein expression and activity increases in iron-deficient rats and is further enhanced by higher dietary copper intake

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Perungavur N.; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Lingli; Kim, Changae

    2011-01-01

    Increases in serum and liver copper content are noted during iron deficiency in mammals, suggesting that copper-dependent processes participate during iron deprivation. One point of intersection between the 2 metals is the liver-derived, multicopper ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) that is important for iron release from certain tissues. The current study sought to explore Cp expression and activity during physiologic states in which hepatic copper loading occurs (eg, iron deficiency). Weanling rats were fed control or low iron diets containing low, normal, or high copper for ? 5 weeks, and parameters of iron homeostasis were measured. Liver copper increased in control and iron-deficient rats fed extra copper. Hepatic Cp mRNA levels did not change; however, serum Cp protein was higher during iron deprivation and with higher copper consumption. In-gel and spectrophotometric ferroxidase and amine oxidase assays demonstrated that Cp activity was enhanced when hepatic copper loading occurred. Interestingly, liver copper levels strongly correlated with Cp protein expression and activity. These observations support the possibility that liver copper loading increases metallation of the Cp protein, leading to increased production of the holo enzyme. Moreover, this phenomenon may play an important role in the compensatory response to maintain iron homeostasis during iron deficiency. PMID:21768302

  10. Seasonal Variation of Cadmium, Copper, and Lead Concentrations in Fish from a Freshwater Lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Ebrahimpour; Idris Mushrifah

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the Cd, Cu, and Pb concentration in the bone, gills, and muscle of the seven fish species sampled\\u000a during normal and dry seasons. Cadmium, Cu, and Pb concentrations varied significantly depending on the type of the tissue\\u000a and season. Bone samples of the Osteochilus hasseltii showed the highest concentrations of Pb (6.08 ?g\\/g dw) during September

  11. An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Study of Copper Hopping in Doped Bis(L-histidinato)cadmium Dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Colaneri, Michael J.; Vitali, Jacqueline; Kirschbaum, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to study Cu(II) dynamic behavior in a doped biological model crystal; bis(L-histidinato)cadmium dihydrate, in order to gain better insight into copper site stability in metalloproteins. Temperature dependent changes in the low temperature X-band EPR spectra became visible around 100 K and continued up to room temperature. The measured 298 K g-tensor (principal values: 2.17, 2.16, 2.07) and copper hyperfine coupling tensor (principal values: ?260, ? 190, ?37 MHz) were similar to the average of the 77 K tensor values pertaining to two neighboring histidine binding sites. The observed temperature dependence was interpreted using Anderson’s theory of motional narrowing, where the magnetic parameters for the different states are averaged as the copper rapidly hops between sites. The EPR pattern was also found to undergo a sharp sigmoidal-shaped, temperature dependent conversion between two species with a critical temperature Tc ? 160 K. The species below Tc hops between the two low temperature site patterns, and the one above Tc represents an average of the molecular spin Hamiltonian coupling tensors of the two 77 K sites. In addition, the low and high temperature species hop between one another, contributing to the dynamic averaging. Spectral simulations using this 4-state model determined a hop rate between the two low temperature sites ?h4 = 4.5 × 108 s?1 and between the low and high temperature states ?h2 = 1.7 × 108 s?1 at 160 K. An Arrhenius relationship of hop rate and temperature gave energy barriers of ?E4 = 389 cm?1 and ?E2 = 656 cm?1 between the two low temperature sites, and between the low and high temperature states, respectively. PMID:23530765

  12. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, H.A.; Mast, T.J. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.134 references.

  13. A STUDY on the OPTIMUM CONDITIONS of the CEMENTATION of COPPER in CHLORINATION SOLUTION of CHALCOPYRITE CONCENTRATE by IRON SCRAPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hakan TEMUR; M. Muhtar KOCAKERIM

    Present study aims an experimental design based on the approach of Taguchi method to optimize of cementation of copper in chlorination solutions of chalcopyrite concentrate neutralized with oxidized copper ore by iron scraps. The concentrations of Fe3+, Cu2+, H+, SO4 2- and Cl- ions in the chlorination solution obtained

  14. 78 FR 65573 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...51.1 tungsten, 44.4 Rare Earth copper, 3.9 tin, and Magnet...supreg] iron, 9-16 copper, or Rare Earth and 5-7 nickel. Magnet. Tungsten-matrix...any proportions of Rare Earth tungsten, tin, and Magnet....

  15. Response of a copper(II) and iron(III) ion-selective electrode bielectrode array in saline media.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Roland; Martizano, Jay

    2008-06-15

    A bielectrode array comprising a jalpaite membrane (i.e., Ag(1.5)Cu(0.5)S) copper(II) ion-selective electrode (ISE) and chalcogenide glass membrane (i.e., Fe(2.5)(Se(60)Ge(28)Sb(12))(97.5)) iron(III) ISE has been assembled by individually wiring each solid-state sensor into a single electrode body. Furthermore, a dual metal ion buffer calibration standard incorporating copper(II) and iron(III) coordinating ligands to regulate the levels of free copper(II) and iron(III) in the buffer has been developed to enable simultaneous calibration of the bielectrode ISE array. In this work, the bielectrode ISE array has been employed in the continuous flow analysis (CFA) of free copper(II) and iron(III) in seawater media. It is shown that the individual electrodes displayed Nernstian response in the metal ion buffer calibration standard over a wide dynamic range (viz., 10(-15) to 10(-5) M aCu(2+) and 10(-21) to 10(-11) M aFe(3+)), and the results of repetitive CFA analyses of free copper(II) and iron(III) in seawater are commensurate with the typical values found in coastal seawater samples. Clearly, the bielectrode ISE array may be used in the simultaneous analysis of free copper(II) and iron(III) in seawater without fear of cross-interference between the solid-state sensors. PMID:18585207

  16. Generation of oxidant response to copper and iron nanoparticles and salts: Stimulation by ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Robert H.; Vidrio, Edgar A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Qin, Qin; Willits, Neil H.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes a two-stage approach to analyzing combustion-generated samples for their potential to produce oxidant stress. This approach is illustrated with the two commonly encountered transition metals, copper and iron. First, their abilities to generate hydroxyl radical were measured in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline solution containing ascorbate and/or citrate. Second, their abilities to induce heme oxygenase-1 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were assessed in cell culture. Combustion-generated copper oxide nanoparticles were active in both assays and were found to be soluble in culture medium. Depletion of glutathione in the cells or loading the cells with ascorbate greatly increased heme oxygenase-1 induction in the presence of copper. By contrast, iron oxide nanoparticles were active in the phosphate buffered saline but not in cell culture, and they aggregated in culture medium. Soluble salts of copper and iron exhibited the same contrast in activities as the respective combustion-generated particles. The results suggest that the capability of combustion-generated environmental samples to produce oxidant stress can be screened effectively in a two step process, first in phosphate buffered saline with ascorbate and subsequently in epithelial cell culture for those exhibiting activity initially. The results also point to an unanticipated interaction in cells of oxidant stress-generating metals with an anti-oxidant (ascorbate) that is usually missing in culture medium formulations. Thus, ascorbate supplementation of cultured human cells is likely to improve their ability to model the in vivo effects of particulate matter containing copper and other redox-active metals. PMID:19683516

  17. Zinc, copper, iron, and selenium levels in brain and liver of mice exposed to acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Rongzhu, Lu; Suhua, Wang; Guangwei, Xing; Chunlan, Ren; Fangan, Han; Junjie, Jing; Aschner, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The mechanism of toxicity of acrylonitrile (AN) has not been fully defined. The research described herein was undertaken to investigate the possible effects of AN on the levels of metallic elements in liver and brain of mice. Thirty-two mice were randomly assigned to four separate groups and treated intraperitoneal (i.p.) once daily for 1 week. Mice in the control group received normal saline, and mice in the three exposure groups received 5, 10, or 20 mg AN/kg b.w. Samples of brain and liver were collected immediately after decapitation. Tissue levels of trace elements (zinc, copper, iron) were determined with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer or double channel atomic fluorescence absorption spectrophotometer (selenium). Mean brain weights of AN-treated mice were increased as a function of dose compared to controls, but there was no significant change in the ratio of liver/body weight in the four groups. While mean brain zinc decreased as a function of AN dosage, mean liver zinc of the low-dose group significantly increased (p < 0.05); mean liver copper in the medium-dose AN group was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.05); however, mean brain copper was increased, but the difference did not attain statistical significance in the three AN groups when compared with the controls (p > 0.05). Mean brain iron levels were significantly decreased in the middle-dose AN group (p < 0.05), but there were no consistent changes in liver iron. Tissue levels of selenium in brain and liver were similar for the control and AN treatment groups. AN induces significant and differential changes in the levels of zinc, copper, and iron in brain and liver. These changes likely play a pivotal role in mediating AN toxicity, most likely via changes in cellular redox status. PMID:19165426

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of iron with 1,10-phenanthroline in the presence of copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenpu Wang; K. L. Cheng

    1982-01-01

    Summary Cupric ion forms a very stable complex with triethylenetetramine (trien). It has a very weak absorption at 400–460 nm, however, the ferroin shows a very strong absorption at 480–520 nm. The use of trien-tartrate as duel masking agents for copper has been proved to be successful, and is superior to EDTA or citrate-EDTA in the determination of iron with

  19. Intracellular iron, but not copper, plays a critical role in hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Barbouti; Paschalis-Thomas Doulias; Ben-Zhan Zhu; Balz Frei; Dimitrios Galaris

    2001-01-01

    The role of intracellular iron, copper, and calcium in hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage was investigated using cultured Jurkat cells. The cells were exposed to low rates of continuously generated hydrogen peroxide by the glucose\\/glucose oxidase system, and the formation of single strand breaks in cellular DNA was evaluated by the sensitive method, single cell gel electrophoresis or “comet” assay. Pre-incubation

  20. Semimicro determination of solubility constants: Copper(II) carbonate and iron(II) carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Reiterer; W. Johannes; H. Gamsjiiger

    1981-01-01

    Summary A semimicro technique for the determination of solubility constants of metal oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and sulphides has been developed and successfully applied to copper(II) and iron(II) carbonate. All experimental data can be interpreted according to the heterogeneous equilibria\\u000a$$\\\\begin{gathered} CuCO_{3(s)} + 2H_{(l)}^ + \\\\rightleftharpoons Cu_{(l)}^{2 + } + CO_{2(g)} + H_2 O_{(l)} ; \\\\hfill \\\\\\\\ ^* K_{ps0} (CuCO_3 )

  1. Branchial cadmium and copper binding and intestinal cadmium uptake in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from clean and metal-contaminated lakes.

    PubMed

    Klinck, J S; Green, W W; Mirza, R S; Nadella, S R; Chowdhury, M J; Wood, C M; Pyle, G G

    2007-08-30

    Branchial binding kinetics and gastro-intestinal uptake of copper and cadmium where examined in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from a metal-contaminated lake (Hannah Lake, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada) and an uncontaminated lake (James Lake, North Bay, Ontario, Canada). An in vivo approach was taken for gill binding comparisons while an in vitro gut binding assay was employed for gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) uptake analysis. By investigating metal uptake at the gill and the gut we cover the two main routes of metal entry into fish. Comparisons of water and sediment chemistries, metal burdens in benthic invertebrate, and metal burdens in the livers of perch from the two study lakes clearly show that yellow perch from Hannah L. are chronically exposed to a highly metal-contaminated environment compared to a reference lake. We found that metal-contaminated yellow perch showed no significant difference in gill Cd binding compared to reference fish, but they did show significant decreases in new Cd binding and absorption in their GITs. The results show that gill Cd binding may involve low-capacity, high-affinity binding sites, while gastro-intestinal Cd uptake involves binding sites that are high-capacity, low-affinity. From this we infer that Cd may be more critically controlled at the gut rather than gills. Significant differences in branchial Cu binding (increased binding) were observed in metal-contaminated yellow perch. We suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu (and/or other metals) may be the dominant influence in gill Cu binding rather than chronic exposure to high Cu diets. We give supporting evidence that Cd is taken up in the GIT, at least in part, by a similar pathway as Ca(2+), principally that elevated dietary Ca(2+) reduces Cd binding and uptake. Overall our study reveals that metal pre-exposure via water and diet can alter uptake kinetics of Cu and Cd at the gill and/or the gut. PMID:17643503

  2. Influence of orange juice in the levels and in the genotoxicity of iron and copper.

    PubMed

    Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Prá, Daniel; Giulian, Raquel; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Yoneama, Maria Lúcia; da Silva, Juliana; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2006-03-01

    World consumption of natural juices is increasing as a consequence of the human search for a healthier life. The juice production industry, especially for orange juice, is expanding in several countries and particularly in Brazil. Despite scientific data reporting beneficial properties derived from juice consumption, some components of juices have been identified as mutagenic or carcinogenic. Carcinogenic or genotoxic effects may be mediated by the interaction of juice components with transition metals or by sub-products of juice auto-oxidation. In this study, the mutagenic potential of orange juice and two metallic agents used in dietary supplementation, FeSO(4) and CuSO(4), were investigated using the comet assay in mouse blood cells (in vivo). Both metal compounds were genotoxic for eukaryotic cells after 24h treatment at the doses used. Significant damage repair was observed after 48h of treatment with the same compounds. Orange juice had a modulating effect on the action of metallic sulfates. In the case of iron treatment, the presence of the orange juice had a preventive, but not restorative, effect. On the other hand, in the case of copper treatment, the effects were both preventive and restorative. PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis indicated a positive correlation between DNA damage and the hepatic levels of iron and a negative correlation between whole blood copper and DNA damage. A negative correlation between hepatic iron and whole blood copper content was also seen in the treatment with both ferrous and cupric sulfates. PMID:16263202

  3. Trace Enrichment and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Lead, Copper, Cadmium and Nickel in Drinking Water Samples by Use of an Activated Carbon Column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Soylak; Ibrahim Narin; Mehmet Dogan

    1997-01-01

    A simple method for atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead, copper, cadmium and nickel in drinking water samples after preconcentration by sorbing 1-(2-pyridylazo) 2-naphthol (PAN) complex of these metals on an activated carbon column has been established. The metal\\/PAN complexes were quantitatively retained on the activated carbon in the pH range 6-8. Metals retained on the activated carbon column were

  4. Effects of pH on the toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc to Folsomia candida Willem, 1902 (Collembola) in a standard laboratory test system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Sandifer; Stephen P. Hopkin

    1996-01-01

    EC50s for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were determined for juvenile production of Folsomia candida at pH6.0, 5.0 and 4.5 in a standard laboratory test system. In contrast to most previous studies where metal toxicity was increased at low pHs, in our experiments there was no clear relationship between soil acidity and EC50-reproduction in this species. The EC50-reproduction values (?g

  5. The toxic action and interactions of copper and cadmium to the marine Alga Dunaliella minuta , in both acute and chronic exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioanna Visviki; Joseph W. Rachlin

    1991-01-01

    The effective concentrations of copper and cadmium which reduced the population growth ofDunaliella minuta by 50% after 96 h of static exposure, were determined to be 7.57 µM Cu and 0.34 µM Cd. Short-term static exposure to both metals indicated that their combined action is antagonistic with respect to growth of this chlorophyte. Additionally, long-term exposure to low levels of

  6. A chemical potentiator of copper-accumulation used to investigate the iron-regulons of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W; Dainty, Samantha J; Patterson, Carl J; Pohl, Ehmke; Blackburn, Hannah; Wilson, Clare; Hess, Corinna R; Rutherford, Julian C; Quaranta, Laura; Corran, Andy; Robinson, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    The extreme resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to copper is overcome by 2-(6-benzyl-2-pyridyl)quinazoline (BPQ), providing a chemical-biology tool which has been exploited in two lines of discovery. First, BPQ is shown to form a red (BPQ)2Cu(I) complex and promote Ctr1-independent copper-accumulation in whole cells and in mitochondria isolated from treated cells. Multiple phenotypes, including loss of aconitase activity, are consistent with copper-BPQ mediated damage to mitochondrial iron–sulphur clusters. Thus, a biochemical basis of copper-toxicity in S. cerevisiae is analogous to other organisms. Second, iron regulons controlled by Aft1/2, Cth2 and Yap5 that respond to mitochondrial iron–sulphur cluster status are modulated by copper-BPQ causing iron hyper-accumulation via upregulated iron-import. Comparison of copper-BPQ treated, untreated and copper-only treated wild-type and fra2? by RNA-seq has uncovered a new candidate Aft1 target-gene (LSO1) and paralogous non-target (LSO2), plus nine putative Cth2 target-transcripts. Two lines of evidence confirm that Fra2 dominates basal repression of the Aft1/2 regulons in iron-replete cultures. Fra2-independent control of these regulons is also observed but CTH2 itself appears to be atypically Fra2-dependent. However, control of Cth2-target transcripts which is independent of CTH2 transcript abundance or of Fra2, is also quantified. Use of copper-BPQ supports a substantial contribution of metabolite repression to iron-regulation. PMID:24895027

  7. Development of copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szedon, J. R.; Biter, W. J.; Abel, J. A.; Dickey, H. C.

    1981-11-01

    The accuracy of substrate temperature control during CdS deposition was achieved by welding thermocouples to a molybdenum foil tab which was subsequently welded to the copper foil substrate. Structural features of the CdS films were consistent with control of the substrate temperature at 2200 C. Direct measurement of optical and electronic properties of the Cu2S films used in cells requires removal of the copper foil substrate for optical transmission characterization. Simple etching of a window in the substrate is not acceptable since the CdS film cracks around the periphery of the window. Encouraging cell performance results were obtained with evaporated grids which consisted of two layers: a thin layer of either gold (840A) or copper (60A) on the Cu2S surface and a 2.5 (SIGMA)m thick overlayer of lead.

  8. Inhibition of Ape1 nuclease activity by lead, iron, and cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, Daniel R; Narayana, Avinash; Wong, Heng-Kuan; Wilson, David M

    2004-01-01

    Many environmental metals are co-carcinogens, eliciting their effects via inhibition of DNA repair. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (Ape1) is the major mammalian abasic endonuclease and initiates repair of this cytotoxic/mutagenic lesion by incising the DNA backbone via a Mg(2+)-dependent reaction. In this study we examined the effects of arsenite [As(III)], cadmium [Cd(II)], cobalt [Co(II)], iron [Fe(II)], nickel [Ni(II)], and lead [Pb(II)] at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 100 microM on the incision activity of Ape1 in the presence of 1 mM MgCl(subscript)2(/subscript). Pb(II) and Fe(II) inhibited Ape1 activity at each of the concentrations tested, with an IC(subscript)50(/subscript) (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) of 0.61 and 1.0 microM, respectively. Cd(II) also inhibited Ape1 activity but only at concentrations > 10 microM. No inhibition was seen with As(III), Co(II), or Ni(II). A similar inhibition pattern was observed with the homologous Escherichia coli protein, exonuclease III, but no inhibition was seen with the structurally distinct AP endonuclease E. coli endonuclease IV, indicating a targeted effect of Pb(II), Fe(II), and Cd(II) on the Ape1-like repair enzymes. Excess nonspecific DNA did not abrogate the metal inactivation, suggesting a protein-specific effect. Notably, Cd(II), Fe(II), and Pb(II) [but not As(III), Co(II), or Ni(II)] inhibited AP endonuclease activity in whole-cell extracts but had no significant effect on single nucleotide gap filling, 5'-flap endonuclease, and nick ligation activities, supporting the idea of selective inactivation of Ape1 in cells. Our results are the first to identify a potential DNA repair enzyme target for lead and suggest a means by which these prevalent environmental metals may elicit their deleterious effects. PMID:15159209

  9. [Spectroscopic analysis of substituted tetraphenylporphyrin iron, manganese, cobalt, copper and zinc complexes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-zhi; She, Yuan-bin

    2008-10-01

    A full IR, UV-Vis, FIR, spectroscopic analysis on substituted porphyrin iron, manganese, cobalt, copper and Zinc complexes was performed, and the spectroscopic patterns were found for the metalloporphyrin compounds with various structures. Base on molecular structures theory, the reasons for the spectroscopic patterns were discussed deeply. Considering the inconsistency of the far-infrared spectra of the Fe-Cl axial bonds in chloro-iron tetraphenylporphyrins reported in the literature. Their far-infrared absorptions were investigated by using both theoretical analysis and experimental determination, and the results showing that their vibrational frequencies of the Fe--Cl bonds in different substitution chloro-iron tetraphenylporphyrins were associated with their structures, and were linearly related to the length of Fe--Cl bonds. PMID:19123396

  10. Impairment of metabolic capacities in copper and cadmium contaminated wild yellow perch ( Perca flavescens)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice Couture; Puja Rajender Kumar

    2003-01-01

    This study examined variations in resting oxygen consumption rate (ROCR), post-exercise oxygen consumption rate, relative scope for activity (RSA), liver and muscle aerobic and anaerobic capacities (using citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively, as indicators), and tissue biosynthetic capacities (using nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) as an indicator), in wild yellow perch from four lakes varying in copper (Cu) and

  11. Copper and zinc recycling from copper alloys` spent pickling solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Moguel, G.J.; Plascencia, G.; Perez, J.

    1995-12-31

    The precipitation of copper and zinc as cements from a copper alloys` spent pickling solution has been studied at laboratory and pilot scale, with the objective of designing an economic process to recover both metals and render a solution to be either recycled to the pickling process or treated in a standard fashion and produce a non-hazardous sludge. The sulfuric acid spent pickling solution already containing copper and zinc was used first to dissolve another solid residue originated in the copper alloys foundry to neutralize part of the acidity. The resulting enriched solution was treated separately with two reductants: sodium borohydride and iron powder varying pH and excess of reductant under constant agitation. Under the best conditions, precipitation of over 95 percent of zinc and copper was achieved together with the reduction of lead and cadmium contents respectively. A process for the combined residues treatment is proposed.

  12. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: influence of elevated dietary iron.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Andrés, Jose A; Niyogi, Som

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine>kidney>stomach>liver>gill>carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish. PMID:21371606

  13. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Devilee; A. van Sandwijk; M. A. Reuter

    1999-01-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 °C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studied include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to

  14. Responses of seedling growth and antioxidant activity to excess iron and copper in Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoning; Ma, Haizhen; Jia, Pengxiang; Wang, Juan; Jia, Lingyun; Zhang, Tengguo; Yang, Yingli; Chen, Haijian; Wei, Xia

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze phytotoxicity mechanism involved in root growth and to compare physiological changes in the leaves of wheat seedlings exposed to short term iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) stresses (0, 100, 300 and 500?M). All applied Fe or Cu concentrations reduced root and shoot lengths, but seed germination was inhibited by Cu only at 500?M. Analyses using fluorescent dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate indicated enhanced H(2)O(2) levels in seedling roots under Fe and Cu treatments. Cu stress at the same concentration induced a great reduction in cell viability and a strong damage on membrane lipid in the roots with respect to Fe treatment. Significant increases in the total chlorophyll (chl) content including chl a and chl b were observed in response to higher Fe concentrations, whereas the highest Cu concentration (500?M) led to significant decreases in the total chl content including chl a. Additionally, leaf peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were stimulated by Fe stress, but the highest Fe concentration exhibited inhibitory effect on leaf APX activity. In contrast, copper treatment resulted in an elevation in leaf catalase and POD activities. Therefore, H(2)O(2) content in the leaves associated with copper was significantly lower than that with iron at the same concentration. PMID:23025893

  15. Effects of Cadmium, Lead and Copper on rat preimplantation embryos. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Giavini, E.; Prati, M.; Vismara, C.

    1980-11-01

    The development of preimplantation mammalian embryos may be impaired by environmental chemicals. Metals and their salts are known to induce congenital malformations, resorptions, intrauterine death and developmental retardations in the laboratory species on which have been tested. The effects of these chemicals on preimplantation mammalian embryos have been little investigated; copper inserted into the uterine lumen prevents pregnancy in the rat, rabbit, and hamster and copper salts are lethal for mouse blastocysts cultured in vitro. Inorganic lead causes a delay of the first divisions in the 48h mouse embryos and interferes with the viability and the outgrowth of mouse blastocysts cultured in vitro. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Cd, Pb, and Cu on the preimplantation development of the rat embryo.

  16. Evaluation of the toxic effects of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper using a battery of four bioassays.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Kong, In Chul

    2012-09-01

    The sensitivities of four different kinds of bioassays to the toxicities of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper were compared. The different bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., they responded to different levels of toxicity of each of the different metals. However, with the exception of the ?-glucosidase enzyme activity, arsenite was the most toxic compound towards all the tested organisms, exhibiting the highest toxic effect on the seeds of Lactuca, with an EC(50) value of 0.63 mg/L. The sensitivities of Lactuca and Raphanus were greater than the sensitivities of two other kinds of seeds tested. Therefore, these were the seeds appropriate for use in a seed germination assay. A high revertant mutagenic ratio (5:1) of Salmonella typhimurium was observed with an arsenite concentration of 0.1 ?g/plate, indicative of a high possibility of mutagenicity. These different results suggested that a battery of bioassays, rather than one bioassay alone, is needed as a more accurate and better tool for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. PMID:22170103

  17. Joint toxicity of tetracycline with copper(II) and cadmium(II) to Vibrio fischeri: effect of complexation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Zhao, Yanping; Gu, Xueyuan; Gu, Cheng; Lee, Charles C C

    2015-03-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotic and heavy metals commonly occurs in the environment. Tetracycline (TC), a common antibiotic, can behave as an efficient organic ligand to complex with cations. In this paper, the joint toxicity of TC with two commonly existing metals, copper(II) and cadmium(II), towards a luminescent bacteria, Vibrio fischeri, are investigated. Results showed that coexistence of TC and Cu(II) showed a significant antagonistic effect, while TC and Cd(II) showed a synergistic effect. The aqueous speciation of TC with two metal cations was calculated using a chemical equilibrium software Visual MINTEQ and results indicated that a strong complexation exist between TC and Cu(II), while much weaker interaction between TC and Cd(II). Traditional joint toxicity prediction model based on independent action failed to predict the combined toxicity of TC with metals. A new method based on speciation calculation was used to evaluate the joint toxicity of ligands and cations. It is assumed that the metal-ligand complexes are non-toxic to V. fischeri and the joint toxicity is determined by the sum of toxic unit of free metal-ions and free organic ligands. It explained the joint toxicity of the mixed systems reasonably well. Meanwhile, citric acid (CA) and fulvic acid (FA) were also introduced in this study to provide a benchmark comparison with TC. Results showed it is also valid for mixed systems of CA and FA with metals except for the Cd-CA mixture. PMID:25398505

  18. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti †

    PubMed Central

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

  19. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for copper, cadmium, aluminum and manganese for protection of aquatic life in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Nadzifah, Y; Nur-Amalina, R; Umirah, N S

    2013-03-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia, which were Macrobrachiumlanchesteri (prawn), two fish -Poeciliareticulata and Rasborasumatrana, Melanoidestuberculata (snail), Stenocyprismajor (ostracod), Chironomusjavanus (midge larvae), Naiselinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynusmelanostictus (tadpole), to determine 96-h LC50 values for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn. The final acute values (FAVs) for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn were 2.5, 3.0, 977.8, and 78.3 ?gL(-1), respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a Criterion Maximum Concentration (CMC) and a criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn of 1.3, 1.5, 488.9, and 39.1 ?gL(-1) and 0.3, 0.36, 117.8, and 9.4 ?gL(-1), respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that R.sumatrana, M.lanchesteri, C.javanus, and N.elinguis were the most sensitive to Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn, respectively. PMID:23246727

  20. Interactions of hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) with iron and copper: implications on toxicity and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Eleni; Pashalidis, Ioannis; Kolnagou, Annita; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the 19th International Conference on Chelation, London, UK, 13-16 November 2009 Preliminary spectrophotometric and potentiometric studies have shown that hydroxycarbamide or hydroxyurea (HU) can interact with copper(II) [Cu(II)], iron(II) [Fe(II)] and Fe(III) ions and form complexes, for example, a ratio of 1 HU:1 metal at pH 5. The affinity for Cu (log ?1 = 3.1) and Fe (log ?1 = 5) by HU is much lower than that of the Fe and Cu chelating drug deferiprone (L1), which is used for the treatment of iron overload. It is anticipated that under certain conditions of high concentrations of these metal ions such as in transfusional iron overload, the therapeutic, pharmacological and toxicological properties of HU could be affected. It is also suggested that excess chelatable and labile forms of Fe or Cu ions, such as non transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) or intracellular low molecular weight labile iron, are among the main factors that may cause variations in the therapeutic response to HU in cancer, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia intermedia and other groups of patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the interaction mechanisms of HU with metal ions in vitro, in vivo and in clinical conditions. PMID:21599436

  1. Zebrafish in the sea of mineral (iron, zinc, and copper) metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu; Xia, Zhidan; Wang, Fudi

    2014-01-01

    Iron, copper, zinc, and eight other minerals are classified as essential trace elements because they present in minute in vivo quantities and are essential for life. Because either excess or insufficient levels of trace elements can be detrimental to life (causing human diseases such as iron-deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease), the endogenous levels of trace minerals must be tightly regulated. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of systems that maintain trace element homeostasis, and these systems are highly conserved in multiple species ranging from yeast to mice. As a model for studying trace mineral metabolism, the zebrafish is indispensable to researchers. Several large-scale mutagenesis screens have been performed in zebrafish, and these screens led to the identification of a series of metal transporters and the generation of several mutagenesis lines, providing an in-depth functional analysis at the system level. Moreover, because of their developmental advantages, zebrafish have also been used in mineral metabolism-related chemical screens and toxicology studies. Here, we systematically review the major findings of trace element homeostasis studies using the zebrafish model, with a focus on iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and iodine. We also provide a homology analysis of trace mineral transporters in fish, mice and humans. Finally, we discuss the evidence that zebrafish is an ideal experimental tool for uncovering novel mechanisms of trace mineral metabolism and for improving approaches to treat mineral imbalance-related diseases. PMID:24639652

  2. Electrodeposition of iron-cobalt-nickel-copper quaternary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang

    Electrodeposition is a cost-effective method to produce thin film materials, which have been used widely in the microelectronic industry, and is advantageous to fabricate metal deposits into recessed and curved areas. In this dissertation, a FeCoNiCu quaternary alloy system was investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, for fabrication of multilayers, grating structures, and nanowires. Multilayer structures are composed of alternating ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic nanometric layers, and are of interest due to the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) property it possesses, a change in electric resistance in the presence of an external magnetic field. In addition, the compositional modulation, or the composition contrast, in multilayer structures can be used to develop a grating structured mold for the development of a novel nanoimprinting process. FeCoNiCu was investigated as a more general alloy system containing iron-group metals and a nonmagnetic element, Cu, which can be simplified and adapted to any binary or ternary systems. With a dilute tartrate sulfate bath nanometric multilayers were successfully fabricated with pulse plating and GMR value was reported for this electrodeposited system for the first time. A value of -6% was achieved on rotating disk electrode (RDE) and this maximum occurred when the structure had no preferred crystal phase. Over 40% GMR has been achieved when the multilayer was plated onto a polycrystalline Cu foil. A mathematical model was developed to tailor the deposition process on RDE, and both steady state and nonsteady state cases were simulated. A compositional gradient, which is inherent to a nonsteady state deposition process when the layer size is of nanometer scale was predicted. The quaternary system was explored for other applications. Selective etching of electrodeposited multilayer structures was investigated for different etching solutions. A diluted K2Cr2O 7/H2SO4 solution was successfully developed to produce grating structures for a nanoimprinting mold, which was demonstrated with a simple cast molding process. In addition, nanowire plating was explored with different plating schemes. Nanowires of multilayers were successfully fabricated, and the nanometric layer structure was verified. A deviation was observed in the layer thickness from DC plating, as a result of the nonsteady state plating process, consistent with the model developed.

  3. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on the utilization of iron, copper, and zinc by adult males.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, S M; Smith, S A; Greger, J L

    1982-01-01

    Iron, copper, and zinc utilization were examined in nine adult males fed a moderate calcium-moderate phosphorus diet (MCaMP), a moderate calcium-high phosphorus diet (MCaHP), and a high calcium-high phosphorus diet (HCaHP) during a 39-day balance study. The moderate and high calcium diets contained 780 mg and 2382 mg calcium daily, respectively. The moderate and high phosphorus diets contained 843 and 2442 mg phosphorus daily, respectively. The calcium supplements were fed as calcium gluconate, while the phosphorus supplements were fed as glycerol phosphate. Subjects lost more iron and copper in their feces and apparently retained less iron and copper when fed the HCaHP diet than when fed the other two diets, but these effects were not statistically significant. Urinary iron and copper excretion were significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Dietary treatments had no effect on subjects' fecal and urinary losses of zinc nor on their apparent retention of zinc. Plasma iron, zinc, copper, and transferrin levels and serum ferritin levels were not affected by the dietary treatments. PMID:7054462

  4. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, M.; Yasuda, M.; Kitagawa, M. (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed.

  5. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from this study were used to evaluate the sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon and rainbow trout relative to data published for other test organisms. Toxicity data generated from this study also were used to evaluate the level of protection of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency WQC or Washington State water-quality standards (WQS) for copper, zinc, cadmium, or lead to white sturgeon inhabiting the upper Columbia River. Chapter A of this report summarizes the results of acute toxicity tests performed for 4 d with white sturgeon and rainbow trout exposed to copper, cadmium, or zinc. Chapter B of this report summarizes the results of chronic toxicity tests performed for as many as 53 days with white sturgeon or rainbow trout exposed to copper, cadmium, zinc, or lead. Appendixes to the report are available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5204. Supporting documentation for chapter A toxicity testing is provided in appendix 1. Supporting documentation for chapter B toxicity testing is provided in Appendix 2. Supporting documentation on analysis of water chemistry for chapter A and chapter B is provided in appendix 3 and 4. The rationale for applying corrections to measured copper and zinc values in water samples from some of the toxicity tests performed in chapter A is provided in appendix 5. A summary of dissolved organic carbon measurement variability and implications for biotic ligand model normalization for toxicity data summarized in chapter A and chapter B are provided in appendix 6. An evaluation of an interlaboratory comparison of analyses for dissolved organic carbon in water from the U.S. Geological Survey Columbia Environmental Research Center and University of Saskatchewan is provided in appendix 7. Finally, appendix 8 provides a summary of retesting of white sturgeon in 2012 to determine if improved survival of sturgeon would affect copper effect concentrations in 24-d copper exposures started with newly hatched larvae, and to evaluate the effect of light intensity or temperature on the response of newly hatched larvae during a 25-d study.

  6. Arabidopsis Copper Transport Protein COPT2 Participates in the Cross Talk between Iron Deficiency Responses and Low-Phosphate Signaling1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A.; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-01-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops. PMID:23487432

  7. Iron and Copper Act Synergistically To Delay Anaerobic Growth of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Lina J.; Coleman, Maureen L.

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals are known to cause toxic effects through their interaction with oxygen, but toxicity under anoxic conditions is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on the anaerobic growth and gene expression of the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. We found that Fe(II) and Cu(II) act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth at environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Cu(I) and Cu(II) had similar effects both alone and in the presence of ascorbate, a Cu(II) reductant, indicating that reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Fe(II) is not sufficient to explain the growth inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) increased the toxicity of Co(II) and Ni(II); in contrast, Ni(II) toxicity was diminished in the presence of Fe(II). The synergistic anaerobic toxicity of Fe(II) and Cu(II) was also observed for Escherichia coli MG1655, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Gene expression analyses for R. palustris identified three regulatory genes that respond to Cu(II) and not to Fe(II): homologs of cueR and cusR, two known proteobacterial copper homeostasis regulators, and csoR, a copper regulator recently identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two P-type ATPase efflux pumps, along with an FoF1 ATP synthase, were also upregulated by Cu(II) but not by Fe(II). An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in copA, cus, and cueO showed a smaller synergistic effect, indicating that iron might interfere with one or more of the copper homeostasis systems. Our results suggest that interactive effects of transition metals on microbial physiology may be widespread under anoxic conditions, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be more fully elucidated. PMID:23563938

  8. Contact Killing of Bacteria on Copper Is Suppressed if Bacterial-Metal Contact Is Prevented and Is Induced on Iron by Copper Ions

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Salima; Hans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces, and copper ions released from the surface have been proposed to play a major role in the killing process. However, it has remained unclear whether contact of the bacteria with the copper surface is also an important factor. Using laser interference lithography, we engineered copper surfaces which were covered with a grid of an inert polymer which prevented contact of the bacteria with the surface. Using Enterococcus hirae as a model organism, we showed that the release of ionic copper from these modified surfaces was not significantly reduced. In contrast, killing of bacteria was strongly attenuated. When E. hirae cells were exposed to a solid iron surface, the loss of cell viability was the same as on glass. However, exposing cells to iron in the presence of 4 mM CuSO4 led to complete killing in 100 min. These experiments suggest that contact killing proceeds by a mechanism whereby the metal-bacterial contact damages the cell envelope, which, in turn, makes the cells susceptible to further damage by copper ions. PMID:23396344

  9. Bioaccumulation of iron, zinc, cadmium and chromium by juvenile snail Limicolaria aurora J., fed edible mushroom Pleurotus spp from Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebenso, I E; Solomon, I P; Akoje, C C; Akpan, I P; Eko, P M; Akpan, E A; Omole, A J

    2013-03-01

    The effects of uptake of metals (iron, zinc, cadmium and chromium) by juvenile snail Limicolaria aurora fed edible mushroom Pleurotus spp from 3 contaminated farm sites and a laboratory grown species (control) respectively were investigated. The 120 snails were fed in plastic snaileries for 4 weeks in the laboratory. Control site was risk free. Metal uptake was low and bioaccumulation in L. aurora tissue was below FAO/WHO standard of 1 mg/kg for chromium and cadmium. Snails were considered safe for consumption. PMID:23229305

  10. Effect of adsorbed chlorine and oxygen on shear strength of iron and copper junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Static friction experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature on copper, iron, and steel contacts selectively contaminated with oxygen and chlorine in submonolayer amounts. The concentration of the adsorbates was determined with Auger electron spectroscopy and was measured relative to the saturation concentration of oxygen on iron (concentration 1.0). The coefficient of static friction decreased with increasing adsorbate concentration. It was independent of the metal and the adsorbate. The results compared satisfactorily with an extension of the junction growth theory to heterogeneous interfaces. The reduction in interfacial shear strength was measured by the ratio sub a/sub m where sub a is the shear strength of the interface with an adsorbate concentration of 1.0, and sub m is the strength of the clean metal interface. This ratio was 0.835 + or - 0.012 for all the systems tested.

  11. Effects of cadmium, copper, magnesium, and zinc on the decomposition of citrate by a Klebsiella sp.

    PubMed Central

    Brynhildsen, L; Rosswall, T

    1989-01-01

    The effects of Cd2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ on the decomposition of citric acid by a Klebsiella sp. were studied by monitoring the degradation of [14C]citrate. The carbon concentration used was 10 micrograms of C liter-1, and the media were designed to provide at least 95% of the citrate complexed to the metal studied. After 72 h of incubation, 80% of the uncomplexed citric acid and 76% of the magnesium citrate had been decomposed. A marked inhibition was observed when Cd2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+ was bound to the organic anion; only 23% of the cadmium citrate, 14% of the zinc citrate, and 5% of the cuprous citrate had been decomposed. The effects were not the result of toxicity, since experiments run with [14C]glucose (nonchelating compound) instead of citrate resulted in similar decomposition rates regardless of the presence of the metal. To examine whether the binding of a metal to citrate enhanced its uptake by the Klebsiella sp., we studied the relative uptake of 65Zn in citrate- and in glucose-containing media. No such effect could be observed, with the uptake of Zn2+ being higher in the glucose-containing media. The study shows that metals may render low-molecular-weight organic acids, such as citric acid, resistant to bacterial degradation. This stresses the importance of metals in influencing microbial decomposition of organic compounds, not only as a result of toxicity. PMID:2764560

  12. Partitioning and distribution of dissolved copper, cadmium and organic matter in Mediterranean marine coastal areas: The case of a mucilage event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoullos, Michael; Plavši?, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Sakellari, Aikaterini

    2006-04-01

    Dissolved copper and cadmium partitioning and their interaction with organic matter were investigated in shallow coastal areas of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). The percentage of DGT-labile copper as for total dissolved copper ranged from 13 to 34% during summer and from 23 to 36% during winter, whereas the corresponding percentage for DGT-labile cadmium was higher in summer (38-68%), in comparison to winter (29-44%). The CCu was found to be 100-260 nM during summer while in winter the range was 42-430 nM. The corresponding CCd reached 27 and 45 nM, respectively. The mean TEP value in summer was high (208 ?g/L xanthan equiv.), while in winter it reached 441 ?g/L xanthan equiv., which indicates significant phytoplankton activity in winter, a feature occasionally observed in the stratified study areas after the breaking down of the thermocline/pycnocline, followed by consequent nutrient enrichment of the surface layers by nutrients accumulated in the sea bottom. A significant fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exhibited surface active properties and was determined as surface active substances (SAS) in mg/L eq. of nonionic surfactant Triton-X-100. Carbohydrates were also determined and they represented up to 33% of the DOC.

  13. Different Mechanisms Between Copper and Iron in Catecholamines-Mediated Oxidative DNA Damage and Disruption of Gene Expression In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiko Nishino; Motozumi Ando; Rena Makino; Koji Ueda; Yoshinori Okamoto; Nakao Kojima

    2011-01-01

    Catechols produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce oxidative DNA damage through reduction–oxidation reactions with\\u000a metals such as copper. Here, we examined oxidative DNA damage by neurotransmitter catecholamines in the presence of copper\\u000a or iron and evaluated the effects of this damage on gene expression in vitro. Dopamine induced strand breaks and base oxidation\\u000a in calf thymus DNA in the

  14. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47?µg Cd/L to 2.62?µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46?µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02?µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51?µg Cu/L to 21.9?µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209?µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  15. Copper and iron concentrations in Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) from different sites in Ireland and after culture experiments in relation to thallus age and epiphytism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dagmar B. Stengel; Matthew J. Dring

    2000-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, copper concentrations in plants of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis (Fucales, Phaeophyta) increased with the concentrations in the culture media and were highest in younger, meristematic thallus parts. After initial accumulation in high-copper medium and subsequent transfer to clean seawater for 5 days, no release of copper could be detected. Iron concentrations in A. nodosum tissue were

  16. Determination of copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, lead, cadmium, and mercury ions in water by solid-phase extraction and the RP-HPLC with UV-Vis detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiufen Hu; Guangyu Yang; Yiyun Zhao; Jiayuan Yin

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of seven heavy metal ions in water by solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed. The copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, lead, cadmium, and mercury ions were pre-column derivatized with tetra(m-aminophenyl)porphyrin (Tm-APP) to form colored chelates. The metal-Tm-APP chelates in 100 mL of sample were preconcentrated to 1 mL by solid-phase

  17. Cadmium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Manganese, and Zinc in Evaporated Milk, Infant Products, and Human Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Murthy

    1971-01-01

    Infant formula foods, such as evaporated milk, modified milk, and formulas contain- ing lamb meat and soya flour, were col leered quarterly from the Cincinnati, Ohio, market. Human milk from 13 mothers residing in the Cincinnati area was col- lected during April and May 1968. They were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, and Zn by atomic absorption speetro-

  18. Iron(III) extraction by LIX 860 and its influence on copper(II) extraction from sulphuric solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Simpson; P. Navarro; F. J. Alguacil

    1996-01-01

    Solvent extraction of iron(III) by means of the commercial salicylaldoxime LIX 860 and its influence on copper(II) extraction from sulphuric solutions has been studied. Extraction experiments were carried out varying the equilibration time, temperature, extractant concentration, aqueous pH and the ferric and cupric ions concentrations. Iron(III) extraction by LIX 860 can be represented by the reaction: Fe3aq+3HRorg?FeR3org+3H+aq in which HR

  19. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems. PMID:25201323

  20. Development of copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Szedon, J.R.; Biter, W.J.; Abel, J.A.; Dickey, H.C.; Shirland, F.A.

    1981-02-27

    The purpose of this work has been to identify aspects of cell fabrication and treatment which are critical for achieving high efficiency Cu/sub 2/S/CdS solar cells. In approaching the problem several comparisons were made of the effects of specific steps in two methods of cell fabrication. These methods had previously given cells of about 6% and a maximum of 9% efficiency. Three areas requiring special attention and specific means to achieve acceptable results were identified. (1) The Cu/sub 2/S/CdS heterojunction area must be minimized. If single source evaporations of CdS are made on substrates whose temperatures (approx. 220/sup 0/C) are monitored and controlled using welded thermocouples, the CdS films will have adequately large grains (grain diameter greater than or equal to 2 ..mu..m) and will not develop significant etch pits during texturing in a mild etchant solution. (2) The termination of the wet barrier processing steps must be done carefully. An acceptable termination involves minimizing the amount of cuprous chloride retained on the cell surface during transfer to a rinsing stage while providing adequate exclusion of air from the space above the surface of the cuprous chloride solution. (3) Once formed, the Cu/sub 2/S layer should not be exposed to high temperatures (>100/sup 0/C) for long periods of time (> 5 min) if surface adsorbed moisture or oxygen are present. Heat treatments in ampoules under flowing hydrogen atmospheres should be preceded and followed by periods of at least 30 minutes at room temperature in the reducing ambient. If all these precautions are taken, wet chemical barrier processing of thermally evaporated CdS films on zinc-plated copper foil substrates yields cells of nearly 8% conversion efficiency without AR coating.

  1. No significant effect of iron deficiency on cadmium body burden or kidney dysfunction among women in the general population in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tsukahara; T. Ezaki; J. Moriguchi; K. Furuki; Y. Fukui; H. Ukai; S. Okamoto; H. Sakurai; M. Ikeda

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To examine if iron-deficient conditions modify body burden or health effects of cadmium among women in the general population in Japan.Methods. In 2002, 1,482 women aged 20 to 74 years in six prefectures in Japan provided informed consent to participate in this study. They offered peripheral blood and spot urine samples, and answered questionnaires on their social habits and

  2. Content of iron, copper and zinc in white sugar samples from Polish and other European sugar factories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wojtczak; B. Król

    2002-01-01

    White sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small, significant amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The aim was to evaluate the content of iron, copper and zinc in samples of white sugar from Polish factories compared

  3. Uptake of iron, zinc, manganese, and copper by seedlings of hybrid and traditional rice cultivars from different soil types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Yang; V. Römheld; H. Marschner

    1994-01-01

    In pot experiments, uptake of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) by hybrid rice from different soil types was compared with a traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar. The concentration and total uptake of Fe in the shoots of hybrid rice grown in Oxisol and Ultisol were lower than those of the traditional cultivar. The concentration and

  4. Structure of self-interstitial atom clusters in iron and copper

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akiyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda-shi, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Ghoniem, Nasr M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The dislocation core structure of self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in bcc iron and fcc copper is determined using the hybrid ab initio continuum method of Banerjee et al. [Philos. Mag. 87, 4131 (2007)]. To reduce reliance on empirical potentials and to facilitate predictions of the effects of local chemistry and stress on the structure of defects, we present here a hybrid extension of the Peierls-Nabarro continuum model, with lattice resistance to slip determined separately from ab initio calculations. A method is developed to reconstruct atomic arrangements and geometry of SIA clusters from the hybrid model. The results are shown to compare well with molecular-dynamics simulations. In iron, the core structure does not show dependence on the size of the self-interstitial cluster, and is nearly identical to that of a straight edge dislocation. However, the core structure of SIA clusters in Cu is shown to depend strongly on the cluster size. Small SIA clusters are found to have nondissociated compact dislocation cores, with a strong merging of Shockley partial dislocations and a relatively narrow stacking fault (SF) region. The compact nature of the SIA core in copper is attributed to the strong dependence of the self-energy on the cluster size. As the number of atoms in the SIA cluster increases, Shockley partial dislocations separate and the SF region widens, rendering the SIA core structure to that of an edge dislocation. The separation distance between the two partials widens as the cluster size increases, and tends to the value of a straight edge dislocation for cluster sizes above 400 atoms. The local stress is found to have a significant effect on the atomic arrangements within SIA clusters in copper and the width of the stacking faults. An applied external shear can delocalize the core of an SIA cluster in copper, with positive shear defined to be on the (111) plane along the [112] direction. For an SIA cluster containing 1600 atoms, a positive 1 GPa shear stress delocalizes the cluster and expands the SF to 30b, while a negative shear stress of 2 GPa contracts the core to less than 5b, where b is the Burgers vector magnitude.

  5. Structure of self-interstitial atom clusters in iron and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akiyuki; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2009-11-01

    The dislocation core structure of self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in bcc iron and fcc copper is determined using the hybrid ab initio continuum method of Banerjee [Philos. Mag. 87, 4131 (2007)]. To reduce reliance on empirical potentials and to facilitate predictions of the effects of local chemistry and stress on the structure of defects, we present here a hybrid extension of the Peierls-Nabarro continuum model, with lattice resistance to slip determined separately from ab initio calculations. A method is developed to reconstruct atomic arrangements and geometry of SIA clusters from the hybrid model. The results are shown to compare well with molecular-dynamics simulations. In iron, the core structure does not show dependence on the size of the self-interstitial cluster, and is nearly identical to that of a straight edge dislocation. However, the core structure of SIA clusters in Cu is shown to depend strongly on the cluster size. Small SIA clusters are found to have nondissociated compact dislocation cores, with a strong merging of Shockley partial dislocations and a relatively narrow stacking fault (SF) region. The compact nature of the SIA core in copper is attributed to the strong dependence of the self-energy on the cluster size. As the number of atoms in the SIA cluster increases, Shockley partial dislocations separate and the SF region widens, rendering the SIA core structure to that of an edge dislocation. The separation distance between the two partials widens as the cluster size increases, and tends to the value of a straight edge dislocation for cluster sizes above 400 atoms. The local stress is found to have a significant effect on the atomic arrangements within SIA clusters in copper and the width of the stacking faults. An applied external shear can delocalize the core of an SIA cluster in copper, with positive shear defined to be on the (111) plane along the [1¯1¯2] direction. For an SIA cluster containing 1600 atoms, a positive 1 GPa shear stress delocalizes the cluster and expands the SF to 30b , while a negative shear stress of 2 GPa contracts the core to less than 5b , where b is the Burgers vector magnitude.

  6. A study of the kinetics and fate of zinc-65 and iron-59 mobilized from labeled ghosts by reticulocyte lysates of normal and cadmium-treated rabbits 

    E-print Network

    McAleese, Kathryn Noel

    1976-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE KINETICS AND FATE OF ZINC ? 65 AND IRON-59 MOBILIZED FROM LABELED GHOSTS BY RETICULOCYTE LYSATES OF NORMAL AND CADMIUM-TREATED RABBITS A Thesis by KATHRYN NOEL McALEESE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Biochemistry A STUDY OF THE KINETICS AND FATE OF ZINC-65 AND IRON-59 MOBILIZED FROM LABELED GHOSTS BY RETICULOCYTE LYSATES OF NORMAL AND CAIRIUM...

  7. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds. PMID:25845355

  8. COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

  9. Reduced cadmium body burden in cadmium-exposed calves fed supplemental zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Lamphere; C. R. Dorn; C. S. Reddy; A. W. Meyer

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of practical supplemental dietary zinc to modify the cadmium content in edible bovine tissues and to identify copper interactions with cadmium and zinc. The effect of supplemental zinc (200 or 600 ..mu..g\\/g) on the concentrations of cadmium, zinc, and copper in liver, kidney cortex, muscle, and blood of calves fed

  10. Selective nucleation of iron phthalocyanine crystals on micro-structured copper iodide.

    PubMed

    Rochford, Luke A; Ramadan, Alexandra J; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim S

    2014-12-14

    Morphological and structural control of organic semiconductors through structural templating is an efficient route by which to tune their physical properties. The preparation and characterisation of iron phthalocyanine (FePc)-copper iodide (CuI) bilayers at elevated substrate temperatures is presented. Thin CuI(111) layers are prepared which are composed of isolated islands rather than continuous films previously employed in device structures. Nucleation in the early stages of FePc growth is observed at the edges of islands rather than on the top (111) faces with the use of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Structural measurements show two distinct polymorphs of FePc, with CuI islands edges nucleating high aspect ratio FePc crystallites with modified intermolecular spacing. By combining high substrate temperature growth and micro-structuring of the templating CuI(111) layer structural and morphological control of the organic film is demonstrated. PMID:25340949

  11. Predicting copper-, iron-, and zinc-binding proteins in pathogenic species of the Paracoccidioides genus

    PubMed Central

    Tristão, Gabriel B.; Assunção, Leandro do Prado; dos Santos, Luiz Paulo A.; Borges, Clayton L.; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Soares, Célia M. de Almeida; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Bailão, Alexandre M.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of all proteins have been estimated to contain at least one metal cofactor, and these proteins are referred to as metalloproteins. These represent one of the most diverse classes of proteins, containing metal ions that bind to specific sites to perform catalytic, regulatory and structural functions. Bioinformatic tools have been developed to predict metalloproteins encoded by an organism based only on its genome sequence. Its function and the type of metal binder can also be predicted via a bioinformatics approach. Paracoccidioides complex includes termodimorphic pathogenic fungi that are found as saprobic mycelia in the environment and as yeast, the parasitic form, in host tissues. They are the etiologic agents of Paracoccidioidomycosis, a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Many metalloproteins are important for the virulence of several pathogenic microorganisms. Accordingly, the present work aimed to predict the copper, iron and zinc proteins encoded by the genomes of three phylogenetic species of Paracoccidioides (Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18). The metalloproteins were identified using bioinformatics approaches based on structure, annotation and domains. Cu-, Fe-, and Zn-binding proteins represent 7% of the total proteins encoded by Paracoccidioides spp. genomes. Zinc proteins were the most abundant metalloproteins, representing 5.7% of the fungus proteome, whereas copper and iron proteins represent 0.3 and 1.2%, respectively. Functional classification revealed that metalloproteins are related to many cellular processes. Furthermore, it was observed that many of these metalloproteins serve as virulence factors in the biology of the fungus. Thus, it is concluded that the Cu, Fe, and Zn metalloproteomes of the Paracoccidioides spp. are of the utmost importance for the biology and virulence of these particular human pathogens. PMID:25620964

  12. Effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on growth, reproduction and survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny): Assessing the environmental impact of point-source metal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Spurgeon; S. P. Hopkin; D. T. Jones

    1994-01-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida: Oligochaeta) was exposed to a geometric series of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in artificial soil using the OECD recommended protocol. Mortality, growth and cocoon production were measured over 56 days to deter- mine LCso and EC~ values. No observed effect concen- trations ( NOECs) were also estimated. Furthermore, the percentage of viable

  13. A highly sensitive method for simultaneous determination of ultra trace levels of copper and cadmium in food and water samples with luminol as a chelating agent by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Shahryar; Bahiraei, Atousa; Abbasai, Freshteh

    2011-12-01

    In the present study a selective method is presented for the simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium in food samples by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. In preliminary studies, it has been proven that the copper and cadmium react with 3-aminophthalhydrazide (luminol), giving rise to the formation of these complexes. These complexes have adsorptive characteristics on hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) and can be reduced in a reduction step. In this study the optimum reaction parameters and conditions studies are investigated. The calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range of 0.5-105.0 and 0.8-70.0ng/ml for copper and cadmium, respectively. The limit of detection of the method was 0.04ng/ml for Cu(2+) and 0.02ng/ml for Cd(2+). The interference of some common ions was studied and it was concluded that application of this method for the determination of copper (II) and cadmium in food and water samples led to satisfactory results. PMID:25212367

  14. Regulation of Brain Iron and Copper Homeostasis by Brain Barrier Systems: Implication in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Monnot, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential to neuronal function; excess or deficiency of either is known to underlie the pathoetiology of several commonly known neurodegenerative disorders. This delicate balance of Fe and Cu in the central milieu is maintained by the brain barrier systems, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) between the blood and brain interstitial fluid and the blood- cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This review provides a concise description on the structural and functional characteristics of the brain barrier systems. Current understanding of Fe and Cu transport across the brain barriers is thoroughly examined, with major focuses on whether the BBB and BCB coordinate the direction of Fe and Cu fluxes between the blood and brain/CSF. In particular, the mechanism by which pertinent metal transporters in the barriers, such as the transferrin receptor (TfR), divalent metal transporter (DMT1), copper transporter (CTR1), ATP7A/B, and ferroportin (FPN), regulate metal movement across the barriers is explored. Finally, the detrimental consequences of dysfunctional metal transport by brain barriers, as a result of endogenous disorders or exogenous insults, are discussed. Understanding the regulation of Fe and Cu homeostasis in the central nervous system aids in the design of new drugs targeted on the regulatory proteins at the brain barriers for the treatment of metal’s deficiency or overload-related neurological diseases. PMID:22115751

  15. Separation of iron(III), copper(II) and zinc(II) from a mixed sulphate\\/chloride solution using TBP, LIX 84I and Cyanex 923

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sarangi; P. K. Parhi; E. Padhan; A. K. Palai; K. C. Nathsarma; K. H. Park

    2007-01-01

    Separation of iron(III), copper(II) and zinc(II) from a mixed sulphate\\/chloride leach liquor bearing 11.8kg\\/m3 iron, 24.8kg\\/m3 copper, 0.23kg\\/m3 zinc, 3.8kg\\/m3 cobalt, 35.2kg\\/m3 nickel, 176.3kg\\/m3 chloride and 48.9kg\\/m3 sulphate was carried out using solvent extraction. Iron, copper and zinc extraction studies were carried out using TBP, LIX 84I and Cyanex 923 in kerosene, respectively. The extraction studies were carried out for

  16. Novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids from porcine and human isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. The plasmids, designated pUR1902, pUR2940, and pUR2941, were obtained from porcine and human methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal lineage ST398. In addition to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance gene erm(T), all three plasmids also carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Furthermore, plasmid pUR2940 harbors the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the MLSB resistance gene erm(C), while plasmids pUR1902 and pUR2941 possess the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD. Sequence analysis of approximately 18.1 kb of the erm(T)-flanking region from pUR1902, 20.0 kb from pUR2940, and 20.8 kb from pUR2941 revealed the presence of several copies of the recently described insertion sequence ISSau10, which is probably involved in the evolution of the respective plasmids. All plasmids carried a functional cadmium resistance operon with the genes cadD and cadX, in addition to the multicopper oxidase gene mco and the ATPase copper transport gene copA, which are involved in copper resistance. The comparative analysis of S. aureus RN4220 and the three S. aureus RN4220 transformants carrying plasmid pUR1902, pUR2940, or pUR2941 revealed an 8-fold increase in CdSO4 and a 2-fold increase in CuSO4 MICs. The emergence of multidrug resistance plasmids that also carry heavy metal resistance genes is alarming and requires further surveillance. The colocalization of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes that confer resistance to heavy metals may facilitate their persistence, coselection, and dissemination. PMID:23629701

  17. Novel erm(T)-Carrying Multiresistance Plasmids from Porcine and Human Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 That Also Harbor Cadmium and Copper Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T.; Zarazaga, Myriam; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. The plasmids, designated pUR1902, pUR2940, and pUR2941, were obtained from porcine and human methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal lineage ST398. In addition to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance gene erm(T), all three plasmids also carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Furthermore, plasmid pUR2940 harbors the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the MLSB resistance gene erm(C), while plasmids pUR1902 and pUR2941 possess the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD. Sequence analysis of approximately 18.1 kb of the erm(T)-flanking region from pUR1902, 20.0 kb from pUR2940, and 20.8 kb from pUR2941 revealed the presence of several copies of the recently described insertion sequence ISSau10, which is probably involved in the evolution of the respective plasmids. All plasmids carried a functional cadmium resistance operon with the genes cadD and cadX, in addition to the multicopper oxidase gene mco and the ATPase copper transport gene copA, which are involved in copper resistance. The comparative analysis of S. aureus RN4220 and the three S. aureus RN4220 transformants carrying plasmid pUR1902, pUR2940, or pUR2941 revealed an 8-fold increase in CdSO4 and a 2-fold increase in CuSO4 MICs. The emergence of multidrug resistance plasmids that also carry heavy metal resistance genes is alarming and requires further surveillance. The colocalization of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes that confer resistance to heavy metals may facilitate their persistence, coselection, and dissemination. PMID:23629701

  18. Hepatic and hippocampus iron status is not altered in response to increased serum ceruloplasmin and serum "free" copper in Wistar rat model for non-Wilsonian brain copper toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Vasishta, Rakesh kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2013-09-01

    Copper and iron dyshomeostasis has been implicated directly or indirectly in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we have shown the first in vivo evidence of significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content with spatial memory impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type-II cells) coupled with increase in the number of astrocytes, copper deposition in the choroid plexus, and degenerated neurons in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on serum "free" copper levels, iron levels in the liver, and hippocampus by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and histopathological study of the liver and brain tissues of Wistar rats using Perls' Prussian blue (PPB) stain. A massive significant increase in serum "free" copper (79.48% increase) along with strong correlation (r = 0.978) was found between serum copper and serum "free" copper in copper-intoxicated rats. No significant difference was detected in hepatic and hippocampus iron levels between control and copper-intoxicated rats. PPB stain demonstrated very few scattered grade 1 haemosiderin deposits within sinusoidal cells predominantly Kupffer cells; however, brain sections were negatively stained with PPB stain. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes increase in serum "free" copper, which may serve as predisposing factor for the development of neurodegeneration and memory deficits, and grade 1 haemosiderin deposition in Kupffer cells without altering hepatic and hippocampus iron levels in male Wistar rats. PMID:23872735

  19. Copper deficient rats and mice both develop anemia but only rats have lower plasma and brain iron levels

    PubMed Central

    Pyatskowit, Joshua W.; Prohaska, Joseph R.

    2008-01-01

    Iron homeostasis depends on adequate dietary copper but the mechanisms are unknown. Mice (Mus musculus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) offspring were compared to determine the effect of dietary copper deficiency (Cu-) on iron status of plasma, liver, brain and intestine. Holtzman rat and Hsd:ICR (CD-1) outbred albino mouse dams were fed a Cu- diet and drank deionized water or Cu supplemented water. Offspring were sampled at time points between postnatal ages 13 and 32. Cu- rat and mouse pups were both anemic, but only rat pups had lower plasma and brain iron levels. Plasma iron was lower throughout the suckling period in Cu- rats but not Cu-mice. Cu- mice derived from dams restricted of Cu only during lactation were also severely anemic without hypoferremia. Intestinal metal analysis confirmed that Cu- pups had major reductions in intestinal concentration of Cu, increased Fe, and normal Zn. However, whole mouse (less the intestine) analysis demonstrated normal content of Fe indicating that the limitation in iron transport by intestinal hephaestin had no consequence to total iron reserves of the mouse. Further research will be needed to determine the reason Cu- mice were anemic since the “ferroxidase” hypothesis does not explain this phenotype. PMID:18178529

  20. Molecular bases of copper and iron deficiency-associated dyslipidemia: a microarray analysis of the rat intestinal transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Alessandra; Fontanella, Bianca; Danise, Rosa; Cicatiello, Luigi; Grober, Olì M V; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Marzullo, Liberato

    2010-03-01

    As essential cofactor in many proteins and redox enzymes, copper and iron are involved in a wide range of biological processes. Mild dietary deficiency of metals represents an underestimated problem for human health, because it does not cause clear signs and clinical symptoms, but it is associated to long-term deleterious effects in cardiovascular system and alterations in lipid metabolism. The aim of this work was to study the biological processes significantly affected by mild dietary deficiency of both metals in rat intestine, in order to better understand the molecular bases of the systemic metabolic alterations, as hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia observed in copper-deficient rats. A gene-microarray differential analysis was carried out on the intestinal transcriptome of copper- and iron-deficient rats, thus highlighting the biological processes significantly modulated by the dietary restrictions. The gene array analysis showed a down-regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acids beta-oxidation and an up-regulation of genes involved in plasmatic cholesterol transport (apoprotein E and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) in copper deficiency. Furthermore, a severe down-regulation of ApoH was pointed out in iron-deficient animals. PMID:19821111

  1. Cytotoxic analogs of the iron(III) chelator pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone: effects of complexation with copper(II), gallium(III), and iron (III) on their antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, D R

    1997-01-01

    This study examined if complexation with metals increased the antiproliferative activities of chelators of the pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) class. Addition of iron(III) to some PIH analogs markedly depressed their activities, whereas it had little effect on others. The gallium(III) complex of PIH, but not its copper(II) complex, was more efficient than the apochelator at inhibiting [3H]thymidine incorporation. PMID:9303419

  2. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47?µg Cd/L to 2.62?µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46?µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02?µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51?µg Cu/L to 21.9?µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209?µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2259–2272. © 2014. The Authors. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID:25043712

  3. Doping effect on the Janus-like structure of a copper-iron bimetallic nanocluster and its solid-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherkhani, Farid; Seresht, Pegah Freshteh

    2015-04-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation with a new-application potential model has been explored for melting temperature, radial distribution of iron-copper bimetallic nanoclusters, and their bulk for the first time. At low copper weight percentages, the melting temperature changes a little for the bulk structures; however, for nanostructures, the variation of melting temperature is significant. At medium copper-doping values, there is a melting-temperature plateau in bimetallic nanoclusters. For many catalysis applications, Janus-like structures are considered, which occur at around 53% iron weight in copper at room temperature, when copper-iron bimetallic nanoclusters clearly consist of two distinct faces. Our result for the melting temperature of the bulk alloy confirms the experimental result.

  4. Determination of copper, iron, and nickel in oils and fats by direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: summary of collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Capar, S G

    1990-01-01

    A collaborative study of a method for the determination of copper, iron, and nickel in edible oils and fats by direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was recently conducted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The quantitation limits of the method are 5 micrograms/kg for copper and 10 micrograms/kg for iron and nickel. The method has been adopted official first action as an IUPAC-AOAC method. PMID:2324041

  5. The distribution of copper, manganese, zinc, and iron in antarctic waters and the relation of the concentrations of these metals to biological primary productivity 

    E-print Network

    Arhelger, Martin Edward

    1967-01-01

    THE DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER, MANGANESE, ZINC, AND IRON IN ANTARCTIC WATERS AND THE RELATION OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF THESE METALS TO BIOLOGICAL PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY A Thesis By MARTIN EDWARD ARHELGER Submitted to the Graduate College... of the Texas A& 1 University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August I967 Major Subj ect: CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY THE DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER, MANGANESE, ZINC, AND IRON IN ANTARCTIC WATERS AND THE RELATION...

  6. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  7. The Menkes\\/Wilson Disease Gene Homologue in Yeast Provides Copper to a Ceruloplasmin-Like Oxidase Required for Iron Uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Yuan; Robert Stearman; Andrew Dancis; Teresa Dunn; Troy Beeler; Richard D. Klausner

    1995-01-01

    The CCC2 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is homologous to the human genes defective in Wilson disease and Menkes disease. A biochemical hallmark of these diseases is a deficiency of copper in ceruloplasmin and other copper proteins found in extracytosolic compartments. Here we demonstrate that disruption of the yeast CCC2 gene results in defects in respiration and iron uptake.

  8. Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC., biomonitor of metal pollution and water quality. Sorption/accumulation capacities and photosynthetic pigments composition changes after copper and cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Ngayila, Nadine; Basly, Jean-Philippe; Lejeune, Anne-Hélène; Botineau, Michel; Baudu, Michel

    2007-02-15

    Watermilfoil genus Myriophyllum could be used in ecological surveys as in-situ biomonitors of metal pollution and water quality due to its ability to accumulate chemicals. The copper and cadmium sorption characteristics of Myriophyllum alterniflorum have been investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to model the metal sorption isotherms and the monolayer sorption capacities, as obtained by the Langmuir isotherm, were determined to be 13.9 mg/g and 11.1 mg/g for Cu2+ and Cd2+ respectively. Results have been compared with previous works on watermilfoils and are in accordance with those obtained on Myriophyllum spicatum. The sorption of the two metals was time-dependent and the kinetics fitted the pseudo-second-order equation well. The data were discussed in terms of ionic radii and HSAB concept. The phytotoxic effects assessed by classical (i.e. changes in biomass, node length) and photosynthetic pigments content endpoints have been investigated using chemometric techniques leading to an effect of cadmium onto photosynthetic pigments. PMID:17217998

  9. Expression of a vacuole-localized BURP-domain protein from soybean (SALI3-2) enhances tolerance to cadmium and copper stresses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulin; Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhan; Ou, Zhonghua; Wang, Yajing; Qiu, Jianbin; Zheng, Yizhi

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific BURP family proteins play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses, but the function mechanism of these proteins is still poorly understood. Proteins in this family are characterized by a highly conserved BURP domain with four conserved Cys-His repeats and two other Cys, indicating that these proteins potentially interacts with metal ions. In this paper, an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) assay showed that the soybean BURP protein SALI3-2 could bind soft transition metal ions (Cd(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cu(2+)) but not hard metal ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the SALI3-2-GFP fusion protein was localized to the vacuoles. Physiological indexes assay showed that Sali3-2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were more tolerant to Cu(2+) or Cd(2+) stresses than the wild type. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis illustrated that, compared to the wild type seedlings the Sali3-2-transgenic seedlings accumulated more cadmium or copper in the roots but less in the upper ground tissues when the seedlings were exposed to excessive CuCl2 or CdCl2 stress. Therefore, our findings suggest that the SALI3-2 protein may confer cadmium (Cd(2+)) and copper (Cu(2+)) tolerance to plants by helping plants to sequester Cd(2+) or Cu(2+) in the root and reduce the amount of heavy metals transported to the shoots. PMID:24901737

  10. Expression of a Vacuole-Localized BURP-Domain Protein from Soybean (SALI3-2) Enhances Tolerance to Cadmium and Copper Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yulin; Cao, Yan; Qiu, Jianbin; Gao, Zhan; Ou, Zhonghua; Wang, Yajing; Zheng, Yizhi

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific BURP family proteins play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses, but the function mechanism of these proteins is still poorly understood. Proteins in this family are characterized by a highly conserved BURP domain with four conserved Cys-His repeats and two other Cys, indicating that these proteins potentially interacts with metal ions. In this paper, an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) assay showed that the soybean BURP protein SALI3-2 could bind soft transition metal ions (Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+) but not hard metal ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the SALI3-2-GFP fusion protein was localized to the vacuoles. Physiological indexes assay showed that Sali3-2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were more tolerant to Cu2+ or Cd2+ stresses than the wild type. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis illustrated that, compared to the wild type seedlings the Sali3-2-transgenic seedlings accumulated more cadmium or copper in the roots but less in the upper ground tissues when the seedlings were exposed to excessive CuCl2 or CdCl2 stress. Therefore, our findings suggest that the SALI3-2 protein may confer cadmium (Cd2+) and copper (Cu2+) tolerance to plants by helping plants to sequester Cd2+ or Cu2+ in the root and reduce the amount of heavy metals transported to the shoots. PMID:24901737

  11. An intrusion-related origin for Cu–Au mineralization in iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG) provinces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Pollard

    2006-01-01

    Major Cu–Au deposits of iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG) style are temporally associated with oxidized, potassic granitoids similar to those linked to major porphyry Cu–Au deposits. Stable and radiogenic isotope evidence indicates fluids and ore components were likely sourced from the intrusions. IOCG deposits form over a range of crustal levels because CO2-rich fluids separate from the magmas at higher pressures than

  12. Molecular bases of copper and iron deficiency-associated dyslipidemia: a microarray analysis of the rat intestinal transcriptome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Tosco; Bianca Fontanella; Rosa Danise; Luigi Cicatiello; Olì M. V. Grober; Maria Ravo; Alessandro Weisz; Liberato Marzullo

    2010-01-01

    As essential cofactor in many proteins and redox enzymes, copper and iron are involved in a wide range of biological processes.\\u000a Mild dietary deficiency of metals represents an underestimated problem for human health, because it does not cause clear signs\\u000a and clinical symptoms, but it is associated to long-term deleterious effects in cardiovascular system and alterations in lipid\\u000a metabolism. The

  13. Iron, zinc and copper levels in brain, serum and liver of neonates exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Ferri; Ricardo Duffard; Nelson Stürtz; Ana Mar??a Evangelista de Duffard

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 70 or 100 mg\\/kg dam's body weight) on iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in brain, liver and serum of well-nourished and undernourished pups exposed through dam's milk were determined. Undernourishment produced a high Fe decrease (serum and brain) and a delay in weight gain similar to that produced by the highest dose

  14. MULTIPLE MENKES COPPER ATPASE (ATP7A) TRANSCRIPT AND PROTEIN VARIANTS ARE INDUCED BY IRON DEFICIENCY IN RAT DOUDENAL ENTEROCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Kim, Changae; Collins, James F.

    2013-01-01

    The Menkes copper ATPase (Atp7a) pumps copper into the trans-Golgi for cuproenzyme synthesis, and translocates to the basolateral membrane of enterocytes for copper export. Recent studies demonstrated that three 5’ end splice variants of the Atp7a transcript exist in rat duodenum, all of which are strongly induced during iron deprivation. To explore a possible role for Atp7a (and copper) in intestinal iron absorption, the current studies were undertaken to test the hypothesis that multiple Atp7a transcript and protein variants exist in intestinal epithelial cells. Northern blot analyses using probes generated from the full-length Atp7a cDNA revealed several specific hybridization bands, all of which were more intense in RNA samples extracted from duodenal enterocytes isolated from iron-deficient rats. A PCR-based approach, using forward primers specific for the alternative 5’ end splice variants and a reverse primer in exon 23, demonstrated that 3 full-length transcripts exist in rat IEC-6 cells. To identify possible Atp7a protein variants, three distinct polyclonal antisera were utilized. The specificity of the antisera was first established by western blotting and immunoprecipitation studies using samples derived from isolated rat enterocytes and Atp7a knockdown IEC-6 cells. Several specific immunoreactive bands were documented, and a unique Atp7a protein distribution in cytosolic vesicle-like structures was noted. In conclusion, multiple Atp7a transcript and protein variants exist in rodent intestinal epithelial cells and are induced by dietary iron deprivation. Further studies will be designed to determine the subcellular distribution of Atp7a protein variants and possible unique functions of each. PMID:22579041

  15. The effect of malathion, diazinon, and various concentrations of zinc, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and mercury on fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Alam; O. E. Maughan

    1992-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), and\\u000a iron (Fe) were conducted. Mortalities ofBarilius vagra andCyprinus carpio (common carp) were variable but LC50-96 hr were similar for pesticides. AdultB. vagra seem to be more sensitive to malathion than juvenile carp. Both juvenile carp and adultB. vagra were extremely sensitive

  16. Impact of selenium, iron, copper and zinc in on\\/off Parkinson’s patients on L-dopa therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Qureshi; A. A. Qureshi; S. A. Memon; S. H. Parvez

    We have quantitated CSF and serum levels of Selenium, iron, copper and zinc by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer in 36 patients\\u000a with parkinson’s disease all on L-dopa therapy. Out of these 19 showed on or positive response to L-dopa where as 21 patients\\u000a showed on and off response. These data were compared with 21 healthy controls. The results showed that serum

  17. Acyloxylation of 1,4-Dioxanes and 1,4-Dithianes Catalyzed by a Copper-Iron Mixed Oxide.

    PubMed

    García-Cabeza, Ana Leticia; Marín-Barrios, Rubén; Moreno-Dorado, F Javier; Ortega, María J; Vidal, Hilario; Gatica, José M; Massanet, Guillermo M; Guerra, Francisco M

    2015-07-01

    The use of a copper-iron mixed oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient synthesis of ?-acyloxy-1,4-dioxanes and 1,4-dithianes employing t-butyl peroxyesters is reported. The preparation and characterization of the catalyst are described. The effect of the heteroatoms and a plausible mechanism are discussed. The method is operationally simple and involves low-cost starting materials affording products in good to excellent yields. PMID:26035339

  18. Structure and reactivity of copper iron pyrophosphate catalysts for selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde and methanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Róbert Polnišer; Magdaléna Štolcová; Milan Hronec; Milan Mikula

    2011-01-01

    The structure of copper iron pyrophosphate catalysts prepared with various atomic ratios of metals and different pretreatment conditions was studied by using XRD, FT-IR, DR UV–vis and H2-TPR techniques. The preparation methods modify the phase composition, oxidation state and reducibility of the patterns. The catalytic properties in the selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde and methanol were examined in both,

  19. Aluminium, iron and copper in human brain tissues donated to the Medical Research Council's Cognitive Function and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    House, Emily; Esiri, Margaret; Forster, Gill; Ince, Paul G; Exley, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium, iron and copper are all implicated in the aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. However, there are very few large cohort studies of the content of these metals in aged human brains. We have used microwave digestion and TH GFAAS to measure aluminium, iron and copper in the temporal, frontal, occipital and parietal lobes of 60 brains donated to the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Every precaution was taken to reduce contamination of samples and acid digests to a minimum. Actual contamination was estimated by preparing a large number of (170+) method blanks which were interspersed within the full set of 700+ tissue digests. Subtraction of method blank values (MBV) from tissue digest values resulted in metal contents in all tissues in the range, MBV to 33 ?g g(-1) dry wt. for aluminium, 112 to 8305 ?g g(-1) dry wt. for iron and MBV to 384 ?g g(-1) dry wt. for copper. While the median aluminium content for all tissues was 1.02 ?g g(-1) dry wt. it was informative that 41 brains out of 60 included at least one tissue with an aluminium content which could be considered as potentially pathological (> 3.50 ?g g(-1) dry wt.). The median content for iron was 286.16 ?g g(-1) dry wt. and overall tissue iron contents were generally high which possibly reflected increased brain iron in ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. The median content for copper was 17.41 ?g g(-1) dry wt. and overall tissue copper contents were lower than expected for aged brains but they were commensurate with aged brains showing signs of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we have shown, in particular, the value of carrying out significant numbers of method blanks to identify unknown sources of contamination. When these values are subtracted from tissue digest values the absolute metal contents could be considered as conservative and yet they may still reflect aspects of ageing and neurodegenerative disease in individual brains. PMID:22045115

  20. The intake and excretion of lead and cadmium by the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bunker, V W; Lawson, M S; Delves, H T; Clayton, B E

    1984-05-01

    Metabolic balance for lead and cadmium were carried out in 23 healthy elderly people aged 69.7 to 85.5 yr while living in their own homes and eating self-selected diets. Mean intakes of lead and cadmium were 54.6 and 8.6 micrograms/day, with mean retentions of -8.7 and -1.7 micrograms/day, respectively. Daily dietary lead correlated (p less than 0.05) with the intake of energy, nitrogen, calcium, iron, and zinc but not with manganese or copper. Dietary intake of cadmium correlated (p less than 0.05) only with that of zinc and manganese. There was a highly significant (p less than 0.001) inverse correlation between the percentage cadmium absorbed and body iron stores measured as serum iron, percentage iron saturation, and ferritin. Mean whole blood concentrations were 138 micrograms/l for lead and 0.79 microgram/l for cadmium. The negative balances observed in these elderly people were very different from the positive balances found in a previous similar study in children. PMID:6711483

  1. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, suppl6ment au no3, Tome 40, mars 1979, page C2-608 MOSSBAUER S?ECTROSCO?Y OF IRON IMPLANTED COPPER, S I LVER AND GOLD ALLOYS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -anneals to study the migration of iron atoms within and away from the implanted layer is mentioned. Introduction?ECTROSCO?Y OF IRON IMPLANTED COPPER, S I LVER AND GOLD ALLOYS G. Longworth and R. aid Nuclear Physics Division (8 co ositions of copper-, siluer- and gold-iron alloys produced by 17pe implantation at a dose of 2x10

  2. The Variations of Glycolysis and TCA Cycle Intermediate Levels Grown in Iron and Copper Mediums of Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Tavsan, Zehra; Ayar Kayali, Hulya

    2015-05-01

    The efficiency of optimal metabolic function by microorganism depends on various parameters, especially essential metal supplementation. In the present study, the effects of iron and copper metals on metabolism were investigated by determination of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites' levels with respect to the metal concentrations and incubation period in Trichoderma harzianum. The pyruvate and citrate levels of T. harzianum increased up to 15 mg/L of copper via redirection of carbon flux though glycolysis by suppression of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). However, the ?-ketoglutarate levels decreased at concentration higher than 5 mg/L of copper to overcome damage of oxidative stress. The fumarate levels correlated with the ?-ketoglutarate levels because of substrate limitation. Besides, in T. harzianum cells grown in various concentrations of iron-containing medium, the intracellular pyruvate, citrate, and ?-ketoglutarate levels showed positive correlation with iron concentration due to modifying of expression of glycolysis and TCA cycle enzymes via a mechanism involving cofactor or allosteric regulation. However, as a result of consuming of prior substrates required for fumarate production, its levels rose up to 10 mg/L. PMID:25805013

  3. Mixed messages in iron oxide–copper–gold systems of the Cloncurry district, Australia: insights from PIXE analysis of halogens and copper in fluid inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Baker; Roger Mustard; Bin Fu; Patrick J. Williams; Guoyi Dong; Louise Fisher; Geordie Mark; Chris G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Proterozoic rocks of the Cloncurry district in NW Queensland, Australia, are host to giant (tens to hundreds of square kilometers)\\u000a hydrothermal systems that include (1) barren regional sodic–calcic alteration, (2) granite-hosted hydrothermal complexes with\\u000a magmatic–hydrothermal transition features, and (3) iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG) deposits. Fluid inclusion microthermometry\\u000a and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) show that IOCG deposits and the granite-hosted hydrothermal complexes

  4. Reactivity of food phenols with iron and copper ions: binding, dioxygen activation and oxidation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nkhili, Ezzohra; Loonis, Michèle; Mihai, Simona; El Hajji, Hakima; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the affinity of common dietary phenols (gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, and rutin) for iron and copper ions was quantitatively investigated in neutral phosphate buffer as well as the reactivity of the complexes toward dioxygen. Contrasting behaviors were observed: because of the competing phosphate ions, Fe(III) binding is much slower than Fe(II) binding, which is rapidly followed by autoxidation of Fe(II) into Fe(III). With both ions, O2 consumption and H2O2 production are modest and the phenolic ligands are only slowly oxidized. By contrast, metal-phenol binding is fast with both Cu(I) and Cu(II). With Cu(I), O2 consumption and H2O2 production are very significant and the phenolic ligands are rapidly oxidized into a complex mixture of oligomers. The corresponding mechanism with Cu(II) is hampered by the preliminary rate-determining step of Cu(II) reduction by the phenols. The consequences of these findings for the stability and antioxidant activity of plant phenols are discussed. PMID:24700074

  5. Assessing Plasma Levels of Selenium, Copper, Iron and Zinc in Patients of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression. PMID:24340079

  6. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  7. The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: 1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; 2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These ev...

  8. Changes in selenium, copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the southern basin of Lake Macquarie, Australia, in response to alteration of coal-fired power station fly ash handling procedures.

    PubMed

    Kirby, J; Maher, W; Harasti, D

    2001-08-01

    Selenium, copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations were measured in mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the southern basin of Lake Macquarie, Australia, in 1997 to determine if improved ash-handling practices at an adjacent coal fired power station, implemented in 1995, had significantly lowered trace metal concentrations in mullet tissues. Mean muscle tissue concentrations of selenium (5.9 +/- 0.7 microg/g dry mass), copper (3.6 +/- 0.1 microg/g dry mass), and zinc (14 +/- 1 microg/g dry mass) are lower than previously reported for mullet analyzed in 1993 (10 +/- 2, 21 +/- 3, 27 +/- 3 microg/g dry mass, respectively). Cadmium concentrations in liver tissues increased from 2.3 +/- 0.3 to 6 +/- 2 microg/g dry mass. Significant intra-tissue correlations between metal concentrations were found for all tissues except muscle. Strong correlations of selenium, copper, and zinc concentrations were found in liver tissues, indicating a common primary source may exist for these metals, such as fly ash. All trace metals were found to have significant inter-tissue correlations, with strong correlations occurring for selenium between all tissues and for cadmium between all tissues except muscle. Regulation of copper, cadmium, and zinc appears to be occurring in muscle tissue. Selenium concentrations in mullet are still above levels considered to be of concern to human consumers. Trace metal concentrations are below that known to effect the health of fish. Mullet are directly exposed to trace metal concentrations as a result of feeding and the ingestion of contaminated sediment and detritus. Lower metal concentrations found in mullet tissues are attributed to the burial of highly contaminated sediment with material containing lower trace metal concentrations. Little of the variations in trace metal concentrations between mullet was explained by mass, gender, or age. PMID:11462141

  9. Copper in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - copper ... Copper works with iron to help the body form red blood cells. It also helps keep the ... organ meats (kidneys, liver) are good sources of copper. Dark leafy greens, dried fruits such as prunes, ...

  10. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Devilee; A. Van Sandwijk; M. A. Reuter

    1999-01-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 °C has been carried out with zinc\\u000a powder. The variables studied include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper,\\u000a and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to

  11. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; James F. Ranville; Emily K. Lesher; Daniel J. Diedrich; Diane M. McKnight; Ruth M. Sofield

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on ,i>Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 ?g Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 ?g Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  12. Perinatal iron and copper deficiencies alter neonatal rat circulating and brain thyroid hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Thomas W; Prohaska, Joseph R; Georgieff, Michael K; Anderson, Grant W

    2010-08-01

    Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and iodine/thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies lead to similar defects in late brain development, suggesting that these micronutrient deficiencies share a common mechanism contributing to the observed derangements. Previous studies in rodents (postweanling and adult) and humans (adolescent and adult) indicate that Cu and Fe deficiencies affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, leading to altered TH status. Importantly, however, relationships between Fe and Cu deficiencies and thyroidal status have not been assessed in the most vulnerable population, the developing fetus/neonate. We hypothesized that Cu and Fe deficiencies reduce circulating and brain TH levels during development, contributing to the defects in brain development associated with these deficiencies. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rat dams were rendered Cu deficient (CuD), FeD, or TH deficient from early gestation through weaning. Serum thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)), and brain T(3) levels, were subsequently measured in postnatal d 12 (P12) pups. Cu deficiency reduced serum total T(3) by 48%, serum total T(4) by 21%, and whole-brain T(3) by 10% at P12. Fe deficiency reduced serum total T(3) by 43%, serum total T(4) by 67%, and whole-brain T(3) by 25% at P12. Brain mRNA analysis revealed that expression of several TH-responsive genes were altered in CuD or FeD neonates, suggesting that reduced TH concentrations were sensed by the FeD and CuD neonatal brain. These results indicate that at least some of the brain defects associated with neonatal Fe and Cu deficiencies are mediated through reductions in circulating and brain TH levels. PMID:20573724

  13. Perinatal Iron and Copper Deficiencies Alter Neonatal Rat Circulating and Brain Thyroid Hormone Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Thomas W.; Prohaska, Joseph R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Anderson, Grant W.

    2010-01-01

    Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and iodine/thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies lead to similar defects in late brain development, suggesting that these micronutrient deficiencies share a common mechanism contributing to the observed derangements. Previous studies in rodents (postweanling and adult) and humans (adolescent and adult) indicate that Cu and Fe deficiencies affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, leading to altered TH status. Importantly, however, relationships between Fe and Cu deficiencies and thyroidal status have not been assessed in the most vulnerable population, the developing fetus/neonate. We hypothesized that Cu and Fe deficiencies reduce circulating and brain TH levels during development, contributing to the defects in brain development associated with these deficiencies. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rat dams were rendered Cu deficient (CuD), FeD, or TH deficient from early gestation through weaning. Serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), and brain T3 levels, were subsequently measured in postnatal d 12 (P12) pups. Cu deficiency reduced serum total T3 by 48%, serum total T4 by 21%, and whole-brain T3 by 10% at P12. Fe deficiency reduced serum total T3 by 43%, serum total T4 by 67%, and whole-brain T3 by 25% at P12. Brain mRNA analysis revealed that expression of several TH-responsive genes were altered in CuD or FeD neonates, suggesting that reduced TH concentrations were sensed by the FeD and CuD neonatal brain. These results indicate that at least some of the brain defects associated with neonatal Fe and Cu deficiencies are mediated through reductions in circulating and brain TH levels. PMID:20573724

  14. Biochemical lesions in copper-deficient rats caused by secondary iron deficiency. Derangement of protein synthesis and impairment of energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Weisenberg, Emil; Halbreich, Avraham; Mager, Jacob

    1980-01-01

    Severe copper deficiency was induced in rats by rearing nursing dams and their offsprings on a semisynthetic diet comprising all the requisite nutrients and trace metals except copper. The copper-deprived rats exhibited growth retardation, severe anaemia, loss of caeruloplasmin, decrease of cytochrome oxidase, accumulation of salt-soluble collagen and a drastic decrease in iron in plasma and liver. Apart from these characteristic signs of deficiency, a marked inhibition of protein synthesis was found to occur both in vivo and in cell-free liver preparations. The curtailed ability to carry out endogenously coded amino acid incorporation into protein contrasted with the unimpaired poly(U)-acid-directed phenylalanine polymerization. This inhibition pattern, as well as the attendant disaggregation of the liver polyribosomes, suggested that the primary biosynthetic lesion was located at the stage of peptide-chain initiation. Concurrently with this alteration there was a pronounced depletion of the hepatic ATP content, associated with a parallel depression of mitochondrial respiration and an enhancement of ATPase activity. Supplementation of the copper-deficient diet with a 2–4-fold excess of iron (relative to the standard diet) prevented growth retardation and anaemia and restored normal energy metabolism, as well as unimpaired protein-synthesizing capacity. The conclusion that these disturbances were primarily determined by the secondary iron deficiency was also borne out by the finding that similar alterations occurred in rats maintained on a copper-sufficient but iron-deficient diet. On the other hand, the iron-fortified diet failed to reverse the other signs of copper deficiency, namely the loss of caeruloplasmin, the diminished rate of cytochrome oxidase and the increase of soluble collagen. The interrelations between the various biochemical lesions induced by deprivation of copper or iron are discussed and the possible role of ATP depletion in determining the derangement of protein synthesis is considered. PMID:6258558

  15. Distribution of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium concentrations in stream sediments from the Mapocho River in Santiago, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Segura; V. Arancibia; M. C. Zúñiga; P. Pastén

    2006-01-01

    The Mapocho river, which crosses downtown Santiago, is one of the most important rivers in contact with a population of about six million inhabitants. Anthropogenic activities, industrialization, farming activities, transport, urbanization, animal and human excretions, domestic wastes and copper mining have affected the river, contaminating it and its sediments with heavy metals. Concentration and distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb and

  16. A comparative analysis of acute toxicity of chromium, copper and cadmium to daphnia magna, biomphalaria glabrata, and brachydanio rerio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bellavere; J. Gorbi

    1981-01-01

    Acute toxicity of Cr6 , Cu and Cdto Daphnia magna, Biomphalaria glabrata and Brachydanio rerio was evaluated. Copper resulted the most toxic element to the three animals and D. magna the most sensitive organism. The wide spectrum of the responses obtained was examined to permit the development of hypothesis about the environmental effects of the tested metals.

  17. Preconcentration of iron (III), cobalt (II) and copper (II) nitroso-R complexes on tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium iodide-naphthalene adsorbent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bal K. Puri; Sanjay Balani

    1995-01-01

    Iron, cobalt and copper form coloured water soluble anionic complexes with disodium 1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3-6-disulphonate (nitroso R-salt). The anionic complex is retained quantitatively as a water insoluble neutral ion associated complex (M-nitroso R-TDBA) on tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium iodide on naphthalene (TDBA+I?-naphthalene) packed column in the pH range of: Fe(III): 3.1–6.5, Co: 3.4–8.5 and Cu 5.9–8.0 when their solutions are passed individually over this adsorbent

  18. Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 atomic percent indium, copper-2 atomic percent tin, and iron-6.55 atomic percent silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 at. % indium, copper-2 at. % tin and iron-6.55 at. % silicon. The copper-tin and copper-indium alloys were single crystals oriented with the /111/ direction normal to the surface. An iron-6.5 at. % silicon alloy was studied (a single crystal oriented in the /100/ direction for study of a (100) surface). It was found that surface segregation occurred following sputtering in all cases. Only the iron-silicon single crystal alloy exhibited equilibrium segregation (i.e., reversibility of surface concentration with temperature) for which at present we have no explanation. McLean's analysis for equilibrium segregation at grain boundaries did not apply to the present results, despite the successful application to dilute copper-aluminum alloys. The relation of solute atomic size and solubility to surface segregation is discussed. Estimates of the depth of segregation in the copper-tin alloy indicate that it is of the order of a monolayer surface film.

  19. Effects of sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron applications on sunflower yield and plant nutrient concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, B.R.; Zubriski, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron application did not affect the seed yield or oil percentage of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on both dryland and irrigated soils in North Dakota in 1981. Field averages indicated significant Zn, Mn, and B uptake by sunflower at the 12-leaf stage as a result of fertilization with these elements. Increased Zn uptake was also observed in the uppermost mature leaf at anthesis from zinc fertilization. Although sunflower yield from boron fertilization was not significantly different from the check, a trend was observed in which boron fertilization seemed to decrease sunflower yield. Sunflower yields from the boron treatment were the lowest out of seven treatments in three out of four fields. Also, sunflower yield from the boron treatment was significantly lower than both iron and sulfur treatments when all fields were combined.

  20. Maternal iron supplementation attenuates the impact of perinatal copper deficiency but does not eliminate hypotriiodothyroninemia nor impaired sensorimotor development.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Thomas W; Lassi, Katie C; Anderson, Grant W; Prohaska, Joseph R

    2011-11-01

    Copper, iron and iodine/thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies disrupt brain development. Neonatal Cu deficiency causes Fe deficiency and may impact thyroidal status. One purpose of these studies was to determine the impact of improved iron status following Cu deficiency by supplementing the diet with iron. Cu deficiency was produced in pregnant Holtzman [Experiment 1 (Exp. 1)] or Sprague-Dawley [Experiment 2 (Exp. 2)] rats using two different diets. In Exp. 2, dietary Fe content was increased from 35 to 75 mg/kg according to NRC guidelines for reproduction. Cu-deficient (CuD) Postnatal Day 24 (P24) rats from both experiments demonstrated lower hemoglobin, serum Fe and serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. However, brain Fe was lower only in CuD P24 rats in Exp. 1. Hemoglobin and serum Fe were higher in Cu adequate (CuA) P24 rats from Exp. 2 compared to Exp. 1. Cu- and TH-deficient rats from Exp. 2 exhibited a similar sensorimotor functional deficit following 3 months of repletion. Results suggest that Cu deficiency may impact TH status independent of its impact on iron biology. Further research is needed to clarify the individual roles for Cu, Fe and TH in brain development. PMID:21239157

  1. Maternal iron supplementation attenuates the impact of perinatal copper deficiency but does not eliminate hypotriiodothyroninemia nor impaired sensorimotor development

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Thomas W.; Lassi, Katie C.; Anderson, Grant W.; Prohaska, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and iodine/thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies disrupt brain development. Neonatal Cu deficiency causes Fe deficiency and may impact thyroidal status. One purpose of these studies was to determine the impact of improved iron status following Cu deficiency by supplementing the diet with iron. Cu deficiency was produced in pregnant Holtzman (Exp. 1) or Sprague Dawley (Exp. 2) rats using two different diets. In Exp. 2, dietary Fe content was increased from 35 to 75 mg/kg according to NRC guidelines for reproduction. Cu deficient (CuD) postnatal day 24 (P24) rats from both experiments demonstrated lower hemoglobin, serum Fe, and serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. However, brain Fe was lower only in CuD P24 rats in Exp. 1. Hemoglobin and serum Fe were higher in Cu adequate (CuA) P24 rats from Exp. 2 compared to Exp. 1. Cu and TH deficient rats from Exp. 2 exhibited a similar sensorimotor functional deficit following three months of repletion. Results suggest that Cu deficiency may impact TH status independent of its impact on iron biology. Further research is needed to clarify the individual roles for Cu, Fe, and TH in brain development. PMID:21239157

  2. Bosonics in the copper and iron based high transition temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niestemski, Francis Charles

    It has been long established that the phenomenon of superconductivity is administered by lattice deformations (phonons) which act to pair electrons into spinless bosons free to condense into a coherent ground state. This superconducting phase is protected up to a critical temperature above which thermal fluctuations are potent enough to destroy the resistance free phase. The strength of this phonon mediation has been calculated by strong coupling theory and found to be capable of accommodating pairing up to near 40 K. So with the advent of copper-oxide (cuprate) superconductors boasting transitions temperatures exceeding 90 K it was clear that these material represented a new breed of superconducting physics. More than twenty years after the initial discovery of these high-transition temperatures the most basic questions are yet to be answered, the most fundamental of which is by what mechanism does pairing occur? The field splits between those who feel that a boson mediator is still necessary to act as the virtual glue which binds electrons into cooper pairs while others insist that really the Coulomb force alone is enough to induce pairing physics. Even within the boson-seeker community there is no consensus on what particular type of boson is contained in this system whether it be a lattice excitation or spin excitation. This answer has been clouded by previous experimental results on the hole-doped cuprates which have made strong cases for every scenario rendering them largely inconclusive. For this answer though it is possible to explore materials that have not yet been clouded by conflicting results by performing the first high resolution ultra-high-vacuum low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of an electron-doped cuprate. A distinct and unambiguous bosonic mode is found at energy near 10.5 meV. Through comparison with other experimental data it is found that this mode does not fit the characteristics of a phonon. It is found, through comparison with neutron scattering experiments on the same sample, that this mode is consistent with a spin collective mode. Further more it is found that this mode is linked with the strength of superconductivity nominating it as the possible electron pairing mechanism. Doping and temperature dependence studies are performed to investigate this possibility. Finally the same procedures developed can be applied to the newly discovered iron based superconductors which may represent yet another type of new superconductor physics. Initial results on the first bosonic mode STM study of SrFe 2-xCoxAs 2 and BaFe2-xCo xAs2 are presented.

  3. Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takashi (Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Atsugi (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Determination of cadmium, lead and copper in water samples by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry with preconcentration by flow-injection on-line sorbent extraction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z; Guo, T; Welz, B

    1991-06-01

    Cadmium, lead and copper were determined in synthetic sea-water, drinking water and the NBS 1643b Trace Elements in Water standard reference material at mug/l. levels by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry after on-line preconcentration by sorbent extraction with a flow-injection system. Bonded silica with octadecyl functional groups packed in a micro column of 100 mul capacity was used to collect diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate complexes of the heavy metals in the aqueous samples. The sample loading time was 20 sec at a flow-rate of 3.3 ml/min. Ethanol or methanol was used to elute the adsorbed analytes into the spectrometer. The sample loading rate, elution rate and pH were optimized. Enrichment factors of 19-25 for Cd, Pb and Cu were achieved at sampling frequencies of 120/hr with precisions of 1.4, 1.0 and 1.3% rsd (n = 11), respectively. The detection limits (3sigma) for Cd, Pb and Cu were 0.3, 3 and 0.2 mug/l., respectively. Determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in NBS SRM 1643b showed good agreement with the certified values. Recoveries of Cd and Pb added to sea-water were 95 and 102%, respectively. PMID:18965193

  5. Metallothioneins and energy budget indices in cadmium and copper exposed spiders Agelena labyrinthica in relation to their developmental stage, gender and origin.

    PubMed

    Babczy?ska, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Gra?yna; Wilczek, Piotr; Szuli?ska, El?bieta; Witas, Ilona

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our studies was to explain the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in the neutralization of excessive amounts of metals (essential: copper (Cu) and toxic: cadmium (Cd)) and to describe the energy status in metal-exposed spiders Agelena labyrinthica in relation to its developmental stage, gender and origin. Juvenile, female and male spiders were collected from three variously polluted habitats, transferred to the laboratory and exposed to the metals in their diet. Cu and Cd accumulation in the body and exuviae, bioaccumulation factor, percentage of metallothionein positive cells, MT concentration, percentage of cells with depolarized mitochondria, ATP concentration and ADP/ATP ratio were measured and calculated. Cu appeared to be regulated and its excess is eliminated via, among others, the molting process, while Cd was rather accumulated by the spiders. The level of MTs increased significantly mainly in females exposed to both metals, irrespectively of the pollution degree of their site of origin, indicating a defensive role of the proteins. In general, even if both the MT level and the energy status indices were positively correlated with Cd and Cu concentrations in the spider body, the energy status of A. labyrinthica did not seem disturbed. PMID:21620997

  6. Copper and Iron Determination with [ N , N ?Bis(salicylidene)-2,2?-dimethyl-1,3-propanediaminato] in Edible Oils Without Digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eda Köse Baran; Sema Ba?dat Ya?ar

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the determination of copper(II) and iron(III) in liquid edible oils which does not require a digestion step\\u000a was developed. The suggested method involves extraction of metals with [N,N?-bis(salicylidene)-2,2?-dimethyl-1,3-propanediaminato] (LDM) followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry measurement.\\u000a As a first step, metal complexes of copper(II) and iron(III) ions with LDM were investigated spectrophotometrically. After\\u000a the analytical properties

  7. Effect of excessive dietary fluoride on nutrient digestibility and retention of iron, copper, zinc, and manganese in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tao, X; Xu, Z R; Wang, Y Z

    2005-11-01

    Ninety-six crossbred growing pigs were used to evaluate the effects of fluoride levels on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and the retention of minerals in tissues. Four dietary treatments were formulated by supplementing fluorine (as NaF) to a corn-soybean basal diet (39.75 mg/kg F) to provide the following added fluorine levels: 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg fluorine. The results showed pigs of the 100 and 150 mg/kg fluorine-added groups had decreased average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed gain ratio (F/G) compared to the control (p < 0.05). Apparent digestibility of protein and calcium in 100 and 150 mg/kg fluorine-treated groups was significantly lower than that of the control (p < 0.05). On the other hand, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese levels in most tissues of the 100 and 150 mg/kg fluorine groups were markedly changed compared to the control (p < 0.05). However, growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and mineral concentrations in all tissues of pigs were not significantly affected by the addition of 50 mg/kg fluorine (p > 0.05). Thus, this study suggested that excess fluoride levels could decrease growth performance and change the retention of iron, copper, zinc, and manganese in pigs. PMID:16217139

  8. Determination of iron and copper in seawater at pH 1.7 with a new commercially available chelating resin, NTA Superflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maeve C. Lohan; Ana M. Aguilar-Islas; Robert P. Franks; Kenneth W. Bruland

    2005-01-01

    The use of a commercially available chelating resin with NTA-type functional groups for concentration of trace metals from seawater is described. Trace metal recoveries from this NTA Superflow chelating resin are pH dependent. At a pH of ?2 only iron(III) and copper are quantitatively recovered from the resin. Iron(II) cannot be quantitatively recovered from this resin below a pH of

  9. Origin of fluids in iron oxide–copper–gold deposits: constraints from ? 37 Cl, 87 Sr\\/ 86 Sr i and Cl\\/Br

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Chiaradia; Dave Banks; Robert Cliff; Robert Marschik; Antoine de Haller

    2006-01-01

    The origin of the hypersaline fluids (magmatic or basinal brine?), associated with iron oxide (Cu–U–Au–REE) deposits, is controversial. We report the first chlorine and strontium isotope data combined with Cl\\/Br ratios of fluid inclusions from selected iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG) deposits (Candelaria, Raúl–Condestable, Sossego), a deposit considered to represent a magmatic end member of the IOCG class of deposit (Gameleira), and

  10. Bioconcentration patterns of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in selected fish species from the Fox River, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Vinikour, W.S.; Goldstein, R.M.; Anderson, R.V.

    1980-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine if bioconcentration patterns were similar between four common essential and nonessential trace elements. The whole body concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb were related to the whole body dry weights of blue-gill (Lepomis macrochirus), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Zinc, Cu, Cd, and Pb were selected because most studies of heavy metal concentrations in fish have examined one or more of these elements. These metals are often closely associated with each other as natural impurities or as alloys. Zinc and Cu are essential components of metallo-enzymes. Cadmium and Pb have not been shown to have essential functions in fishes, but rather inhibit biological systems and competitively interfere with Zn and Cu. The fish species were chosen on the basis of their importance as recreational and food species and their frequent use in both field and laboratory studies. Patterns of metal bioconcentrations with fish size were determined by simple linear regression.

  11. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  12. Method for selective recovery of cadmium from cadmium-bearing waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Reinhardt; H. D. Ottertun; J. H. A. Rydberg

    1977-01-01

    A method for the selective recovery of cadmium, nickel and cobalt from a nickel--cadmium battery waste comprises the following steps: (A) leaching the waste with an ammoniacal carbonate solution to form an aqueous ammoniacal carbonate solution containing cadmium, nickel and cobalt (II) ammine complexes and a leaching residue--any iron in the waste is in the leaching residue; (B) adding air

  13. Copper and iron isotope fractionation during weathering and pedogenesis: Insights from saprolite profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng-Ao; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shuguang; Wei, Gang-Jian; Ma, Jing-Long; Li, Dandan

    2014-12-01

    Iron and copper isotopes are useful tools to track redox transformation and biogeochemical cycling in natural environment. To study the relationships of stable Fe and Cu isotopic variations with redox regime and biological processes during weathering and pedogenesis, we carried out Fe and Cu isotope analyses for two sets of basalt weathering profiles (South Carolina, USA and Hainan Island, China), which formed under different climatic conditions (subtropical vs. tropical). Unaltered parent rocks from both profiles have uniform ?56Fe and ?65Cu values close to the average of global basalts. In the South Carolina profile, ?56Fe values of saprolites vary from -0.01‰ to 0.92‰ in the lower (reduced) part and positively correlate with Fe3+/?Fe (R2 = 0.90), whereas ?65Cu values are almost constant. By contrast, ?56Fe values are less variable and negatively correlate with Fe3+/?Fe (R2 = 0.88) in the upper (oxidized) part, where large (4.85‰) ?65Cu variation is observed with most samples enriched in heavy isotopes. In the Hainan profile formed by extreme weathering under oxidized condition, ?56Fe values vary little (0.05-0.14‰), whereas ?65Cu values successively decrease from 0.32‰ to -0.12‰ with depth below 3 m and increase from -0.17‰ to 0.02‰ with depth above 3 m. Throughout the whole profile, ?65Cu positively correlate with Cu concentration and negatively correlate with the content of total organic carbon (TOC). Overall, the contrasting Fe isotopic patterns under different redox conditions suggest redox states play the key controls on Fe mobility and isotope fractionation. The negative correlation between ?56Fe and Fe3+/?Fe in the oxidized part of the South Carolina profile may reflect addition of isotopically light Fe. This is demonstrated by leaching experiments, which show that Fe mineral pools extracted by 0.5 N HCl, representing poorly-crystalline Fe (hydr)-oxides, are enriched in light Fe isotopes. The systematic Cu isotopic variation in the Hainan profile reflects desorption and downward transport of isotopically heavy Cu, leaving the organically-bound Cu enriched in light isotope as supported by the negative correlation of ?65Cu with TOC (R2 = 0.88). The contrasting (mostly positive vs. negative) Cu isotopic signatures in the upper parts of these two profiles can be attributed to the different climatic conditions, e.g., high rainfall at a tropical climate in Hainan favors desorption and the development of organism, whereas relatively dry climate in South Carolina favors Cu re-precipitation from soil solutions and adsorption onto Fe (hydr)-oxides. Our results highlight the potential applications of Fe and Cu isotopes as great tracers of redox condition, ancient climate and biological cycling during chemical weathering and pedogenic translocation.

  14. Iron, copper, zinc and bromine mapping in cirrhotic liver slices from patients with hemochromatosis studied by microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in continuous scanning mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Osterode; G. Falkenberg; R. Höftberger; F. Wrba

    2007-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential metals in physiological cell metabolism. While Fe is easy to determine biochemically in histological slices, Cu and zinc (Zn) distribution is frequently critical in confirming the presence of an overload in disturbed Fe\\/Cu metabolism. To analyze Fe, Cu and Zn in a near histological resolution, energy dispersive microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was

  15. Sulfur dioxide removal from flue gases by supported copper and iron absorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Melson, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This project was initiated in response to a need to address the problem of attrition for copper oxide/alumina sorbents for the PETC fluidized bed copper oxide process. The attrition problem is a major drawback to the economic feasibility of the process. Previous attempts to reduce sorbent attrition focused on engineering modifications; however, it was proposed that the method of impregnation and pre-treatment of a copper oxide/alumina sorbent may have a significant effect on the reactivity and stability of the sorbent and thus the attrition rate. Prepared sorbents would be characterized by a variety of techniques. Sorption of sulfur dioxide from simulated flue gas mixtures and regeneration of the sorbents with hydrogen and methane would be studied, particularly by thermogravimetric techniques. Evaluation of the rate of attrition for the prepared sorbents would be made. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Huso huso) to a sub-lethal level of copper and cadmium in freshwater and brackish water environments.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Saeed; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Rafati, Maryam; Banaee, Mahdi; Sepehri Moghadam, Heshmat; Raeici, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    In Caspian Sea basin, sturgeons spend the larval and juvenile stages in freshwaters of rivers and then, they migrate to brackish waters of the sea where they grow and mature. With regard to the elevation of the metal concentrations in coastal waters and sediments of the Caspian Sea and its adjacent rivers, it is likely that juvenile sturgeon are exposed to sub-lethal levels of metals during seawater entry process. We compared the biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Beluga, Huso huso) exposed to a sub-lethal level of copper (Cu, 20 ?g/L) and cadmium (Cd, 300 ?g/L) in freshwater (FW, 0 ppt) and brackish water (BW, 11 ppt) for seven days. The results showed that the levels of plasma glucose increased significantly in BW and in all metal exposed groups. Also, plasma cortisol concentrations showed significant increases when juveniles were exposed to BW, Cu(FW/BW) and Cd(BW). The activity of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased significantly in BW compared with FW. Moreover, Cu and Cd exposure enhanced the activity of SOD in BW, while SOD did not show any changes in FW. The levels of tissue and plasma proteins as well as plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and liver Catalase (CAT) activity remained constant when animals were exposed to Cu/Cd in both FW and BW environments. Our data indicate that exposure of juvenile beluga to BW stimulated the general biochemical responses of stress such as cortisol and glucose, while sub-lethal exposure to Cu and Cd caused oxidative stress in BW environment but not in FW. PMID:24499513

  17. Biochemical responses of ecological importance in males of the austral South America amphipod Hyalella curvispina Shoemaker, 1942 exposed to waterborne cadmium and copper.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Anabella; Ferrari, Lucrecia

    2014-02-01

    The use of physiological parameters as sensitive indicators of toxic stress from exposure to different pollutants is an important issue to be studied. Hyalella curvispina is a Neotropical amphipod often used in ecotoxicological evaluations. This work aimed to quantify biochemical responses of ecological importance in H. curvispina males under stress exposure to sublethal concentrations of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd); in order to obtain basic physiological data as indicators of early effect on this species, on track to its standardization. In order to evaluate the physiological, biochemical and energetic status of the exposed animals, the following endpoints were selected: content of glycogen, total proteins, total lipids, triglycerides, glycerol, arginine, arginine phosphate, levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Our results show that the concentrations of Cu (135 and 175 µg/L) and Cd (6.5 and 10.5 µg/L) tested altered most of the biochemical variables measured (glycogen, total proteins, total lipids, triglycerides, arginine phosphate, TBARS, and SOD and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activities). In addition, neither the levels of glycerol and arginine nor CAT activity were affected by exposure to either metal. Energy metabolism was similarly affected both by exposure to Cu and exposure to Cd. The results obtained show the existence of an energy imbalance associated with oxidative damage, suggesting a comprehensive response. This work represents a first contribution of the evaluation of the effect of two heavy metals in some parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism of H. curvispina males. The results indicate these parameters can provide a sensitive criterion for the assessment of early ecotoxicological effects of Cu and Cd in laboratory assays, on a native species representative of the zoobenthic and epiphytic communities of South America. PMID:24325969

  18. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5?g/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10?g/L, whereas, Cu reached 10?g/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. PMID:24632122

  19. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Shady Side, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  20. Insight into bio-metal interface formation in vacuo: interplay of S-layer protein with copper and iron.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Anna A; Grachova, Elena V; Neudachina, Vera S; Yashina, Lada V; Blüher, Anja; Molodtsov, Serguei L; Mertig, Michael; Ehrlich, Hermann; Adamchuk, Vera K; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of interaction between inorganic matter and biomolecules, as well as properties of resulting hybrids, are receiving growing interest due to the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. The majority of potential applications for metal-biohybrid structures require stability of these systems under vacuum conditions, where their chemistry is elusive, and may differ dramatically from the interaction between biomolecules and metal ions in vivo. Here we report for the first time a photoemission and X-ray absorption study of the formation of a hybrid metal-protein system, tracing step-by-step the chemical interactions between the protein and metals (Cu and Fe) in vacuo. Our experiments reveal stabilization of the enol form of peptide bonds as the result of protein-metal interactions for both metals. The resulting complex with copper appears to be rather stable. In contrast, the system with iron decomposes to form inorganic species like oxide, carbide, nitride, and cyanide. PMID:25736576

  1. Arabidopsis Thaliana CARBOXYL-TERMINAL DOMAIN PHOSPHATASE-Like1 (CPL1) Mediates Responses to Iron Deficiency and Cadmium Toxicity 

    E-print Network

    Aksoy, Emre

    2014-04-24

    The expression of genes that control iron (Fe) uptake and distribution (i.e., Fe utilization- related genes) is under a strict regulation. Fe deficiency strongly induces Fe utilization- related gene expression; however, little is known about...

  2. Iron, copper, and manganese complexes with in vitro superoxide dismutase and/or catalase activities that keep Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells alive under severe oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thales P; Fernandes, Christiane; Melo, Karen V; Ferreira, Sarah S; Lessa, Josane A; Franco, Roberto W A; Schenk, Gerhard; Pereira, Marcos D; Horn, Adolfo

    2015-03-01

    Due to their aerobic lifestyle, eukaryotic organisms have evolved different strategies to overcome oxidative stress. The recruitment of some specific metalloenzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases (CATs) is of great importance for eliminating harmful reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion). Using the ligand HPClNOL {1-[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]-3-chloropropan-2-ol}, we have synthesized three coordination compounds containing iron(III), copper(II), and manganese(II) ions, which are also present in the active site of the above-noted metalloenzymes. These compounds were evaluated as SOD and CAT mimetics. The manganese and iron compounds showed both SOD and CAT activities, while copper showed only SOD activity. The copper and manganese in vitro SOD activities are very similar (IC50~0.4 ?mol dm(-3)) and about 70-fold higher than those of iron. The manganese compound showed CAT activity higher than that of the iron species. Analyzing their capacity to protect Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress (H2O2 and the O2(•-) radical), we observed that all compounds act as antioxidants, increasing the resistance of yeast cells mainly due to a reduction of lipid oxidation. Especially for the iron compound, the data indicate complete protection when wild-type cells were exposed to H2O2 or O2(•-) species. Interestingly, these compounds also compensate for both superoxide dismutase and catalase deficiencies; their antioxidant activity is metal ion dependent, in the order iron(III)>copper(II)>manganese(II). The protection mechanism employed by the complexes proved to be independent of the activation of transcription factors (such as Yap1, Hsf1, Msn2/Msn4) and protein synthesis. There is no direct relation between the in vitro and the in vivo antioxidant activities. PMID:25511255

  3. Removal of copper and iron by polyurethane foam column in FIA system for the determination of nickel in pierced ring.

    PubMed

    Vongboot, Monnapat; Suesoonthon, Monrudee

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) mini-column was used to eliminate copper and iron for the determination of nickel in pierced rings. The PUF mini-column was connected to FIA system for on-line sorption of copper and iron in complexes form of CuSCN(+) and FeSCN(2+). For this season, the acid solution containing a mixture of Ni(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) and SCN(-) ions was firstly flew into the PUF column. Then, the percolated solution which Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions is separated from analysis was injected into FIA system to react with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) reagent in basic condition which this method is called pH gradient technique. The Ni-PAR complexes obtained were measured theirs absorbance at 500 nm by UV visible spectrophotometer. In this study, it was found that Cu(II) and Fe(III) were completely to form complexes with 400 mmol/L KSCN and entirely to eliminate in acidic condition at pH 3.0. In the optimum condition of these experiments, the method provided the linear relationship between absorbance and the concentration of Ni(II) in the range from 5.00 to 30.00 mg/L. Linear equation is y=0.0134x+0.0033 (R(2)=0.9948). Precision, assessed in the term of the relative standard deviation, RSD, and accuracy for multiple determinations obtained in values of 0.77-1.73% and 97.4%, respectively. The level of an average amount of Ni(II) in six piercing rings was evaluated to be 14.78 mg/g. PMID:25281109

  4. Selective elution of copper and iron cyanide complexes from ion exchange resins using saline solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C Lukey; J. S. J van Deventer; D. C Shallcross

    2000-01-01

    Numerous reagents for the elution of metal cyanide complexes from ion exchange resins have been proposed previously. However, a simple and cost-effective elution procedure has not been developed that is able to selectively strip metal cyanide complexes from the resin. The results of the current study show that highly saline solutions can be used to selectively elute copper cyanide and

  5. Interactions of free copper (II) ions alone or in complex with iron (III) ions with erythrocytes of marine fish Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Labieniec, Magdalena; Milowska, Katarzyna; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Rucinska, Agata; Sadowska, Magdalena; Jokiel, Marta; Brichon, Gerard; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2009-09-01

    As a consequence of human activity, various toxicants - especially metal ions - enter aquatic ecosystems and many fish are exposed to considerable levels. As the free ion and in some complexes, there is no doubt that copper promotes damage to cellular molecules and structures through radical formation. Therefore, we have investigated the influence of copper uptake by the red blood of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and its oxidative action and effects on cells in the presence of complexed and uncomplexed Fe3+ ions. Erythrocytes were exposed to various concentrations of CuSO4, Fe(NO3)3, and K3Fe(CN)6 for up to 5h, and the effects of copper ions alone and in the combination with iron determined. The results show that inside the cells cupric ion interacts with hemoglobin, causing methemoglobin formation by direct electron transfer from heme Fe2+ to Cu2+. Potassium ferricyanide as a source of complexed iron decreases Met-Hb formation induced by copper ions unlike Fe(NO3)3. We also found that incubation of fish erythrocytes with copper increased hemolysis of cells. But complexed and uncomplexed iron protected the effect of copper. CuSO4 increased the level of lipid peroxidation and a protective effect on complexed iron was observed. Incubation of erythrocytes with copper ions resulted in the loss of a considerable part of thiol content at 10 and 20 microM. This effect was decreased by potassium ferricyanide and Fe(NO3)3 only after 1 and 3h of incubation. The level of nuclear DNA damage assayed by comet assay showed that 20 microM CuSO4 as well as 20 microM Fe(NO3)3 and 10 mM K3Fe(CN)6 induce single- and double-strand breaks. The lower changes were observed after the exposure of cells to K3Fe(CN)6. The data suggest that complexed iron can act protectively against copper ions in contrast to Fe(NO3)3. PMID:19524693

  6. Structure, insertion electrochemistry, and magnetic properties of a new type of substitutional solid solutions of copper, nickel, and iron hexacyanoferrates/hexacyanocobaltates.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Antje; Kahlert, Heike; Petrovic-Prelevic, Irena; Wulff, Harm; Yakhmi, J V; Bagkar, Nitin; Scholz, Fritz

    2002-11-01

    Substitutional solid solutions of metal hexacyanometalates in which low-spin iron(III) and cobalt(III) ions populate the carbon-coordinated sites were synthesized and studied by powder diffraction including Rietveld refinement, cyclic voltammetry of immobilized microparticles, diffuse reflection vis-spectrometry, and magnetization techniques. The continuous solid solution series of potassium copper(II), potassium nickel(II), and iron(III) [(hexacyanoferrate(III))(1-x)(hexacyanocobaltate(III))(x)] show that the substitution of low-spin iron(III) by cobalt(III) in the hexacyanometalate units more strongly affects the formal potentials of the nitrogen-coordinated copper(II) and high-spin iron(III) ions than those of the remaining low-spin iron(III) ions. In the case of copper(II) and iron(III) [(hexacyanoferrate(III))(1-x)(hexacyanocobaltate(III))(x)] the peak currents decrease much more than can be explained by stoichiometry, indicating that the charge propagation is slowed by the substitution of low-spin iron(III) by cobalt(III). The Rietveld refinement of all compounds confirmed the structure initially proposed by Keggin for Prussian blue and contradicts the structure described later by Ludi. The dependencies of lattice parameters on composition exhibit in all series of solid solutions studied similar, although small, deviations from ideality, which correlate with the electrochemical behavior. Finally, a series of solid solutions of the composition KNi(0.5)(II)Cu(0.5)(II)[Fe(III)(CN)(6)](1-x)[Co(III)(CN)(6)](x), where both the nitrogen- and carbon-coordinated metal ions are mixed populated and were synthesized and characterized. These are the first examples of solid solutions of metal hexacyanometalates with four different metal ions, where both the nitrogen- and the carbon-coordinated sites possess a mixed population. PMID:12401075

  7. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  8. Laser-initiated combustion studies of selected aluminum, copper, iron, and nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bransford, J. W.; Clark, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of combustion studies at atmospheric pressure on ten metal alloys are presented. The alloys studied were aluminum alloys 1100, 2219, 6061, and tensile-50; 304, 347 and 21-6-9 stainless steel; inconel 600; beryllium copper and a bronze. It was found that once ignition was achieved all alloys would generally burn to completion. The overall combustion process appears to obey a first order rate process. Preliminary conclusions are presented along with recommendations for future work.

  9. Rosette iron deficiency transcript and microRNA profiling reveals links between copper and iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Brian M.; Stein, Ricardo J.

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential plant micronutrient, and its deficiency limits plant growth and development on alkaline soils. Under Fe deficiency, plant responses include up-regulation of genes involved in Fe uptake from the soil. However, little is known about shoot responses to Fe deficiency. Using microarrays to probe gene expression in Kas-1 and Tsu-1 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, and comparison with existing Col-0 data, revealed conserved rosette gene expression responses to Fe deficiency. Fe-regulated genes included known metal homeostasis-related genes, and a number of genes of unknown function. Several genes responded to Fe deficiency in both roots and rosettes. Fe deficiency led to up-regulation of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes CSD1 and CSD2, and down-regulation of FeSOD genes FSD1 and FSD2. Eight microRNAs were found to respond to Fe deficiency. Three of these (miR397a, miR398a, and miR398b/c) are known to regulate transcripts of Cu-containing proteins, and were down-regulated by Fe deficiency, suggesting that they could be involved in plant adaptation to Fe limitation. Indeed, Fe deficiency led to accumulation of Cu in rosettes, prior to any detectable decrease in Fe concentration. ccs1 mutants that lack functional Cu,ZnSOD proteins were prone to greater oxidative stress under Fe deficiency, indicating that increased Cu concentration under Fe limitation has an important role in oxidative stress prevention. The present results show that Cu accumulation, microRNA regulation, and associated differential expression of Fe and CuSOD genes are coordinated responses to Fe limitation. PMID:22962679

  10. Acute effects of cadmium and copper on survival, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in juvenile Exopalaemon carinicauda.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengsong; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-06-01

    Ridgetail white prawn (Exopalaemon carinicauda), a commercially important species in China, is a potential candidate for evaluating impairments caused by environmental pollutants in coastal and estuarine areas. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on survival, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in E. carinicauda. The feasibility of using this species for pollution monitoring was also evaluated. Results showed that the median lethal concentrations (LC50) for 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h were 0.66mg/L, 0.379mg/L, 0.343mg/L, and 0.258mg/L for Cd, and 0.932mg/L, 0.748mg/L, 0.725mg/L, and 0.712mg/L for Cu. Cd exposure (0.66mg/L) caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 21.1 percent and an increase in ammonia-N excretion of 47.1 percent, thereby decreasing the atomic ratio of oxygen consumed to nitrogen consumed (O:N ratio) of 46.32 percent relative to the control. Cu exposure (0.932mg/L) also resulted in an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 34.8 percent and a decrease in the O:N ratio of 23.9 percent in relation to the control, but the ammonia-N excretion was not influenced by the Cu exposure. Concentration-depended accumulation was observed in the experimental animals, which a maximum of 244.8 folds and 1.1 folds increase of mental concentration was measured upon exposure to 24h LC50 of Cd and Cu for 24h, respectively. The change in O:N ratio indicated an alteration in energy utilization. Based on its sensitivity to heavy metals and its availability all year round, E. carinicauda can be used as a test organism to monitor for metal pollution. PMID:24726930

  11. Elevated copper in the amyloid plaques and iron in the cortex are observed in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease that exhibit neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bourassa, Megan W.; Leskovjan, Andreana C.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Farquhar, Erik R.; Colton, Carol A.; Van Nostrand, William E.; Miller, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), alterations in metal homeostasis, including the accumulation of metal ions in the plaques and an increase of iron in the cortex, have been well documented but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE In this study, we compared the metal content in the plaques and the iron speciation in the cortex of three mouse models, two of which show neurodegeneration (5xFAD and Tg-SwDI/NOS2?/? (CVN) and one that shows very little neurodegeneration (PSAPP). METHODS The Fe, Cu, and Zn contents and speciation were determined using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), respectively. RESULTS In the mouse models with reported significant neurodegeneration, we found that plaques contained ~25% more copper compared to the PSAPP mice. The iron content in the cortex increased at the late stage of the disease in all mouse models, but iron speciation remains unchanged. CONCLUSIONS The elevation of copper in the plaques and iron in the cortex is associated with AD severity, suggesting that these redox-active metal ions may be inducing oxidative damage and directly influencing neurodegeneration. PMID:24926425

  12. Flow-injection determination of copper(II) based on its catalysis on the redox reaction of cysteine with iron(III) in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Teshima; Hideyuki Katsumata; Makoto Kurihara; Tadao Sakai; Takuji Kawashima

    1999-01-01

    A redox reaction of cysteine with iron(III) proceeds slowly in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). However, this reaction is accelerated in the presence of copper(II) as a catalyst, producing an iron(II)–phen complex (?max=510 nm). A sensitive spectrophotometric flow-injection method is proposed for the determination of copper(II) based on its catalytic action on this redox reaction. The dynamic range was 0.1–10

  13. Cadmium recovery at Amplate, Inc., Charlotte, NC. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    There are a number of small electroplating firms in North Carolina that electroplate chromium, nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium onto a variety of substrates. A smaller number of these firms electroplate cadmium for specific industrial and military uses. A major problem for these electroplaters is the processing, reuse, pretreatment and/or disposal of spent cadmium plating and rinse baths. This project is a technical and economic study to determine the probable success of cadmium recovery and reuse primarily from contaminated rinse baths.

  14. Bioaccumulation of lead, copper, iron, and zinc by fish in a transect of the Santa Catarina River in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Changes have been observed in the ichthyic species community, upriver in the San Juan River in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A disappearance of Notropis amabilis, Notropis stramineus, Dionda episcopa and Campostoma anomalum and an increased mortality of Astyanax mexicanus, Lepomis macrochirus and Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum have been found. These changes were probably due to industrial and domestic discharges which produced high levels of lead, copper, iron and detergents in the water. The investigation reported here was done in order to detect the possible presence of lead, copper, iron and zinc in the river waters and also, to determine a probable bioaccumulation of these metals in fish species of the Santa Catarina River in the state of Nuevo Leon in northeastern Mexico, since this river transports domestic and industrial wastes of urban and suburban zones.

  15. Effect of lactose, copper and iron on manganese retention and tissue distribution in rats fed dextrose-casein diets.

    PubMed

    King, B D; Lassiter, J W; Neathery, M W; Miller, W J; Gentry, R P

    1980-03-01

    The effect of iron, lactose and copper on manganese retention was studied in rats fed two diets. Thirty-six male albino rats (75 to 100 g) were allotted to six groups of six rats each. Three groups received a purified manganese-free dextrose-casein diet, and three groups received the same purified diet with 17% lactose added at the expense of dextrose. One group fed each of the above diets received either a manganese-free mineral mixture, the mineral mixture with 5 ppm supplemental Cu or the same mineral mixture with Fe removed. After 7 days on the diets, each rat was given, by gavage, 10 muCi of 54Mn activity as 54MnCl2 in a sodium acetate buffer. On the third day after dosing, the rats were sacrificed and samples of liver, kidneys, semitendinosus muscle, spleen and tibia were taken for stable and radioactive manganese analysis. Lactose added to the purified diet depressed 54Mn retention in all tissues studied. Lactose addition also decreased specific activities of the livers and kidneys but tended to increase stable manganese values. Copper apparently had little direct effect on 54Mn retention but tended to reduce the effect of lactose on 54Mn retention. Omission of Fe greatly increased 54Mn retention values in all tissues studied with or without added lactose. Fe omission also significantly increased the specific activities and stable Mn values of livers and the specific activity of kidneys. The results indicate that low dietary Fe may be a contributing factor to the increased manganese retention observed in this study and a previous study. PMID:7364681

  16. Investigation of the effects of cadmium by micro analytical methods on Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. roots.

    PubMed

    Colak, G; Baykul, M C; Gürler, R; Catak, E; Caner, N

    2014-09-01

    The interactions between cadmium stress and plant nutritional elements have been investigated on complete plant or at the level of organs. This study was undertaken to contribute to the exploration of the physiological basis of cadmium phytotoxicity. We examined the changes in the nutritional element compositions of the root epidermal cells of the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. at the initial growth stages that is known as the most sensitive stage to the stress. Effects of cadmium stress on the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were examined by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis) assay performed with using low vacuum (? 24 Pascal) Scanning Electron Microscopy. In the analysis performed at the level of root epidermal cells, some of the macro- and micronutrient contents of the cells (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, copper, and zinc levels) were found to change when the applying toxic concentrations of cadmium. There was no change in the manganese and sodium content of the epidermal cells. It was concluded that the changes in nutritional element composition of the cells can be considered as an effective parameter in explaining the physiological mechanisms of cadmium-induced growth inhibition. PMID:25194735

  17. Activation of methanogenesis by cadmium in the marine archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans.

    PubMed

    Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Santiago-Martínez, M Geovanni; Hernández-Juárez, Viridiana; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans was cultured in the presence of CdCl(2) to determine the metal effect on cell growth and biogas production. With methanol as substrate, cell growth and methane synthesis were not altered by cadmium, whereas with acetate, cadmium slightly increased both, growth and methane rate synthesis. In cultures metabolically active, incubations for short-term (minutes) with 10 µM total cadmium increased the methanogenesis rate by 6 and 9 folds in methanol- and acetate-grown cells, respectively. Cobalt and zinc but not copper or iron also activated the methane production rate. Methanogenic carbonic anhydrase and acetate kinase were directly activated by cadmium. Indeed, cells cultured in 100 µM total cadmium removed 41-69% of the heavy metal from the culture and accumulated 231-539 nmol Cd/mg cell protein. This is the first report showing that (i) Cd(2+) has an activating effect on methanogenesis, a biotechnological relevant process in the bio-fuels field; and (ii) a methanogenic archaea is able to remove a heavy metal from aquatic environments. PMID:23152802

  18. Comparative study of alloxan effects in copper-loaded and iron-loaded rats: lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, proteasome and antioxidant enzyme activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albena Alexandrova; Almira Georgieva; Lubomir Petrov; Elina Tsvetanova; Margarita Kirkova

    2006-01-01

    The in-vivo effects of alloxan on protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, as well as on proteasome and antioxidant enzyme activities\\u000a in liver and kidney of copper-loaded and iron-loaded rats, were studied. In control animals, a single alloxan dose (120 mg\\/kg,\\u000a i.p.) increased blood-glucose concentration at the 24th hr and 48th hr and, especially, on the 5th day. For these periods

  19. Neutron activation cross sections for copper, europium, hafnium, iron, nickel, silver, terbium and titanium from the Argonne, Los Alamos and Jaeri collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Meadows; D. L. Smith; L. R. Greenwood; R. C. Haight; Y. Ideda; C. Konno

    1995-01-01

    Several fast-neutron activation reactions for copper, europium, hafnium, iron, nickel, silver, terbium and titanium that are important to fusion energy have been investigated in three distinct neutron fields generated by accelerators at Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA, and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Japan. Final differential cross-sections at 14.7 MeV and integral cross sections for

  20. Identification of Negative cis-Acting Elements in Response to Copper in the Chloroplastic Iron Superoxide Dismutase Gene of the Moss Barbula unguiculata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miwa Nagae; Masaru Nakata; Yohsuke Takahashi

    2008-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals. Chloroplasts have two isozymes, copper\\/zinc SOD (Cu\\/ZnSOD) and iron SOD (FeSOD), encoded by nuclear genes. Because bryophytes are considered as the earliest land plants, they are one of the most interesting plant models for adaptation against oxidative stress. In a previous study, we found that the FeSOD

  1. Influence of Copper, Iron, Zinc and Fe 3 + Haemoglobin Levels on the Etiopathogenesis of Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis—A Study in Patients with Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geetha Arumugam; Monika Padmanaban; Dhanya Krishnan; Saranya Panneerselvam; Surendran Rajagopal

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a serious condition associated with severe abdominal pain, and a significant percentage of patients\\u000a progresses to irreversible calcification in pancreas. The present study evaluates the degree to which the levels of trace\\u000a elements, copper, iron, selenium, zinc and haemoglobin-Fe3+, in blood, serum and pancreas have any role to play in the calcification process associated with fibrosis in

  2. Effects of Dietary Nickel and Protein on Growth, Nitrogen Metabolism and Tissue Concentrations of Nickel, Iron, Zinc, Manganese and Copper in Calves1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JERRY W. SPEARS; R. W. HARVEY

    Thirty male calves were used in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effects of dietary nickel and protein on performance, urease activity and tissue concentrations of nickel, iron, zinc, copper and manganese Protein levels evaluated were 10.0, 12.25 and 14.5%, and nickel was supplemented at a level of 0 or 5 mg\\/kg of diet. Nickel

  3. Coumarin-based fluorescent probes for dual recognition of copper(II) and iron(III) ions and their application in bio-imaging.

    PubMed

    García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Cassels, Bruce K; Pérez, Claudio; Mena, Natalia; Núñez, Marco T; Martínez, Natalia P; Pavez, Paulina; Aliaga, Margarita E

    2014-01-01

    Two new coumarin-based "turn-off" fluorescent probes, (E)-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1) and (E)-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2), were synthesized and their detection of copper(II) and iron(III) ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective for Cu²? and Fe³? ions over other metal ions. However, BS2 is detected directly, while detection of BS1 involves a hydrolysis reaction to regenerate 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin (3) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, of which 3 is able to react with copper(II) or iron(III) ions. The interaction between the tested compounds and copper or iron ions is associated with a large fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of ca. 10?? M. Preliminary studies employing epifluorescence microscopy demonstrate that Cu²? and Fe³? ions can be imaged in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the tested probes. PMID:24419164

  4. Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probes for Dual Recognition of Copper(II) and Iron(III) Ions and Their Application in Bio-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Cassels, Bruce K.; Pérez, Claudio; Mena, Natalia; Núñez, Marco T.; Martínez, Natalia P.; Pavez, Paulina; Aliaga, Margarita E.

    2014-01-01

    Two new coumarin-based “turn-off” fluorescent probes, (E)-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1) and (E)-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2), were synthesized and their detection of copper(II) and iron(III) ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective for Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions over other metal ions. However, BS2 is detected directly, while detection of BS1 involves a hydrolysis reaction to regenerate 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin (3) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, of which 3 is able to react with copper(II) or iron(III) ions. The interaction between the tested compounds and copper or iron ions is associated with a large fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of ca. 10?5 M. Preliminary studies employing epifluorescence microscopy demonstrate that Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions can be imaged in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the tested probes. PMID:24419164

  5. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease and restless leg syndrome. Taking iron with levothyroxine can reduce this medication’s effectiveness. Levothyroxine (Levothroid®, Levoxyl®, Synthroid®, Tirosint®, and Unithroid®) is used ...

  6. Synthesis and properties of ternary GIC with iron or copper chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. N. Shornikova; A. V. Dunaev; N. V. Maksimova; V. V. Avdeev

    2006-01-01

    The variety of graphite intercalation compounds (GIC) is provided by the possibility to obtain ternary intercalation (TGIC) compounds containing two or more intercalates. A wide range of metal chlorides (FeCl3, AlCl3, CuCl2, NiCl2) and Brönsted acids (HNO3, CH3COOH, H2SO4) are generally used as intercalates. Iron chloride intercalation into the graphite leads to the formation of binary GIC with composition C6nFeCl3.

  7. Redox-activity and self-organization of iron-porphyrin monolayers at a copper/electrolyte interface.

    PubMed

    Phan, Thanh Hai; Wandelt, Klaus

    2015-03-14

    The electrochemical behaviour and molecular structure of a layer of water-soluble 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin-Fe(III) pentatosylate, abbreviated as FeTMPyP, on a chloride modified Cu(100) electrode surface were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in-situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy. Voltammetric results of HOPG in an electrolyte containing FeTMPyP molecules indicate three distinguishable redox steps involving both the central iron metal and the ?-conjugated ring system. However, only the first two reduction steps are observable within the narrow potential window of CVs of Cu(100) measured in the same electrolyte. In the potential range below the first reduction peak, at which the [Fe(III)TMPyP](5+) molecules are reduced to the corresponding [Fe(II)TMPyP](4+) species, in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images revealed, for the first time, a highly ordered adlayer of this reduced porphyrin species on the chloride terminated Cu(100) surface. The ordered adlayer exhibits a (quasi)square unit cell with the lattice vectors |a?2|=|b?2|=1.53±0.1 nm and an angle of 93° ± 2° between them. A model is proposed based on the STM observation illustrating the arrangement of the [Fe(II)TMPyP](4+) molecules at the electrolyte/copper interface. PMID:25770506

  8. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with hierarchical structure through a solution-immersion process on copper and galvanized iron substrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenguo; Liu, Hongqin; Lu, Shixiang; Xi, Jinming; Wang, Yanbin

    2008-10-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained on copper and galvanized iron substrates by means of a simple solution-immersion process: immersing the clean metal substrates into a methanol solution of hydrolyzed 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (CF3(CF2)5(CH2) 2SiCl3, FOTMS) for 3-4 days at room temperature and then heated at 130 degrees C in air for 1 h. Both of the resulting surfaces have a high water contact angle (CA) of larger than 150.0 degrees as well as a small sliding angle (SA) of less than 5 degrees . The formation and structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). SEM images showed that both of the resulting surfaces exhibited special hierarchical structure. The special hierarchical structure along with the low surface energy leads to the high surface superhydrophobicity. PMID:18774835

  9. Copper stable isotopes as tracers of metal-sulphide segregation and fractional crystallisation processes on iron meteorite parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Helen M.; Archer, Corey

    2011-06-01

    We report high precision Cu isotope data coupled with Cu concentration measurements for metal, troilite and silicate fractions separated from magmatic and non-magmatic iron meteorites, analysed for Fe isotopes (? 57Fe; permil deviation in 57Fe/ 54Fe relative to the pure iron standard IRMM-014) in an earlier study ( Williams et al., 2006). The Cu isotope compositions (? 65Cu; permil deviation in 65Cu/ 63Cu relative to the pure copper standard NIST 976) of both metals (? 65Cu M) and sulphides (? 65Cu FeS) span much wider ranges (-9.30 to 0.99‰ and -8.90 to 0.63‰, respectively) than reported previously. Metal-troilite fractionation factors (? 65Cu M-FeS = ? 65Cu M - ? 65Cu FeS) are variable, ranging from -0.07 to 5.28‰, and cannot be explained by equilibrium stable isotope fractionation coupled with either mixing or reservoir effects, i.e. differences in the relative proportions of metal and sulphide in the meteorites. Strong negative correlations exist between troilite Cu and Fe (? 57Fe FeS) isotope compositions and between metal-troilite Cu and Fe (? 57Fe M-FeS) isotope fractionation factors, for both magmatic and non-magmatic irons, which suggests that similar processes control isotopic variations in both systems. Clear linear arrays between ? 65Cu FeS and ? 57Fe FeS and calculated Cu metal-sulphide partition coefficients (D Cu = [Cu] metal/[Cu] FeS) are also present. A strong negative correlation exists between ? 57Fe M-FeS and D Cu; a more diffuse positive array is defined by ? 65Cu M-FeS and D Cu. The value of D Cu can be used to approximate the degree of Cu concentration equilibrium as experimental studies constrain the range of D Cu between Fe metal and FeS at equilibrium to be in the range of 0.05-0.2; D Cu values for the magmatic and non-magmatic irons studied here range from 0.34 to 1.11 and from 0.04 to 0.87, respectively. The irons with low D Cu values (closer to Cu concentration equilibrium) display the largest ? 57Fe M-FeS and the lowest ? 65Cu M-FeS values, whereas the converse is observed in the irons with large values D Cu that deviate most from Cu concentration equilibrium. The magnitudes of Cu and Fe isotope fractionation between metal and FeS in the most equilibrated samples are similar: 0.25 and 0.32‰/amu, respectively. As proposed in an earlier study ( Williams et al., 2006) the range in ? 57Fe M-FeS values can be explained by incomplete Fe isotope equilibrium between metal and sulphide during cooling, where the most rapidly-cooled samples are furthest from isotopic equilibrium and display the smallest ? 57Fe M-FeS and largest D Cu values. The range in ? 65Cu M-FeS, however, reflects the combined effects of partial isotopic equilibrium overprinting an initial kinetic signature produced by the diffusion of Cu from metal into exsolving sulphides and the faster diffusion of the lighter isotope. In this scenario, newly-exsolved sulphides initially have low Cu contents (i.e. high D Cu) and extremely light ? 65Cu FeS values; with progressive equilibrium and fractional crystallisation the Cu contents of the sulphides increase as their isotopic composition becomes less extreme and closer to the metal value. The correlation between ? 65Cu M-FeS and ? 57Fe M-FeS is therefore a product of the superimposed effects of kinetic fractionation of Cu and incomplete equilibrium between metal and sulphide for both isotope systems during cooling. The correlations between ? 65Cu M-FeS and ? 57Fe M-FeS are defined by both magmatic and non-magmatic irons record fractional crystallisation and cooling of metallic melts on their respective parent bodies as sulphur and chalcophile elements become excluded from crystallised solid iron and concentrated in the residual melt. Fractional crystallisation processes at shallow levels have been implicated in the two main classes of models for the origin of the non-magmatic iron meteorites; at (i) shallow levels in impact melt models and (ii) at much deeper levels in models where the non-magmatic irons represent metallic melts that crystallised within the in

  10. Occupational exposure to cadmium and lung function.

    PubMed

    Cortona, G; Apostoli, P; Toffoletto, F; Baldasseroni, A; Ghezzi, I; Goggi, E; Fornari, S; Alessio, L

    1992-01-01

    A total of 69 male subjects occupationally exposed to cadmium fumes in a factory producing silver-cadmium-copper alloys for brazing, were subjected to lung function tests, including ventilation (FVC and FEV1), residual volume (RV) and alveolar-capillary diffusion capacity (TLCO and KCO). For each subject, the cumulative exposure to cadmium was calculated as the product of the number of years in the job and the average atmospheric concentration of cadmium (expressed in micrograms/m3) encountered each year. Cadmium-exposed subjects had moderately higher mean values of RV (+ 8%) as compared with the control group; the increase was greater (+ 10%) in the subgroup of workers with greater cumulative exposure to cadmium. No significant differences were observed in FVC, FEV1, TLCO and KCO. PMID:1303942

  11. Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Phosphate Rock Platinum Potash Pumice Quartz Crystal Rare Earths Rhenium Rubidium Salt Sand and Gravel Cadmium Iodine Pumice Thorium Cement Iron Ore Quartz Crystal Tin Cesium Iron and Steel Rare Earths

  12. Manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), and copper(II) complexes of an extended inherently chiral tris-bipyridyl cage

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, David F.; Lindoy, Leonard F.; McAuley, Alexander; Meehan, George V.; Turner, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), and copper(II) derivatives of two inherently chiral, Tris(bipyridyl) cages (L and L?) of type [ML]-(PF6)2(solvent)n and [FeL?](ClO4)2 are reported, where L is the hexa-tertiary butyl-substituted derivative of L?. These products were obtained by using the free cage and metal template procedures; the latter involved the reductive amination of the respective Tris-dialdehyde precursor complexes of iron(II), cobalt(II), or nickel(II). Electrochemical, EPR, and NMR studies have been used to probe the nature of the individual complexes. X-ray structures of the manganese(II), iron(II), and copper(II) complexes of L and the iron(II) complex of L? are presented; these are compared with the previously reported structures of the corresponding nickel(II) complex and metal-free cage (L). In each complex the metal cation occupies the cage's central cavity and is coordinated to six nitrogens from the three bipyridyl groups. The cations [MnL]2+ and [FeL]2+ are isostructural but both exhibit a different arrangement of the bound cage to that observed in the corresponding nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes. The latter have an exo-exo arrangement of the bridgehead nitrogen lone pairs, with the metal inducing a triple helical twist that extends ?22 Å along the axial length of each complex. In contrast, [MnL]2+ and [FeL]2+ have their terminal nitrogen lone pairs directed endo, causing a significant change in the configuration of the bound ligand. In [FeL?]2+, the cage has both bridgehead nitrogen lone pairs orientated exo. Semiempirical calculations indicate that the observed endo-endo and exo-exo arrangements are of comparable energy. PMID:16407129

  13. Study on solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangyu; Fen, Weibo; Lei, Chun; Xiao, Weilie; Sun, Handong

    2009-02-15

    A solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent was studied. Trace amounts of chromium, nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead were reacted with 2-(2-quinolinil-azo)-4-methyl-1,3-dihydroxidobenzene (QAMDHB) followed by adsorption onto MCI GEL CHP 20Y solid phase extraction column, and 1.0molL(-1) HNO(3) was used as eluent. The metal ions in 300mL solution can be concentrated to 1.0mL, representing an enrichment factor of 300 was achieved. The recoveries of analytes at pH 8.0 with 1.0g of resin were greater than 95% without interference from alkaline, earth alkaline and some metal ions. When detected with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, the detection limits in the original samples were 1.4ngL(-1) for Cr(III), 1.0ngL(-1) for Ni(II), 0.85ngL(-1) for Ag(I), 1.2ngL(-1) for Co(II), 1.0ngL(-1) for Cu(II), 1.2ngL(-1) for Cd(II) and 1.3ngL(-1) for Pb(II). The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the certified standard reference materials, and the presented procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in biological, water and soil samples with good results (recoveries range from 89 to 104%, and R.S.D.% lower than 3.2%. The results agreed with the standard value or reference method). PMID:18562094

  14. Acute and subacute response of iron, zinc, copper and selenium in pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Humann-Ziehank, Esther; Menzel, Anne; Roehrig, Petra; Schwert, Barbara; Ganter, Martin; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    This study was performed to characterise the response of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) in bacterial-induced porcine acute phase reaction (APR). Twenty piglets were challenged by aerosolic infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A.pp.) serotype 2, ten piglets serving as controls. Blood sampling was done initially and at day 4 and 21 after infection, collection of liver tissue was done at day 21 (autopsy). A.pp.-infection caused fever and respiratory symptoms. APR at day 4 after infection was marked by an increase in total white blood cells, granulocytes and monocytes in whole blood samples and an increase in globulin/albumin ratio (G/A), ?2-globulins, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin (Cp), Cu and Se in serum. Concurrently, there was a decrease in haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) in whole blood as well as a decrease in albumin, transferrin, total iron binding capacity and Fe in serum and Zn in plasma. The subacute stage at day 21 was characterised by progressively increased concentrations of G/A, ?-globulins and ?-globulins reflecting the specific immune reaction. Hb and PCV showed further decreases, all other parameters returned to the initial concentrations. Glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and liver tissue remained unaffected by A.pp.-infection. The liver concentration (day 21) of Zn was found to be higher, that of Se was lower in the A.pp.-group, whereas hepatic concentrations of Cu and Fe were not affected by A.pp.-infection. In summary, the acute and subacute stages of A.pp.-infection were accurately characterised by the APR-related parameters. Se was only marginally affected by the A.pp.-infection. The elevated plasma Cu concentration may be a side effect of the transient hepatic induction of Cp synthesis. Zn responded, being distinctly reduced in plasma and probably having been sequestered in the liver tissue. Reduction in serum Fe can be regarded as an unspecific defence mechanism in A.pp.-infection to withdraw Fe from bacterial acquisition systems. PMID:25100437

  15. Iron(II) and copper(I) coordination polymers: electrochromic materials with and without chiroptical properties.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Stefan; Goldsmith, Jonas I; Takada, Kazutake; Abruña, Héctor D

    2003-07-14

    The electrochemical and optical properties of films prepared from two different Fe(II) coordination polymers (TPT[Fe(II)TPT](n)(PF(6))(2)(n) (TPT = terpyridine-phenyl-terpyridine) and CTPCT[Fe(II)CTPCT](n)(PF(6))(2)(n) (CTPCT = chiral terpyridine-phenyl-chiral terpyridine)) and a coordination polymer based on Cu(I) metal centers (PDP[Cu(I)PDP](n)(BF(4))(n)) (PDP = phenanthroline-dodecane-phenanthroline) have been studied. The oxidation of a PDP[Cu(I)PDP](n)(BF(4))(n) film coated on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode by stepping the potential from 0.0 to +1.4 V vs Ag/AgCl led not only to the complete bleaching of the absorption in the visible region of the spectrum within 5 min but also to a redox-induced dissociation and dissolution of the polymer. The reverse reaction of binding and reassembling the polymer at the electrode surface, upon stepping the potential back to 0.0 V, occurred with a rate which was at least 1 order of a magnitude slower. In contrast, the bis(2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine)iron(II)-based redox polymers TPT[Fe(II)TPT](n)(PF(6))(2)(n) and CTPCT[Fe(II)CTPCT](n)(PF(6))(2)(n), during similar spectroelectrochemical experiments, not only exhibited a dramatically enhanced switching rate but also displayed symmetric switching kinetics. The films did not show signs of deterioration over 150 switching cycles. Additionally, in an effort to assemble an electrochromic device with chiroptical properties, the electrochromism of films generated from the enantiomerically pure CTPCT[Fe(II)CTPCT](n)(PF(6))(2)(n) polymer was studied through circular dichroism. PMID:12844311

  16. Selenium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese content of seven meat cuts from Hereford and Braford steers fed pasture in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M C; Ramos, A; Saadoun, A; Brito, G

    2010-03-01

    Tenderloin (T), eye of rump (E), striploin (S), eye round (ER), tri-tip (TT), rib-eye roll (RR) and three rib plate-flank on (RP) meat cuts were evaluated. Selenium contents ranged between 0.42 and 1.20 mg/kg wet tissue (wt) in Hereford (H) breed and between 0.49 and 1.3 mg/kg wt in Braford (B) breed. In H and B breeds, T, TT and RP, and TT and RP were the richest cuts in selenium, respectively. Copper contents ranged between 0.25 and 1.04 mg/kg wt in H, and between 0.19 and 1.09 mg/kg wt in B. In H breed, RP had significantly more Cu than ER, TT, and RR. In B breed, ER and RR show a significant lower Cu level in comparison to the other meat cuts. Zinc contents ranged between 23 and 72.7 mg/kg wt in H, and between 23 and 63.9 mg/kg wt in B. RP is the richest cut in Zn compared to the other cuts in the two breeds. Iron contents ranged between 16.4 and 48.2 mg/kg wt in H, and between 14.2 and 47.9 mg/kg wt in B. In H breed, RR shows a lower content compared to the other cuts, except RP and S. In B breed, RR had the lowest level of Fe compared to the other cuts, except RP and T. Manganese contents ranged between 0.05 and 0.17 mg/kg wt in H, and between 0.04 and 0.48 mg/kg wt in B. In H no differences were detected between cuts. In B breed, ER cut shows the highest level of Mn. PMID:20374819

  17. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  18. Detoxification of cadmium Ultrastructural study and electron-probe microanalysis of the midgut in a cadmium-resistant strain of Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Lauverjat; Christiane Ballan-Dufrancais; Maurice Wegnez

    1989-01-01

    Summary The midgut of a cadmium-resistant strain ofDrosophila melanogaster has been studied at the ultrastructural level and by electronprobe microanalysis (EPMA). Chronic exposure to cadmium leads to a concentration of the metal in a lysosomal system developed in both anterior and posterior segments of the midgut, where it coexists with copper and sulfur. This mechanism apparently ensures a permanent cadmium

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of (. cap alpha. -hydroxyalkyl)chromium complexes by copper(II) and iron(III) ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bakac, A.; Espenson, J.H.

    1981-05-20

    Copper(II) and iron(III) ions react with (..cap alpha..-hydroxyalkyl)chromium(2+) complexes (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, 2-propyl) in water or in aqueous alcohol solutions leading to the cleavage of the chromium-carbon bond. The immediate products are Cr/sup 2 +/, the reduced metal ion (Cu/sup +/ or Fe/sup 2 +/), and the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. The reactions obey the rate law -d(CrROH/sup 2 +/)/dt = (k + k'(H)/sup -1/(CrROH/sup 2 +/)(M), where M = Cu/sup 2 +/ or Fe/sup 3 +/. The dominant k' term has the following values in 1 M aqueous parent alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively): CrCH/sub 2/OH/sup 2 +/, k'/sub Cu/ = 0.251 s/sup -1/,k'/sub Fe/ = 0.496 s/sup -1/; CrCH(CH/sub 3/)OH/sup 2 +/, 1.46, 0.481; CrC(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/OH/sup 2 +/, 0.574, 1.90. The reactivity toward Cu/sup 2 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ is significantly diminished upon substitution of the OH hydrogen by an alkyl group. Copper(II) does not react with (..cap alpha..-alkoxyalkyl)chromium(2+) complexes at all, while iron(III) shows some reactivity with k'/sub Fe/ = 0.0127 s/sup -1/ (CrCH/sub 2/OCH/sub 3//sup 2 +/) and 0.0400 s/sup -1/ (CrCH(CH/sub 3/)OC/sub 2/H/sub 5//sup 2 +/), both in 1 M methanol. A mechanism proposed for the oxidation of (..cap alpha..-hydroxyalkyl)chromium(2+) complexes by copper(II) and iron(III) consists of the oxidant attack at the alcoholic OH group followed by a slow electron-transfer step.

  20. Rare earths and other trace elements in minerals from skarn assemblages, Hillside iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Roniza; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Teale, Graham S.; Giles, David; Mumm, Andreas Schmidt; Wade, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Hillside Cu-(Au) deposit, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia, is a recently-discovered ore system within the 1.6 Ga World-class Olympic iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) Province. The deposit is characterized by a skarn-style alteration zone. Analyses of feldspar, calcite, skarn minerals (garnet, pyroxene, clinozoisite and actinolite) and accessories (titanite, apatite and allanite), and grain-scale element mapping by laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry are used to assess the distributions of rare earth element (REE), incompatible and ore-forming elements in host rocks, prograde and retrograde skarn.

  1. Chelatometric determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, limestone, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and divers materials.

    PubMed

    Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

    1980-03-01

    Chelatometric methods for the determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and various other materials are described. Potential interfering elements are masked with triethanolamine and potassium cyanide. In one aliquot calcium is titrated at pH > 12, with calcein and thymolphthalein mixed indicator and in another aliquot calcium and magnesium are titrated in ammonia buffer, with o-cresolphthalein complexone screened with Naphthol Green B as indicator. The results compare favourably with certified values for reference materials of diverse nature. PMID:18962661

  2. Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide–copper–gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: paragenesis and stable isotope constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena V. S. Monteiro; Roberto P. Xavier; Emerson R. de Carvalho; Murray W. Hitzman; Craig A. Johnson; Carlos Roberto de Souza Filho; Ignácio Torresi

    2008-01-01

    The Sossego iron oxide–copper–gold deposit (245 Mt @ 1.1% Cu, 0.28 g\\/t Au) in the Carajás Mineral Province of Brazil consists\\u000a of two major groups of orebodies (Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano and Sossego–Curral) with distinct alteration assemblages that are\\u000a separated from each other by a major high angle fault. The deposit is located along a regional WNW–ESE-striking shear zone\\u000a that defines the contact between

  3. Enrichment and determinations of nickel(II), cadmium(II), copper(II), cobalt(II) and lead(II) ions in natural waters, table salts, tea and urine samples as pyrrolydine dithiocarbamate chelates by membrane filtration–flame atomic absorption spectrometry combination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim Narin; Mustafa Soylak

    2003-01-01

    A membrane filtration procedure for the preconcentration of nickel(II), cadmium(II), copper(II), cobalt(II) and lead(II) ions has been established. The analytes were adsorbed on cellulose nitrate membrane filter as their ammonium pyrrolydine dithiocarbamate (APDC) complexes. Then membrane filter was dissolved by using nitric acid. The levels of the analytes in the final solutions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).

  4. Reducing effect of ingesting tannic acid on the absorption of iron, but not of zinc, copper and manganese by rats.

    PubMed

    Afsana, Kaosar; Shiga, Kazuki; Ishizuka, Satoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2004-03-01

    Interest in the beneficial effects of polyphenols, including tannic acid (TA), is increasing, although, these compounds also have adverse effects; for example, on the absorption of iron (Fe), and possibly other trace minerals. We examined the effect of a graded dose of TA on the absorption of Fe and compared with that of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) in rats. We also investigated the effect of TA on cecal fermentation which plays a role in absorption. In Experiment 1, to set the optimum dose of Fe, male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 70-90 g) after acclimatization were fed with different levels of dietary Fe (5, 10, 20, 30 and 35 mg/kg). We observed that the hematocrit (Ht), serum Fe concentration and transferrin saturation (%) were each reduced in those rats fed less than 20 mg/kg Fe in a dose-dependent manner. In Experiment 2, the rats were fed with test diets containing the minimum required level of Fe, 30 mg/kg diet, with (5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet) or without TA for a period of three weeks. Feeding a diet containing more than 10 g TA/kg diet, but not 5 g TA/kg diet, reduced the hemoglobin concentration (Hb), Ht and serum Fe concentration due to decreased Fe absorption. In contrast, the Zn, Cu and Mn absorption was not affected by TA feeding. It is also demonstrated that liver Fe, but not the Zn, Cu and Mn contents, were lower in the TA groups than in the TA-free control group. Feeding TA slightly decreased the pH value of the cecal contents with an increase in the major short-chain fatty acid pool. About 15% of the ingested TA were recovered in the feces of each TA-fed group. Our results demonstrate that more than 10 g TA/kg diet induced anemia by reducing the Fe absorption, although there was no effect on the absorption of other important trace minerals. Our findings suggest that the usual intake of polyphenols is relatively safe, but that a high intake by supplementation or by dietary habit of tannin affects only the Fe level. PMID:15056891

  5. Syntheses and structural characterization of iron(II) and copper(II) coordination compounds with the neutral flexible bidentate N-donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Azizolla; Lalegani, Arash; Bruno, Giuseppe; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri

    2014-08-01

    Two new coordination compounds [Fe(bib)2(N3)2]n(1) and [Cu2(bpp)2(N3)4] (2) with azide and flexible ligands 1,4-bis(imidazolyl)butane (bib) and 1,3-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)propane (bpp) were prepared and structurally characterized. In the 2D network structure of 1, the iron(II) ion lies on an inversion center and exhibits an FeN6 octahedral arrangement while in the dinuclear structure of 2, the copper(II) ion adopts an FeN5 distorted square pyramid geometry. In the complex 1, each ?2-bib acts as bridging ligand connecting two adjacent iron(II) ions while in the complex 2, the bpp ligand is coordinated to copper(II) ion in a cyclic-bidentate fashion forming an eight-membered metallocyclic ring. Coordination compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Thermal analysis of polymer 1 was also studied.

  6. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (Anacardium occidentale L.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Ana Cristina Silva; Soares, Denise Josino; da Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; de Abreu Menezes, Eveline

    2014-10-15

    Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. As a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fraction were 15% and 11.5% and for zinc this level was 3.7%. Regarding the cashew apple fibre, the bioaccessible fraction for these minerals was lower than 5%. The ascorbic acid, total extractable polyphenols and total antioxidant activity bioaccessible fraction for whole cashew apple juice showed bioaccessibility percentages of 26.2%, 39% and 27%, respectively, while for the cashew apple fibre, low bioaccessibles levels were found. The bioacessible percentage of zinc, ascorbic acid and total extractable polyphenols were higher in cashew apple juice than cashew apple fibre. PMID:24837932

  7. Effects on growth and cadmium residues from feeding cadmium-added diets with and without montmorillonite nanocomposite to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z R; Han, X Y; Wang, Y Z

    2004-10-01

    One hundred and ninety-two crossbred pigs (barrows, Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshine, initial weight 27.6 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of montmorillonite nanocomposite (MNC) on cadmium (Cd) retention in tissues of growing pigs. The animals were randomly assigned to 2 supplementations of Cd (0 or 10 mg/kg) and 2 levels of MNC (0 or 0.5%) in a 2x2 factorial arrangement. Each group was fed corn-soybean basal diets and consisted of 3 replications of 16 pigs. The feeding experiment lasted 83 d. Pig growth performances decreased significantly by addition of 10 mg Cd/kg (p<0.05) and improved with supplementation of MNC (p<0.05). Addition of MNC with Cd decreased Cd retentions in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen, thymus and lymphaden of pigs (p<0.05). MNC also decreased tissue Cd residues of pigs fed the diet without added Cd (p>0.05). There were decreased iron levels and increased copper levels in serum and liver of 10 mg Cd/kg treatment (p<0.05). Zinc content in serum and liver was not affected by the addition of Cd (p>0.05). Serum and liver iron, copper and zinc concentrations of pigs fed MNC without added Cd were unaffected by MNC (p>0.05). PMID:15487642

  8. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Fusion Welds and Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in an Iron-Copper Based Multi-Component Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farren, Jeffrey David

    NUCu-140 is a copper-precipitation strengthened steel that exhibits excellent mechanical properties with a relatively simple chemical composition and processing schedule. As a result, NUCu-140 is a candidate material for use in many naval and structural applications. Before NUCu-140 can be implemented as a replacement for currently utilized materials, a comprehensive welding strategy must be developed under a wide range of welding conditions. This research represents an initial step toward understanding the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs during fusion welding of NUCu-140. The following dissertation is presented as a series of four chapters. Chapter one is a review of the relevant literature on the iron-copper system including the precipitation of copper in steel, the development of the NUCu family of alloys, and the formation of acicular ferrite in steel weldments. Chapter two is a detailed study of the precipitate, microstructural, and mechanical property evolution of NUCu-140 fusion welds. Microhardness testing, tensile testing, local-electrode atom probe (LEAP) tomography, MatCalc kinetic simulations, and Russell-Brown strengthening results for gas-tungsten and gas-metal arc welds are presented. Chapter three is a thorough study of the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs in the four critical regions of the HAZ. Simulated HAZ specimens were produced and evaluated using microhardness, tensile testing, and charpy impact testing. MatCalc simulations and R-B strengthening calculations were also performed in an effort to model the experimentally observed mechanical property trends. Chapter 4 is a brief investigation into the capabilities of MatCalc and the R-B model to determine if the two techniques could be used as predictive tools for a series of binary iron-copper alloys without the aid of experimentally measured precipitate data. The mechanical property results show that local softening occurs in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) as a result of either full or partial dissolution of the copper-rich precipitates responsible for strengthening. Re-precipitation of the copper-rich precipitates was observed during the cooling portion of the weld thermal cycle but the resultant precipitate phase fractions were too low to fully recover the lost strength. The coarse-grained HAZ and fusion zone exhibited an acicular type microstructure which led to improved tensile properties when compared to the other regions of the HAZ. MatCalc simulations displayed excellent agreement with the precipitate parameters measured experimentally using the LEAP. The R-B model was shown to provide reasonable agreement under select conditions, but in general was determined to be overly sensitive to small variations in precipitate parameters. As a result in should be considered a qualitative tool only for precipitate radii less than ˜2 nm. Finally, it was determined that the current generation of MatCalc software was unable to accurately capture the precipitate evolution of various binary iron-copper alloys when experimental data sets were not available for calibration of the model parameters.

  9. Mineral status of non-anemic Peruvian infants taking an iron and copper syrup with or without zinc from 6 to 18 months of age: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Colombo, John; Kannass, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in iron, zinc and copper status of non-anemic Peruvian infants receiving daily supplements with 10 mg iron, 0.5 mg copper with or without 10 mg zinc from 6 to 18 months of age. Methods Overall, 251 infants were randomized to one of two daily supplements. Venous blood draws at 6, 12, and 18 months were taken to characterize hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, zinc and copper concentrations. Urinary excretion of zinc was also measured at each time point. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate changes over time and by supplement type. Results Both hemoglobin and copper concentrations increased significantly, while plasma ferritin decreased from 6 to 12 months of age (P < 0.05). Mean plasma zinc concentrations in the zinc treatment group were maintained over time, while that in the control group declined; differences by treatment were found at 12 and 18 months (P < 0.05). Urinary zinc concentration was increased in the zinc group at 12 months only. There was evidence that zinc treatment improved hemoglobin at 18 months of age (P = 0.09). Compliance with supplementation was high, with 81% of the intended dose consumed over the 12-month period. Conclusions Daily mineral supplementation over one year appears feasible and acceptable in this population, and a combined supplement can improve iron, zinc and copper status of infants at the same time. PMID:24103510

  10. Zinc dependence of zinT (yodA) mutants and binding of zinc, cadmium and mercury by ZinT

    SciTech Connect

    Kershaw, Christopher J.; Brown, Nigel L. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hobman, Jon L. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jon.hobman@nottingham.ac.uk

    2007-12-07

    ZinT (B1973), previously known as YodA, was originally characterised as a cadmium-induced periplasmic protein under the regulation of Fur and SoxS. Here we describe a decrease in zinT transcript in response to elevated copper concentrations and the zinc and copper dependent phenotype of a {delta}zinT strain. Cadmium sensitivity of the {delta}zinT strain was not observed. We demonstrate the binding of nickel, zinc, cadmium, and mercury, but not cobalt, copper, iron, and manganese, to purified ZinT using mass spectrometry. This and previous studies support the hypothesis that ZinT plays a role in zinc homeostasis and is required for growth under zinc limited conditions, suggesting that ZinT is either a periplasmic zinc chaperone or is involved in zinc import. Limited metal ion discrimination results in regulation of PzinT in a non-specific manner, which is mirrored in the binding of several different heavy metals by ZinT.

  11. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations. PMID:25234328

  12. Structure of self-interstitial atom clusters in iron and copper Akiyuki Takahashi1 and Nasr M. Ghoniem2

    E-print Network

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    and the width of the stacking faults. An applied external shear can delocalize the core of an SIA cluster narrow stacking fault SF region. The compact nature of the SIA core in copper is attributed to the strong dependence of the self-energy on the cluster size. As the number of atoms in the SIA cluster increases

  13. A thermodynamic explanation for the martensitic transformation of nanometer-sized ?-iron particles embedded in a copper matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Qin; Y. W. Du; Y. H. Zhuang; Z. H. Chen

    2002-01-01

    The martensitic transformation of nanometer-sized particles precipitating in a copper matrix is analyzed from a thermodynamic viewpoint. It is shown that there exists a critical austenitic particle size below which the austenitic phase becomes more stable than the martensitic phase and the martensitic transformation cannot take place. Prolonged annealing, extraction of particle from the matrix, and plastic deformation would make

  14. Cadmium-induced Cancers in Animals and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program based on epidemiologic studies showing a causal association with lung cancer, and possibly prostate cancer, and studies in experimental animals, demonstrating that cadmium causes tumors at multiple tissue sites, by various routes of exposure, and in several species and strains. Epidemiologic studies published since these evaluations suggest that cadmium is also associated with cancers of the breast, kidney, pancreas, and urinary bladder. The basic metal cationic portion of cadmium is responsible for both toxic and cardinogenic activity, and the mechanism of carcinogenicity appears to be multifactorial. Available information about the carcinogenicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds is reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. PMID:17718178

  15. Cadmium | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Cadmium is an element found in low concentrations in the earth’s crust. It is usually found as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide).

  16. SOURCES OF COPPER AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to update estimates of atmospheric emissions of copper and copper compounds in the U.S. Source categories evaluated included: metallic minerals, primary copper smelters, iron and steel making, combustion, municipal incineration, secondary coppe...

  17. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933). PMID:25558996

  18. Simultaneous automatic electrochemical detection of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead ions in environmental samples using a thin-film mercury electrode and an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Kudr, Jiri; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Gumulec, Jaromir; Nejdl, Lukas; Blazkova, Iva; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ion quantification, while Zn(II) did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME) were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933). PMID:25558996

  19. Effects of iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins on the activity and contents of human placental copper/zinc and manganese superoxide dismutases.

    PubMed

    Hunaiti, A A; Saleh, M S

    1996-09-01

    One hundred seventy-nine pregnant women, ages 15-45 yr, were divided into three groups. Group A was orally given one spansule per day containing 150 mg dried ferrous sulfate, 61.8 mg zinc sulfate, and 500 micrograms folic acid, starting from the first 4 wk of pregnancy and ending at the day of delivery. Similarly, group B was given one tablet containing 625 mg calcium carbonate, 1000 mg vitamin C, 300 IU Vitamin D, 1350 mg citric acid, and 15 mg Vitamin B6. Group C was without any supplements and served as a control. Mothers who received iron/zinc supplements (group A) during pregnancy had significantly higher copper/zinc superoxide dismutase activity in their placentae than calcium/vitamin-supplemented mothers (group B) or unsupplemented mothers (group C). The enzyme activity increased with age of the mothers from 15 to 40 yr, then decreased after in both supplemented groups, whereas this increase and decrease occurred at early age in the unsupplemented group. Immunochemical quantitation of the enzyme contents showed no significant difference between the supplemented and unsupplemented groups, suggesting that the observed increase in the enzyme activity might arise from posttranslational processing of the enzyme. The placental manganese superoxide dismutase activity and contents, however, were similar in the supplemented groups, whereas they were slightly higher in the unsupplemented group; the overall superoxide dismutase-like activities in the placentae were the highest in iron-zinc supplemented group and the lowest in the unsupplemented group. PMID:8909696

  20. Calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and corpus callosum in brain of four genetic mouse strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M. H.; Devès, G.; Guillou, F.

    2005-04-01

    In the central nervous system, metallic cations are involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis. Moreover, the metallic cations have been associated with pathogenesis, particularly multiple sclerosis and malignant gliomas. The brain is vulnerable to either a deficit or an excess of available trace elements. Relationship between trace metals and myelinogenesis is important in understanding a severe human pathology : the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. One approach to understand this disease has used mutant or transgenic mice presenting myelin deficiency or excess. But to date, the concentration of trace metals and mineral elements in white and gray matter areas in wild type brain is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) in the white and gray matter of the mouse cerebellum and corpus callosum. The brains of four different genetic mouse strains (C57Black6/SJL, C57Black6/D2, SJL and C3H) were analyzed. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow PIXE (Proton-induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. The results obtained give the first reference values. Furthermore, one species out of the fours testes exhibited differences in calcium, iron and zinc concentrations in the white matter.

  1. Formation of nickel and copper ferrites in ceramics: a potential reaction in the reuse of iron-rich sludge incineration ash.

    PubMed

    Shih, Kaimin

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates potential solid-state reactions for the stabilization of hazardous metals when reusing the incineration ash from chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sludge to fabricate ceramic products. Nickel and copper were used as examples of hazardous metals, and the iron content in the reaction system was found to play a major role in incorporating these hazardous metals into their ferrite phases (NiFe2O4 and CuFe2O4). The results from three-hour sintering experiments on NiO + Fe2O3 and CuO + Fe2O3 systems clearly demonstrate the potential for initiating metal incorporation mechanisms using an iron-containing precursor at attainable ceramic sintering temperatures (above 750 degrees C). Both ferrite phases were examined using a prolonged leaching experiment modified from the widely used toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) to evaluate their long-term metal leachability. The leaching results indicate that both the NiFe2O4 and the CuFe2O4 products were significantly superior to their oxide forms in immobilizing hazardous metals. PMID:23437648

  2. Effects of polyphenol-rich plant products from grape or hop as feed supplements on iron, zinc and copper status in piglets.

    PubMed

    Fiesel, Anja; Ehrmann, Melanie; Geßner, Denise K; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Polyphenol-rich plant products as feed supplements have been shown to exert beneficial effects on feed efficiency in piglets. However, tannins as components of polyphenol-rich plant products are able to reduce the absorption of various trace elements. The present study investigated the effect of two polyphenol-rich dietary supplements, grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GME) and spent hops (SH), on iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) status in piglets supplied adequately with those trace elements. A trial with three groups of piglets which received a Control diet or the same diet supplemented with either 1% GME or 1% SH over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cu in plasma, total iron binding capacity and saturation of transferrin in plasma did not differ between the three groups. Piglets fed the diet supplemented with SH showed no differences in the concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cu in the liver in comparison to the Control group. Piglets fed the diets supplemented with GME showed slightly lower concentrations of Zn and Cu in the liver than Control piglets (p < 0.05); however, concentrations of both elements remained in the physiological range. Overall, this study shows that the polyphenol-rich plant products GME and SH had marginal effect on the status of Fe, Zn and Cu in piglets. PMID:26097996

  3. Iron and Steel Phosphate Rock

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Phosphate Rock Platinum Potash Pumice Quartz Crystal Rare Earths Rhenium Rubidium Salt Sand and Gravel Platinum Tellurium Bromine Indium Potash Thallium Cadmium Iodine Pumice Thorium Cement Iron Ore Quartz

  4. The influence of copper surface area on menstrual blood loss and iron status in women fitted with an IUD.

    PubMed

    Milsom, I; Rybo, G; Lindstedt, G

    1990-03-01

    The influence of copper surface area on menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 34 healthy women (mean age 36.4 +/- 1.4 yr, range 27-46 yr), who were fitted with a Multiload intrauterine device (IUD) with either 250 mm2 (MLCu-250) or 375 mm2 (MLCu-375) copper wire. MBL prior to IUD insertion was 54.4 +/- 10.3 ml for women subsequently fitted with a MLCu-250 and 56.9 +/- 6.9 ml for women fitted with a MLCu-375. An increase (p less than 0.01) in MBL was recorded 3 months after IUD insertion for both the women fitted with a MLCu-250 (86.4 +/- 10.3 ml) and a MLCu-375 (81.1 +/- 8.3 ml). This increase in MBL remained unchanged throughout the study period of one year. At no point were there any significant differences in MBL or increase in MBL between women fitted with a MLCu-250 or MLCu-375. There were no significant differences in serum ferritin, blood hemoglobin, hematocrit or erythrocyte indices before IUD insertion in the women grouped according to type of IUD, nor were any significant changes recorded in any of these parameters after IUD insertion. Thus, our findings that the increase in copper surface area from 250 mm2 to 375 mm2 had no effect on MBL were also substantiated by the hematological findings. PMID:2323218

  5. Removal of dissolved heavy metals from acid rock drainage using iron metal

    SciTech Connect

    Shokes, T.E.; Moeller, G. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1999-01-15

    The chemical and microbial activity of corroding iron metal is examined in the acid rock drainage (ARD) resulting from pyrite oxidation to determine the effectiveness in neutralizing the ARD and reducing the load of dissolved heavy metals. ARD from Berkeley Pit, MT, is treated with iron in batch reactors and columns containing iron granules. Iron, in acidic solution, hydrolyzes water producing hydride and hydroxide ion resulting in a concomitant increase in pH and decrease in redox potential. The dissolved metals in ARD are removed by several mechanisms. Copper and cadmium cement onto the surface of the iron as zerovalent metals. Hydroxide forming metals such as aluminum, zinc, and nickel form complexes with iron and other metals precipitating from solution as the pH rises. Metalloids such as arsenic and antimony coprecipitate with iron. As metals precipitate from solution, various other mechanisms including coprecipitation, sorption, and ion exchange also enhance removal of metals from solution. Corroding iron also creates a reducing environment supportive for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) growth. Increases in SRB populations of 5,000-fold are observed in iron metal treated ARD solutions. Although the biological process is slow, sulfidogenesis is an additional pathway to further stabilize heavy metal precipitates.

  6. Abstract--This paper presents firstly copper and iron losses models of a classical Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) and a

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reluctance Motor (SRM) and a Mutually Coupled Switched Reluctance Motor (MCSRM), the iron losses in different reluctance motor (SRM), finite- element method (FEM). I. INTRODUCTION WITCHED Reluctance Motors (SRMs) have, this kind of motors could be classed into the Mutually Coupled Switched Reluctance Motor (MCSRM) category

  7. Adsorption\\/desorption properties of copper ions on the surface of iron-coated sand using BET and EDAX analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Lai; S. L. Lo; H. L. Chiang

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a heating process for coating hydrated iron oxide on the sand surface to utilise the adsorbent properties of the coating and the filtration properties of the sand. BET and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were used to investigate the surface properties of the coated layer. An energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) technique of analysis was

  8. Assessment of in-plant particulate matter and its toxic metals contents of sponge iron industry in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Bhanarkar, A D; Tamhane, S M; Dhopte, S M

    2010-12-01

    The present study attempted to assess toxic metal contents (Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Cobalt, Chromium, Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Lead and Zinc) in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) and Particulate Matter less than ten micron (PM??) in three sponge iron industries in Goa (India), one of the famous tourist place on the World map. TSP and PM(10) average concentration in all three sponge iron industries were found to be in the range 401-485 ?g/m³ and 135-270 ?g/m³ respectively. Amongst all the metals, concentration of iron was the highest in TSP as well as in PM??. Statistical results indicate that proportion of specific metals were found higher in PM?? as compared to the ratio of PM??/TSP ratio. Value of correlation coefficient was found to be significant for Cr-Pb indicating coal burning was the major source contributor. PMID:21110186

  9. Cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide heterojunction cell research: critical studies in materials and durability. Quarterly progress report No. 2, October 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-04-01

    A systematic comparison between the CdS grain size determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy and by Scanning Electron Microscopy of etched surfaces is being carried out. It is found that the etching technique gives a good estimate of the true grain size. Discontinuities in the Cu/sub 2/S film produced by solution reaction have been studied by TEM after stripping from the CdS substrate. The various types of Cu/sub 2/S intrusions which can arise have been examined using SEM for material produced by the solid state and solution reaction. Large point to point variations in Cu/sub 2/S thickness have been observed. Difficulties have been encountered in preparing thin films of Cu/sub 2/S on transparent substrates preventing the initiation of direct studies of Cu/sub 2/S oxidation kinetics. Towards the end of the reporting period some progress towards a satisfactory Cu/sub 2/S film was achieved. An analysis of copper diffusion into the CdS has been carried out, taking into account the actual morphology of the Cu/sub 2/S layer on the free surface and the grain boundary penetrations. Cells have been maintained under continuous illumination at open circuit voltage and in one case a high degree of stability has been observed.

  10. Sources of cadmium in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, M.

    1983-02-01

    This paper is concerned with quantifying the major sources of cadmium in the European Community and assessing the relative significance of such inputs to the environmental compartments, air, land, and water. The methodology involved identification of potential sources of cadmium, including natural processes, as well as those associated with human activities. This was followed by a review of any emission studies of these processes and subsequent estimation of an emission factor for each source. The emission factor was applied to the most recent production or consumption data for the process in question to obtain an estimate of the annual discharge. The steel industry and waste incineration, followed by volcanic action and zinc production, are estimated to account for the largest emissions of atmospheric cadmium in the region. Waste disposal results in the single largest input of cadmium to land; the quantity of cadmium associated with this source is greater than the total from the four other major sources--coal combustion, iron and steel production, phosphate fertilizer manufacture and use, and zinc production. The characterization of cadmium inputs to aquatic systems is incomplete but of the sources considered, the manufacture of cadmium-containing articles accounts for the largest discharge, followed by phosphate fertilizer manufacture and zinc production.

  11. Evidence for a copper-dependent iron transport system in the marine, magnetotactic bacterium strain MV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley L. Dubbels; Alan A. DiSpirito; John D. Morton; Jeremy D. Semrau; J. N. E. Neto; Dennis A. Bazylinski

    2004-01-01

    Cells of the magnetotactic marine vibrio, strain MV-1, produce magnetite-containing magnetosomes when grown anaerobically or microaerobically. Stable, spontaneous, non-magnetotactic mutants were regularly observed when cells of MV-1 were cultured on solid media incubated under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed that these mutants are not all genetically identical. Cellular iron content of one non-magnetotactic mutant strain,

  12. Measurement of fast-neutron activation cross sections for copper, europium, hafnium, iron, nickel, silver, terbium and titanium at 10.0 and 14.7 MeV and for the Be( d, n) thick-target spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Meadows; D. L. Smith; L. R. Greenwood; R. C. Haight; Y. Ikeda; C. Konno

    1996-01-01

    Several fast-neutron activation reactions for copper, europium, hafnium, iron, nickel, silver, terbium and titanium that are important to fusion energy have been investigated in three distinct neutron fields generated by accelerators at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), U.S.A., and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Tokai, Japan. The experimental data acquired from this collaboration, which

  13. Helium production by 9.85MeV neutrons in elemental iron, nickel, and copper and in ⁵⁶Fe and {sup 58,60,61}Ni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Haight; D. W. Kneff; B. M. Oliver; L. R. Greenwood; H. Vonach

    1996-01-01

    Neutron-induced helium production, which can contribute substantially to radiation damage, is an important parameter in the choice of structural materials and other component materials for both fusion and fission reactors. Here, helium production cross sections for the elements iron, nickel, and copper and for the isotopes ⁵⁶Fe, ⁵⁸Ni, ⁶°Ni, and ⁶¹Ni for 9.85-MeV neutrons have been measured by irradiation with

  14. Subcellular distribution of aluminum, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and lead in cultivated mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alma Hortensia Serafín Muñoz; Felix Gutierrez Corona; Kazimierz Wrobel; Gerardo Martínez Soto; Katarzyna Wrobel

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the distribution of nine metals in two types of cultivated mushroom had been investigated. For Agaricus bisporus, the biomass was separated into caps and stalks, and for Pleurotus ostreatus, the entire mushrooms were taken for analysis. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used for total element determination\\u000a in acid digests. For accuracy checking, the certified reference material (NIST

  15. Determination of copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, and iron in calcium fluoride and other fluoride-containing samples by means of direct solid sampling GF-AAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Schrön; A. Detcheva; B. Dreßler; K. Danzer

    1998-01-01

    Direct solid sampling graphite furnace AAS (SS-GF-AAS) provides an advantageous alternative to the conventional AAS which\\u000a requires wet digestion of the samples. This method is suitable for trace element determination in calcium fluoride and other\\u000a fluoride-containing samples. Matrix effects were studied by using calibration standards, certified reference materials with\\u000a different matrices and by means of three-dimensional calibration. 3D calibration is

  16. The Characterization of an Electrothermal Vaporization-Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer for the Determination of Boron, Cadmium, Copper, Iron, and Lead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy S. Schroeder; Andrew R. Mahon; Timothy S. Conver; Tricia Hahn; Kristine Ramsay; Tracy Ambrose; Steven C. Ringwald; Grayden Johnson; David L. McCurdy

    2004-01-01

    A graphite rod electrothermal vaporizer used to introduce microliter?sized samples into a direct current plasma (DCP) atomic emission spectrometer is reported in this work. Several important experimental conditions were found to be important in achieving good analytical performance from the electrothermal vaporization (ETV?DCP) system. A combination of lowered plasma electrode sleeve gas flow rates, when compared to that commonly used

  17. Identification of Negative cis-Acting Elements in Response to Copper in the Chloroplastic Iron Superoxide Dismutase Gene of the Moss Barbula unguiculata1

    PubMed Central

    Nagae, Miwa; Nakata, Masaru; Takahashi, Yohsuke

    2008-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals. Chloroplasts have two isozymes, copper/zinc SOD (Cu/ZnSOD) and iron SOD (FeSOD), encoded by nuclear genes. Because bryophytes are considered as the earliest land plants, they are one of the most interesting plant models for adaptation against oxidative stress. In a previous study, we found that the FeSOD gene was expressed under Cu-deficient conditions and repressed under high-Cu-supply conditions; on the other hand, the Cu/ZnSOD gene was induced by Cu in a moss, Barbula unguiculata. The expression of Cu/ZnSOD and FeSOD is coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level depending on metal bioavailability. Here, using transgenic moss plants, we determined that the GTACT motif is a negative cis-acting element of the moss FeSOD gene in response to Cu. Furthermore, we found that a plant-specific transcription factor, PpSBP2 (for SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein), and its related proteins bound to the GTACT motif repressed the expression of the FeSOD gene. The moss FeSOD gene was negatively regulated by Cu in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, and the Arabidopsis thaliana FeSOD gene promoter containing the GTACT motif was repressed by Cu. Our results suggested that molecular mechanisms of GTACT motif-dependent transcriptional suppression by Cu are conserved in land plants. PMID:18258690

  18. Identification of negative cis-acting elements in response to copper in the chloroplastic iron superoxide dismutase gene of the moss Barbula unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Nagae, Miwa; Nakata, Masaru; Takahashi, Yohsuke

    2008-04-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals. Chloroplasts have two isozymes, copper/zinc SOD (Cu/ZnSOD) and iron SOD (FeSOD), encoded by nuclear genes. Because bryophytes are considered as the earliest land plants, they are one of the most interesting plant models for adaptation against oxidative stress. In a previous study, we found that the FeSOD gene was expressed under Cu-deficient conditions and repressed under high-Cu-supply conditions; on the other hand, the Cu/ZnSOD gene was induced by Cu in a moss, Barbula unguiculata. The expression of Cu/ZnSOD and FeSOD is coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level depending on metal bioavailability. Here, using transgenic moss plants, we determined that the GTACT motif is a negative cis-acting element of the moss FeSOD gene in response to Cu. Furthermore, we found that a plant-specific transcription factor, PpSBP2 (for SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein), and its related proteins bound to the GTACT motif repressed the expression of the FeSOD gene. The moss FeSOD gene was negatively regulated by Cu in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, and the Arabidopsis thaliana FeSOD gene promoter containing the GTACT motif was repressed by Cu. Our results suggested that molecular mechanisms of GTACT motif-dependent transcriptional suppression by Cu are conserved in land plants. PMID:18258690

  19. Determination of copper, iron, nickel and zinc in ethanol fuel by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence after pre-concentration on chromatography paper.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Santos, Elenir Souza; Nunes, Luana Sena

    2012-04-13

    This paper presents an alternative analytical method employing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) to determine copper, iron, nickel and zinc ions in ethanol fuel samples after a pre-concentration procedure. Our pre-concentration strategy utilizes analyte retention on cation exchange chromatography paper, a convenient substrate for direct EDXRF measurements. The repeatability, expressed in terms of RSD of standard solutions containing 0.25 ?g mL(-1) of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn, and calculated from fifteen consecutive measurements, was 2.5, 2.8, 3.0, and 2.7%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD), defined as the analyte concentration that gives a response equivalent to three times the standard deviation of the blank (n=10), were found to be 13, 15, 15 and 12 ?g L(-1) for Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn, respectively. The proposed method was applied to Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn determination in hydrated ethanol fuel samples collected from different gas stations. PMID:22444531

  20. Stochastic statistical theory of nucleation and evolution of nano-sized precipitates in alloys with application to precipitation of copper in iron

    SciTech Connect

    Khromov, K. Yu. [Russian Research Center 'Kurckatov Institute' (Russian Federation); Soisson, F. [DMN-SRMP, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique (France); Stroev, A. Yu.; Vaks, V. G., E-mail: vaks@mbslab.kiae.ru [Russian Research Center 'Kurckatov Institute' (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    A consistent and computationally efficient stochastic statistical approach (SSA) is developed to study the kinetics of nucleation and evolution of nano-sized precipitates in alloys. To increase the accuracy of the method, many refinements of the previous simplified versions of this approach have been made. We consider a realistic vacancy-mediated exchange kinetics rather than the simplified direct-atomic-exchange model; use quantitative, cluster statistical methods rather than simple mean-field-type approximations; allow strong concentration and temperature dependences of generalized mobilities in the resulting kinetic equations; consider realistic alloy models based on first-principle calculations, and so on. We also introduce the 'maximum thermodynamic gain' principle to determine the key kinetic parameter of the SSA, the characteristic length of local equilibrium in the course of the nucleation process. For several realistic models of iron-copper alloys studied, the results of the SSA-based simulations of precipitation kinetics made in this work agree well with the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results for all main characteristics of the microstructure. The approach developed is also used to study the kinetics of nucleation and changes in microstructural evolution under variations of temperature or concentration.

  1. The SLC31 (Ctr) copper transporter family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Petris

    2004-01-01

    Copper is essential for many copper-dependent processes, including mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, free-radical detoxification, pigmentation, neurotransmitter synthesis, and iron metabolism. The identification of proteins for high affinity copper uptake and export has greatly expanded our understanding of cellular copper homeostasis. Copper export in human cells is mediated by the ATP7A and ATP7B P-type ATPases, which are, respectively, affected in the genetic

  2. The manganese and iron superoxide dismutases protect Escherichia coli from heavy metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Geslin, C; Llanos, J; Prieur, D; Jeanthon, C

    2001-12-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are vital components that defend against oxidative stress through decomposition of superoxide radical. Escherichia coli contains two highly homologous SODs, a manganese- and an iron-containing enzyme (Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD, respectively). In contrast, a single Mn-SOD is present in Bacillus subtilis. In E. coli, the absence of SODs was found to be associated with an increased sensitivity to cadmium, nickel and cobalt ions. Mutants lacking either sodA or sodB exhibited metal resistance to levels comparable to that of the wild-type strain. Although sod-deficient mutant cells were more resistant to zinc than their wild-type counterpart, no differences between the strains were observed in the presence of copper. In B. subtilis, the sodA mutation had no effect on cadmium and copper resistance. These results suggest that intracellular generation of superoxide by cadmium, nickel and cobalt is toxic in E. coli. They support the participation of sod genes in its protection against metal stress. PMID:11766965

  3. Integrated thin film cadmium sulfide solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickelsen, R. A.; Abbott, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and tests of flexible integrated thin-film cadmium sulfide solar cells and modules are discussed. The development of low cost and high production rate methods for interconnecting cells into large solar arrays is described. Chromium thin films were applied extensively in the deposited cell structures as a means to: (1) achieve high adherence between the cadmium sulfide films and the vacuum-metallized copper substrates, (2) obtain an ohmic contact to the cadmium sulfide films, and (3) improve the adherence of gold films as grids or contact areas.

  4. The role of metallothionein in cadmium accumulation of Arctic char ( Salvelinus alpinus) from high alpine lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Dallinger; Margit Egg; Günther Köck; Rudolf Hofer

    1997-01-01

    Cadmium, copper and zinc concentrations were measured in water and organs (gill, liver and kidney) of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from four alpine lakes in Tyrol, Austria. In comparison with control fish, concentrations of metals, especially of cadmium, were elevated in tissues of fish from low-alkalinity lakes. In contrast, low metal levels were detected in water of the alpine lakes,

  5. Trophic transfer of metals along freshwater food webs: Evidence of cadmium biomagnification in nature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Noële Croteau; Samuel N. Luoma; A. Robin Stewart

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study with cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in the delta of San Francisco Bay, using nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes to identify trophic position and food web structure. Cadmium is progressively enriched among trophic levels in discrete epiphyte-based food webs composed of macrophyte-dwelling invertebrates (the first link being epiphytic algae) and fishes (the first link being gobies).

  6. Acid phosphatase activity in Pisolithus arrhizus mycelium treated with cadmium dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Turnau; J. Dexheimer

    1995-01-01

    The influence of cadmium dust (containing lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, silicium and other elements) on acid phosphatase activity of Pisolithus arrhizus was observed by means of electron microscopy. Dust-treated mycelium showed increased activity of the enzyme, especially on the surface of the cell wall. There was an increase in abundance of autophagic vacuoles marked by a strong phosphatase reaction. An

  7. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOEpatents

    Levi, Dean H. (Lakewood, CO); Nelson, Art J. (Longmont, CO); Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.

  8. SELECTIVE DISSOLUTION OF COPPER OXALATE USING SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damir Kralj; Gerdi R. M. Breembroek; Geert Jan Witkamp; Gerda M. van Rosmalen; Ljerka Bre?evi?

    1996-01-01

    A supported liquid membrane has been used to dissolve selectively copper oxalate from a suspension of copper, calcium and cadmium oxalate, which have low, similar solubilities. 2-Hydroxy-5-nonyl-acetophenone oxime (HX) dissolved in kerosene was used as a carrier for copper transport from the suspension to the stripping solution. A mathematical model of the copper permeation is presented. The model takes into

  9. Opacity of iron, nickel, and copper plasmas in the x-ray wavelength range: Theoretical interpretation of 2p-3d absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Blenski, T.; Loisel, G.; Poirier, M.; Thais, F.; Arnault, P.; Caillaud, T.; Fariaut, J.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J.-C.; Porcherot, Q.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Villette, B.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Foelsner, W.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de [CEA, IRAMIS, Service 'Photons, Atomes et Molecules', Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); LULI, UMR No. 7605 CNRS - Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); CEA, IRFU, Service d'Astrophysique, Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain and Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-Paritech-Polytechnique, Chemin de la Huniere, F-91671 Palaiseau (France)

    2011-09-15

    This paper deals with theoretical studies on the 2p-3d absorption in iron, nickel, and copper plasmas related to LULI2000 (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, 2000J facility) measurements in which target temperatures were of the order of 20 eV and plasma densities were in the range 0.004-0.01 g/cm{sup 3}. The radiatively heated targets were close to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The structure of 2p-3d transitions has been studied with the help of the statistical superconfiguration opacity code sco and with the fine-structure atomic physics codes hullac and fac. A new mixed version of the sco code allowing one to treat part of the configurations by detailed calculation based on the Cowan's code rcg has been also used in these comparisons. Special attention was paid to comparisons between theory and experiment concerning the term features which cannot be reproduced by sco. The differences in the spin-orbit splitting and the statistical (thermal) broadening of the 2p-3d transitions have been investigated as a function of the atomic number Z. It appears that at the conditions of the experiment the role of the term and configuration broadening was different in the three analyzed elements, this broadening being sensitive to the atomic number. Some effects of the temperature gradients and possible non-LTE effects have been studied with the help of the radiative-collisional code scric. The sensitivity of the 2p-3d structures with respect to temperature and density in medium-Z plasmas may be helpful for diagnostics of LTE plasmas especially in future experiments on the {Delta}n=0 absorption in medium-Z plasmas for astrophysical applications.

  10. Iron, copper, zinc and bromine mapping in cirrhotic liver slices from patients with hemochromatosis studied by microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in continuous scanning mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterode, W.; Falkenberg, G.; Höftberger, R.; Wrba, F.

    2007-07-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential metals in physiological cell metabolism. While Fe is easy to determine biochemically in histological slices, Cu and zinc (Zn) distribution is frequently critical in confirming the presence of an overload in disturbed Fe/Cu metabolism. To analyze Fe, Cu and Zn in a near histological resolution, energy dispersive microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was applied. In normal liver tissue, after fixation and imbedding in paraffin, mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 152 ± 54, 20.1 ± 4.3 and 88.919.5 ?g/g sample weight, respectively. No substantial, characteristic differences in their distribution were found in the two-dimensional scans. In slices from patients with hemochromatosis mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 1102 ± 539, 35.9 ± 14.6 and 27.2 ± 6.7 ?g/g sample weight, respectively. Additionally, a significant decrease in phosphorus and sulphur concentrations existed. An increased Cu around cirrhotic regenerations nodules is mostly associated with a lymphocytic infiltration in this region. Analyzing concentrations of Fe in different regions of the samples show a clear negative dependency between Fe and Cu, Cu and Zn, but a positive one between Fe and Zn. Conclusion: With a focal beam size of 15 ?m in diameter a resolution of the elemental distribution was achieved which is widely comparable with stained histological slices (20× light microscope). The analysis of simultaneous determined elements reveals metabolic differences between Fe, Cu and Zn in liver tissue from patients with hemochromatosis.

  11. Chelation of cadmium by combining deferasirox and deferiprone in rats.

    PubMed

    Jamilaldin Fatemi, S; Saljooghi, Amir Shokooh; Balooch, Faezeh Dahooee; Iranmanesh, Marzieh; Golbafan, Mohammad Reza

    2011-05-01

    The present research aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of two chelators after cadmium administration for 60 days following two dose levels of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight daily to male rats. However, the hypothesis that the two chelators might be more efficient as combined therapy than as single therapy in removing cadmium from the body was considered. In this way, two known chelators deferasirox and deferiprone (L(1)) were chosen and tested in the acute rat model. Two chelators were given orally as a single or combined therapy for the period of a week. Cadmium and iron concentrations in various tissues were determined by graphite furnace and flame atomic absorption spectrometry methods, respectively. The combined chelation therapy results show that Deferasirox and L(1) are able to remove cadmium ions from the body while iron concentration returned to the normal level and symptoms are also decreased. PMID:21245204

  12. Health effects of cadmium exposure--a review of the literature and a risk estimate.

    PubMed

    Järup, L; Berglund, M; Elinder, C G; Nordberg, G; Vahter, M

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a review of the cadmium exposure situation in Sweden and updates the information on health risk assessment according to recent studies on the health effects of cadmium. The report focuses on the health effects of low cadmium doses and the identification of high-risk groups. The diet is the main source of cadmium exposure in the Swedish nonsmoking general population. The average daily dietary intake is about 15 micrograms/day, but there are great individual variations due to differences in energy intake and dietary habits. It has been shown that a high fiber diet and a diet rich in shellfish increase the dietary cadmium intake substantially. Cadmium concentrations in agricultural soil and wheat have increased continuously during the last century. At present, soil cadmium concentrations increase by about 0.2% per year. Cadmium accumulates in the kidneys. Human kidney concentrations of cadmium have increased several fold during the last century. Cadmium in pig kidney has been shown to have increased by about 2% per year from 1984-1992. There is no tendency towards decreasing cadmium exposure among the general nonsmoking population. The absorption of cadmium in the lungs is 10-50%, while the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is only a few percent. Smokers have about 4-5 times higher blood cadmium concentrations (about 1.5 micrograms/l), and twice as high kidney cortex cadmium concentrations (about 20-30 micrograms/g wet weight) as nonsmokers. Similarly, the blood cadmium concentrations are substantially elevated in persons with low body iron stores, indicating increased gastrointestinal absorption. About 10-40% of Swedish women of child-bearing age are reported to have empty iron stores (S-ferritin < 12 micrograms/l). In general, women have higher concentrations of cadmium in blood, urine, and kidney than men. The population groups at highest risk are probably smokers, women with low body iron stores, and people habitually eating a diet rich in cadmium. According to current knowledge, renal tubular damage is probably the critical health effect of cadmium exposure, both in the general population and in occupationally exposed workers. Tubular damage may develop at much lower levels than previously estimated, as shown in this report. Data from several recent reports from different countries indicate that an average urinary cadmium excretion of 2.5 micrograms/g creatinine is related to an excess prevalence of renal tubular damage of 4%. An average urinary excretion of 2.5 micrograms/g creatinine corresponds to an average concentration of cadmium in renal cortex of 50 micrograms/g, which would be the result of long-term (decades) intake of 50 micrograms per day. When the critical concentrations for adverse effects due to cadmium accumulation are being evaluated, it is crucial to consider both the individual variation in kidney cadmium concentrations and the variations in sensitivity within the general population. Even if the population average kidney concentration is relatively low for the general population, a certain proportion will have values exceeding the concentration where renal tubular damage can occur. It can be estimated that, at the present average daily intake of cadmium in Sweden, about 1% of women with low body iron stores and smokers may experience adverse renal effects related to cadmium. If the average daily intake of cadmium would increase to 30 micrograms/day, about 1% of the entire population would have cadmium-induced tubular damage. In risk groups, for example, women with low iron stores, the percentage would be higher, up to 5%. Both human and animal studies indicate that skeletal damage (osteoporosis) may be a critical effect of cadmium exposure. We conclude, however, that the present evidence is not sufficient to permit such a conclusion for humans. We would like to stress, however, that osteoporosis is a very important public health problem worldwide, but especially in the Scandinav PMID:9569444

  13. Iron, manganese and copper concentrations in wet precipitations and kinetics of the oxidation of SO 2 in rain water at two urban sites, Jaipur and Kota, in Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoj, S. V.; Mishra, C. D.; Sharma, M.; Rani, A.; Jain, R.; Bansal, S. P.; Gupta, K. S.

    Rain-water samples were collected from Jaipur and Kota in Western India during the monsoon seasons of 1996-1999. In all cases, the pH of rain-water samples exceeded 7.0 and fell in the range (7.1-8.5). In view of the fact that the trace metals particularly iron, manganese and copper have been held responsible for the catalytic activity of rain-water, the chemical analysis of the collected samples was done with regard to the concentrations of these metals. The kinetics of autoxidation of SO 2 has been studied using rain-water samples as medium.

  14. Cadmium and renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yasova, Dora [Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Schwartz, Gary G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States) and Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)]. E-mail: gschwart@wfubmc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine.

  15. CADMIUM SOLUBILITY IN PADDY SOILS: EFFECTS OF SOIL OXIDATION, METAL SULFIDES AND COMPETITIVE IONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element for human nutrition and is an agricultural soil contaminant. Cadmium solubility in paddy soils affects Cd accumulation in the grain of rice. This is a human health risk, exacerbated by the fact that rice grains are deficient in iron (Fe) an...

  16. Cadmium in forest ecosystems around lead smelters in Missouri.

    PubMed Central

    Gale, N L; Wixson, B G

    1979-01-01

    The development of Missouri's new lead belt within the past decase has provided an excellent opportunity to study the dissemination and effects of heavy metals in a deciduous forest ecosystem. Primary lead smelters within the new lead belt have been identified as potential sources of cadmium as well as lead, zinc, and copper. Sintering and blast furnace operations tend to produce significant quantities of small particulates highly enriched in cadmium and other heavy metals. At one smelter, samples of stack particulate emissions indicate that as ms accompanied by 0.44 lb zinc, 4.66 lb lead, and 0.01 lb copper/hr. These point-source emissions, as well as a number of other sources of fugitive (wind blown) and waterborne emissions contribute to a significant deposition of cadmium in the surrounding forest and stream beds. Mobilization of vagrant heavy metals may be significantly increased by contact of baghouse dusts or scrubber slurries with acidic effluents emanating from acid plants designed to produce H2SO4 as a smelter by-product. Two separate drainage forks within the Crooked Creek watershed permit some comparisons of the relative contributions of cadmium by air-borne versus water-borne contaminants. Cadmium and other heavy metals have been found to accumulate in the forest litter and partially decomposed litter along stream beds. Greater solubility, lower levels of complexation with organic ligands in the litter, and greater overall mobility of cadmium compared with lead, zinc, and copper result in appreciable contributions of dissolved cadmium to the watershed runoff. The present paper attempts to define the principle sources and current levels of heavy metal contamination and summarizes the efforts undertaken by the industry to curtail the problem. PMID:488037

  17. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    PubMed

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ate?, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ay?en

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were p<0.05. Serum Ca levels were not significantly different between all groups on days 45 and 75. Serum P level was significantly higher in the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of phytate P in diet. It was hoped that with further evidence-based study this product will enter to mainstream medicines. PMID:22419377

  18. Combined effects of hydrographic structure and iron and copper availability on the phytoplankton growth in Terra Nova Bay Polynya (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaro, Paola; Luisa Abelmoschi, Maria; Grotti, Marco; Ianni, Carmela; Magi, Emanuele; Margiotta, Francesca; Massolo, Serena; Saggiomo, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    Surface water (<100 m) samples were collected from the Terra Nova Bay polynya region of the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in January 2006, with the aim of evaluating the individual and combined effects of hydrographic structure, iron and copper concentration and availability on the phytoplankton growth. The measurements were conducted within the framework of the Climatic Long Term Interaction for the Mass-balance in Antarctica (CLIMA) Project of the Programma Nazionale di Ricerca in Antartide activities. Dissolved oxygen, nutrients, phytoplankton pigments and concentration and complexation of dissolved trace metals were determined. Experimental data were elaborated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). As a result of solar heating and freshwater inputs from melting sea-ice, the water column was strongly stratified with an Upper Mixed Layer 4-16 m deep. The integrated Chl a in the layer 0-100 m ranged from 60 mg m-2 to 235 mg m-2, with a mean value of 138 mg m-2. The pigment analysis showed that diatoms dominated the phytoplankton assemblage. Major nutrients were generally high, with the lowest concentration at the surface and they were never fully depleted. The Si:N drawdown ratio was close to the expected value of 1 for Fe-replete diatoms. We evaluated both the total and the labile dissolved fraction of Fe and Cu. The labile fraction was operationally defined by employing the chelating resin Chelex-100, which retains free and loosely bound trace metal species. The total dissolved Fe ranged from 0.48 to 3.02 nM, while the total dissolved Cu from 3.68 to 6.84 nM. The dissolved labile Fe ranged from below the detection limit (0.15 nM) to 1.22 nM, and the dissolved labile Cu from 0.31 to 1.59 nM, respectively. The labile fractions measured at 20 m were significantly lower than values in 40-100 m samples. As two stations were re-sampled 5 days later, we evaluated the short-term variability of the physical and biogeochemical properties. In particular, in a re-sampled station at 20 m, the total dissolved Fe increased and the total dissolved Cu decreased, while their labile fraction was relatively steady. As a result of the increase in total Fe, the percentage of the labile Fe decreased. An increase of the Si:N, Si:P and Si:FUCO ratios was measured also in the re-sampled station. On this basis, we speculated that a switch from a Fe-replete to a Fe-deplete condition was occurring.

  19. Cadmium - a metallohormone?

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that is often referred to as the metal of the 20th Century. It is widely used in industry principally in galvanizing and electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys, pigments, and plastics, and in the stabilization of phosphate fertilizers. As a byproduct of smelters, cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant. In the general population, exposure to cadmium occurs primarily through dietary sources, cigarette smoking, and, to a lesser degree, drinking water. Although the metal has no known physiological function, there is evidence to suggest that the cadmium is a potent metallohormone. This review summarizes the increasing evidence that cadmium mimics the function of steroid hormones, addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium functions as a hormone, and discusses its potential role in development of the hormone dependent cancers. PMID:19362102

  20. Characterization studies on the cadmium-binding proteins from two species of New Zealand oysters

    SciTech Connect

    Nordberg, M.; Nuottaniemi, I.; Cherian, M.G.; Nordberg, G.F.; Kjellstroem, T.; Garvey, J.S.

    1986-03-01

    Two different types of New Zealand oysters - Ostrea lutaria (OL) and Crassostrea glomerata (CG) - contained different concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium. Both kinds of oysters were shown by gel filtration (G-75) to contain cadmium and zinc in fractions corresponding to a high molecular weight protein which was heat labile. OL oysters contained cadmium in fractions corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 6500. The cadmium-binding protein in these fractions was heat-stable. This protein contained no detectable amounts of zinc and was not present in the CG oysters. CG oysters contained cadmium and zinc in a polypeptide with low molecular weight (MW 1000). The cadmium-binding oyster proteins are minimally reactive in a competitive binding radioimmunoassay in comparison to the reactivity of a typical vertebrate metallothionein; the proteins may be metallothioneins, but, if so, they do not exhibit the principal determinants characteristic of vertebrate metallothioneins.

  1. Cadmium, lead and endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Heilier; J. Donnez; V. Verougstraete; O. Donnez; F. Grandjean; V. Haufroid; F. Nackers; D. Lison

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) have been demonstrated to exert endocrine disrupting activities. Their possible role in endometriosis, an oestrogen-dependent disease, is unknown. Methods: We compared cadmium urinary excretion (CdU) and blood concentration of cadmium (CdB) and lead (PbB) in 119 patients with peritoneal endometriosis and\\/or deep endometriotic (adenomyotic) nodules of the rectovaginal septum and 25 controls. Results: The

  2. Examination of sulfur-functionalized, copper-doped iron nanoparticles for vapor-phase mercury capture in entrained-flow and fixed-bed systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Meyer; S. K. Sikdar; N. D. Hutson; D. Bhattacharyya

    2007-01-01

    The use of copper-doped Fe nanoaggregates silanized with organic sulfur as bis-(triethoxy silyl propyl)-tetra sulfide has been investigated for the capture of elemental mercury (Hg°) from the vapor phase for potential power plant applications. Silanization procedures resulted in 70% deposition of the targeted sulfur level, with particles containing approximately 4 wt % S. The addition of copper was found to

  3. Clinical evaluation of Deferasirox for removal of cadmium ions in rat.

    PubMed

    Saljooghi, Amir Shokooh; Fatemi, S Jamil A

    2010-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the ability of Deferasirox (ICL670 or Exjade) following the distribution of cadmium salt in male Wistar rats. Cadmium was introduced to several groups of weanling male Wistar rats through different means, by act of drinking, feeding. A control group was fed on a diet containing normal level of iron. After a period of 30 days, all the rats administered cadmium were severely anemic and showed toxicity symptoms through loss of hair and increasing in cadmium and reduction in iron levels in blood. Chelation therapy was carried out to remove the toxic element from the body. The ability of Deferasirox chelator in removing cadmium was investigated this chelator for 1 week to the remaining rats of similar groups. The results showed that the cadmium level present in blood was significantly reduced and at the same time, iron concentration returned to the normal level. It was concluded that Deferasirox chelator is able to remove cadmium from the body and could be used for the treatment of complications and eradication of symptoms of cadmium intoxication. PMID:20401682

  4. Relations between liver cadmium, cumulative exposure, and renal function in cadmium alloy workers.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, H J; Davison, A G; Wright, A L; Guthrie, C J; Fayers, P M; Venables, K M; Smith, N J; Chettle, D R; Franklin, D M; Scott, M C

    1988-01-01

    Detailed biochemical investigations of renal function were made on 75 male workers exposed to cadmium and an equal number of referents matched for age, sex, and employment status. The exposed group consisted of current and retired workers who had been employed in the manufacture of copper-cadmium alloy at a single factory in the United Kingdom for periods of up to 39 years and for whom cumulative cadmium exposure indices could be calculated. In vivo measurements of liver and kidney cadmium burden were made on exposed and referent workers using a transportable neutron activation analysis facility. Significant increases in the urinary excretion of albumin, retinol binding protein, beta 2 microglobulin, N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and significant decreases in the renal reabsorption of calcium, urate, and phosphate were found in the exposed group compared with the referent group. Measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, and beta 2 microglobulin) indicated a reduction in GFR in the exposed population. Many of these tubular and glomerular function indicators were significantly correlated with both cumulative exposure index and liver cadmium burden. Using cumulative exposure index and liver cadmium as estimates of dose, a two phase linear regression model was applied to identify an inflection point signifying a threshold level above which changes in renal function occur. Many biochemical variables fitted this model; urinary total protein, retinol binding protein, albumin, and beta 2 microglobulin gave similar inflection points at cumulative exposure levels of about 1100 y.micrograms/m3 whereas changes in the tubular reabsorption of urate and phosphate occurred at higher cumulative exposure indices. Measures of GFR, although fitting the threshold model did not give well defined inflection points. Fewer variables fitted the two phase model using liver cadmium; those that did gave threshold levels in the range 20.3-55.1 ppm. When cadmium workers with cumulative exposure indices of less than 1100 y.micrograms/m3 were compared with their respective referents only serum beta 2 microglobulin and urinary NAG were significantly increased in the exposed group and these differences were not related to the degree of cadmium exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3219304

  5. Copper Efflux Is Induced during Anaerobic Amino Acid Limitation in Escherichia coli To Protect Iron-Sulfur Cluster Enzymes and Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Danny Ka Chun; Lau, Wai Yin; Chan, Wing Tat

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to changing environments is essential to bacterial physiology. Here we report a unique role of the copper homeostasis system in adapting Escherichia coli to its host-relevant environment of anaerobiosis coupled with amino acid limitation. We found that expression of the copper/silver efflux pump CusCFBA was significantly upregulated during anaerobic amino acid limitation in E. coli without the supplement of exogenous copper. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of the total intracellular copper content combined with transcriptional assay of the PcusC-lacZ reporter in the presence of specific Cu(I) chelators indicated that anaerobic amino acid limitation led to the accumulation of free Cu(I) in the periplasmic space of E. coli, resulting in Cu(I) toxicity. Cells lacking cusCFBA and another copper transporter, copA, under this condition displayed growth defects and reduced ATP production during fumarate respiration. Ectopic expression of the Fe-S cluster enzyme fumarate reductase (Frd), or supplementation with amino acids whose biosynthesis involves Fe-S cluster enzymes, rescued the poor growth of ?cusC cells. Yet, Cu(I) treatment did not impair the Frd activity in vitro. Further studies revealed that the alternative Fe-S cluster biogenesis system Suf was induced during the anaerobic amino acid limitation, and ?cusC enhanced this upregulation, indicating the impairment of the Fe-S cluster assembly machinery and the increased Fe-S cluster demands under this condition. Taken together, we conclude that the copper efflux system CusCFBA is induced during anaerobic amino acid limitation to protect Fe-S cluster enzymes and biogenesis from the endogenously originated Cu(I) toxicity, thus facilitating the physiological adaptation of E. coli. PMID:23893112

  6. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat; Eli Korin

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280K to 322K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt+water) systems.

  7. Growth-modulating tripeptide (glycylhistidyllysine): association with copper and iron in plasma, and stimulation of adhesiveness and growth of hepatoma cells in culture by tripeptide-metal ion complexes.

    PubMed

    Pickart, L; Thaler, M M

    1980-02-01

    The tripeptide H-Gly-His-Lys-OH (GHL) is a human plasma constituent which has been previously shown to modulate the growth and viability of a variety of cell types and organisms. Experimental observations presented herein indicate that GHL is complexed with the transition metal ions Cu++ and Fe++ in vivo and may exert its biological effects as a peptide-metal chelate. At physiological pH in vitro, GHL associates with ionic copper, cobalt, iron, molybdenum, manganese, nickel, and zinc, but has no affinity for calcium, manganese, potassium, and sodium. GHL acts synergistically with copper, iron, cobalt, and zinc to alter patterns of cell growth in monolayer cultures of a tumorigenic hepatoma cell line (HTC4). These transition metals induce cellular flattening and adhesion to support surfaces, and inhibit DNA synthesis and lactic acid production when growth is limited by reduction of serum concentrations in medium. These inhibitory effects are neutralized, and intercellular adhesion and growth are stimulated by GHL in medium at nanomolar concentrations. Cu and Fe are the most active metals when combined with GHL. The results suggest that the inability of HTC4 cultures to replicate without adequate concentrations of serum in medium may reflect deficiency of GHL and transition metals, which appear to form complexes prior to interaction with cells. Chelation of transition metals with GHL and, potentially, with other growth-modulating peptide factors in plasma or medium, may provide a mechanism for expression and regulation of biological activities influenced by transition metals and polypeptide growth factors. The observed effects of GHL-metal complexes, including stimulation of cellular adhesiveness to substratum (flattening) and intercellular attachment (monolayer formation), appear to satisfy requirements for growth of hepatoma cells in monolayer culture. PMID:6246126

  8. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Zweibel, K. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Iron deficiency increases blood concentrations of neurotoxic metals in children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yangho

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects approximately one-third of the world's population, occurring most frequently in children aged 6 months to 3 years. Mechanisms of iron absorption are similar to those of other divalent metals, particularly manganese, lead, and cadmium, and a diet deficient in iron can lead to excess absorption of manganese, lead, and cadmium. Iron deficiency may lead to cognitive impairments resulting from the deficiency itself or from increased metal concentrations caused by the deficiency. Iron deficiency combined with increased manganese or lead concentrations may further affect neurodevelopment. We recently showed that blood manganese and lead concentrations are elevated among iron-deficient infants. Increased blood manganese and lead levels are likely associated with prolonged breast-feeding, which is also a risk factor for iron deficiency. Thus, babies who are breast-fed for prolonged periods should be given plain, iron-fortified cereals or other good sources of dietary iron. PMID:25210521

  10. Aquatic assessment of the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site, Corinth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Argue, Denise M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Kiah, Richard G.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, includes the Eureka, Union, and Smith mines along with areas of downstream aquatic ecosystem impairment. The site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004. The mines, which operated from about 1847 to 1919, contain underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, and some flotation tailings. The mine site is drained to the northeast by Pike Hill Brook, which includes several wetland areas, and to the southeast by an unnamed tributary that flows to the south and enters Cookville Brook. Both brooks eventually drain into the Waits River, which flows into the Connecticut River. The aquatic ecosystem at the site was assessed using a variety of approaches that investigated surface-water quality, sediment quality, and various ecological indicators of stream-ecosystem health. The degradation of surface-water quality is caused by elevated concentrations of copper, and to a lesser extent cadmium, with localized effects caused by aluminum, iron, and zinc. Copper concentrations in surface waters reached or exceeded the USEPA national recommended chronic water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life in all of the Pike Hill Brook sampling locations except for the location farthest downstream, in half of the locations sampled in the tributary to Cookville Brook, and in about half of the locations in one wetland area located in Pike Hill Brook. Most of these same locations also contained concentrations of cadmium that exceeded the chronic water-quality criteria. In contrast, surface waters at background sampling locations were below these criteria for copper and cadmium. Comparison of hardness-based and Biotic Ligand Model (BLM)-based criteria for copper yields similar results with respect to the extent or number of stations impaired for surface waters in the affected area. However, the BLM-based criteria are commonly lower values than the hardness-based criteria and thus suggest a greater degree or magnitude of impairment at the sampling locations. The riffle-habitat benthic invertebrate richness and abundance data correlate strongly with the extent of impact based on water quality for both brooks. Similarly, the fish community assessments document degraded conditions throughout most of Pike Hill Brook, whereas the data for the tributary to Cookville Brook suggest less degradation to this brook. The sediment environment shows similar extents of impairment to the surface-water environment, with most sampling locations in Pike Hill Brook, including the wetland areas, and the tributary to Cookville Brook affected. Sediment impairment is caused by elevated copper concentrations, although localized degradation due to elevated cadmium and zinc concentrations was documented on the basis of exceedances of probable effects concentrations (PECs). In contrast to impairment determined by exceedances of PECs, equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmarks (based on simultaneously extracted metals, acid volatile sulfides, and total organic carbon) predict no toxic effects in sediments at the background locations and uncertain toxic effects throughout Pike Hill Brook and the tributary to Cookville Brook, with the exception of the most downstream Cookville Brook location, which indicated no toxic effects. Acute laboratory toxicity testing using the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus on pore waters extracted from sediment in situ indicate impairment (based on tests with H. azteca) at only one location in Pike Hill Brook and no impairment in the tributary to Cookville Brook. Chronic laboratory sediment toxicity testing using H. azteca and C. dilutus indicated toxicity in Pike Hill Brook at several locations in the lower reach and two locations in the tributary to Cookville Brook. Toxicity was not indicated for either species in sediment from the most acidic metal-rich location, likely due to the low lability of copper in that sediment, as indicated by a

  11. Copper stabilizes the Menkes copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) protein expressed in rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liwei; Collins, James F

    2013-02-01

    Iron deficiency decreases oxygen tension in the intestinal mucosa, leading to stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 2? (Hif2?) and subsequent upregulation of genes involved in iron transport [e.g., divalent metal transporter (Dmt1) and ferroportin 1 (Fpn1)]. Iron deprivation also alters copper homeostasis, reflected by copper accumulation in the intestinal epithelium and induction of an intracellular copper-binding protein [metallothionein (Mt)] and a copper exporter [Menkes copper ATPase (Atp7a)]. Importantly, Atp7a is also a Hif2? target. It was, however, previously noted that Atp7a protein expression was induced more strongly than mRNA in the duodenum of iron-deprived rats, suggesting additional regulatory mechanisms. The current study was thus designed to decipher mechanistic aspects of Atp7a regulation during iron deprivation using an established in vitro model of the mammalian intestine, rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells. Cells were treated with an iron chelator and/or copper loaded to mimic the in vivo situation. IEC-6 cells exposed to copper showed a dose-dependent increase in Mt expression, confirming intracellular copper accumulation. Iron chelation with copper loading increased Atp7a mRNA and protein levels; however, contrary to our expectation, copper alone increased only protein levels. This suggested that copper increased Atp7a protein levels by a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism. Therefore, to determine if Atp7a protein stability was affected, the translation inhibitor cycloheximide was utilized. Experiments in IEC-6 cells revealed that the half-life of the Atp7a protein was ~41 h and, furthermore, that intracellular copper accumulation increased steady-state Atp7a protein levels. This investigation thus reveals a novel mechanism of Atp7a regulation in which copper stabilizes the protein, possibly complementing Hif2?-mediated transcriptional induction during iron deficiency. PMID:23174565

  12. Selective adsorption of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from a small arms shooting range with a combination of charcoal and iron hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2015-03-01

    Metals and metalloids from ammunition residues at small arms shooting ranges leach into the soil and surrounding watercourses and may pose a threat to exposed wildlife and humans. To reduce the potential impact of heavy metal on the environment a field study was performed with different sorbents in order to reduce the metal concentration in polluted water from a shooting range. Two sorbents were tested in situ for their ability to reduce the concentration of Cu, Sb and Pb: Brimac(®) charcoal and Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. The mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb was 85%, 65%, and 88% respectively when using the charcoal and 60%, 85% and 92% respectively with the iron hydroxide. Even better sorption of the elements was achieved when the two sorbents were combined in order to increase their selectivity. The best results were achieved in the filter in which the water percolated the charcoal first and the iron hydroxide last, with a mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb of 89%, 90% and 93% respectively. This preparation gave a significant better sorption of Cu compared to the filter in which the water percolated the iron hydroxide first and the charcoal last. The different effect between the two filters may be due to pH, since charcoal has alkaline properties and iron hydroxide has acidic properties. For large scale experiments or in filter devices we therefore recommend use of a combination of different reactive sorbents. PMID:25527987

  13. Yellow discoloration in veal calves: the role of hepatic copper.

    PubMed

    Groot, M J; Gruys, E

    1993-02-13

    Liver samples from four groups of calves were analysed chemically and histologically for copper and iron levels. Milk replacer-fed 'yellow' calves were compared with milk replacer-fed 'white' calves, concentrate and silage-fed 'pink' calves and concentrate and silage-fed young 'red' fattening bulls. In the milk replacer-fed calves high copper and low iron levels were measured in the liver, whereas in the concentrate and silage fed pink calves and fattening bulls lower copper and higher iron levels were found. The yellow calves appeared to be icteric and had chronic hepatitis. Their hepatic histopathology was characterised by fibrosis, cirrhosis, fatty change, increased amounts of stainable copper, necrobiosis and prominent cholestasis; some animals had intranuclear inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes. They had similar or lower hepatic copper levels than the white calves and varying iron levels, indicating that copper toxicity was not the primary cause of the hepatic damage. PMID:8456546

  14. Copper complexation by siderophores from filamentous blue-green algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIANE M. MCKNIGHT; FRANCOIS M. M. MOREL

    1980-01-01

    From our experimental evidence that iron lirnitation greatly increases the extracellular concentration of strong copper-complexing agents in cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae and Anabaena cyhdrica, and that the iron-algal exudate complex is much more stable than the copper complex, we conclude that strong copper-complexing agents released by filamentous blue-green algae are siderophores. Further experiments demonstrate that siderophore excre- tion is not

  15. Cadmium migration in aerospace nickel cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of temperature, the nature of separator material, charge and discharge, carbonate contamination, and the mode of storage are studied with respect to the migration of active material from the negative toward the positive plate. A theoretical model is proposed which takes into account the solubility of cadmium in various concentrations of hydroxide and carbonate at different temperatures, the generation of the cadmiate ion, Cd(OH)3(-), during discharge, the migration of the cadmiate ion and particulate Cd(OH)2 due to electrophoretic effects and the movement of electrolyte in and out of the negative plate and, finally, the recrystallization of cadmiate ion in the separator as Cd(OH)2. Application of the theoretical model to observations of cadmium migration in cycled cells is also discussed.

  16. Fatal cadmium-induced pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Seidal, K; Jörgensen, N; Elinder, C G; Sjögren, B; Vahter, M

    1993-12-01

    A previously relatively healthy 78-year-old man was exposed to cadmium fumes during brazing with cadmium-containing silver solder. He developed severe chemical pneumonitis and died 25 d after exposure. PMID:8153597

  17. The ubiquity of iron.

    PubMed

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth. PMID:22845493

  18. Examination of sulfur-functionalized, copper-doped iron nanoparticles for vapor-phase mercury capture in entrained-flow and fixed-bed systems

    SciTech Connect

    D.E. Meyer; S.K. Sikdar; N.D. Hutson; D. Bhattacharyya [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The use of copper-doped Fe nanoaggregates silanized with organic sulfur as bis-(triethoxy silyl propyl)-tetra sulfide has been investigated for the capture of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) from the vapor phase for potential power plant applications. Silanization procedures resulted in 70% deposition of the targeted sulfur level, with particles containing approximately 4 wt % S. The addition of copper was found to increase the fixed-bed (total) capacity of this type of sorbent from 170 {+-} {mu}20 g Hg{center_dot}g sorbent{sup -1} with no copper doping to 2730 {+-} 80 {mu}g Hg{center_dot}g sorbent{sup -1} at 1.2 wt % Cu. When no S is deposited, the capacity of Fe/Cu nanoaggregates was only 180 g Hg{center_dot}g sorbent{sup -1}. These findings suggest that a combined Cu-S mechanism is responsible for Hg capture. Moving-bed (injection) testing of the Fe-based sorbents in a simulated flue gas stream showed that the 1.2 wt % Cu sample was able to achieve significant removal of the Hg. At a modest sorbent injection rate of 3.6 x 10{sup -3} g{center_dot}L{sup -1}{center_dot}h{sup -1}, this material showed a steady-state removal capacity of 107.5 {mu}g Hg{center_dot}g sorbent{sup -1} for an inlet concentration of 17.8 {mu}g{center_dot}m{sup -3}. On the basis of only 4% usage of the total capacity during single-pass injection, it might be beneficial to develop methods to separate and recycle these materials to reduce power plant operation costs for Hg emissions control. 17 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Characterization of metal binding peptides from cadmium resistant plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, N.J.; Barton, K.; Naranjo, C.M.; Sillerud, L.O.; Trewhella, J.; Watt, K.; Jackson, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The majority of the cellular cadmium (<80%) in cadmium resistant Datura innoxia cells is bound to a small, metal induced peptide which is not metallothionein. This peptide consists of glutamate, cysteine and glycine in a ratio between 2:2:1 and 3:3:1 and has an apparent molecular weight of 776, under denaturing conditions. It is heat stable and complexes with cadmium to produce multimeric forms which are separable by gel filtration. Chemical analyses suggest that some amino acids are not joined by classical peptide linkages. This indicates that the synthesis of the peptide may not be directed by mRNA and that induction of its synthesis may not involve increased transcription from a putative gene corresponding directly to this peptide. A smaller proportion (>15%) of the cellular cadmium is bound to a larger compound which is also heat stable and binds copper more readily than cadmium in vivo. This larger compound has an amino acid composition similar, in some respects, to metallothioneins. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. The magnetic properties of the iron-rich, iron-nickel-zinc alloys

    E-print Network

    Gupton, Paul Stephen

    1961-01-01

    . 010 0. 006 Report on analysis of typical data on block zinc as supplied by American Smelting and Refining Company Houston, Texas Zinc Lead Iron Cadmium Others not over Free from aluminum 99. 98 X . 006 . 005 . 004 . 010 43 Results...THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE IRON-RICH, IRON-NICKEL-ZINC ALLOYS A Thesis By Paul Stephen Gupton Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  1. Application of Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron to Marine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Brooks, Kathleen B.; Geiger, Cherie L.; Clausen, Christian A.; Milum, Kristen M.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of marine waters and sediments with heavy metals and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) including chlorinated solvents, pesticides and PCBs pose ecological and human health risks through the potential of the contaminant to bioaccumulate in fish, shellfish and avian populations. The contaminants enter marine environments through improper disposal techniques and storm water runoff. Current remediation technologies for application to marine environments include costly dredging and off-site treatment of the contaminated media. Emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) has been proven to effectively degrade dissolved-phase and DNAPL-phase contaminants in freshwater environments on both the laboratory and field-scale level. Emulsified Zero-Valent Metal (EZVM) using metals such as iron and/or magnesium have been shown in the laboratory and on the bench scale to be effective at removing metals contamination in freshwater environments. The application to marine environments, however, is only just being explored. This paper discusses. the potential use of EZVI or EZVM in brackish and saltwater environments, with supporting laboratory data detailing its effectiveness on trichloroethylene, lead, copper, nickel and cadmium.

  2. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Zweibel, K. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds--cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium deselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarized the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds;evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Clinical evaluation of Deferasirox for removal of cadmium ions in rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Shokooh Saljooghi; S. Jamil A. Fatemi

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the ability of Deferasirox (ICL670 or Exjade) following the distribution of cadmium\\u000a salt in male Wistar rats. Cadmium was introduced to several groups of weanling male Wistar rats through different means, by\\u000a act of drinking, feeding. A control group was fed on a diet containing normal level of iron. After a period of 30 days,

  4. Urinary cadmium and beta2?microglobulin: Correlation with nutrition and smoking history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman E. Kowal

    1988-01-01

    Urinary cadmium and beta2?microglobulin concentrations from approximately 1000 samples from the general adult U.S. population, collected as part of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey II (NHANES II), were related to nutritional and smoking history of the individuals. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively correlated with dietary iron (significance level of 0.0065), negatively correlated with dietary calcium (significance level of

  5. Ordered substitution of iron for copper in the tetragonal perovskite La{sub 6.4}Sr{sub 1.6}Cu{sub 8}O{sub 20}

    SciTech Connect

    Genouel, R.; Michel, C.; Nguyen, N.; Hervieu, M.; Raveau, B. [Universite de Caen (France)] [Universite de Caen (France)

    1995-03-01

    Two series of iron-substituted cuprates with the tetragonal La{sub 6.4}Sr{sub 1.6}Cu{sub 8}O{sub 20} oxygen deficient perovskite structure have been isolated: La{sub 6.4}Sr{sub 1.6}Cu{sub 8-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 20} (0 {le} x {le} 1.20) and La{sub 6.4-x}Sr{sub 1.6+x}Cu{sub 8-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 20} (0 {le} x {le} 2). The XRD and Moessbauer studies show that they correspond to a preferential substitution of Fe(III) for copper in the octahedral sites of the structure. In fact the ideal structure can be described as 90{degrees}-oriented {open_quotes}123{close_quotes} copper ribbons interconnected with [FeO{sub 3}]{infinity} rows of FeO{sub 6} octahedra. The transport properties of these phases show a transition from a metallic to a semiconducting state. The difference in behavior between the La{sub 6.4}Sr{sub 1.6}Cu{sub 8-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 20} series and the La{sub 6.4-x}Sr{sub 1.6+x}Cu{sub 8-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 20} series is interpreted on the basis of hole carrier density introduced by Cu(III) and of the trapping of carriers by Fe(III) species. The possibility of anisotropic transport properties with a metallic conductivity along c is discussed.

  6. Separation, preconcentration, and determination of cadmium in drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Stafilov, T; Pavlovska, G; Cundeva, K; Zendelovska, D; Paneva, V

    2001-05-01

    A fast method for separation, preconcentration and determination of cadmium in drinking (source, well, tap) and water for irrigation is described. Iron(III) hexamethylenedithiocarbamate, Fe(HMDTC)3, has the role of colloid precipitate flotation collector. The determination of cadmium in final water solutions preconcentrated by flotation can be performed by flame (FAAS) or electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method applied, either FAAS or ETAAS, depends of the concentration level of analyte in the water sample investigating. The AAS results are compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric measurements (ICP-AES) as an independent method. The ETAAS detection limit of cadmium is 0.002 microgram/L. PMID:11460328

  7. Modelling of copper ion transport through supported liquid membrane containing LIX 984

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman Nuri Ata

    2005-01-01

    The transport of copper(II) from an aqueous solution containing zinc, cadmium, nickel and cobalt through supported liquid membrane using LIX 984 dissolved in different diluents as a mobile carrier was studied. A transport rate model has been derived taking into account diffusion through an aqueous feed boundary layer, diffusion of carrier–copper complex through supported liquid membrane and diffusion through an

  8. Biochemical, physiological, and structural effects of excess copper in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Fernandes; F. S. Henriques

    1991-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most troublesome environmental problems faced by mankind nowadays. Copper, in particular,\\u000a poses serious problems due to its widespread industrial and agricultural use.\\u000a \\u000a Unlike other heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead, and mercury, copper is not readily bioaccumulated and thus its toxicity\\u000a to man and other mammals is relatively low. On the contrary, plants

  9. Nickel-cadmium battery recycling through the INMETCO{reg_sign} high temperature metals recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Liotta, J.J.; Onuska, J.C.; Hanewald, R.H. [INMETCO, Ellwood City, PA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    INMETCO, a subsidiary of Inco Limited, is the only facility in North America that provides the High Temperature Metals Recovery (HTMR) process for nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1993, INMETCO recycled more than 2,200 tons of nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron and nickel metal hydride batteries. The paper describes Inco`s experience in metals recovery, traces the development and explains operation of the HTMR Process and outlines INMETCO`s plans for cadmium recovery at its facility in Ellwood City, Pennsylvania.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H2L1) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H2L2).

    PubMed

    AbouEl-Enein, S A; El-Saied, F A; Kasher, T I; El-Wardany, A H

    2007-07-01

    Salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(1)) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(2)) and their iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, electronic spectra, molar conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities and ESR. Mononuclear complexes are formed with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (M:L). The IR studies reveal various modes of chelation. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(1) have octahedral geometry. While the cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(2) were separated as tetrahedral structure. The copper(II) complexes have square planar stereochemistry. The ESR parameters of the copper(II) complexes at room temperature were calculated. The g values for copper(II) complexes proved that the Cu-O and Cu-N bonds are of high covalency. PMID:17113342

  11. Iron, copper, zinc, and manganese transport and regulation in pathogenic Enterobacteria: correlations between strains, site of infection and the relative importance of the different metal transport systems for virulence

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, Gaëlle; Garénaux, Amélie; Proulx, Julie; Sabri, Mourad; Dozois, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    For all microorganisms, acquisition of metal ions is essential for survival in the environment or in their infected host. Metal ions are required in many biological processes as components of metalloproteins and serve as cofactors or structural elements for enzymes. However, it is critical for bacteria to ensure that metal uptake and availability is in accordance with physiological needs, as an imbalance in bacterial metal homeostasis is deleterious. Indeed, host defense strategies against infection either consist of metal starvation by sequestration or toxicity by the highly concentrated release of metals. To overcome these host strategies, bacteria employ a variety of metal uptake and export systems and finely regulate metal homeostasis by numerous transcriptional regulators, allowing them to adapt to changing environmental conditions. As a consequence, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper uptake systems significantly contribute to the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria. However, during the course of our experiments on the role of iron and manganese transporters in extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence, we observed that depending on the strain tested, the importance of tested systems in virulence may be different. This could be due to the different set of systems present in these strains, but literature also suggests that as each pathogen must adapt to the particular microenvironment of its site of infection, the role of each acquisition system in virulence can differ from a particular strain to another. In this review, we present the systems involved in metal transport by Enterobacteria and the main regulators responsible for their controlled expression. We also discuss the relative role of these systems depending on the pathogen and the tissues they infect. PMID:24367764

  12. Accumulation of copper and other metals by copper-resistant plant-pathogenic and saprophytic pseudomonads

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksey, D.A.; Azad, H.R. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Copper-resistant strains of Pseudomonas syringae carrying the cop operon produce periplasmic copper-binding proteins, and this sequestration outside the cytoplasm has been proposed as a resistance mechanism. In this study, strain PS61 of P. syringae carrying the cloned cop operon accumulated more total cellular copper than without the operon. Several other copper-resistant pseudomonads with homology to cop were isolated from plants, and these bacteria also accumulated copper. Two highly resistant species accumulated up to 115 to 120 mg of copper per g (dry weight) of cells. P. putida 08891 was more resistant to several metals than P. syringae pv. tomato PT23, but this increased resistance was not correlated with an increased accumulation of metals other than copper. Several metals were accumulated by both PT23 and P. putida, but when copper was added to induce the cop operon, there was generally no increase of accumulation of the other metals, suggesting that the cop operon does not contribute to accumulation of these other metals. The exceptions were aluminium for PT23 and iron for P. putida, which accumulated to higher levels when copper was added to the cultures. The results of this study support the role of copper sequestration in the copper resistance mechanism of P. syringae and suggest that this mechanism is common to several copper-resistant Pseudomonas species found on plants to which antimicrobial copper compounds are applied for plant disease control.

  13. Theoretical interpretation for 2p - nd absorption spectra of iron, nickel, and copper in X-ray range measured at the LULI2000 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, M.; Arnault, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; de Gaufridy de Dortan, F.; Gilleron, F.; Loisel, G.; Pain, J.-C.; Porcherot, Q.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Thais, F.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2013-11-01

    The 2p - nd absorption structures in medium Z elements present a valuable benchmark for atomic models since they exhibit a complex dependence on temperature and density. For these transitions lying in the X-ray range, one observes a competition between the spin-orbit splitting and the broadening associated to the excitation of complex structures. Detailed opacity codes based on the HULLAC or FAC suites agree with the statistical code SCO; but in iron computations predict higher peak absorption than measured. An addition procedure on opacities calculated with detailed codes is proposed and successfully tested.

  14. Cadmium plating replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mary J.; Groshart, Earl C.

    1995-01-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  15. Sequential Injection Determination of Nitrate in Vegetables by Spectrophotometry with Inline Cadmium Reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara M. Oliveira; Teresa I. M. S. Lopes; António O. S. S. Rangel

    2007-01-01

    A sequential injection system for the determination of nitrate (NO3 ) in vegetables was developed to automate this determination, allowing for substantially reduced reagent consumption and generated waste using low?cost equipment. After extraction with water and filtration, the extracted nitrate is reduced inline to nitrite in a copperized cadmium (Cd) column and determined as nitrite. According to the Griess–Ilosvay reaction,

  16. Adsorption of mixed metals and cadmium by calcium-alginate immobilized Zoogloea ramigera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine P. Kuhn; Robert M. Pfister

    1989-01-01

    Zoogloea ramigera 115 cells were immobilized into beads of calcium alginate and used in air-bubbled column reactors to remove cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and strontium (Sr) from dilute and concentrated solutions. By placing three bubble columns in sequence it was possible to achieve Cd adsorption efficiencies of 99% or greater. During ten applications of

  17. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries.

  18. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  19. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  20. Amount and metal composition of midgut gland metallothionein in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) after exposure to cadmium in the food.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Bach, Louise Thornhøj; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2014-05-01

    Accumulation of cadmium in aquatic invertebrates may compromise human food safety and anthropogenic additions of cadmium to coastal areas cause concern. Induction of crustacean metallothionein has been suggested as a useful biomarker for contamination of the aquatic environment with cadmium. We investigated how exposure to low concentrations of cadmium in the food affects the subcellular binding of cadmium with the shore crab Carcinus maenas as model organism. Approximately 80% of the assimilated cadmium was bound in the soluble fraction of the midgut gland and of this, 82% was found in the metallothionein fraction. Metallothionein synthesis was only induced at the highest exposure level. However, the number of cadmium atoms bound per molecule of metallothionein increased linearly with exposure, from approximately 0.18 in the control group to 1.4 in a group administered food containing 5.1 ?g Cd g(-1). We noted a marked interaction between the presence of copper and zinc in the midgut gland and the binding of cadmium. The usefulness of crustacean midgut gland metallothionein as a biomarker for cadmium exposure at modest levels was questioned since exposures at levels producing significant increases in the tissue contents of the metal did not result in elevated concentrations of metallothionein in the midgut gland. PMID:24685622

  1. Excess copper chelating therapy for Wilson disease induces anemia and liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Harada, Masaru; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Hiura, Masaaki; Shibata, Michihiko; Matsuhashi, Toru; Abe, Shintaro; Harada, Riko; Tabaru, Akinari

    2011-01-01

    A 37-year-old man was diagnosed with Wilson disease at the age of 14. His first manifestations were neurological. He was treated with trientine for more than 10 years and suffered from anemia and liver dysfunction. Wilson disease is a genetic disorder characterized by accumulation of copper in the body. Excess copper is toxic, but copper is an essential trace element. Copper-binding ceruloplasmin is important for iron metabolism. Excess copper chelating treatment-induced anemia and iron deposition in the liver was suspected. Proper monitoring of copper status is important for the management of Wilson disease. PMID:21757830

  2. Molecular response of cadmium resistant Datura innoxia cells to heavy metal stress

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; Naranjo, C.M.; McClure, P.R.; Roth, E.J.

    1984-04-16

    Datura innoxia suspension culture cells can be selected for the ability to grow rapidly for extended periods of time in normally toxic concentrations of cadmium ion. Resistance to this toxic heavy metal is correlated with the ability to rapidly synthesize large amounts of one or more low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal binding proteins. Resistance to increasing concentrations of cadmium is correlated with both the rate of de novo synthesis and the maximum accumulation of these binding proteins within cadmium resistant cells. The ability of one metal binding protein to tightly bind copper ion suggests that these proteins may normally play a role in trace metal metabolism and transport. Metal binding proteins are not easily detectable in the cadmium sensitive cells from which resistant cells were derived. 22 references, 8 figures.

  3. PIC1, an Ancient Permease in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts, Mediates Iron Transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Du; Anderson R. Med; Katrin Philippar

    In chloroplasts, the transition metals iron and copper play an essential role in photosynthetic electron transport and act as cofactors for superoxide dismutases. Iron is essential for chlorophyll biosynthesis, and ferritin clusters in plastids store iron during germination, development, and iron stress. Thus, plastidic homeostasis of transition metals, in particular of iron, is crucial for chloroplast as well as plant

  4. Cadmium hazard in silver brazing.

    PubMed

    Gan, S L; Tan, S H; Pinnagoda, J; Tan, K T

    1995-03-01

    This study evaluates the usage of cadmium-containing silver brazing alloys in Singapore and the potential cadmium hazard from its use. Of the 137 factories which responded to the survey questionnaire, only 28 (20.4%) carried out brazing. Of these, only 7 factories used cadmium-containing filler alloys. One hundred and six out of 123 workers from one of these factories had cadmium-in-blood concentrations exceeding 10 mcg/l. Thirty-one (29.2%) of the workers with excessive cadmium absorption had urinary beta-2 microglobulin levels exceeding 28 mcg/g creat. Workers in the other factories who were intermittently exposed had cadmium-in-blood concentrations of 10 mcg/l and below. PMID:7653980

  5. Effects of operational parameters and common ions on the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by scrap copper-modified cast iron.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jin-Hong; Wang, Hong-Wu

    2015-07-01

    Scrap Cu-modified cast iron (CMCI) is a potent material for the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by a surface-mediated reaction. However, the effects of operational parameters and common ions on its reduction and final rate are unknown. Results show that the 2,4-DNT reduction was significantly affected by Cu:Fe mass ratio and the optimum m(Cu:Fe) was 0.25 %. The slight pH-dependent trend of 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI was observed at pH 3 to 11, and the maximum end product, 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), was generated at pH 7. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water reduced the 2,4-DNT degradation and the formation of 2,4-DAT. CMCI effectively treated high concentrations of 2,4-DNT (60 to 150 mg L(-1)). In addition, varying the concentration of (NH4)2SO4 from 0.001 to 0.1 mol L(-1) improved the efficiency of the reduction process. The green rust-like corrosion products (GR-SO4 (2-)) were also effective for 2,4-DNT reduction, in which Na2CO3 (0.01 to 0.2 mol L(-1)) significantly inhibited this reduction. The repeated-use efficiency of CMCI was also inhibited. Moreover, 2,4-DNT and its products, such as 4A2NT, 2A4NT, and 2,4-DAT, produced mass imbalance (<35 %). Hydrolysis of Fe(3+) and CO3 (2-) leading to the generation of Fe(OH)3 and conversion to FeOOH that precipitated on the surface and strongly adsorbed the products of reduction caused the inhibition of CO3 (2-). The 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI could be described by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The operational conditions and common ions affected the 2,4-DNT reduction and its products by enhancing the corrosion of iron or accumulating a passive oxide film on the reactivity sites. PMID:25663339

  6. Quantitative analysis of heavy metals emission during the combustion and baling of polyvinyl chloride insulated copper wire 

    E-print Network

    Pickard, David Paul

    1996-01-01

    such as calcium-zinc, barium- zinc, and barium-cadmium soaps, form the most homogenous group of compounds used in PVC stabilization. In the United States, mixed-metal combinations of lead, cadmium, barium, zinc, and other heavy metals represent the greatest.... 10 TABLE I Common Inorganic Pigments Containing Heavy Metals (22, 241 Inorganic Pigments Color or Hue Titanium Dioxide Zinc Oxide Lead Carbonate Lead Sulfate Iron Oxides Lead Chromates Lead Molybdate Orange Cadmium Nickel Antimony Titanium...

  7. The Yeast Fre1p/Fre2p Cupric Reductases Facilitate Copper Uptake and Are Regulated by the Copper-modulated Mac1p Activator*

    E-print Network

    Alexandraki, Despina

    The Yeast Fre1p/Fre2p Cupric Reductases Facilitate Copper Uptake and Are Regulated by the Copper reductases which account for the total plasma membrane associated activity, a prerequisite for iron uptake, in Saccharomyces cerevi- siae. The two genes are transcriptionally induced by iron depletion. In this communication

  8. Interactions in iron gall inks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Jan?ovi?ová; M. ?eppan; B. Havlínová; M. Reháková; Z. Jakubíková

    2007-01-01

    Simple iron gall inks composed of gallic acid, ferrous sulfate, and gum arabic and in some cases also of copper(II) sulfate\\u000a were prepared. The process of iron ion complex formation with gallic acid was investigated using UV-VIS spectroscopy, pH measurements,\\u000a and by monitoring the concentration changes of Fe(II) ions. The admixture of Fe(II) ions to gallic acid induced a bathochromic

  9. Fate and behaviour of copper and zinc in secondary biological wastewater treatment processes: I Evaluation of biomass adsorption capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Crane; P. Barton; E. Cartmell; F. Coulon; P. Hillis; S. J. Judd; A. Santos; T. Stephenson; J. N. Lester

    2010-01-01

    The current sources of copper and zinc in municipal wastewaters have been considered, and the changes in the concentrations and quantities of these two elements entering sewage treatment works over the last three decades have been calculated. The concentrations and quantities of the heavy metals cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc, entering UK sewage treatment works, have been

  10. Pathogenic adaptations to host-derived antibacterial copper

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Kaveri S.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that both host and pathogen manipulate copper content in infected host niches during infections. In this review, we summarize recent developments that implicate copper resistance as an important determinant of bacterial fitness at the host-pathogen interface. An essential mammalian nutrient, copper cycles between copper (I) (Cu+) in its reduced form and copper (II) (Cu2+) in its oxidized form under physiologic conditions. Cu+ is significantly more bactericidal than Cu2+ due to its ability to freely penetrate bacterial membranes and inactivate intracellular iron-sulfur clusters. Copper ions can also catalyze reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which may further contribute to their toxicity. Transporters, chaperones, redox proteins, receptors and transcription factors and even siderophores affect copper accumulation and distribution in both pathogenic microbes and their human hosts. This review will briefly cover evidence for copper as a mammalian antibacterial effector, the possible reasons for this toxicity, and pathogenic resistance mechanisms directed against it. PMID:24551598

  11. Removal of cadmium by combining deferasirox and desferrioxamine chelators in rats.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, S Jamilaldine; Saljooghi, Amir Shokooh; Balooch, Faezeh Dahooee; Iranmanesh, Marzieh; Golbafan, Mohammad Reza

    2012-02-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the ability of two chelators, deferasirox and desferrioxamine (DFO), in removing cadmium from biological system. The potential efficiency of those chelators were investigated after cadmium administration for 60 days following two dose levels of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight daily to male rats. However, abnormalities were observed in clinical signs after cadmium administration, such as yellowish discoloration of hair, flaccid and hypotonic muscles, irritability, weakness and loss of weight. The hypothesis that the two chelators might be more efficient as combined therapy than single therapy in removing metal ions from the body was considered. In this way, two known chelators, deferasirox and DFO were chosen and tested in the acute rat model. The chelation therapy results show that deferasirox and DFO are able (?)to remove cadmium ions from the body, while iron concentration returned to the normal level and symptoms are decreased. PMID:22134990

  12. Effects of cadmium ingestion and food restriction on energy metabolism and tissue metal concentrations in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, R T; Scanlon, P F

    1985-08-01

    The single and combined effects of cadmium ingestion and food restriction were examined in a 42-day experiment with male, juvenile mallard ducks. A 2 X 3 factorial design was employed consisting of two levels of food supply (ad libitum and 55% of ad libitum intake) and three levels of cadmium in the food (0, 5, or 50 micrograms Cd/g food). Cadmium ingestion alone had no effect on body or tissue weights, liver glycogen, plasma concentrations of glucose, urea, uric acid, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), or plasma or adrenal concentrations of corticosterone. The food restriction resulted in reduced body weights and reduced weights of livers, kidneys, and testes, increased adrenal weights, reduced liver glycogen, increased plasma NEFA concentrations, reduced plasma T3 and T4 concentrations, and increased adrenal corticosterone concentrations. In combination with the food restriction, cadmium ingestion further reduced plasma T3 concentrations and a similar trend was noted for T4. Additionally, the highest plasma NEFA concentrations and highest plasma and adrenal concentrations of corticosterone were observed in food-restricted ducks receiving the highest level of dietary cadmium. These results suggest the ability of cadmium ingestion to enhance food restriction-induced alterations in energy metabolism at levels of dietary cadmium that are by themselves without apparent effect. Also, cadmium ingestion resulted in increased kidney concentrations of copper and zinc; this effect on kidney zinc concentrations was increased in food-restricted ducks. PMID:4017995

  13. Mechanisms of Copper Ion Mediated Huntington's Disease Progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan H. Fox; Jibrin A. Kama; Gregory Lieberman; Raman Chopra; Kate Dorsey; Vanita Chopra; Irene Volitakis; Robert A. Cherny; Ashley I. Bush; Steven Hersch; Katrina Gwinn-Hardy

    2007-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a dominant polyglutamine expansion within the N-terminus of huntingtin protein and results in oxidative stress, energetic insufficiency and striatal degeneration. Copper and iron are increased in the striata of HD patients, but the role of these metals in HD pathogenesis is unknown. We found, using inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy, that elevations of copper and iron

  14. Discovery of Cadmium, Indium, and Tin Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Stephanie; Thoennessen, Michael

    2009-10-01

    As of today, no comprehensive study has been made covering the initial observations and identifications of isotopes. A project has been undertaken at MSU to document the discovery of all the known isotopes. The criteria defining discovery of a given isotope is the publication of clear mass and element assignment in a refereed journal. Prior to the current work the documentation of the discovery of eleven elements had been completed^1. These elements are cerium^2, arsenic, gold, tungsten, krypton, silver, vanadium, einsteinium, iron, barium, and cobalt. We will present the new documentation for the cadmium, indium, and tin isotopes. Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes, thirty-eight indium isotopes, and thirty-eight tin isotopes have been discovered so far. The description for each discovered isotope includes the year of discovery, the article published on the discovery, the article's author, the method of production, the method of identification, and any previous information concerning the isotope discovery. A summary and overview of all ˜500 isotopes documented so far as a function of discovery year, method and place will also be presented. ^1http://www.nscl.msu.edu/˜thoennes/2009/discovery.htm ^2J.Q. Ginepro, J. Snyder, and M. Thoennessen, At. Data Nucl. Data. Tables, in press (2009), doi:10.1016/j.adt.2009.06.002

  15. Urinary cadmium and beta2-microglobulin: correlation with nutrition and smoking history (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Kowal, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    Urinary cadmium and beta2-microglobulin concentrations from approximately 1000 samples from the general adult U.S. population, collected as part of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey II (NHANES II), were related to nutritional and smoking history of the individuals. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively correlated with dietary iron (significance level of 0.0065), negatively correlated with dietary calcium (significance level of less than 0.0001), and significantly (level of less than 0.001) higher in past or present smokers than in those who had never smoked. The results suggest increased cadmium absorption in the presence of low dietary intake of iron, low dietary intake of calcium, and cigarette smoking in the general population of the United States.

  16. Green tea catechins as brain-permeable, non toxic iron chelators to “iron out iron” from the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mandel; O. Weinreb; L. Reznichenko; L. Kalfon; T. Amit

    Evidence to link abnormal metal (iron, copper and zinc) metabolism and handling with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases\\u000a pathology has frequently been reported. The capacity of free iron to enhance and promote the generation of toxic reactive\\u000a oxygen radicals has been discussed numerous times. Metal chelation has the potential to prevent iron-induced oxidative stress\\u000a and aggregation of alpha-synuclein and beta-amyloid peptides.

  17. Immunological abnormalities in workers exposed to pollutants at an Egyptian copper company.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Laila H; Ghoneim, Hossam M; El-Sayed, Mona H; Deimian, Soheir R; Adam, Abdel Nasser I; Abou Rawash, Salwa N; Abou Rawash, Nayer M; Ursos, Paul

    2003-08-01

    In the present work we studied: (a) biochemical changes; (b) serum immunoglobulins (IGs); and (c) mitogenecity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in workers directly exposed to high concentrations of pollutants in several sectors of a major copper company in Alexandria. These sectors included the aluminum utensils refining of copper semicontinuous aluminum casting, brass foundries, and steel furnaces. Toxicants in these sectors included aluminum, hexachloroethan, silica, cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, abestos, nickels, zinc, silver, carbon iron, and sulfate present in high concentrations in the sectors where workers are directly exposed. Administrative personnel (indirectly exposed) were included as positive controls; negative controls were people living in areas of Alexandria where the concentrations of these toxicants are extremely low. All personnel of the aluminum utensils area showed reduction in serum levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while workers directly exposed in the other sectors showed elevated Igs. Mitogenic activity in cultured PBL assayed by 3H-thymidine uptake was impaired in all plant personnel. However, experimentals showed increases in the interleukins IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha and-beta (TNF-alpha and beta) assayed by ELISA. Changes were directly related to duration of exposure. Some workers showed autoimmune symptoms such as arthritis and spondylitis. Allergic manifestations were also recorded. Thus, abnormalities were greatest in directly exposed workers, while other plant personnel showed some form of toxicity in the parameters studied. Clinical significance of the immunologic abnormalities seen is under further study. PMID:19180809

  18. Intracellular Copper Does Not Catalyze the Formation of Oxidative DNA Damage in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Macomber, Lee; Rensing, Christopher; Imlay, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Because copper catalyzes the conversion of H2O2 to hydroxyl radicals in vitro, it has been proposed that oxidative DNA damage may be an important component of copper toxicity. Elimination of the copper export genes, copA, cueO, and cusCFBA, rendered Escherichia coli sensitive to growth inhibition by copper and provided forcing circumstances in which this hypothesis could be tested. When the cells were grown in medium supplemented with copper, the intracellular copper content increased 20-fold. However, the copper-loaded mutants were actually less sensitive to killing by H2O2 than cells grown without copper supplementation. The kinetics of cell death showed that excessive intracellular copper eliminated iron-mediated oxidative killing without contributing a copper-mediated component. Measurements of mutagenesis and quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that copper decreased the rate at which H2O2 damaged DNA. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping showed that the copper-dependent H2O2 resistance was not caused by inhibition of the Fenton reaction, for copper-supplemented cells exhibited substantial hydroxyl radical formation. However, copper EPR spectroscopy suggested that the majority of H2O2-oxidizable copper is located in the periplasm; therefore, most of the copper-mediated hydroxyl radical formation occurs in this compartment and away from the DNA. Indeed, while E. coli responds to H2O2 stress by inducing iron sequestration proteins, H2O2-stressed cells do not induce proteins that control copper levels. These observations do not explain how copper suppresses iron-mediated damage. However, it is clear that copper does not catalyze significant oxidative DNA damage in vivo; therefore, copper toxicity must occur by a different mechanism. PMID:17189367

  19. Analytical use of the selective extraction of copper as its phenylacetate.

    PubMed

    Adam, J; Pribil, R

    1972-10-01

    Chloroform solution of phenylacetic add has been found very suitable for extraction and colorimetric determination of copper. Iron and uranium are the main interferences, which can be overcome by masking with ammonium fluoridc. Under these conditions, only gold(III), platinum(IV) and palladium(II) are co-extracted, but their colour does not interfere with measurement of the green copper extract at 700 nm. The method has been applied to the determination of copper in iron, steels, uranium, lead concentrates and alloys containing nickel, cobalt, etc. The extraction procedure can also be used to remove interference of iron, copper and uranium in the determination of manganese with formaldoxime. PMID:18961161

  20. Inhibition of copper uptake in yeast reveals the copper transporter Ctr1p as a potential molecular target of saxitoxin.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Kathleen D; Minkin, Steven C; Dodani, Sheel C; Chang, Christopher J; Wilhelm, Steven W; Sayler, Gary S

    2012-03-01

    Saxitoxin is a secondary metabolite produced by several species of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria which targets voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels in higher vertebrates. However, its molecular target in planktonic aquatic community members that co-occur with the toxin producers remains unknown. Previous microarray analysis with yeast identified copper and iron-homeostasis genes as being differentially regulated in response to saxitoxin. This study sought to identify the molecular target in microbial cells by comparing the transcriptional profiles of key copper and iron homeostasis genes (CTR1, FRE1, FET3, CUP1, CRS5) in cells exposed to saxitoxin, excess copper, excess iron, an extracellular Cu(I) chelator, or an intracellular Cu(I) chelator. Protein expression and localization of Ctr1p (copper transporter), Fet3p (multicopper oxidase involved in high-affinity iron uptake), and Aft1p (iron regulator) were also compared among treatments. Combined transcript and protein profiles suggested saxitoxin inhibited copper uptake. This hypothesis was confirmed by intracellular Cu(I) imaging with a selective fluorescent probe for labile copper. On the basis of the combined molecular and physiological results, a model is presented in which the copper transporter Ctr1p serves as a molecular target of saxitoxin and these observations are couched in the context of the eco-evolutionary role this toxin may serve for species that produce it. PMID:22304436

  1. A Novel Copper A Containing Menaquinol NO Reductase from Bacillus azotoformans

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Imke

    A Novel Copper A Containing Menaquinol NO Reductase from Bacillus azotoformans Suharti, Marc J. F of one non-heme iron, two copper atoms and of two b-type hemes per enzyme complex. Heme c was absent features of this enzyme that distinguish it from other NO reductases. First, the enzyme contains copper

  2. The effect of zinc methionine or copper lysine on stocker calves grazing oat pastures 

    E-print Network

    Griffeth, Laura Ann

    1993-01-01

    for growth and the prevention of anemia in rats since 1928 (Hart et al. , 1928). Many 12 experiments soon followed providing evidence of copper's essentiality for growth and prevention of a wide range of clinical and pathological disorders in many... in swine when 250 ppm copper as copper sulfate was added. The high level of copper can lead to anemia, copper toxicity, or zinc deficiency unless the diets contain adequate iron and zinc as antagonists. One hundred and fifty ppm of both iron and zinc can...

  3. The selective recovery of cadmium(II) from sulfate solutions by a counter-current extraction–stripping process using a mixture of diisopropylsalicylic acid and Cyanex® 471X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Gotfryd; M. Cox

    2006-01-01

    The liquid–liquid extraction of cadmium(II) from solutions, obtained by leaching of deposited cadmium carbonate or cadmium cementation sponge and heavily contaminated with other components, especially zinc, has been studied. Initially the solutions were purified; iron and other contaminants were removed by oxyhydrolysis. An equimolar mixture of diisopropylsalicylic acid and Cyanex® 471X (0.5 mol\\/L\\/0.5 mol\\/L), diluted with Solvesso 150, was used

  4. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species have adapted on such stress. The aim of this study is to investigate the behaviour of copper in plants and to assess its potential effect on the surrounding environment. To detect copper in biological samples electrochemical methods were employed particularly differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Copper gave signals at 0.02 V measured by DPV. The obtained calibration dependence was linear (R2 = 0.995). Further, this method was utilized for determination of copper in real soil samples obtained from previously mentioned heavy-metal-polluted mining area. The content varied within range from tens to hundreds of mg of copper per kg of the soil. Moreover, we focused on investigation of copper influence on seedlings of Norway spruce. The seedlings were treated with copper (0, 0.1, 10 and 100 mM) for four weeks. We observed anatomical-morphological changes and other biochemical parameters in plants. We determined that seedlings synthesized more than 48 % protective thiols (glutathione and phytochelatins) compared to control ones. We investigated copper distribution in plant tissues by diphenylcarbazide staining. We found out that copper is highly accumulated in parenchymal stalk cells. In needles, change in auto-fluorescence of parenchymal cells of mesoderm similarly to endodermis cells. Besides, we analyzed samples of plants from the polluted area (spruce, pin, birch). The data obtained well correlated with previously mentioned. Acknowledgement The work on this experiment was supported by grant: INCHEMBIOL MSM0021622412.

  5. Effects of natural exposure to high levels of zinc and cadmium in the immature pony as a function of age

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, D.F.; Gunson, D.E.; Shoop, C.R.; Ramberg, C.F. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    To study the effects of environmental exposure to zinc and cadmium in immature foals, five pregnant ponies were raised within 2.9 km of the New Jersey Zinc Smelter in Palmerton, Pennsylvania. The mares and their foals were kept outdoors on timothy hay and orchard grass. The foals were examined daily for signs of illness and blood samples were taken monthly for estimation of serum zinc, copper, and ceruloplasmin levels. The foals were sacrificed at 2.5, 4.5, 8.5, 13.5, and 18.5 months of age. Necropsy revealed generalized osteochondrosis in joints of the limbs and cervical vertebrae, lymphoid hyperplasia, and eosinophilia. Two of the foals had developed mild lameness. The concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, lead, magnesium, and calcium were determined in liver, kidney cortex, and pancreas. The concentration of cadmium and zinc were the only elements that were greatly elevated in all three tissues as compared to control animals. The concentration of cadmium was directly correlated with age in the three tissues (e.g., 23.9 to 212.7 micrograms/g wet wt in kidney cortex), whereas zinc was significantly increased (range 132 to 954 micrograms/g wet wt in liver) but there was no correlation with age. It was concluded that the development of osteochondrosis is associated with increased exposure to zinc and possibly cadmium. The classical signs of cadmium toxicosis, such as renal damage and osteomalacia, were not observed.

  6. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

  7. Cadmium and mercury nephrotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, J. K.

    1983-08-01

    Despite increasing attempts to control environmental pollution, changes in the distribution and bioavailability of toxic metals like mercury and cadmium are still occurring. Apart from natural processes, other contributory factors include the gradual spread of industrialization, the use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer and the acidification of Northern Hemisphere ground-water. Animals (including man and domestic varieties) can accumulate harmful concentrations of toxic metals1-5. We therefore looked for damage to the kidneys in seabirds contaminated with mercury and cadmium and made comparisons with kidneys from three other groups of animals: seabirds from an uncontaminated colony, metal-dosed birds and metal-dosed mice. We report here that, comparing all these groups of animals, invididuals with comparatively high levels of metals had nephrotoxic lesions of a similar type and severity. Moreover, the metal concentrations at which damage began and at which biochemical changes could be detected were below those presently considered as relatively safe for humans by the World Health Organization.

  8. Evaluation of heavy metal tolerance in Calamagrostis epigejos and Elymus repens revealed copper tolerance in a copper smelter population of C. epigejos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Lehmann; Franz Rebele

    2004-01-01

    Populations of the two rhizomatous perennial grasses Calamagrostis epigejos and Elymus repens from the vicinity of copper smelters in Poland, sewage farmland in Berlin and unpolluted control sites were examined for tolerance to copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium. Metal tolerance tests were performed using the “in parallel” root elongation method with 2?moll?1 Cu, 10 and 20?moll?1 Zn, 5 and 10?moll?1

  9. Intoxication aigu et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    poisoning Summary (176 words): Key words : cadmium - poisoning - pneumonia - nephropathy - osteomalacia of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by IARC

  10. Copper Cleanup

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-12-05

    In this hands-on experiment, kids use chemistry to explore whether acids or bases are better at restoring a penny’s shine. Kids follow the scientific process to test a common household cleaning products alongside ketchup, cola, and other kitchen staples, and may be surprised by the results! A downloadable data sheet is available on the Copper Cleanup activity resources page.

  11. Effects of methionine chelate- or yeast proteinate-based supplement of copper, iron, manganese and zinc on broiler growth performance, their distribution in the tibia and excretion into the environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhay Kumar; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar; Haldar, Sudipto

    2015-04-01

    A straight-run flock of 1-day-old Cobb 400 chicks (n?=?432) was distributed into four treatment groups (9 replicate pens in each group, 12 birds in a pen) for a 38-day feeding trial evaluating the effects of a methionine chelate (Met-TM)- or a yeast proteinate (Yeast-TM)-based supplement of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) on growth performance, bone criteria and some metabolic indices in commercial broiler chickens. The diets were either not supplemented with any trace elements at all (negative control, NC) or supplemented with an inorganic (sulphate) trace element premix (inorganic TM (ITM), 1 g/kg feed), the Met-TM (1 g/kg feed) and the Yeast-TM (0.5 g/kg feed). Body weight, feed conversion ratio and dressed meat yield at 38 days were better in the Yeast-TM-supplemented group as compared with the NC, ITM and Met-TM groups (p?

  12. Role for copper in the cellular and regulatory effects of heme-hemopexin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Smith; Kimberly R. Rish; Rachel Lovelace; Jennifer F. Hackney; Rachel M. Helston

    2009-01-01

    Hemopexin (HPX) binds heme tightly, thus protecting cells from heme toxicity during hemolysis, trauma and ischemia-reperfusion\\u000a injury. Heme uptake via endocytosis of heme-HPX followed by heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) raises regulatory\\u000a iron pools, thus linking heme metabolism with that of iron. Normal iron homeostasis requires copper-replete cells. When heme-HPX\\u000a induces HMOX1, the copper-storing metallothioneins (MTs) are also induced

  13. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2009-10-22

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  14. Cadmium toxicokinetics and bioaccumulation in turtles: trophic exposure of Trachemys scripta elegans.

    PubMed

    Guirlet, Elodie; Das, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Ecotoxicological data in reptiles are mainly represented by field studies reporting the tissue burden of wild-captured individuals but much less is known regarding the processes of uptake, depuration, accumulation and the effects of inorganic contaminants in these species. In the present study, the accumulation, the path and the effects of exposure to cadmium (Cd) through diet intake were investigated in female red eared slider turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans. In the first phase of the experiment, turtles underwent an acclimatization period during which they were fed a control diet. In the second phase, the turtles were exposed to cadmium through a CdCl(2) supplemented-diet with increased environmentally relevant concentrations for a period of 13 weeks. Following this, the turtles went through a third phase, a recovery phase of 3 weeks, during which they were fed uncontaminated food. Blood and feces were collected during the three phases of the experiment. The turtles were euthanized at the end of the experiment and organ samples collected. The Cd-concentrations in blood remained stable over the course of the experiment while Cd-concentrations in feces increased with time and with the amount of Cd ingested. The proportional accumulation in liver and kidney together was comprised between 0.7 and 6.1% and they represented the main organs of accumulation. Cd accumulated in the organs in the following order of concentration: kidney > liver > pancreas > muscle. In terms of burden in organs, the Cd-burden was the highest in liver followed by kidney and pancreas. The proportional accumulation decreased as Cd ingestion increased, suggesting that at a higher dose of Cd, assimilation decreased. Mineral content of the liver and pancreas became modified according to Cd level; increasing dietary Cd exposure increased concentrations of zinc and iron in liver and copper in pancreas in a dose-dependent manner. Accumulation of Cd had no effect on survival, food consumption, growth, weight or length suggesting no effect of the treatment on female turtle body condition. PMID:21814846

  15. Investigation of Conventional- and Induction-Sintered Iron and Iron-Based Powder Metal Compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çavdar, U?ur; Atik, Enver

    2014-06-01

    Induction sintering was developed as an alternative method to conventional sintering to sinter iron-based powder metal (PM) compacts. Several compositions of compact such as pure iron, 3 wt.% copper mixed iron, or 3 wt.% bronze mixed iron were sintered by using induction sintering machines with 12 kW power and 30 kHz frequency. The mechanical properties, microstructural properties, densities, and microhardness values were investigated for both processes. Iron-based PM compacts sintered at 1120°C by induction in 8.33 min (500 s) were found to be similar to those sintered conventionally in 30 min. The results were compared with the experimental studies.

  16. Environmental zinc and cadmium pollution associated with generalized osteochondrosis, osteoporosis, and nephrocalcinosis in horses

    SciTech Connect

    Gunson, D.E.; Kowalczyk, D.F.; Shoop, C.R.; Ramberg, C.F. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    Several suspect causes of chronic zinc/cadmium toxicosis in horses near a zinc smelter were investigated following observations of lameness, swollen joints, and unthriftiness, particularly in foals. Two foals born and raised near the smelter were lame and had joint swellings that were attributable to severe generalized osteochondrosis. Zinc and cadmium concentrations were markedly increased in the pancreas, liver, and kidney. The serum of 1 foal, zinc and potassium concentrations were high, whereas calcium and magnesium concentrations were low. Marked nephrocalcinosis and osteoporosis were observed in this foal. Nephrocalcinosis also was observed in his dam, who died of a punctured lung following rib fractures, though there was no history of trauma. The joint cartilage lesions were similar to those induced experimentally in animals fed high-zinc diets and may have been the result of zin-induced abnormality of copper metabolism. The osteoporosis and nephrocalcinosis were consistent with chronic cadmium toxicosis.

  17. Incommensurately Modulated Cadmium Apatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Peter Alberius; Moustiakimov, Marat; Lidin, Sven

    2000-02-01

    Two cadmium apatites, Cd5(PO4)3Br and Cd5(VO4)3I, earlier reported to be halogenide deficient, were prime suspects of being modulated. In this study, incommensurate ordering was found in satellites occurring in planes perpendicular to c*. The structure of Cd5(PO4)3Br was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data in the four-dimensional super space group R=Poverline3:(00?): a=16.932(2) Å, c=6.451(1) Å, Z=6, R=0.043. The modulation of the structure is due to a misfit between the large halogenide ions and the surrounding rigid Ca-PO4 substructure. From the refined model of the Cd5(PO4)3Br structure a "chain-packing" model was confirmed with a Br-Br distance of 3.466 Å.

  18. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2?-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  19. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts.

    PubMed

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  20. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.