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1

Purification of phosphoric acid by minimizing iron, copper, cadmium and fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial phosphoric acid manufactured using wet process has been purified by minimizing the iron, cadmium, copper and fluoride content. Bentonite clay is found suitable for removal of humic acids and suspended materials from crude phosphoric acid. An attempt to minimize the iron content by the addition of potassium sulfate, calcium sulfate, sodium sulfate, individually; silicon dioxide+sodium carbonate+potassium sulfate, in combination,

Ahmed A. El-Asmy; Homam M. Serag; Mohammad A. Mahdy; Moustafa I. Amin

2008-01-01

2

Effects of zinc, iron and copper deficiencies on cadmium in tissues of Japanese quail. [Coturnix coturnix japonica  

SciTech Connect

Experiments with young Japanese quail were conducted to determine whether combined moderate deficiencies of zinc, iron and copper would cause greater uptake and tissue retention of cadmium than the single deficiencies. Birds were fed the experimental diets containing 62 ppb cadmium from hatching to 16 days of age. On day 9 each bird received a dose of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ in its diet. On day 10, the duodenal and jejunal-ileal tissues contained large amounts of cadmium, and there were many significant effects of treatment on cadmium-109 retention in the livers and kidneys. At day 16, zinc deficiency caused increased cadmium in the liver, whereas iron and copper deficiencies each caused increased cadmium in the kidneys. Combined deficiencies had little or no greater effect than single deficiencies and in some cases the combined effect was less than that of a single deficiency. 13 references, 11 tables.

Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Stone, C.L.; Fry, B.E. Jr.

1984-03-01

3

Assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and iron by the spider Dysdera crocata, a predator of woodlice  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an experiment is described on the assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and iron by Dysdera crocata collected from a site in central Bristol. The spiders were fed on woodlice from their own site, and on woodlice from a site contaminated by a smelting works which contained much higher levels of zinc, cadmium and lead than the spiders would have been used to in their normal diet.

Hopkin, S.P.; Martin, M.H.

1985-02-01

4

Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is known to be associated with certain pathological conditions of the brain. However, whether nonessential trace elements could influence the balance of essential trace elements in the brain is unknown. In this study the brain Fe, Cu, and Cd contents were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their distributions determined by nuclear microscopy in the early phase (day 3) of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in nonexposed and in Cd-exposed female Balb/c mice. In CB3 infection the brain is a well-known target that has not been studied with regard to trace element balance. The brain concentration of Cu compared with that of noninfected control mice was increased by 9% (P<0.05) in infected mice not exposed to Cd and by 10% (not significant) in infected Cd-exposed mice. A similar response was seen for Fe, which in infected Cd-exposed mice, compared to noninfected control mice, tended to increase by 16%. Cu showed an even tissue distribution, whereas Fe was distributed in focal deposits. Changes in Cd concentration in the brain of infected mice were less consistent but evenly distributed. Further studies are needed to define whether the accumulation and distribution of trace elements in the brain have an impact on brain function.

Ilbaeck, N.-G. [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden) and Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: nils-gunnar.ilback@slv.se; Lindh, U. [Research in Metal Biology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Minqin, R. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Friman, G. [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Watt, F. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

2006-11-15

5

Levels of lead, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc in deciduous teeth of children living in Irbid, Jordan by ICP-OES: some factors affecting their concentrations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in deciduous teeth from children living in Jordan and to investigate the affecting factors. Deciduous teeth samples (n = 320, without fillings) were collected from 5- to 12-year-old children and analyzed for Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. A questionnaire was used to gather information on each child, such as sex, age, tooth type (incisors, canines, and molars), tooth position within the mouth (upper or lower jaw), caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, type of drinking water (tap water, home purified water, and plant purified water), and zone of residence (close to or far from heavy traffic roads). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn were 30.26, 0.55, 6.23, 34.72, and 128.21 ?g/g, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a clear relation between the concentrations of the metals analyzed in this study and tooth type, tooth position within the mouth, caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and type of drinking water. No significant differences in the concentrations of the five metals analyzed were observed due to sex. Our results also show that no significant difference among Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations and age among the ages of 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12, except for Pb, which decreases at age 11-12. PMID:22851195

Alomary, A; Al-Momani, I F; Obeidat, S M; Massadeh, A M

2012-08-01

6

Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (p<0.05), also, both total Cr and Cr (VI) were 5.4-26 folds higher in USA cement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (p<0.001). Total Cd was higher in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05 and p<0.001), respectively. Mercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05), while Pb was only significantly higher in clinker from Nigeria (p<0.001). These results show that cement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125

Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O

2012-12-21

7

Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus  

SciTech Connect

Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothioneinlike protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected.

Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.

1986-03-01

8

Acute Lethality of Copper, Cadmium, and Zinc to Northern Squawfish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 micrograms/liter for copper, 1,104 micrograms/liter for cadmium, a...

J. D. Andros R. R. Garton

1980-01-01

9

Cadmium, zinc and copper in horse kidney metallothionein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadium, zinc, and copper were determined in kidney cortex samples and in protein fractions obtained from 20 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in kidneys ranged from 0.01 to 1.46 mmole\\/kg. Zinc concentrations in kidneys increased with increasing cadmium concentrations. At low concentrations of cadmium the increase of zinc was almost equimolar with the increase in cadmium, but at higher concentrations

M. Nordberg; C. G. Elinder; B. Rahnster

1979-01-01

10

Mortality of copper cadmium alloy workers with special reference to lung cancer and non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system, 1946-92  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To identify and quantify any relations between occupational exposure to cadmium oxide fume and mortalities from lung cancer and from chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system. METHODS--The mortality experience of 347 copper cadmium alloy workers, 624 workers employed in the vicinity of copper cadmium alloy work (vicinity workers), and 521 iron and brass foundry workers (all men) was investigated

T Sorahan; A Lister; M S Gilthorpe; J M Harrington

1995-01-01

11

Adsorption mechanism of copper and cadmium onto defatted waste biomass.  

PubMed

In this study, the amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed using waste biomass (i.e., coffee grounds (CG) and rice bran (RB)) was investigated. The amount of crude protein in defatted CG (D-CG) or RB (D-RB) was greater than that in CG or RB, respectively. The amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed using CG was greater than that using RB. Additionally, the amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed was not affected by the presence of fat in CG. Adsorption data was fitted to the Freundlich equation, and the correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.794-0.991. The main adsorption mechanism was thought to be monolayer adsorption onto the surface of the waste biomass. The adsorption rate data was fitted to the pseudo-second-order model, and the correlation coefficient average was in the range of 0.891-0.945. This result showed that the rate-limiting step may be chemisorption. Moreover, the amount of copper or cadmium desorbed from CG or RB using 0.01 mol/L or 1.00 mol/L HNO(3) was investigated. Desorption with 0.01 mol/L HNO(3) resulted in the recovery of 86-97% of the copper and cadmium, indicating that copper or cadmium that was adsorbed using waste biomass was recoverable. PMID:21701100

Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Yabutani, Hitoshi; Kawasaki, Naohito

2011-01-01

12

Copper, silver, gold and zinc, cadmium, mercury oxides and hydroxides  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a compilation of solubility data published up to 1984, including evaluations of the data. Data are presented on the following: copper (I) oxide; copper (II) oxide and hydroxide; silver (I) oxide; silver (II) oxide; gold (III) hydroxide; zinc oxide and hydroxide; cadmium oxide and hydroxide; and mercury (II) oxide.

Dirkse, T.P.

1986-01-01

13

Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg\\/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs

Khalid H. Zaghloul; Maha F. Ali; Manal G. Abd El-Bary; Mohamed Abd El-Harith

2010-01-01

14

Compartmentation of Cadmium and Iron in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Plants during the Adaptation to Cadmium Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) at the stage of five leaf pairs were exposed to cadmium chloride solutions (1, 0.1, and 0.01 mM) under the conditions of water culture. After five days, the partition of cadmium and iron in the plant organs and in the cell structures of the apical root region were investigated. Plant adaptation to excess cadmium

N. I. Shevyakova; I. A. Netronina; E. E. Aronova; Vl. V. Kuznetsov

2003-01-01

15

Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

2010-04-01

16

Speciation of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the activity of free cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) ions and analyze their dependence on pH and other soil properties, ten contaminated soils were sampled and analyzed for total contents of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (CdT, CuT, PbT, and ZnT, respectively), 0.43 MHNO3?extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (CdN, CuN, PbN, and ZnN,

Qixiang Wu; William H. Hendershot; William D. Marshall; Ying Ge

2000-01-01

17

Cadmium effects in rats on tissue iron, selenium, and blood pressure: blood and hair cadmium in some Oregon residents  

PubMed Central

Exposure of rats to cadmium causes a marked depletion of iron in liver and kidney. Selenium neither counteracts or intensifies the influence of cadmium on tissue iron levels. Selenium injections protect against cadmium-induced testicular damage but cause this element to accumulate in the testes at higher concentration than in animals exposed to cadmium without selenium. Selenium injection diverts the binding of cadmium from low molecular weight proteins to high molecular weight ones. Dosing rats with selenium and cadmium or inclusion of Se or Cd in the diet did not result in altered cadmium binding in tissues, raising some questions concerning the environmental significance of these injection experiments. Addition of selenium to a diet containing cadmium decreased the accumulation of cadmium in liver and kidney, but increased its deposition in testes. The metabolism of cadmium bound to metallothionein was markedly different as compared to the inorganic salt of this element. Dietary ascorbate, but not citrate or cysteine, decreased the deposition of cadmium in rat tissues. In some low-level exposure experiments with cadmium (1 to 1000 ppb), no differences were found in the percentage of dose absorbed or rate of cadmium accumulation when provided in food versus water. Female rats tended to absorb more cadmium than males. The binding of cadmium to cytosolic proteins was found to be different between rats fed low levels of cadmium (up to 1 ppm) as compared to those fed high levels of this element (100 ppm). Cadmium was not found to contribute to hypertension in rats, and a summary of results by various investigators is presented. Blood and hair cadmium levels in Oregon residents were found to be highest in employees of a mine, and hair cadmium was found to be respectively higher in smokers than nonsmokers and in metal workers than office workers. No relationships were observed in humans between blood or hair cadmium levels and blood pressure.

Whanger, P. D.

1979-01-01

18

Accumulation of cadmium and copper by the terrestrial snail Arianta arbustorum L.: kinetics and budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of the terrestrial gastropod Arianta arbustorum were fed on cadmium- or copper-enriched agar plates with the aim of performing an input\\/output analysis and of studying the distribution of these metals in several organs of the snails. After a feeding period of 20 days about 45% of cadmium were lost. 36% accumulated in the hepatopancreas, where a cadmium concentration of

Burkhard Berger; Reinhard Dallinger

1989-01-01

19

Study of the interactions between copper, cadmium, and ferbam using the protozoan Colpidium campylum bioassay.  

PubMed

The toxicity of a copper-cadmium-ferbam mixture has been studied using the protozoan Colpidium campylum bioassay. The assays were designed according to the factorial experiments method, associated with multiple regression analysis. The results show that, at the concentrations tested, a synergy occurs between cadmium and ferbam, whereas the copper is only oligodynamic. PMID:1282874

Sekkat, N; Le Dû, A; Jouany, J M; Guerbet, M

1992-12-01

20

Contamination of soil and vegetation near a zinc smelter by zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal oxide fumes escaping from two zinc smelters in Palmerton, Pa., have highly contaminated soil and vegetation with zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead. Within 1 km of the smelters, 135,000 parts per million (ppm) zinc, 1750 ppm cadmium, 2000 ppm copper, and 2000 ppm lead have been measured in the Oâ horizon. Approximately 90% of metals deposited on the soil

Marilyn J. Buchauer

1973-01-01

21

Sorption of cadmium and copper ions on natural and synthetic hydroxylapatite particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of divalent cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions on natural and synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated by the batch method and under dynamic conditions in columns at 22 °C and pH 5. The effect of cadmium and copper concentration on sorption was studied. Both types of apatites are efficient, despite their different composition and morphology. The sorption mechanism involves

F. Fernane; M. O. Mecherri; P. Sharrock; M. Hadioui; H. Lounici; M. Fedoroff

2008-01-01

22

Influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in Bangladeshi women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium is a widespread environmental contaminant present in food. The absorption in the intestine increases in individuals with low iron stores, but the effect of zinc deficiency is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in pregnant Bangladeshi women. We measured cadmium in urine from 890

Maria Kippler; Eva-Charlotte Ekstroem; Bo Loennerdal; Walter Goessler; Agneta Åkesson; Shams El Arifeen; Lars-Åke Persson; Marie. Vahter

2007-01-01

23

Cadmium, zinc, and copper in horse liver and in horse liver metallothionein: Comparisons with kidney cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium, zinc, and copper were determined in liver and in kidney cortex samples obtained from 33 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in liver ranged from 0.002 to 0.165 mmole\\/kg and in kidney from 0.01 to 2.15 mmole\\/kg. There was a significant correlation between liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium. The average kidney concentration of cadmium was about 15 times that

C. G. Elinder; M. Nordberg; B. Palm; M. Piscator

1981-01-01

24

Copper Plating of Iron and Steel Wires by Cementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article discusses the copper plating of iron and steel wires by concentration. Beside an introduction in the treatment procedure as used in the wire industry, some theoretical considerations of the mechanism of copper deposition are presented. Experim...

H. Y. Oei

1971-01-01

25

Iron and cadmium capture gamma-ray photofission measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photofission measurements have been made in ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ²³⁷Np in iron and cadmium capture gamma-ray spectra in cylindrical neutron-driven gamma-ray sources in the thermal column of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Reactor. The gamma-ray source strength was measured with neutron activation foils and by direct counting of activations produced in the metal cylinders. Photofission measurements were made with

T. G. Williamson; G. P. Lamaze; D. M. Gilliam; C. M. Eisenhauer

1990-01-01

26

Comparative Effects of Iron Deficiency Induced by Bleeding and a Low-Iron Diet on the Intestinal Absorptive Interactions of Iron, Cobalt, Manganese, Zinc, Lead and Cadmium1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary iron deficiency enhances the absorption of iron, cobalt, manganese, zinc, cadmium and lead, whereas, iron deficiency due to bleeding in creases the absorption of iron, cobalt and perhaps manganese. To determine whether the response to bleeding is qualitatively different from that induced by dietary iron deficiency, metal absorption was studied in mice fed either a high- iron diet (120

PETER R. FLANAGAN; JAMES HAIST; LESLIE S. VALBERG

27

Influence of humic acids on the accumulation of copper and cadmium in Vallisneria spiralis L. from sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological responses and metal accumulation in Vallisneria spiralis L. exposed to copper and cadmium contaminated sediment were examined at different metal concentrations and the influence\\u000a of humic acids on copper and cadmium accumulation was also studied. The plants of V. spiralis accumulated high amount of copper and cadmium. The maximum accumulation of 396 and 114 mg kg?1 DW copper were found in

Qian Wang; Zhu Li; Shuiping Cheng; Zhenbin Wu

2010-01-01

28

Distribution and chemical speciation of dissolved cadmium and copper in the Loire estuary and North Biscay continental shelf, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations reported here focused on the amounts of various dissolved cadmium and copper species in the whole salinity gradient of the system composed of the Loire estuary and the Biscay Bay continental shelf (France). Electrochemical labile cadmium, extractable C18 organic copper and total dissolved species of these two metals were analysed. Within the estuary, levels of total dissolved cadmium

Matthieu Waeles; Ricardo D. Riso; Jean-François Maguer; Pierre Le Corre

2004-01-01

29

Comparative studies on the toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and copper toward the isolated perfused rat liver  

SciTech Connect

The toxic effects of cadmium, mercury, and copper were compared over the range 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mM using the isolated perfused rat liver preparation. All metals caused similar changes in various parameters used to describe general toxicity. Reductions in oxygen consumption, perfusion flow, and biliary secretion were found, while lactate dehydrogenase release , as well as liver weight, increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Each metal caused similar magnitudes of changes and exerted similar potency. Measurement of other parameters revealed a number of differences. Although all metals reduced hepatic ATP concentration, mercury and cadmium were more potent than copper. Cadmium was the most potent at decreasing reduced glutathione levels. Mercury was most effective at increasing tissue calcium content, while copper was less so, and cadmium ineffective. Only copper significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while all metals increased its release into perfusate, cadmium seemed the most potent metal in increasing MDA release, but it was least efficacious, while copper was the most. Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and Trolox C only reduced cadmium`s influence on MDA in perfusate; but did not affect cadmium`s ability to alter most other parameters of vitality. Albumin reversed the toxic effects of copper and mercury, but not cadmium. While metal-induced reductions in perfusion flow accounted for some of the toxic effects of the metals, the results as a whole supported the suggestion that all metals exerted toxicity at the mitochondria, since ATP levels were reduced in a manner that could not be reproduced by perfusion flow reduction alone. Lipid peroxidation appears to play little role in determining toxicity induced by any of these metals. Furthermore, albumin may play an important physiological role in preventing hepatic injury that might otherwise be induced through acute metal intoxication. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Strubelt, O.; Kremer, J.; Tilse, A.; Keogh, J.; Pentz, K.R. [Institut fuer Toxikologie, Luebeck (Germany); Younes, M. [JPCS, Geneva (Switzerland)

1996-02-01

30

TOXICOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF NATURAL AND CULTURED POPULATIONS OF ARACTIA TONSA TO CADMIUM, COPPER, AND MERCURY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cultured Acartia tonsa manifested a reproducible toxicological response through six generations. There were no statistically significant differences in the responses of F1 and F6 generations to cadmium, copper, and mercury. Cultured and field populations (parental) exposed to cad...

31

Determination of Sodium Cyanide in Copper and Cadmium Cyanide Plating Solutions by Precipitation-Formation Titration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical literature lacks an acceptable analytical method to adequately determine and monitor sodium cyanide in copper and cadmium cyanide plating solutions in the plating processes. In this report, an improved method is presented providing acceptable...

S. Sopok

1990-01-01

32

Screening Level Probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment of Copper and Cadmium in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this study was to conduct a screening level probabilistic ecological risk assessment for copper and cadmium in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by using problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization. This probabilistic ecological risk a...

L. W. Hall M. C. Scott W. D. Killen

1997-01-01

33

Iron and copper release in drinking-water distribution systems.  

PubMed

A large-scale pilot study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of changes in water source and treatment process on iron and copper release in water distribution systems. Finished surface waters, groundwaters, and desalinated waters were produced with seven different treatment systems and supplied to 18 pipe distribution systems (PDSs). The major water treatment processes included lime softening, ferric sulfate coagulation, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and integrated membrane systems. PDSs were constructed from PVC, lined cast iron, unlined cast iron, and galvanized pipes. Copper pipe loops were set up for corrosion monitoring. Results showed that surface water after ferric sulfate coagulation had low alkalinity and high sulfates, and consequently caused the highest iron release. Finished groundwater treated by conventional method produced the lowest iron release but the highest copper release. The iron release of desalinated water was relatively high because of the water's high chloride level and low alkalinity. Both iron and copper release behaviors were influenced by temperature. PMID:17886579

Shi, Baoyou; Taylor, James S

2007-09-01

34

Effect of cadmium and copper on growth of Bacopa monniera regenerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium and copper on in vitro growth of Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst. was monitored. Cadmium (25 and 50 µM\\u000a CdCl2) inhibited plantlet growth and addition of 50 or 100 µm CuSO4 partially alleviated this negative effect. Cadmium increased both protein and proline contents, but to a lesser extent with\\u000a the additional supply of CuSO4.

G. Ali; P. S. Srivastava; M. Iqbal

1998-01-01

35

Mercury, cadmium, zinc, copper and selenium in harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena ) from West Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle, liver, kidney and skin samples taken from 78 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were analysed for mercury, cadmium, zinc, copper and selenium. The highest concentrations of mercury were found in the liver (geometric mean 4.17 µg\\/g wet weight), whilst the highest concentrations of cadmium were in the kidney (g.m. 13.2 µg\\/g ww). The levels of cadmium were more than ten

Paul Paludan-Miiller; Carsten Thyge Agger; Rune Dietz; Carl Christian Kinze

1993-01-01

36

Effect of Age on Sensitivity of 'Daphnia magna' to Cadmium, Copper and Cyanazine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 ...

A. V. Nebeker M. A. Cairns S. T. Onjukka R. H. Titus

1986-01-01

37

EFFECT OF AGE ON SENSITIVITY OF 'DAPHNIA MAGNA' TO CADMIUM, COPPER AND CYANAZINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean...

38

TOXICITIES OF CADMIUM, COPPER, AND ZINC TO FOUR JUVENILE STAGES OF CHINOOK SALMON AND STEELHEAD  

EPA Science Inventory

Continuous-flow toxicity tests were conducted to determine the relative tolerances of newly hatched alevins, swim-up alevins, parr, and smolts of chinook salmon (Oncorhyncus tshawytscha) to cadmium, copper, and zinc. Newly hatched alevins were much more tolerant to cadmium and, t...

39

Serum calcium, zinc, and copper in relation to biomarkers of lead and cadmium in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of exposure to lead and cadmium on serum concentrations of calcium, zinc, and copper was examined in 299 healthy Croatian men 20–55 years of age, including 143 workers in a lead battery factory and 156 control subjects. The interrelationship of blood lead, activity of ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, blood cadmium, age, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption with

Alica Pizent; Jasna Jurasovi?; Spomenka Telišman

2003-01-01

40

Copper and nickel partitioning in iron meteorites  

SciTech Connect

Trace element analyses using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) have been made on metal and troilite from 9 iron meteorites representing 5 geochemical groups. Nickel and copper distribution coefficients D (troilite/metal) vary by factors of 600 and 20, respectively, correlate positively with kamacite band width and correlate negatively with bulk nickel content. Meteorites with bulk Ni < 10% have Cu-enriched troilite (D{sub Cu} > 1) while those with Ni > 10% have Cu-depleted troilite (D{sub Cu} < 1). Since magmatic evolution and partial melting will produce Cu-enriched troilite only, the observation of Cu-depleted troilite in Ni-rich meteorites is evidence for subsolidus re-equilibration, a process which reduces D{sub Cu} by transfer of Cu to exsolving metal. Elemental redistribution may have played an important role in establishing the present chemical trends in iron meteorites.

Sutton, S.R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA) Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA)); Smith, J.V. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA)); Delaney, J.S.; Prinz, M. (American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (USA))

1987-10-01

41

Iron versus Copper II. Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the differences between iron and copper. Describes various aspects of the behaviors of these two elements, including those of biological and environmental significance. Addresses the evolution of the atmosphere and sedimentary ore formation, the phylogeny of iron and copper, and some anthropological notes regarding the use of the…

Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

1986-01-01

42

Old Iron, Young Copper: from Mars to Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and copper are metals which play an important role in the living world. From a brief consideration of their chemistry and biochemistry we conclude that the early chemistry of life used water soluble ferrous iron while copper was in the water-insoluble Cu(I) state as highly insoluble sulphides. The advent of oxygen was a catastrophic event for most living organisms,

R. R. Crichton; J.-L. Pierre

2001-01-01

43

Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process.  

PubMed

Biochar produced from switchgrass via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was used as a sorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution. The cold activation process using KOH at room temperature was developed to enhance the porous structure and sorption properties of the HTC biochar. The sorption efficiency of HTC biochar and alkali activated HTC biochar (HTCB) for removing copper and cadmium from aqueous solution were compared with commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The present batch adsorption study describes the effects of solution pH, biochar dose, and contact time on copper and cadmium removal efficiency from single metal ion aqueous solutions. The activated HTCB exhibited a higher adsorption potential for copper and cadmium than HTC biochar and PAC. Experiments conducted with an initial metal concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 5.0 and contact time of 24 h resulted in close to 100% copper and cadmium removal by activated HTCB at 2 g/L, far greater than what was observed for HTC biochar (16% and 5.6%) and PAC (4% and 7.7%). The adsorption capacities of activated HTCB for cadmium removal were 34 mg/g (0.313 mmol/g) and copper removal was 31 mg/g (0.503 mmol/g). PMID:22687632

Regmi, Pusker; Garcia Moscoso, Jose Luis; Kumar, Sandeep; Cao, Xiaoyan; Mao, Jingdong; Schafran, Gary

2012-06-09

44

Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves  

SciTech Connect

Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism. (ERB)

Ho, S.Y.

1981-01-01

45

Blood pressure and hair cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc concentrations in Mississippi adolescents  

SciTech Connect

Increased cadmium and lead tissue concentrations have been associated with deaths resulting from heart disease. Liver cadmium concentrations and aortic lead levels have been reported to be higher in deaths resulting from heart related disease compared to non-heart related disease. Essential trace elements such as copper and zinc have also been postulated as playing a role in coronary heart disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of hair lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in Mississippi adolescents and to determine if these hair elements were associated with blood pressure.

Medeiros, D.M.; Pellum, L.K.

1985-02-01

46

Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter  

SciTech Connect

A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

1984-02-01

47

Ecological risk assessment of copper and cadmium in surface waters of Chesapeake Bay watershed  

SciTech Connect

This ecological risk assessment was designed to characterize risk of copper and cadmium exposure in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations with the probability distributions of species response data determined from laboratory studies. The overlap of these distributions was a measure of risk to aquatic life. Dissolved copper and cadmium exposure data were available from six primary data sources covering 102 stations in 18 basins in the Chesapeake Bay watershed from 1985 through 1996. Highest environmental concentrations of copper (based on 90th percentiles) were reported in the Chesapeake and Delaware (C and D) Canal, Choptank River, Middle River, and Potomac River; the lowest concentrations of copper were reported in the lower and middle mainstem Chesapeake Bay and Nanticoke River. Based on the calculation of 90th percentiles, cadmium concentrations were highest in the C and D Canal, Potomac River, Upper Chesapeake Bay, and West Chesapeake watershed. Lowest environmental concentrations of cadmium were reported in the lower and middle mainstem Chesapeake Bay and Susquehanna River. The ecological effects data used for this risk assessment were derived primarily from acute copper and cadmium laboratory toxicity tests conducted in both fresh water and salt water; chronic data were much more limited. The 10th percentile (concentration protecting 90% of the species) for all species derived from the freshwater acute copper toxicity database was 8.3 {micro}g/L. For acute saltwater copper data, the 10th percentile for all species was 6.3 {micro}g/L copper. The acute 10th percentile for all saltwater species was 31.7 {micro}g/L cadmium. Highest potential ecological risk from copper exposures was reported in the C and D Canal area of the northern Chesapeake Bay watershed.

Hall, L.W. Jr.; Scott, M.C.; Killen, W.D. [Univ. of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Queenstown, MD (United States). Wye Research and Education Center

1998-06-01

48

Copper Stress Affects Iron Homeostasis by Destabilizing Iron-Sulfur Cluster Formation in Bacillus subtilis?  

PubMed Central

Copper and iron are essential elements for cellular growth. Although bacteria have to overcome limitations of these metals by affine and selective uptake, excessive amounts of both metals are toxic for the cells. Here we investigated the influences of copper stress on iron homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis, and we present evidence that copper excess leads to imbalances of intracellular iron metabolism by disturbing assembly of iron-sulfur cofactors. Connections between copper and iron homeostasis were initially observed in microarray studies showing upregulation of Fur-dependent genes under conditions of copper excess. This effect was found to be relieved in a csoR mutant showing constitutive copper efflux. In contrast, stronger Fur-dependent gene induction was found in a copper efflux-deficient copA mutant. A significant induction of the PerR regulon was not observed under copper stress, indicating that oxidative stress did not play a major role under these conditions. Intracellular iron and copper quantification revealed that the total iron content was stable during different states of copper excess or efflux and hence that global iron limitation did not account for copper-dependent Fur derepression. Strikingly, the microarray data for copper stress revealed a broad effect on the expression of genes coding for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis (suf genes) and associated pathways such as cysteine biosynthesis and genes coding for iron-sulfur cluster proteins. Since these effects suggested an interaction of copper and iron-sulfur cluster maturation, a mutant with a conditional mutation of sufU, encoding the essential iron-sulfur scaffold protein in B. subtilis, was assayed for copper sensitivity, and its growth was found to be highly susceptible to copper stress. Further, different intracellular levels of SufU were found to influence the strength of Fur-dependent gene expression. By investigating the influence of copper on cluster-loaded SufU in vitro, Cu(I) was found to destabilize the scaffolded cluster at submicromolar concentrations. Thus, by interfering with iron-sulfur cluster formation, copper stress leads to enhanced expression of cluster scaffold and target proteins as well as iron and sulfur acquisition pathways, suggesting a possible feedback strategy to reestablish cluster biogenesis.

Chillappagari, Shashi; Seubert, Andreas; Trip, Hein; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Miethke, Marcus

2010-01-01

49

Evaluation of Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper, Iron, and Zinc\\/Copper Ratio in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the leve ls of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc\\/ c op- per ratio in the serum of patients with cutaneous l eishmaniasis in Qom Province, center of Iran. Methods: Serum levels of zinc and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and serum iron concentration was measured

S Javadian; Z Zamani; R Saghiri; S Sadeghi; B Zarea; Sh Faiaz; F Mirkhani; N Fatemi

50

Changes of blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. lipid composition under cadmium and copper toxic effect.  

PubMed

The lipid and fatty acid composition of the blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. gills and digestive glands was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) exposure. Mussels were exposed to different cadmium (10, 100, and 500 ?g/L) and copper (5, 50, and 250 ?g/L) concentrations. Similar stress response of predominant membrane phospholipids level as well as polyenoic and non-methylene interrupted (NMI) fatty acids content was observed in mussel gills under both cadmium and copper effects. Increased NMI fatty acids level after 24 h, the metal ions treatment suggests that these acids contribute to the protective response to the membrane oxidative stress caused by accumulation of the metals. The content of cholesterol, some minor membrane phospholipids, and storage lipids (triacylglycerols, TAG) in the mussels' organs alter significantly under the cadmium and copper effect. A two-step response at the digestive glands TAG level depends on the duration of the cadmium and copper treatments (24 and 72 h) on the mussels. The results demonstrate that Cd and Cu impact has adverse effects on gills and digestive glands lipid and fatty acids composition. The type of observed effects varies with the nature and concentration of the metal ions and depends on the role of the metals in the mussels' life activity. PMID:23793920

Fokina, Natalia N; Ruokolainen, Tatiana R; Nemova, Nina N; Bakhmet, Igor N

2013-06-21

51

Adsorption of water on copper, nickel, and iron  

SciTech Connect

In atmospheric corrosion of copper, nickel, and iron, adsorption of water affects corrosion rates. Knowledge of water adsorption and metal oxyhydroxide formation is important in understanding the atmospheric corrosion process. The quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was used to measure mass changes of copper, nickel, and iron at 0% to 100% relative humidity (RH) and 7 C to 90 C under nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and air environments. Less water was adsorbed on copper, nickel, and iron that formed oxides than on gold. The amount of water adsorption was similar on copper, nickel, and iron under N{sub 2} and air carrier gases. Shapes of isotherms suggested physical adsorption, capillary condensation, and pore filling occurred on all metals and were more significant at higher temperatures. Adsorption isotherms were Type 3 and Type 4 according to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) classification.

Lee, S.; Staehle, R.W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1997-01-01

52

Removal of Copper and Cadmium Ions from Diluted Aqueous Solutions by Low Cost and Waste Material Adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of copper and cadmium ions using activated carbon,kaolin, bentonite, diatomite and waste materials such as compost,cellulose pulp waste and anaerobic sludge as sorbents is reported. Equilibrium isotherms were obtained for the adsorption of these metals in single and binary solutions. Bentonite presented the highest adsorption capacities for both copper and cadmium. A competitive uptake was observed when both

Mihaela Ulmanu; Elena Marañón; Yolanda Fernández; Leonor Castrillón; Ildiko Anger; Daniela Dumitriu

2003-01-01

53

Spatial Distribution of Total Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in the Zebra Mussel ( Dreissena polymorpha) Along the Upper St. Lawrence River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) was utilized to assess the spatial distribution of three trace metals, cadmium, copper, and zinc, in the upper St. Lawrence River and to test the hypothesis that outflow from Lake Ontario influenced levels of these metals in near-shore biota. Zebra mussels, collected from twelve sites along the southern shore, were analyzed for total cadmium, copper,

Carolyn Johns

2001-01-01

54

Old iron, young copper: from Mars to Venus.  

PubMed

Iron and copper are metals which play an important role in the living world. From a brief consideration of their chemistry and biochemistry we conclude that the early chemistry of life used water soluble ferrous iron while copper was in the water-insoluble Cu(I) state as highly insoluble sulphides. The advent of oxygen was a catastrophic event for most living organisms, and can be considered to be the first general irreversible pollution of the earth. In contrast to the oxidation of iron and its loss of bioavailability as insoluble Fe(III), the oxidation of insoluble Cu(I) led to soluble Cu(II). A new iron biochemistry became possible after the advent of oxygen, with the development of chelators of Fe(III), which rendered iron once again accessible, and with the control of the potential toxicity of iron by its storage in a water soluble, non-toxic, bio-available storage protein (ferritin). Biology also discovered that whereas enzymes involved in anaerobic metabolism were designed to operate in the lower portion of the redox spectrum, the arrival of dioxygen created the need for a new redox active metal which could attain higher redox potentials. Copper, now bioavailable, was ideally suited to exploit the oxidizing power of dioxygen. The arrival of copper also coincided with the development of multicellular organisms which had extracellular cross-linked matrices capable of resisting attack by oxygen free radicals. After the initial 'iron age' subsequent evolution moved, not towards a 'copper age', but rather to an 'iron-copper' age. In the second part of the review, this symbiosis of iron and copper is examined in yeast. We then briefly consider iron and copper metabolism in mammals, before looking at iron-copper interactions in mammals, particularly man, and conclude with the reflection that, as in Greek and Roman mythology, a better understanding of the potentially positive interactions between Mars (iron) and Venus (copper) can only be to the advantage of our species. PMID:11508852

Crichton, R R; Pierre, J L

2001-06-01

55

Effect of age on sensitivity of daphnia magna to cadmium, copper and cyanazine  

SciTech Connect

Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper, and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean copper EC50 values ranged from 6 to 18 micrograms/L. Cyanazine EC50 values ranged from 53 to 106 micrograms/L. The 1-d-old Daphnia mean EC50s were 48 and 49 micrograms/L for cadmium, 10 and 10 micrograms/L for copper and 84 and 86 microgram/L for cyanazine, respectively. These similar sensitivities indicate that older animals can be used in tests equally as well as younger animals, thus simplifying the recovery of daphnids in acute sediment toxicity tests.

Nebeker, A.V.; Cairns, M.A.; Onjukka, S.T.; Titus, R.H.

1986-01-01

56

Iron and cadmium capture gamma-ray photofission measurements  

SciTech Connect

Photofission measurements have been made in {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 237}Np in iron and cadmium capture gamma-ray spectra in cylindrical neutron-driven gamma-ray sources in the thermal column of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Reactor. The gamma-ray source strength was measured with neutron activation foils and by direct counting of activations produced in the metal cylinders. Photofission measurements were made with NBS miniature fission chambers. The integral photofission cross sections were compared with differential measurements by integrating the capture gamma-ray spectra with measured cross-section shapes. The integral cross sections measured in the capture gamma-ray fields are lower than the cross sections calculated from measured differential data.

Williamson, T.G. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Lamaze, G.P.; Gilliam, D.M.; Eisenhauer, C.M. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

57

Physiological responses of Matricaria chamomilla to cadmium and copper excess.  

PubMed

Physiological responses of Matricaria chamomilla plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) excess (3, 60, and 120 microM for 7 days) with special emphasis on phenolic metabolism were studied. Cu at 120 microM reduced chamomile growth, especially in the roots where it was more abundant than Cd. Notwithstanding the low leaf Cu amount (37.5 microg g(-1) DW) in comparison with Cd (237.8 microg g(-1) DW) at 120 microM, it caused reduction of biomass accumulation, F(v)/F(m) ratio and soluble proteins. In combination with high accumulation of phenolics, strong reduction of proteins and high GPX activity in the roots, this supports severe redox Cu properties. In terms of leaf phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, it seems that Cd had a stimulatory effect during the course of the experiment, whereas Cu was found to stimulate it after 7-day exposure. The opposite trend was visible in the roots, where Cd had a stimulatory effect at high doses but Cu mainly at the highest dose. This supports the assumption of different PAL time dynamics under Cd and Cu excess. A dose of 60 and 120 microM Cu led to 2- and 3-times higher root lignin accumulation while the same Cd doses increased it by 33 and 68%, respectively. A Cu dose of 120 microM can be considered as limiting for chamomile growth under conditions of present research, while resistance to high Cd doses was confirmed. However, PAL and phenolics seemed to play an important role in detoxification of Cd- and Cu-induced oxidative stress. PMID:18214924

Kovácik, Jozef; Backor, Martin; Kaduková, Jana

2008-02-01

58

Acute toxicity of aqueous copper, cadmium, and zinc to the mayfly Rhithrogena hageni.  

PubMed

Heptageniid mayfly nymphs have been suggested as sensitive indicators of metal contamination in streams based on biomonitoring studies, experimentation in situ, and experimentation in microcosm. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of Rhithrogena hageni, a heptageniid mayfly, to waterborne copper, cadmium, and zinc. Tests were conducted with soft water (hardness = 40-50 mg/L) at about 12 degrees C. Toxicity endpoints were survival and moulting (%/day). Median 96 hr lethal concentrations were 0.137, 10.5, and 50.5 mg/L for copper, cadmium and zinc, respectively. The average daily moulting rate of survivors significantly decreased after exposure to these metals in solution. PMID:17917759

Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

2007-10-05

59

Sorption of cadmium and copper ions on natural and synthetic hydroxylapatite particles  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of divalent cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions on natural and synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated by the batch method and under dynamic conditions in columns at 22 deg. C and pH 5. The effect of cadmium and copper concentration on sorption was studied. Both types of apatites are efficient, despite their different composition and morphology. The sorption mechanism involves an ion exchange for Cd(II), while Cu(II) leads to precipitation of a newly formed solid. Thus, the sorption efficiency depends on the experimental conditions and the specific physicochemical properties of the apatites used. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir equation.

Fernane, F.; Mecherri, M.O. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Universite de Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Sharrock, P. [Medical Bioinorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Paul Sabatier University, Castres (France)], E-mail: patrick.sharrock@iut-tlse3.fr; Hadioui, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Universite de Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Lounici, H. [Laboratoire de Biotechnologie, E.N.Polytechnique El-Harrach, Alger (Algeria); Fedoroff, M. [CNRS, Laboratoire d'Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Paris 6 (France)

2008-05-15

60

Reversal of cadmium toxicity in a diatom: an interaction between cadmium activity and iron  

SciTech Connect

In batch cultures of Thalassiosira weissflogii subjected to high Cd/sup 2 +/ activities, normal growth rates are resumed when the cadmium ion activity is lowered by either dilution of the medium or addition of a chelating agent (EDTA). Toxicity reversal is possible after up to several days of high (Cd/sup 2 +/) exposure, depending on the initial Cd/sup 2 +/ activity. A sufficiently high ferric ion activity is critical for toxicity reversal; Fe must be added when the Cd/sup 2 +/ activity is decreased by addition of EDTA. The order of Fe and EDTA addition is unimportant for the reversal process. An antagonism between Cd and Fe is clearly indicated, implying that the mechanism of Cd toxicity involves in some way an impairment of iron nutrition.

Foster, P.; Morel, F.M.M.

1982-01-01

61

The influence of iron stores on cadmium body burden in a Thai population.  

PubMed

Cadmium is a toxin of increasing public health concern due to its presence in most human foodstuffs and in cigarette smoke. Exposure to cadmium leads to tissue bioaccumulation and, in particular, has nephrotoxic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cadmium body burden and iron stores in a Thai population. A total of 182 healthy adult Thai subjects of both genders (89 males, 93 females) aged between 18 and 57 years and weighing 40-95 kg were included in this study. The total amounts of cadmium excreted in urine over 2 h (microg/g creatinine) were used as an index of long-term cadmium exposure. Quantitation of cadmium was performed using electrothermal (graphite furnace) atomic absorption spectrometry. The urinary cadmium excreted displayed a normal frequency distribution. The average urinary cadmium level did not exceed the WHO maximum tolerable internal dose for the non-exposed population (2 microg/g creatinine). Body iron stores reflected by serum ferritin levels did not show any correlation with cadmium burden in both males and females, although a relatively stronger influence of body iron store status on cadmium burden was shown in females. When the levels of serum ferritin were stratified into five levels (<20, 20-100, 101-200, 201-300, and >300 microg/l), a significant difference in total cadmium body burden was observed between females and males only in the group with a low level of serum ferritin of <20 microg/l. The cadmium body burden in females was about twice that in males in this group. PMID:19806462

Apinan, Roongnapa; Satarug, Soisunwan; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Mahavorasirikul, Wiratchanee; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2009-10-06

62

[Chemiluminescent determination of iron, copper and cobalt in the serum].  

PubMed

Iron in the presence of diethylenetriamine, an activator, is a catalyst of the chemiluminescent reaction between 4-diethylaminophthalhydraside and hydrogen peroxide. The following conditions are optimal for iron content determination: concentration of 4-diethylaminophthalhydraside - (4-5) X 10(-5) M, H2O2 - 1 X 10(-3) M, diethylenetriamine - 5 X 10(-4) M; pH 10-11. Chemoluminescent reaction between 4-diethylaminophthalhydrazide and hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed also by copper and cobalt ions. This reaction is studied for the possibility to be used to determine iron, copper and cobalt amount in solution without their preliminary separation. A highly sensitive procedure is developed for chemiluminescent determination of these metals concentration in the blood serum with detection limit for iron 1.0, for copper - 0.1 and for cobalt - 0.05 ng/ml. PMID:4024301

Zaporozhets, O A; Dubovenko, L I; Piatnitski?, I V

63

Determination of copper and cadmium by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrochemical and sorption preconcentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed for the determination of copper and cadmium by atomic absorption spectrometry in a propane-butane-air\\u000a flame with electrochemical and sorption preconcentration. Electrochemical preconcentration was performed on metal (tantalum,\\u000a titanium, molybdenum, and platinum), glassy-carbon, and spectrographic graphite electrodes. Sorption preconcentration was\\u000a performed on filter paper with immobilized dithizone, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and rubeanic acid. It is demonstrated that copper\\u000a and

I. F. Abdullin; E. N. Turova; G. K. Budnikov

2000-01-01

64

The woodlouse Porcellio scaber as a 'biological indicator' of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper were determ&ed in the hepatopancreas and whole body of the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustaeea, Isopoda) and soil and h, af litter collected from 89 sites in the counties of Avon and Somerset, south-west England. Maps were drawn to compare the regional distribution of concentrations of metals in the samples. The main source

S. P. Hopkin; G. N. Hardisty; M. H. Martin

1986-01-01

65

Zinc and Copper Levels in Ribs of Cadmium-Exposed Persons with Special Reference to Osteomalacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) were determined in ribs obtained at autopsy from 38 Cd-exposed and 17 nonexposed subjects to determine how levels of these elements in bone are affected by Cd exposure and whether they are associated with the bone lesions due to Cd exposure, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. Cd in ribs

Ryumon Honda; Ikiko Tsuritani; Masao Ishizaki; Yuichi Yamada

1997-01-01

66

The cellular redox state as a modulator in cadmium and copper responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular redox state is an important determinant of metal phytotoxicity. In this study we investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) stress on the cellular redox balance in relation to oxidative signalling and damage in Arabidopsis thaliana. Both metals were easily taken up by the roots, but the translocation to the aboveground parts was restricted to Cd

Ann Cuypers; Smeets Karen; Ruytinx Jos; Opdenakker Kelly; Keunen Els; Remans Tony; Horemans Nele; Vanhoudt Nathalie; Van Sanden Suzy; Van Belleghem Frank; Guisez Yves; Colpaert Jan; Vangronsveld Jaco

2011-01-01

67

Distribution of the Metals Lead, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in the Top Soil of Cartagena, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of the analysis of the metals lead, cadmium, copper, zinc and aluminum, conducted on a total of 112 soil samples arising from 57 sampling points, distributedthroughout the Cartagena area in southeastern Spain. Both, totalmetal content and soluble fraction (1 M nitric acid medium, exchangeable fraction) were analyzed. Soil samples were taken on the surface of

M. J. Martínez García; S. Moreno-Grau; J. J. Martínez García; J. Moreno; J. Bayo; J. J. Guillén Pérez; J. Moreno-Clavel

2001-01-01

68

Single and joint toxicity of chlorimuron-ethyl, cadmium, and copper acting on wheat Triticum aestivum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the toxicological effects of some agricultural pollutants on germination rate and on shoot and root elongation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was carried out. Seeds of wheat were exposed to various concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl with or without cadmium and copper addition. The inhibitory rates of seed germination and shoot and root elongation of wheat were calculated. Significant linear relationships

Meie Wang; Qixing Zhou

2005-01-01

69

Uptake and partitioning of copper and cadmium in the coral Pocillopora damicornis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral-reef ecosystems are increasingly being impacted by a wide variety of anthropogenic inputs, including heavy metals, which could be contributing to coral reef stress and bleaching episodes. Fragments of Pocillopora damicornis were exposed in the laboratory to cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) chlorides (0, 5, 50?gl?1) for 14 days and analyzed for metal content in the whole association, algal or

Carys L. Mitchelmore; E. Alan Verde; Virginia M. Weis

2007-01-01

70

Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

2003-03-01

71

Critical loads and excess loads of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, concern has arisen about the impact of the dispersion of heavy metals in Europe. Therefore, a study (ESQUAD) was initiated to assess critical loads and steady-state concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils. The calculation methods used strongly resemble those used to compute critical loads for acidifying compounds. Results show that the computed critical loads and

G. J. Reinds; J. Bril; Vries de W; J. E. Groenenberg; A. Breeuwsma

1995-01-01

72

Biosorption of Lead, Copper, and Cadmium with Continuous Hollow-Fiber Microfiltration Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hollow-fiber crossflow microfiltration membrane was utilized to retain a biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21 for continuous biosorption of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) ions in single or ternary metal systems. The results obtained from the microfiltration systems showed that in both single and ternary biosorption, the metal removal efficiency based on a molar basis was clearly Pb

Jo-Shu Chang; Chia-Chi Chen

1999-01-01

73

Enhancement of copper and cadmium adsorption on kaolin by the presence of humic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competitive adsorption equilibrium isotherms of Cu2+ and Cd2+ on kaolin have been measured at 298 K, in the presence and the absence of humic acids (HAs). HAs were found to enhance the metal adsorption capacity of mineral surfaces, in particular kaolin. This enhancement was also observed in the competitive adsorption of copper and cadmium on kaolin and kaolin–HA complex.

M. Arias; M. T. Barral; J. C. Mejuto

2002-01-01

74

Combined effect of copper, cadmium, and lead upon Cucumis sativus growth and bioaccumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cucumis sativus (cucumber) was tested to assess an ecotoxicity in soils contaminated by the heavy metals copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) separately and in combinations. The toxicity endpoint was plant growth, which was measured as shoot and root lengths after 5 day exposure. Sum of toxic unit (TU) at 50% inhibition for the mixture (EC50mix) was calculated from

Youn-Joo An; Young-Mi Kim; Tae-Im Kwon; Seung-Woo Jeong

2004-01-01

75

Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex  

SciTech Connect

Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

Flickinger, A.L.

1984-01-01

76

Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel.  

PubMed Central

Garages and auto-repair workshops may be polluted with other heavy metals besides lead. Blood of autoworkers with high lead content was analysed for cadmium, chromium, copper manganese, nickel, ALAD activity and carboxyhaemoglobin level. Cadmium and copper levels in blood of autoworkers were comparable with those of the control subjects while chroimium and nickel levels were significantly higher (P less than 0-01 for both metals), and scattered raised values of manganese were found. There was no significant mutual correlation between levels of various heavy metals determined in whole blood. High copper levels were slightly related to decreasing ALAD activity (P less than 0-1). Nineteen per cent of autoworkers were found to have an abnormally blood level of carboxyhaemoglobin. The amount of particulate heavy metal in autoworkshop air was not related to biochemical abnormalities found in the autoworkers. Various sources of pollution of these heavy metals in autoworkshops are discussed.

Clausen, J; Rastogi, S C

1977-01-01

77

Copper, cadmium, and nickel accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada  

SciTech Connect

The Sudbury basin, an elliptical 646 square mile depression containing a number of freshwater reservoirs, has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. The purpose of the present study was to compare tissue concentration of copper, cadmium and nickel in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish from the sites were also examined to determine if particular body tissues were specific sites for metal accumulation.

Bagatto, G.; Aikhan, M.A.

1987-03-01

78

Risks of copper and iron toxicity during aging in humans.  

PubMed

Copper and iron are essential but also toxic metals. Their essentiality is known, but their toxicity, except for the genetic overload diseases, Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis, is not so well known. Yet, their toxicities are so general in the population that they are a looming public health problem in diseases of aging and in the aging process itself. Both metals are transition elements, and their resulting redox properties have been used during evolution in the development of oxidative energy generation. But both contribute to the production of excess damaging oxidant radicals. Evolution has kept stores of copper and iron in excess during the reproductive years because they are so vital to life. But the oxidant damage from these excess stores of metals builds up as we age, and natural selection ceases to act after about age 50 since diseases after that do not contribute to reproductive fitness. Diseases of aging such as Alzheimer's disease, other neurodegenerative diseases, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and others may all be contributed to by excess copper and iron. A very disturbing study has found that in the general population those in the highest fifth of copper intake, if they are also eating a relatively high fat diet, lose cognition at over three times the normal rate. Inorganic copper in drinking water and in supplements is handled differently than food copper and is therefore more toxic. Trace amounts of copper in drinking water, less than one-tenth of that allowed in human drinking water by the Environmental Protection Agency, greatly enhanced an Alzheimer's-like disease in an animal model. In the last part of this review, I will provide advice on how to lower risks from copper and iron toxicity. PMID:19968254

Brewer, George J

2010-02-15

79

Cadmium--copper antagonism in seaweeds inhabiting coastal areas affected by copper mine waste disposals.  

PubMed

Cadmium and copper accumulation by macroalgae was studied in a coastal area exposed to upwelling events and high levels of Cu, the latter resulting from mine disposals. Eight species were studied, and all had very high concentrations of Cd outside of the Cu-contaminated area. Cu in algal tissues was much higher in contaminated than in reference sites. High Cu appeared to suppress Cd bioaccumulation; Cd in algal tissues was much lower in the Cu-contaminated area than in the reference sites. Transplant experiments with Lessonia nigrescens revealed a depuration of Cd in individuals transplanted to areas with high Cu. However, Cd depuration occurs more slowly than Cu uptake. These differences suggest that while Cd and Cu are linked mechanistically, itis nota simple substitution. Overall, the work confirms that macroalgae are useful indicators of metal contamination and may be used as in situ biomonitors for labile forms of metals, like free Cu2+. However, antagonistic relationships between metals must be clearly understood in order to properly interpret their concentrations in macroalgae. PMID:16903274

Andrade, Santiago; Medina, Matías H; Moffett, James W; Correa, Juan A

2006-07-15

80

A study on microstructure and toughness of copper alloyed and austempered ductile irons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, ductile irons with and without 1wt% copper alloy were austempered to become austempered ductile irons (ADIs). Microstructure, impact toughness, and fracture toughness were evaluated to determine how both the copper alloying and austempering treatments influenced the toughness properties of ductile irons. The results show that, because copper increases the retained austenite content in ADI, the Cu-alloyed ADI

Cheng-Hsun Hsu; Kuan-Ting Lin

2011-01-01

81

Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of iron and copper in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of trace metals is still incompletely understood. We have previously shown that a single oral dose of iron or\\u000a copper induces genotoxic effects in mice in vivo, as detected by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Here, we report\\u000a the effect of these metals on subchronic exposure. Mice were gavaged for six consecutive days with either water, 33.2 mg\\/kg\\u000a iron,

Daniel Prá; Silvia Isabel Rech Franke; Raquel Giulian; Maria Lúcia Yoneama; Johnny Ferraz Dias; Bernardo Erdtmann; João Antonio Pêgas Henriques

2008-01-01

82

Iron, zinc, copper and phytate content of standardized Nigerian dishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representative samples of 20 standardized Nigerian dishes were analyzed for Iron, Copper and Zinc using the automated method of flame atomic absorption spectrophotoscopy (AAS) and for phytate using a colorimetric method. Iron contents ranged from 2.28mg\\/100g for cowpeas and yam pottage to 22.10mg\\/100g for Apapafufu with tuwon shinkafa. The zinc contents ranged from 0.43mg\\/100g for stewed beans and fried plantain

O. O Onabanjo; Clara R. B Oguntona

2003-01-01

83

Effect of copper and cadmium ions on heart function and calpain activity in blue mussel Mytilus edulis.  

PubMed

The heart rate and calpain activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis from the sublittoral zone, exposed to different levels of water-borne copper and cadmium, was investigated in a long-term experiment. The content of cadmium and copper in the blue mussel was determined using flame and graphite Atomic absorption spectroscopy. The observed concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 89.1 ?g/g dry weight for cadmium and from 6.1 to 51.0 ?g/g dry weight for copper in the control and highest concentration, respectively. Initially, increase in cardiac activity in response to copper and Cadmium exposure was observed under all pollutant concentrations (5-250 and 10-500 ?g/L, respectively). The calpain-like activity in gills and hepatopancreas of the mussels treated with metals changed in dose- and time-dependent manner: from a sharp rise at the 250 ?g/L concentration of copper on the first day to a significant decrease under the effect of Cadmium in the concentration of 500 ?g/L on the third day of the experiment. These results suggest that: (i) heart rate oscillation may reflect active adaptation of blue mussels to contamination and (ii) animals have different sensitivity to copper and Cadmium according to the role of the metals in the mussels' life activity. PMID:22702812

Bakhmet, Igor N; Kantserova, Nadezhda P; Lysenko, Liudmila A; Nemova, Nina N

2012-01-01

84

The transition metals copper and iron in neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurodegenerative diseases constitute a worldwide health problem. Metals like iron and copper are essential for life, but they are also involved in several neurodegenerative mechanisms such as protein aggregation, free radical generation and oxidative stress. The role of Fe and Cu, their pathogenic mechanisms and possible therapeutic relevance are discussed regarding four of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's

Susana Rivera-Mancía; Iván Pérez-Neri; Camilo Ríos; Luis Tristán-López; Liliana Rivera-Espinosa; Sergio Montes

2010-01-01

85

Evaluation of Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper, Iron, and Zinc/Copper Ratio in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc/ copper ratio in the serum of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qom Province, center of Iran. Methods: Serum levels of zinc and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and serum iron concentration was measured by using an Auto Analyzer. The study group consisted of 60 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and the control group of 100 healthy volunteers from the same area who were not exposed to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Result: There were no statistically significant differences in age and body mass index between the two groups. Serum Zn (P< 0.001) and Fe (P< 0.05) levels were lower in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis than the control group. We also found serum Cu concentration (P< 0.05) in the patient group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, zinc/ copper ratio (P< 0.001) was lower in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis than in the control group. Conclusion: Our data indicated that Zn/Cu ratio was significantly lower in patients with CL as compared to the controls. Earlier reports suggest that, this ratio imbalance could be a useful marker for immune dysfunction in leishmaniasis. There was also strong association of Zn, Cu and Fe with CL. It suggests the use of blood zinc, copper, iron concentration and the copper/zinc ratio (Zn/Cu), as a means for estimating the prognosis of CL.

Pourfallah, F; Javadian, S; Zamani, Z; Saghiri, R; Sadeghi, S; Zarea, B; Faiaz, Sh; Mirkhani, F; Fatemi, N

2009-01-01

86

Lipid peroxidation in the gill and hepatopancreas of Oziotelphusa senex senex fabricius during cadmium and copper exposure  

SciTech Connect

Environmental contamination by metals has increased in recent years due to the excessive use of metals in agriculture and industry. Due to their bioconcentration, immutable and non-degradable properties, these metals constitute a major source of pollutants. Among these metals cadmium, lead and mercury are non-essential, where as copper, iron, manganese, and zinc are essential elements. They are required in trace amounts by all forms of life but are toxic when present in excess. Considerable information is available on the toxic effects of cadmium on biological mechanisms at all integration levels, such as molecular, biochemical, physiological and behavioural, in animals. It is also well known that heavy metal contamination alters cellular physiology, particularly by affecting aspects such as transport across plasma membranes, mitochondrial functions, lysosomal stability etc. Even though it has been demonstrated that the in vitro addition of heavy metals stimulates membrane lipid peroxidation, the in vivo effects exerted by different cations on this process are still not clear. The present work reports the effect of exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu and Cd on lipid peroxidation in the tissues of the edible freshwater crab, Oziotelphusa senex senex. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

Reddy, P.S. (Pondicherry Univ. (India)); Bhagyalakshmi, A. (Sri Padmavathi Women's Polytechnic, Tirupati (India))

1994-11-01

87

Different responses of tonoplast proton pumps in cucumber roots to cadmium and copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) effects on the two tonoplast proton pumps were compared in cucumber roots. Different alterations of vacuolar H+ transporting ATPase (V-ATPase) (EC 3.6.3.14) and vacuolar H+ transporting pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) (EC 3.6.1.1) activities under heavy metal stress were investigated. ATP-dependent proton transport and ATP hydrolysis increased after exposure of seedlings to Cu, whereas both decreased in plants

Katarzyna Kaba?a; Ma?gorzata Janicka-Russak; Gra?yna K?obus

2010-01-01

88

Comparative studies on the toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and copper toward the isolated perfused rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic effects of cadmium, mercury, and copper were compared over the range 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mM using the isolated perfused rat liver preparation. All metals caused similar changes in various parameters used to describe general toxicity. Reductions in oxygen consumption, perfusion flow, and biliary secretion were found, while lactate dehydrogenase release , as well as liver weight, increased

O. Strubelt; J. Kremer; A. Tilse; J. Keogh; K. R. Pentz; M. Younes

1996-01-01

89

Effect of Cadmium, Copper, and Lead on Different Enzyme Activities in a Native Forest Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals contamination has been reported to affect enzymatic activities in soils. The objectives of this work were (i) to study the effect of cadmium [Cd(II)], copper [Cu(II)], and lead [Pb(II)] at different doses and different incubation times on arylsulphatase, ß-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, protease, and urease activities in a noncontaminated native forest soil and (ii) to analyze the potential use

D. Effron; A. M. de la Horra; R. L. Defrieri; V. Fontanive; R. M. Palma

2004-01-01

90

Lithium/copper oxide or lithium/cadmium oxide organic electrolyte cell  

SciTech Connect

The invention is a high energy density electric cell having a lithium anode, and a copper oxide or cadmium oxide cathode. The electrolyte of the electric cell can be an organic solvent composed of propylene carbonate or nitromethane or a mixture of the two. The solute for the electrolyte is a soluble salt selected from the group of potassium hexafluorophosphate, lithium hexafluorophosphate and benzl trimethylammonium hexafluorophosphate.

Williamson III., Th. R.

1984-12-25

91

Cadmium and copper induction of oxidative stress and antioxidative response in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicon ) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare cadmium and copper induced oxidative stress in tomato leaves and the antioxidative enzyme response during a time\\u000a course of 96 h. Plants were subjected to 25 ?M of CdCl2 or CuSO4 and malondialdehyde (MDA) level and activity of guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase\\u000a and glutathione reductase were determined. The results showed that there was an early increase in

Mediouni Chamseddine; Ben Ammar Wided; Houlné Guy; Chabouté Marie-Edith; Jemal Fatma

2009-01-01

92

Phenylalanine AmmoniaLyase and Phenolic Compounds in Chamomile Tolerance to Cadmium and Copper Excess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), total phenolics, soluble proteins, malondialdehyde and metals accumulation\\u000a in four-week old chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) plants cultivated in nutrient solution and exposed to low (3 ?M) and high (60 and 120 ?M) levels of cadmium (Cd) or copper\\u000a (Cu) for 7 days were studied. High Cd concentrations had a stimulatory effect on PAL activity and soluble phenolics accumulation

Jozef Ková?ik; Martin Ba?kor

2007-01-01

93

Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the biosorption kinetics of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) ions on the biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21 (Rip64) was investigated. Effects of environmental factors and growth conditions on the biosorption were studied. Efficiency of metal ion recovery from metal-loaded biomass and subsequent regeneration of the biosorbent were also determined. The results show that, at pH

Jo-Shu Chang; Robin Law; Chung-Cheng Chang

1997-01-01

94

Distinct signalling pathways for induction of MAP kinase activities by cadmium and copper in rice roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth is severely affected by toxic concentra- tions of heavy metals. On characterizing the heavy metal-induced signalling pathways, the effects of cadmium (CdCl2) and copper (CuCl2) on MBP (myelin basic protein) kinase activities in Oryza sativa L. cv. TNG67 were analysed and it was found that Cd2+- induced 42 kDa MBP kinase has the characteristics of a mitogen-activated protein

Chuan-Ming Yeh; Pei-Shan Chien; Hao-Jen Huang

2007-01-01

95

Adsorption of copper, zinc, and cadmium on clay fraction of two acid soils: Surface complexation modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) as a function of pH was studied on the clay fraction of two acid soils (Typic Rhodoxeralf and Aquic palexeralf), in two ionic strengths and two different metal concentrations. Specific surface area was determined by BET-N2 and EGME. The charge development on the clay surface was studied in the pH

Emmanuel Spathariotis; Chariklia Kallianou

2001-01-01

96

Zinc, iron, manganese, and magnesium accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada  

SciTech Connect

The Sudbury basin has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. Elevated concentrations of copper, cadmium, and nickel have been reported in crayfish populations close to the Sudbury smelting works. The present study compares concentrations of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. These metals were selected since they are known to be emitted in moderately high quantities into the Sudbury environment as byproduct of the smelting process. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish were also examined to determined specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

Bagatto, G.; Alikhan, M.A.

1987-06-01

97

The effect of cadmium administration on the biliary excretion of copper and zinc and tissue disposition of these metals  

SciTech Connect

Administration of a single subcutaneous dose of cadmium (1.5 mg/kg) to male rats resulted in significant decreases in copper concentration of the bile at 4 to 24 hr after treatment. Thereafter the copper concentration returned to control limits for the duration of the experiment (14 days). Biliary zinc concentrations were markedly increased from 3 to 7 days after treatment. Changes in plasma concentrations of zinc and copper were essentially the reverse of those seen in bile. Cysteine and glutathione given 3 hr after cadmium, exacerbated the effect of biliary copper excretion, while pretreatment with actinomycin D eliminated the effect of cadmium. In contrast, the combined cadmium and actinomycin D treatment produced a massive increase in zinc concentration in the bile after 3-4 hr and a significant increase in biliary cadmium as early as 0.5 hr after dosing. Long-term administration of cadmium in the diet (100 ppm) progressively reduced biliary copper concentrations, but had no effect on biliary zinc concentrations.

Ashby, S.L.; King, L.J.; Parke, D.V.

1981-10-01

98

Concentration and distribution of copper and cadmium in water, sediments, detritus, plants and animals in a hardwater lowland river  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration and distribution of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) were examined in water, sediments, detritus, plants and animals in a small, lowland, hardwater river. Consistently higher concentrations of Cu and Cd were found in all types of samples from two sites. There were marked variations in metal concentrations between different types of samples, and between seasons. Copper and Cd

S. Smith; M.-H. Chen; R. G. Bailey; W. P. Williams

1996-01-01

99

Heavy metals (copper, lead, nickel, and cadmium) in the organic part of gray forest soils in the Buryat Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The levels of the accumulation of copper, lead, nickel, and cadmium in the parent material-soil-plants-soil organic matter system are given for gray forest soils in the Buryat Republic. The concentrations of copper, lead, and nickel in the parent materials do not exceed the corresponding clarkes, and cadmium is present in trace amounts. The concentrations of copper and nickel in the humus horizon are lower than those in the parent material; an opposite situation is observed for lead. The concentrations of copper, lead, and nickel in the soil organic matter and in the herbaceous plants correspond to their contents in the soil and do not exceed the background (clarke) values. Cadmium was not detected in the aboveground part of the plants, though it was found in the root mass and in the organic soil horizon. In the humus of gray forest soils, these heavy metals are mainly present in the acid filtrate remaining after the precipitation of humic acids.

Chimitdorzhieva, G. D.; Nimbueva, A. Z.; Bodeeva, E. A.

2012-02-01

100

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of zinc, cadmium, and copper metallothioneins: evidence for metal-binding cooperativity.  

PubMed Central

Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra of both well-characterized and novel metallothioneins (MTs) from various species were recorded to explore their metal-ion-binding modes and stoichiometries. The ESI mass spectra of the zinc- and cadmium-binding MTs showed a single main peak corresponding to metal-to-protein ratios of 4, 6, or 7. These findings combined with data obtained by other methods suggest that these MTs bind zinc or cadmium in a single predominant form and are consistent with the presence of three- and four-metal clusters. An unstable copper-specific MT isoform from Roman snails (Helix pomatia) could be isolated intact and was shown to preferentially bind 12 copper ions. To obtain additional information on the formation and relative stability of metal-thiolate clusters in MTs, a mass spectrometric titration study was conducted. One to seven molar equivalents of zinc or of cadmium were added to metal-free human MT-2 at neutral pH, and the resulting complexes were measured by ESI mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed that the formation of the four-metal cluster and of the thermodynamically less stable three-metal cluster is sequential and largely cooperative for both zinc and cadmium. Minor intermediate forms between metal-free MT, Me4MT, and fully reconstituted Me7MT were also observed. The addition of increasing amounts of cadmium to metal-free blue crab MT-I resulted in prominent peaks whose masses were consistent with apoMT, Cd3MT, and Cd6MT, reflecting the known structure of this MT with two Me3Cys9 centers. In a similar reconstitution experiment performed with Caenorhabditis elegans MT-II, a series of signals corresponding to apoMT and Cd3MT to Cd6MT species were observed.

Gehrig, P. M.; You, C.; Dallinger, R.; Gruber, C.; Brouwer, M.; Kagi, J. H.; Hunziker, P. E.

2000-01-01

101

Serum Concentration of Copper, Zinc, Iron, and Cobalt and the Copper\\/Zinc Ratio in Horses with Equine Herpesvirus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt and copper\\/zinc ratio were investigated in horses infected with\\u000a equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). Nine horses were naturally infected with the virus and nine healthy horses served as controls.\\u000a The concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt were determined spectrophotometrically in the blood serum of all horses.\\u000a The results were (expressed in micrograms

?brahim Yörük; Yeter Deger; Handan Mert; Nihat Mert; Veysel Ataseven

2007-01-01

102

Effect of austenitization on austempering of copper alloyed ductile iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ductile iron containing 0.6% copper as the main alloying element was austempered at a fixed austempering temperature of\\u000a 330 ?C for a fixed austempering time of 60 min after austenitization at 850 ?C for different austenitization periods of 60,\\u000a 90, and 120 min. The austempering process was repeated after changing austenitization temperature to 900 ?C. The effect of\\u000a austenitization

Uma Batra; S. Ray; S. R. Prabhakar

2003-01-01

103

Formation of aromatic chlorinated compounds catalyzed by copper and iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows the catalyzing effects of iron and copper on the formation of chlorinated compounds such as chlorobenzenes (ClBzs), chlorophenols (CIPhs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Both total concentrations and congener distributions have been studied. The parameters and conditions varied during the combustion tests were the complete and incomplete combustion and the metal and chlorine addition. The incomplete

Halonen Ismo; Tuppurainen Kari; Ruuskanen Juhani

1997-01-01

104

Copper, iron and zinc in Alzheimer's disease senile plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the rims and cores of senile plaques (SP) and in the neuropil of the amygdala of nine Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in the neuropil of the amygdala of five neurologically normal control subjects using micro particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). Comparison of SP rim and core values revealed

M. A Lovell; J. D Robertson; W. J Teesdale; J. L Campbell; W. R Markesbery

1998-01-01

105

Removal of copper and iron prior to water hardness titration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica gel was reacted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or with the N-methyl derivative of the same reagent to produce a material with an amino silyl functional group. If a water sample in the pH range of 5.0 to 7.5 is passed through a short column of this material, iron(II) and copper(II) are completely retained, while calcium(II) and magnesium(II) pass through. This permits

James S. Fritz; Jefferey N. King

1976-01-01

106

LEACHING OF CADMIUM, TELLURIUM AND COPPER FROM CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES.  

SciTech Connect

Separating the metals from the glass is the first step in recycling end-of-life cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules and manufacturing scrap. We accomplished this by leaching the metals in solutions of various concentrations of acids and hydrogen peroxide. A relatively dilute solution of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide was found to be most effective for leaching cadmium and tellurium from broken pieces of CdTe PV modules. A solution comprising 5 mL of hydrogen peroxide per kg of PV scrap in 1 M sulfuric acid, gave better results than the 12 mL H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/kg, 3.2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution currently used in the industry. Our study also showed that this dilute solution is more effective than hydrochloric-acid solutions and it can be reused after adding a small amount of hydrogen peroxide. These findings, when implemented in large-scale operation, would result in significant savings due to reductions in volume of the concentrated leaching agents (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and of the alkaline reagents required to neutralize the residuals of leaching.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2004-02-03

107

Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.  

PubMed

Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31?M Cu), 5-50?M Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200?M induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200?M Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola. PMID:23959253

Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

2013-08-01

108

Copper Deficiency in Sheep with High Liver Iron Accumulation  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of enzootic ataxia among sheep raised in the northeastern region of Brazil is described. Copper (Cu) deficiency was diagnosed in a herd of 56 sheep, among which five presented characteristic clinical symptoms of enzootic ataxia. The symptoms began 30 days after birth, with a clinical condition that included locomotion difficulty, limb ataxia, tremors, and continual falls. Liver biopsies were performed and blood was collected to determine hepatic and plasmatic Cu, iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentration, respectively. The laboratory results showed that the animals presented low copper concentrations in the plasma and liver, without difference between the clinically healthy animals and those affected by enzootic ataxia. Even after supplementation with adequate Cu levels had been recommended, it was found on a new visit to the farm four months later that one animal still presented a clinical condition and that the hepatic Cu levels of the herd had not risen. Despite the low copper content of the diet, the high hepatic Fe levels found suggest that antagonism due to this element may have been an important factor in triggering copper deficiency in these animals, and thus, additional copper supplementation may be necessary for these animals.

de Sousa, Isadora Karolina Freitas; Hamad Minervino, Antonio Humberto; Sousa, Rejane dos Santos; Chaves, Dowglish Ferreira; Barros, Isabella de Oliveira; de Araujo, Carolina Akiko Sato Cabral; Junior, Raimundo Alves Barreto; Ortolani, Enrico Lippi

2012-01-01

109

Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake.  

PubMed Central

Measurements of intake and uptake of cadmium in relation to diet composition were carried out in 57 nonsmoking women, 20-50 years of age. A vegetarian/high-fiber diet and a mixed-diet group were constructed based on results from a food frequency questionnaire. Duplicate diets and the corresponding feces were collected during 4 consecutive days in parallel with dietary recording of type and amount of food ingested for determination of the dietary intake of cadmium and various nutrients. Blood and 24-hr urine samples were collected for determination of cadmium, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc. There were no differences in the intake of nutrients between the mixed-diet and the high-fiber diet groups, except for a significantly higher intake of fiber (p < 0.001) and cadmium (p < 0.002) in the high-fiber group. Fecal cadmium corresponded to 98% in the mixed-diet group and 100% in the high-fiber diet group. No differences in blood cadmium (BCd) or urinary cadmium (UCd) between groups could be detected. There was a tendency toward higher BCd and UCd concentrations with increasing fiber intake; however, the concentrations were not statistically significant at the 5% level, indicating an inhibitory effect of fiber on the gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium. Sixty-seven percent of the women had serum ferritin < 30 micrograms/l, indicating reduced body iron stores, which were highly associated with higher BCd (irrespective of fiber intake). BCd was mainly correlated with UCd, serum ferritin, age, anf fibre intake. UCd and serum ferritin explained almost 60% of the variation in BCd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5.

Berglund, M; Akesson, A; Nermell, B; Vahter, M

1994-01-01

110

Maternal and neonatal scalp hair concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum scalp hair samples from 82 term-pregnancy mother\\/neonate pairs were analyzed for their concentration of zinc (Zn),\\u000a copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Maternal and neonatal Zn concentrations\\u000a had geometric means (and 99% confidence intervals) of 122.5 ?g\\/g (117.9–131.5 ?g\\/g) and 146.9 ?g (141.5–156.7 ?g\\/g) respectively.\\u000a Corresponding Cu values were 18.4 ?g\\/g (17.6–23.8 ?g\\/g)

Ibrahim B.-A. Razagui; Ibrahim Ghribi

2005-01-01

111

Effects of cadmium, copper, and zinc on ?APP processing and turnover in COS7 and PC12 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium, copper, and zinc on ?APP metabolism were investigated in COS-7 and PC12 cells. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) increased ?APP steady-state protein levels and decreased ?APP posttranslational processing. These changes were not accompanied\\u000a by alterations in ?APP mRNA levels or splicing. In addition, cytosolic ?-actin and G3PDH levels were not affected. Further,\\u000a neither zinc (ZnCl2) nor copper (CuSO4)

Marilyn Smedman; Anna Potempska; Richard Rubenstein; Weina Ju; Narayan Ramakrishna; Robert B. Denman

1997-01-01

112

Shellac-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for removal of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

This study describes a new effective adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solution synthesized by coating a shellac layer, a natural biodegradable and renewable resin with abundant hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, on the surface of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging showed shellac-coated magnetic nanoparticle (SCMN) adsorbents had a core-shell structure with a core of 20 nm and shell of 5 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic analysis suggested the occurrence of reaction between carboxyl groups on the SCMN adsorbent surface and cadmium ions in aqueous solution. Kinetic data were well described by pseudo second-order model and adsorption isotherms were fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich models with maximum adsorption capacity of 18.80 mg/g. SCMN adsorbents provided a favorable adsorption capacity under high salinity conditions, and cadmium could easily be desorbed using mild organic acid solutions at low concentration. PMID:23513435

Gong, Jilai; Chen, Long; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Deng, Jiuhua; Niu, Qiuya; He, Xun

2012-01-01

113

Phytoplankton copper requirement under iron limited condition in the coastal Bay of Bengal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper, a redox reactive transition metal, plays a vital role in many cellular redox reactions. Recent investigations show that many eukaryotic microorganisms including marine and coastal diatom utilize copper to perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism and the requirement of copper increases with decreasing iron concentrations. However, very less information is available about the role of copper in diatom physiology. Here we report for the first time about the copper utilization by coastal diatom during iron limited condition in the Bay of Bengal coast. The diatom Chaetoceros gracilis was isolated from the Visakhapatnam coast and was grown in different copper concentrations (15nM -1000nM). The concentration of total chlorophyll, the growth rate, the concentration of biogenic silica, the ratio of biogenic silica to particulate organic carbon and the ratio of total chlorophyll to particulate organic carbon were found to be increased with increasing copper concentration up to 125nM and decreased thereafter reaching a minimum value at 1000nM. 13C of Particulate organic carbon varied inversely with increasing copper concentrations indicating the signature of enhanced carbon fixation which is in agreement with the enhanced biomass and growth rate. However, to get a better understanding about the role of copper behind the enhanced growth, we had incubated the cells simultaneously in iron replete, copper replete and in varying copper concentration in presence of 200nM of iron. Surprisingly, in all cases significant enhancement in growth and biomass production was observed. The cells grown in only iron and added with copper showed very similar increase whereas, in presence of iron increasing copper concentration did not show any enhancement effect. Increased growth and biomass production in response to iron addition shows that phytoplankton growth is limited by iron in the study area. Furthermore, this observation indicates that in case of iron limitation the coastal diatom perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism where copper plays a vital role. Down regulation of high affinity iron acquisition mechanism was indicated by unaltered growth when copper was added in presence of iron. Collectively, our present study shows that copper likely plays an important role in the physiology of coastal diatom apart from the toxicological studies conducted earlier. A detailed investigation is needed to understand the high affinity iron acquisition mechanism existing in coastal diatom from the study area.

Biswas, H.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Kumar, P. P.

2012-04-01

114

Cadmium uptake in barley affected by iron concentration of the medium: Role of phytosiderophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments were conducted using barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Minorimugi) grown hydroponically in a medium containing cadmium (Cd) to clarify the role of phytosiderophores (PS) in chelator-assisted phytoextraction of Cd and the influence of iron (Fe) on Cd uptake. In the first experiment, plants were grown for 7 days in media containing 5 µmol L Cd sulfate (CdSO4), in which the concentration

Kazuaki Kudo; Hiroaki Kudo; Shigenao Kawai

2007-01-01

115

Biosorption of Copper and Cadmium in Packed Bed Columns with Live Immobilized Fungal Biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption of copper (II) and cadmium (II) by live Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized by growing onto polyurethane foam material in individual packed bed columns over two successive cycles of sorption–desorption\\u000a were investigated in this study. Initial pH and concentrations of the metals in their respective solutions were set optimum\\u000a to each of those: 4.6 and 35 mg·l?1 in case of copper and

K. Pakshirajan; T. Swaminathan

2009-01-01

116

Iron, zinc, and copper in retinal physiology and disease.  

PubMed

The essential trace metals iron, zinc, and copper play important roles both in retinal physiology and disease. They are involved in various retinal functions such as phototransduction, the visual cycle, and the process of neurotransmission, being tightly bound to proteins and other molecules to regulate their structure and/or function or as unbound free metal ions. Elevated levels of "free" or loosely bound metal ions can exert toxic effects, and in order to maintain homeostatic levels to protect retinal cells from their toxicity, appropriate mechanisms exist such as metal transporters, chaperones, and the presence of certain storage molecules that tightly bind metals to form nontoxic products. The pathways to maintain homeostatic levels of metals are closely interlinked, with various metabolic pathways directly and/or indirectly affecting their concentrations, compartmentalization, and oxidation/reduction states. Retinal deficiency or excess of these metals can result from systemic depletion and/or overload or from mutations in genes involved in maintaining retinal metal homeostasis, and this is associated with retinal dysfunction and pathology. Iron accumulation in the retina, a characteristic of aging, may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Zinc deficiency is associated with poor dark adaptation. Zinc levels in the human retina and RPE decrease with age in AMD. Copper deficiency is associated with optic neuropathy, but retinal function is maintained. The changes in iron and zinc homeostasis in AMD have led to the speculation that iron chelation and/or zinc supplements may help in its treatment. PMID:24160731

Ugarte, Marta; Osborne, Neville N; Brown, Laurence A; Bishop, Paul N

117

Iron supplementation does not affect copper and zinc absorption in breastfed infants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Iron supplements are commonly recommended for infants but were suggested to inhibit zinc and copper absorption. The objective of this study was to investigate potential effects of iron supplementation, infant age, and mineral status on zinc and copper absorption in infants at 6 and 9 mo of age. Twen...

118

Iron, copper and zinc in white sugar from Serbian sugar beet refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities such as iron, copper and zinc in refined white sugar determine the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The content of iron, copper and zinc was evaluated in 166 white sugar samples from four Serbian beet sugar refineries during the campaign of 2003. The production of the chosen sugar factories is accounted

B. Škrbi?; J. Gyura

2007-01-01

119

Solid Solution, Mass Transport, and Crystal Growth Studies of Cadmium Iron Selenide.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium iron selenide, a semimagnetic semiconductor, has been investigated. Solid solubilities of iron in CdSe were determined at temperatures between 650^ circC and 1100^circC, using the X-ray diffraction Debye-Scherrer powder technique. The solubility limits of Fe in CdSe increase with the temperatures to reach a maximum of about 19.5 mole % FeSe_ {1.24} at 925^circ C, and then decrease with further increasing temperature. Solidification phenomena of the Cd-Fe-Se solid solutions were observed employing optical microscopy, which reveals a typical divorced, eutectic type, nonequilibrium solidification. The combination of the X-ray diffraction and the microscopic investigations yielded a pseudo-binary, eutectic type phase diagram of the Cd-Fe-Se system. Partial pressures of the major vapor species in the Cd-Fe-Se physical and the Cd-Fe-Se-Iodine chemical vapor transport systems were calculated. The partial pressure of gaseous iron species of the PVT system may be neglected compared to those of Cd and Se_2^ecies. This suggests that cadmium iron selenide crystals cannot be grown by the PVT method. For the PVT experiments, using the as-synthesized (CdSe)_ {0.90}(FeSe_{1.24})_{0.10 } source materials, crystals with compositions of 6-8 mole % FeSe_{1.24} were grown at a source temperature of 1000^ circC and a DeltaT of 12^circC. These result are contradictory to the thermodynamic predictions, and were further investigated employing specially purified source materials. Iron contents in the crystals grown in these experiments are close to zero. The transport of iron in the initial mass transport experiments may be due to the chemical impurities (most likely the metal chlorides) in the as-synthesized source materials. Mass transport experiments of the Cd-Fe-Se-Iodine CVT system were performed as a function of source temperatures, the degrees of undercooling (DeltaT), and initial iodine pressures. Promising parameters for the growth of cadmium iron selenide single crystals by the CVT method, e.g., the source temperatures of 800-850 ^circC, initial iodine pressures of 0.5-1.0 atm, and DeltaT of 10 -20^circC, were established. Mass fluxes of cadmium iron selenide were computed using a one -dimensional diffusion equation. The overall trends of the computed mass flux as a function of growth conditions are consistent with the experimental results. However, differences between the theoretical and experimental mass fluxes may be due to the uncertainties of the thermochemical data used and the approximations made in these estimations. Single crystals of cadmium iron selenide with compositions of 6.5-8.5 mole % FeSe_{1.24 } and of about 5 mm edge lengths were successfully grown from the (CdSe)_{0.90 }(FeSe_{1.24})_{0.10} source materials by the CVT method. Compositions of various portions of the bulk crystals are nearly constant along its axis within the error limits, indicating that the crystals possess reasonable compositional uniformity. The indices of the crystal surfaces were obtained by the X -ray diffraction Laue method. The (0001) and (1011) planes usually developed as the natural facets on the surfaces, and (1010) and(1120) as the cleavage planes. A promising chemical etchant for cadmium iron selenide crystals was developed, consisting of about 20 vol. % concentrated HNO_3, 60 vol. % glacial CH _3COOH, and 20 vol. % concentrated H _2SO_4 acids. Etch pit densities of the grown crystals are in the range of 5times10 ^4-rm5times10^5/cm ^2..

Huang, Xuejun

120

Analysis of cadmium and copper in cyanide plating solutions by the inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometer. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this work was to develop spectrometric methods for the analysis of copper and cadmium in cyanide plating solutions. If the methods were faster and/or more accurate than the classical volumetric methods being used, spectrometric methods coul...

G. R. Osbourn

1991-01-01

121

Bean Plant Production of Dry Matter and Grain Related to Soil Citric Acid–Extractable Copper, Zinc, Cadmium, and Lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some knowledge concerning soil heavy?metal content and its availability to plants is essential to evaluate the risk of potentially toxic elements in the alimentary chain. Assessment of heavy?metal availability to plants was achieved by a simple extraction method. The goal of this work was to determine the contents of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), soluble in

Alexandre V. S. Carvalho; Ruy Carvalho; Celeste M. P. Abreu; Antônio E. Furtini Neto; Matheus P. Freitas

2009-01-01

122

Simultaneous Determination of Copper, Lead, and Cadmium at Hexagonal Mesoporous Silica Immobilized Quercetin Modified Carbon Paste Electrode  

PubMed Central

A new method was developed for simultaneous determination of copper, lead, and cadmium, based on their voltammetric response at a carbon paste electrode modified with hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) immobilized quercetin (HMS-Qu/CPE). Compared with quercetin modified carbon paste electrode (Qu/CPE) and quercetin ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (Qu-IL/CPE), the HMS-Qu/CPE exhibited improved selectivity and high sensitivity toward the detection of copper, lead, and cadmium. The properties of the HMS-Qu/CPE in 0.1?M HCOONa-HCl buffer solution (pH4.7) were investigated by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (ASV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of copper, lead, and cadmium at the modified electrodes and factors affecting the preconcentration procedures were also investigated. Detection limits of 5.0, 0.8, 1.0?nM for copper, lead, and cadmium were obtained, respectively. The method is simple, fast, sensitive, and selective, and is successfully applied to soil sample.

Xia, Fangquan; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Changli; Sun, Danzi; Dong, Yanmin; Liu, Zhen

2010-01-01

123

EFFECTS OF PH ON THE TOXICITIES OF CADMIUM, COPPER, AND ZINC TO STEELHEAD TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI') (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased metal concentrations have been associated with freshwater acidification. Continuous-flow acute toxicity tests were conducted in soft water to determine the effect of pH on the toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to small (1-6 g) steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). LC50...

124

Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the comparative strategies of accumulation under standardised laboratory conditions of the essential metals zinc and copper, and the non-essential metal cadmium by three crustaceans of different taxa; vizPalaemon elegans Rathke (Malacostraca: Eucarida: Decapoda),Echinogammarus pirloti (Sexton & Spooner) (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda) and the barnacleElminius modestus Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

P. S. Rainbow; S. L. White

1989-01-01

125

Concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury, and copper in the crayfish ( Pacifasticus leniusculus ) obtained from a lake receiving urban runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially caught crayfish (Pacifasticus leniusculus) were placed in a municipal lake below a combined sewer overflow outfall and a storm drain outfall associated with elevated sediment metal concentrations. Abdominal muscle, viscera, and exoskeleton from each crayfish were analyzed for mercury, cadmium, lead, and copper. Crayfish metal concentrations for each sampling site were evaluated relative to unexposed samples from the commercial

Margaret D. Stinson; David L. Eaton

1983-01-01

126

[Effects of heavy metal (copper and cadmium) coupled with Ulca pertusa on marine inorganic carbon system in simulated experiments].  

PubMed

Simulated experiments coupled with ocean biota dynamics were performed in laboratory. In these experiments, effects of heavy metal (copper and cadmium) coupled with Ulca pertusa on marine inorganic carbon system and CO2 fluxes were investigated. The results indicated that concentration changes (delta) of components in carbon dioxide system with time scale were correlated with the concentrations and kinds of heavy metal. In copper groups and cadmium groups (0.1 micromol x L(-1) and 1 micromol x L(-1)), DIC HCO3- and PCO2 significantly decreased comparing to the control experiment data( p = 0.01). However, when the heavy metal infusions were higher than the "critical concentration", the above mentioned parameters increased with time scale and their increments followed the uptrend with increasing heavy metal concentrations. The "critical concentration" in copper groups was much lower than that in cadmium groups, which attributed to the tolerance diversity of Ulca pertusa to copper and cadmium. Furthermore, CO2 fluxes under the influences of heavy metal were also regularly changed with time. Sea waters with low infusions of heavy metal represented as sinks to the atmosphere CO2. These sinks would probably convert into CO2 sources after a period of time. Sea waters with comparatively high amount of heavy metal were always to be CO2 sources, and their release fluxes of CO2 augmented along with the increasing infusions of heavy metal. PMID:17304838

Zheng, Guo-xia; Song, Jin-ming; Dai, Ji-cui

2006-12-01

127

Simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treating copper and cadmium-containing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes in the same reactor is known to be effective in the removal of both biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants in various kinds of wastewater. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the two processes under sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation in treating copper and cadmium-containing synthetic wastewater with powdered

Poh-Eng Lim; Soon-An Ong; Chye-Eng Seng

2002-01-01

128

Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other

1981-01-01

129

Binary adsorption of copper(II) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by biomass of marine alga Durvillaea potatorum  

SciTech Connect

Much work on the biosorption of heavy metals by low-cost, natural biomass has been on the uptake of single metals. In practice, wastewaters often contain multiple heavy metal ions. In this paper the binary adsorption of copper(II) and cadmium(II) by a pretreated biomass of the marine alga Durvillaea potatorum from aqueous solutions was studied. The results showed that the uptake capacities for each heavy metal of the binary system were lower when compared with the single metal biosorption for copper and cadmium, respectively, but the total capacities for the binary system were similar to those obtained for single metal biosorption. The uptake capacities for copper and cadmium increased as the equilibrium pH increased and reached a plateau at a pH around 5.0. The uptake process was relatively fast, with 90% of the adsorption completed within 10 minutes for copper and 30 minutes for cadmium, and equilibrium reached after about 60 minutes of stirring. The biosorption isotherms of binary systems were not significantly affected by equilibrium temperature. The presence of light metal ions in solution also did not affect adsorption significantly. The binary adsorption was successfully predicted by the extended Langmuir model, using parameters and capacities obtained from single component systems.

Yu, Q.; Kaewsarn, P. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Queensland (Australia). School of Environmental Engineering

1999-06-01

130

Biosorption of lead, copper, and cadmium by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in ternary metal mixtures: statistical analysis of individual and interaction effects.  

PubMed

Biosorption of three divalent metals, viz., lead, copper, and cadmium in ternary aqueous mixtures was studied using Phanerochaete chrysosporium in batch shake flasks. The mixtures were prepared containing the metals at their either varying optimum or equal initial concentration combinations in aqueous solution of pH optimum to each of the metals. Following were the optimum initial concentration ranges of the metals in mixture: lead, 60-100 mg/L; copper, 20-60 mg/L; and cadmium, 5-15 mg/L. And, for varying these optimum concentration levels of the metals, a 2(3) full factorial design of experiments was employed. The results revealed that an increase in lead and cadmium concentrations helped in their better biosorption by the fungus, but an increase in initial copper concentration slightly diminished its removal. Statistical analysis of the results in the form of analysis of variance and Student t test gave a clear interpretation on the roles of both the individual metals and their interactions in the uptake of metals from mixture. Compared to the uptake of metals when presented individually, lead biosorption in mixture was found to be enhanced to a degree as high as 99%; on the other hand, copper and cadmium removals from mixtures were inhibited to the extent of 100% and 98%, respectively. However, this extent of inhibition or enhancement in the metal removals compared to the individual removals was less in mixtures containing all equal concentrations of the metals. PMID:19156371

Pakshirajan, K; Swaminathan, T

2009-01-21

131

ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT A MERCURY FILM ELECTRODE: BASELINE CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN SELECTED NATURAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...

132

Total Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Two Dreissenid Mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis, at the Outflow of Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two closely related Dreissenid mussel species, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis, both recent invaders of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, have potential as biological monitors of metal contamination. To better understand their usefulness as biomonitors, we measured total cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in soft tissues of both species at a site at the outflow of Lake Ontario.

Carolyn Johns; Briana E. Timmerman

1998-01-01

133

Effect of complexans (EDTA, NTA and DTPA) on the exposure to high concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of complexans on the toxicity of short exposures to high chemical concentrations of heavy meals were examined. The heavy metals used were cadmium, zinc, lead and copper. Mortality every 24-h and the content of metal in each of three areas of fish - viscera, gills and other parts - were detemined both in the groups kept in water

S. Muramoto

1980-01-01

134

Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in

H Deng; Z. H Ye; M. H Wong

2004-01-01

135

Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 possessing high heavy-metal resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate biosorption kinetics and equilibria of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) ions using the biomass of Enterobacter sp. J1 isolated from a local industry wastewater treatment plant. Efficiency of metal ion recovery from metal-loaded biomass to regenerate the biosorbent was also determined. The results show that Enterobacter sp. J1 was able to uptake

Wei-Bin Lu; Jun-Ji Shi; Ching-Hsiung Wang; Jo-Shu Chang

2006-01-01

136

Blood Pressure in Relation to Biomarkers of Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, and Selenium in Men without Occupational Exposure to Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationship of blood lead (BPb), activity of ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum copper (SCu), serum zinc (SZn), serum selenium (SSe), hematocrit (Hct), body mass index (BMI), age, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption to blood pressure was examined in 154 Croatian male subjects 19–53 years of age. None of the subjects had been occupationally

Spomenka Telišman; Jasna Jurasovi?; Alica Pizent; Petar Cvitkovi?

2001-01-01

137

Semen Quality and Reproductive Endocrine Function in Relation to Biomarkers of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, and Copper in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood lead (BPb), activity of ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protopor- phyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum zinc (SZn), seminal fluid zinc (SfZn), serum copper (SCu), and parameters of semen quality and of reproductive endocrine function were measured in 149 healthy male industrial workers 20-43 years of age. The group contained 98 subjects with slight to moderate occupational exposure to

Spomenka Telisman; Petar Cvitkovic; Jasna Jurasovic; Alica Pizent; Mirjana Gavella; Boris Roci

138

EQCM study of copper and iron corrosion inhibition in presence of organic inhibitors and biocides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention has been devoted to the application of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the field of corrosion and corrosion inhibition. In-situ measurements were performed on copper and iron surfaces. Copper corrosion inhibition by the application of several inhibitors was followed by QCM. Copper corrosion inhibition in different electrolyte solutions such as acidic sodium sulphate and neutral sodium chloride were investigated.

J Telegdi; A Shaban; E Kálmán

2000-01-01

139

Comparison of serum levels of iron, zinc and copper in anaemic and non-anaemic pregnant women in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc and copper deficiency is associated with anaemia or iron deficiency and affects fetus growth and pregnant women during pregnancy. To examine iron, zinc and copper status of Chinese pregnant women with and without anaemia in the third trimester, 1185 subjects were enrolled for measurements of Hb, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and serum iron, zinc and copper. The

Ai-Guo Ma; Xue-Cun Chen; Rong-Xian Xu; Ming-Ci Zheng; Yu Wang; Jue-Sheng Li

2004-01-01

140

78 FR 65573 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...Fish and Wildlife Service, approve copper-clad iron shot and fluoropolymer coatings...published a proposed rule for approval of copper-clad iron shot and fluoropolymer...

2013-11-01

141

Early Metal in South India: Copper and Iron in Megalithic Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South India early metal artifacts, usually associated with megalithic sites, include both copper and iron. Although in\\u000a some cases copper artifacts predate those made of iron, there is no evidence of an extensive metallurgical tradition based\\u000a on copper and its alloys. Typological studies have had limited success in explaining the megalithic sites and the production\\u000a and consumption of metal,

Praveena Gullapalli

2009-01-01

142

The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years  

SciTech Connect

Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)

2011-07-15

143

Optimization of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium in natural waters and simulated wastewater.  

PubMed

Chemical, electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine the effectiveness of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium. The electrochemical process, which uses electrodes of commercial laminate steel, was applied to simulated wastewater containing 12 mg dm(-3) of copper, 4 mg dm(-3) of lead and 4 mg dm(-3) of cadmium. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as pH=7, flow rate=6.3 cm(3) min(-1) and a current density between 31 and 54 A m(-2). When the electrode geometric area and time of electrolysis reached critical values, the copper removal reached a maximum value of 80%. A linear relationship was identified between the current density and the mass of generated sludge. In addition, a linear relationship was found between specific energy consumption and current density. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of an industrial-scale electrolytic reactor. PMID:16616411

Escobar, Claudio; Soto-Salazar, César; Toral, M Inés

2006-04-17

144

Decomposition of the sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc: XPS, SEM, DRIFTS, XRD, and TGA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk and surface characteristics during decomposition of the transition metal sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc are investigated utilizing various spectroscopic techniques. An oxidized form of sulfur was detected on the surface during decomposition of all metal sulfate samples, except zinc sulfate. Surface characteristics were not necessarily representative of the bulk characteristics. Oxy-sulfate was observed

Ranjani V Siriwardane; James A Poston Jr; Edward P Fisher; Ming-Shing Shen; Angela L Miltz

1999-01-01

145

[Effect of iron-containing supplements on the level of iron, copper, and manganese in young sportsmen].  

PubMed

In was defined that 2-week intake by senior school pupils of iron-containing supplements combined with an ascorbic acid was followed by a significant increase of iron concentration in plasma and formal blood elements, hemoglobin and erythrocytes level, increase of vitamin C provision and physical performance efficiency at simultaneous decrease of copper and manganese content in blood plasma. PMID:20968011

Za?tseva, I P

2010-01-01

146

Variability of cadmium, copper and zinc levels in molluscs and associated sediments from Chile.  

PubMed

The concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc in mussel and sediment samples collected together from eight different geographical coastal areas of Chile were determined. The mussels studied were 'Chorito Maico', 'Almejas' and 'Navajuelas Chilenas' (Perumytilus purpuratus, Semelle solida and Tagellus dombeii, respectively). Sampling was carried out in July and September 1992 and January and April 1993 (winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons in Chile, respectively). The metal levels in these mussels varied among species; there were several sites where the metal concentrations in molluscs approached or exceeded the criteria levels for Cd, Cu and Zn in shellfish products: 1, 10 and 50 ppm ww respectively, which are regarded as safe levels for human consumption. The results of metal levels in sediments showed two areas clearly polluted with Cu. Strong relationships between Cu concentrations in the three molluscs and sediments were found; weak correlations were observed for Zn in S. solida. PMID:15091389

De Gregori, I; Pinochet, H; Gras, N; Muñoz, L

1996-01-01

147

Effects of cadmium and copper on chemotaxis of marine and freshwater ciliates  

SciTech Connect

Recommendations of a workshop on biological screening requested the inclusion of behavior studies to reveal subtle, dysfunctional effects of pollutants on organisms and suggestions for additional research in development of behavioral tests incorporated into testing protocols were made at the ASTM Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology. The present study addresses these research needs by examining a rapid behavioral bioassay using protozoa, microfauna with important roles in microbial-based food chains, regeneration of nutrients, and regulation of bacterial populations in aquatic environments. In this study, ciliated protozoa from both marine and freshwater environments were examined with respect to their response to an attractant in the presence of a variety of concentrations of cadmium and copper.

Berk, S.G.; Gunderson, J.H.; Derk, L.A.

1985-06-01

148

Direct Determination, by Differential Pulse Anodic-Stripping Voltammetry at the Thin Mercury-Film Electrode, of Cadmium, Lead, and Copper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development and application of a voltammetric procedure for the direct, simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in three SAROC reference materials (carbonatite, magnesite, and quartz). The electrolyte was a mixtur...

A. F. Lee

1981-01-01

149

Saturation of copper-iron mattes with solid magnetite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions which lead to the saturation of simple copper-iron mattes with solid magnetite have been evaluated in this study. Diagrams have been developed which illustrate quantitatively the surface of saturation of matte with magnetite in the phase and stability diagrams for the Cu-Fe-S-0 system at 1468 K and 1 atm total pressure. Conditions fo. simultaneous saturation of matte with magnetite and gas ( P so2 + P s2= 1 atm) have also been estimated by extrapolation of the data on magnetitesaturated mattes. Comparison of the results with compositions of mattes from oxygen-enriched smelters indicates that these smelters operate at magnetite saturation under conditions close to equilibrium. Conditions during oxygen-enriched smelting can be predicted from the diagrams given in this paper and correlation equations for the oxygen and sulfur concentrations in magnetitesaturated matte which were previously developed from the experimental data.

Kaiser, D. L.; Elliott, J. F.

1988-12-01

150

Hyperfine field and hyperfine anomalies of copper impurities in iron  

SciTech Connect

A new value for the hyperfine magnetic field of copper impurities in iron is obtained by combining resonance frequencies from experiments involving {beta}-NMR on oriented nuclei on {sup 59}Cu, {sup 69}Cu, and {sup 71}Cu with magnetic moment values from collinear laser spectroscopy measurements on these isotopes. The resulting value, i.e., B{sub hf}(CuFe) = -21.794(10) T, is in agreement with the value adopted until now but is an order of magnitude more precise. It is consistent with predictions from ab initio calculations. Comparing the hyperfine field values obtained for the individual isotopes, the hyperfine anomalies in Fe were determined to be {sup 59{Delta}69}=0.15(9)% and {sup 71{Delta}69}=0.07(11)%.

Golovko, V. V.; Wauters, F.; Breitenfeldt, M.; De Leebeeck, V.; Roccia, S.; Soti, G.; Tandecki, M.; Traykov, E.; Van Gorp, S.; Severijns, N. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cottenier, S. [Center for Molecular Modeling, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Zakoucky, D. [Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, CZ-250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)

2011-07-15

151

The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.’s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland, Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the solvent extraction/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for neutralization of the raffinate bleed) and has the potential to deliver higher current efficiencies in copper electrowinning, leading to increased copper production.

Shaw, D. R.; Dreisinger, D. B.; Lancaster, T.; Richmond, G. D.; Tomlinson, M.

2004-07-01

152

Copper Deficiency Leads to Anemia, Duodenal Hypoxia, Upregulation of HIF-2? and Altered Expression of Iron Absorption Genes in Mice  

PubMed Central

Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2? (HIF-2?) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2? upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter – Dmt1) and ferric reductase – Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2?-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2? as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency.

Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R. R.; Canonne-Hergaux, Francois; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A.; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

2013-01-01

153

Trends of total cadmium, copper, and zinc in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) along the upper reach of the St. Lawrence River: 1994-2005.  

PubMed

This study examines spatial and temporal variability of bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in tissues of zebra mussels in the upper reach of the St. Lawrence River which originates at the outflow of Lake Ontario. It was hypothesized that concentrations of these metals in mussel tissues would decline over time and decrease with increasing distance from the outlet of Lake Ontario as a result of on-going efforts to reduce contaminant discharges into the lake. Size of mussels was also evaluated as a factor influencing bioaccumulation. Mussels were collected annually in October from six sites from 1994 to 2005, including one site near a local industry. Individuals were grouped into five or more size classes per site in each year. Soft tissues were analyzed for total cadmium, copper and zinc. Concentrations of cadmium and copper in tissues varied significantly both spatially and temporally. Cadmium concentrations were elevated at most sites; copper concentrations were moderately elevated compared with other studies in the Lake Ontario basin and St. Lawrence River. Zinc showed the most uniformity in mussels possibly due to internal regulation and to low levels of environmental exposure. Animal size correlated with copper concentrations of tissues in approximately 30% of samples but infrequently for cadmium and zinc. Cadmium and copper levels were found to decline downstream over time. Inter-annual variability of metal concentrations in mussel tissues suggests utilization in long-term monitoring programs to discern significant trends. PMID:21922178

Johns, Carolyn

2011-09-16

154

Copper.  

PubMed

Copper is an essential trace element, which is an important catalyst for heme synthesis and iron absorption. Following zinc and iron, copper is the third most abundant trace element in the body. Copper is a noble metal, like silver and gold. Useful industrial properties include high thermal and electrical conductivity, low corrosion, alloying ability, and malleability. Most of the metallic copper appears in electrical applications. Copper is a constituent of intrauterine contraceptive devices and the release of copper is necessary for their contraceptive effects. The average daily intake of copper in the US is about 1 mg Cu with the primary source being the diet. The bioavailability of copper from the diet is about 65-70% depending on a variety of factors including chemical form, interaction with other metals, and dietary components. The biological half-life of copper from the diet is 13-33 days with bilary excretion being the major route of elimination. Copper sulfate is a gastric irritant that produces erosion of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic copper toxicity is rare and primarily affects the liver. Wilson's disease and Indian childhood cirrhosis are examples of severe chronic liver disease that results from the genetic predisposition to the hepatic accumulation of copper. The serum copper concentration ranges up to approximately 1.5 mg/L in healthy persons. Gastrointestinal symptoms occur at whole blood concentrations near 3 mg Cu/L. Chelating agents (CaNa2EDTA, BAL) are recommended in severe poisoning, but there are little pharmacokinetic data to evaluate the effectiveness of these agents. PMID:10382557

Barceloux, D G

1999-01-01

155

Copper, zinc, and cadmium body concentrations in Hexaplex trunculus collected from the Tunisian coast.  

PubMed

Copper, Zn, and Cd were analyzed in the soft tissues of the edible gastropod Hexaplex trunculus collected from seven localities along the Tunisian coast. The body concentration of these metals was significantly different depending on the gender and site. Copper and Zn varied, respectively, from 47.70 to 343.64 ?g/g dry weight (dw) and 149.46 to 530.44 ?g/g dw, being higher in males. Cadmium varied from 0.22 to 18.95 ?g/g dw and was always higher in females. Overall, the highest concentrations of the three metals were all recorded in Gabès fishing harbor. Comparison of metal concentrations with the European standards compiled by the Food and Agriculture Organization showed that values exceeded standards in several localities. Imposex had been previously recorded in H. trunculus along the Tunisian coast; however, it does not seem to be related with Cu, Zn, and Cd pollution because the body concentration of these metals is not correlated with imposex degree. Nevertheless, interactive effects resulting from the combination of different pollutants and other stressors cannot be disregarded. PMID:23657735

Lahbib, Youssef; Mleiki, Anwar; Marigomez, Ionan; El Menif, Najoua Trigui

2013-05-09

156

Daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water: the Seattle study of trace metal exposure  

SciTech Connect

The daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water is estimated for men, women, and children living in Seattle based on their reported water consumption and the metal concentrations in water from their homes. Metal concentrations were closely associated with the type of plumbing in the home, which was found to be accurately reported by the subjects. Residents of homes with copper plumbing consumed a substantial proportion of their daily required copper from their drinking water, an important finding in view of the possible suboptimal copper levels in American diets. Lead intake levels from water in new homes was comparable to estimated U.S. dietary intakes, but was low relative to levels thought to be toxic. The results suggest practical methods for assessing the associations of chronic diseases with long-term, low-level exposures to these metals.

Sharrett, A.R. (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst., Bethesda, MD); Carter, A.P.; Orheim, R.M.; Feinleib, M.

1982-08-01

157

An experimental study for enhancing the catalytic effects of various copper forms on the oxidation of ferrous iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research the catalytic effect of copper compounds (ionic, oxide and oxide nanopowder) on the oxidation of ferrous iron by aeration was studied experimentally. When copper exists in solution, the oxidation rate of iron(ii) will increase. The experimental results showed that the oxidation rate increases with an increasing copper concentration. From the experimental data it can be determined that

Manizhe Moradi Shahre Babak; Ataallah Soltani Goharrizi; Mohammad Mirzaei; Emad Roayaei

2012-01-01

158

Sound emission from high-strength cast iron with copper coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Application of an electrolytic copper coating causes additional damping of vibrations and reduces the energy of the sound emitted. Such coatings can be used for vibration-absorbing and sound-absorbing materials and structure.2.As compared with gray cast irons, which have quite satisfactory acoustical characteristics, highstrength cast iron with an electrolytic copper coating has lower sound emission (115–116 dB) but higher strength characteristics.

Yu. A. Klimov; B. M. Zlobinskii

1974-01-01

159

The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.’s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland,\\u000a Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the\\u000a solvent extraction\\/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid\\u000a and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for

D. R. Shaw; D. B. Dreisinger; T. Lancaster; G. D. Richmond; M. Tomlinson

2004-01-01

160

The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.'s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland, Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the solvent extraction\\/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for

D. R. Shaw; D. B. Dreisinger; T. Lancaster; G. D. Richmond; M. Tomlinson

2004-01-01

161

Accumulation of Cadmium, Zinc, and Copper in Maternal Blood and Developmental Placental Tissue: Differences between Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium, zinc, and copper from placental tissue and blood samples at the first trimester (n=64) and at term (n=152) were analyzed; the welfare of newborns and placental 7-eothoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities in vitro were determined. The study material was collected from Finland, Estonia, and Russia. The results demonstrate that Cd starts to accumulate in the placenta during the first trimester

M. Kantola; R. Purkunen; P. Kröger; A. Tooming; J. Juravskaja; M. Pasanen; S. Saarikoski; T. Vartiainen

2000-01-01

162

Determination of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after cloud point extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud point extraction (CPE) has been used for the simultaneous pre-concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc after the formation of a complex with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN), and later analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) using octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) as surfactant. The chemical variables affecting the separation phase and the viscosity affecting the detection process were optimized. At pH 8.6,

Jianrong Chen; Khay Chuan Teo

2001-01-01

163

Environmental, health, safety, and regulatory review of selected photovoltaic options: Copper sulfide\\/cadmium sulfide and polycrystalline silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions, effluents and solid wastes from the fabrication of both polycrystalline silicon and front-wall copper sulfide\\/cadmium sulfide photovoltaic cells are summarized. Environmental, health, and safety characteristics of cell fabrication material inputs and by products are listed. Candidate waste stream treatment methods and resultant effluents are reviewed. Environmental, health, and safety effects of photovoltaic cell\\/module\\/array installation, operation, maintenance, and decommission are

K. Lawrence; S. Morgan; D. Schaller; T. Wilczak

1981-01-01

164

Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine algae Sargassum sp., Padina sp., Ulva sp., and Gracillaria sp., harvested locally, were investigated for their biosorption performance in the removal of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel from dilute aqueous solutions. It was found that the biosorption capacities were significantly affected by solution pH, with higher pH favoring higher metal-ion removal. Kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried

Ping Xin Sheng; Yen-Peng Ting; J. Paul Chen; Liang Hong

2004-01-01

165

Iron, cadmium, and chromium in seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) from a coastal nature reserve in karstic Yucatán.  

PubMed

The management of protected areas in karstic regions is a challenge because flooded cave systems form there and provide underground hydrological conducts that may link different zones. As a consequence, affectations to the protected areas can possibly occur as a consequence of human activities in remote areas and may therefore pass undetected. Thus, the monitoring of possible contaminants in these regions is becoming imperative. In this work, we analyze the concentration of essential (iron) and non-essential metals (cadmium and chromium) in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum that grows in Yalahau Lagoon, located in a near-to-pristine protected area of the Yucatán Peninsula, close to the rapidly developing touristic belt of the Mexican Caribbean. Salinity and silicate patterns show that Yalahau is an evaporation lagoon, where groundwater discharge is important. High iron (> 400 ?g/g), cadmium (>4 ?g/g), and chromium (? 1 ?g/g) concentrations were found in the area of highest groundwater input of the lagoon. High levels (5.1 ?g/g) were also found near the town dump. In the rest of the sampling sites, metal concentrations remained near to background levels as estimated from other works. Temporal changes of concentrations in the seagrass tissues show also a local input and an input from the groundwater that could provoke an environmental problem in the Yalahau Lagoon in the near future. PMID:23404548

Avelar, Mayra; Bonilla-Heredia, Blanca; Merino-Ibarra, Martín; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Ramirez, Javier; Rosas, Humberto; Valdespino, Job; Carricart-Ganivet, Juan P; Martínez, Ana

2013-02-13

166

Total iron, heme iron, zinc, and copper content in rabbit meat and viscera.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine the content of total iron (TFe), heme iron (HeFe), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in different cuts of meat and viscera from rabbit. Five young New Zealand rabbits were used in the study. Samples in triplicate were obtained from three meat cuts (foreleg, hind leg, and loin) and from main viscera. TFe, Zn, and Cu concentrations from samples were determined by wet acid digestion followed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), while HeFe was determined by acid extraction followed by AAS. Mean TFe, HeFe, Zn, and Cu in meat was 0.83?±?0.09, 0.56?±?0.11, 0.95?±?0.35, and 0.08?±?0.01 mg/100 g, respectively. TFe content was less than 1 mg/100 g in all meat cuts. Sixty-seven percent of iron content was HeFe. The cut of meat with highest Zn concentrations was the foreleg with 1.33?±?0.12 mg/100 g. Cu content was low for all meat cuts. TFe, HeFe, Zn, and Cu content in viscera varied greatly. The spleen was the organ with the highest TFe and Zn concentrations (82.79?±?9.22 mg/100 g and 3.49?±?0.63 mg/100 g, respectively). Nevertheless, the lungs had the highest concentration of HeFe (5.79?±?0.90 mg/100 g), accounting for 91% of the total iron. The liver had the highest Cu content (3.89?±?0.89 mg/100 g). Rabbit meat has low TFe concentration, similar to that of poultry, and most of the iron is HeFe. The amount of minerals in viscera closely depends on their function. PMID:21344293

Valenzuela, Carolina; de Romaña, Daniel Lopez; Schmiede, Camila; Morales, María Sol; Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Fernando

2011-02-23

167

Optimization of copper cementation process by iron using central composite design experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of various experimental parameters on the cementation yield of copper by iron were investigated statistically. A statistical experimental design based on the second-order central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was planned fixing the cementation period at 2h. The experimental design was done at five levels of the operating parameters which were the initial copper concentration, temperature,

W. Djoudi; F. Aissani-Benissad; S. Bourouina-Bacha

2007-01-01

168

Zinc, lead and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in Typha latifolia as affected by iron plaque on the root surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of iron plaque on the growth of Typha latifolia L. and its accumulation of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated under field conditions and in nutrient solution cultures in the laboratory. In the field, Zn concentrations (but not Cd) on the root surface were positively related to Fe concentrations on the root surface. In the

Zhihong Ye; Alan J. M Baker; Ming-Hung Wong; Arthur J Willis

1998-01-01

169

Use of Cement Copper in an Iron-Copper-Carbon Powder Metallurgy Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made of the substitution of cement copper powder for commercial copper powder in an Fe-7 pct Cu-1 pct C powder metallurgy alloy. Copper powders from six different commercial cementation operations were separately upgraded by screening...

R. L. Crosby D. H. Desy R. M. Doerr

1970-01-01

170

A thermodynamic study of silica-saturated iron silicate slags in equilibrium with liquid copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic properties of silica-saturated iron silicate slags in equilibrium with liquid copper have been studied from oxygen partial pressure measurements in the temperature range from 1490 to 1580 K by means of a solid electrolyte galvanic cell. The following cells were used: Pt, Ni-NiO/O=/slag-Cu(l), Cr2O3, Pt; Pt, Fe-FeO/O=/slag-Cu(Fe sat.), Fe. A strong correlation was found between oxygen pressure and the copper content of the slag; the copper content increased from less than 1 pct near iron saturation to about 4 pct at an oxygen partial pressure of 7.2 x 10-3 Pa. A similar correlation was found between the ferric iron/total iron ratio and the oxygen pressure. The oxygen content in liquid copper decreased with increasing iron content in liquid copper and increased slightly near iron saturation. This behavior could be explained qualitatively by using the standard free energy of formation of FeO and the activities of components.

Oishi, Toshio; Kamuo, Morinori; Ono, Katsutoshi; Moriyama, Joichiro

1983-03-01

171

An experimental study for enhancing the catalytic effects of various copper forms on the oxidation of ferrous iron.  

PubMed

In this research the catalytic effect of copper compounds (ionic, oxide and oxide nanopowder) on the oxidation of ferrous iron by aeration was studied experimentally. When copper exists in solution, the oxidation rate of iron(II) will increase. The experimental results showed that the oxidation rate increases with an increasing copper concentration. From the experimental data it can be determined that the copper oxide nanopowder is the most effective for the oxidation reaction among the used copper forms. Aeration is the most economical oxidation method when water exhibits a high ferrous iron concentration. PMID:23530309

Babak, Manizhe Moradi Shahre; Goharrizi, Ataallah Soltani; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Roayaei, Emad

172

Transport of cadmium ions from zinc plant leach solutions through emulsion liquid membrane-containing Aliquat 336 as carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc plant purification cake (CINKUR Co., Turkiye) was leached with sulphuric acid. The transport of cadmium from this leach solution-containing zinc, iron, copper, aluminum, cadmium, nickel and cobalt through emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) using amine extractant dissolved in kerosene as a mobile carrier was studied. The ELM consists of Aliquat 336 as a carrier, Span 80 as a surfactant,

Recep Ali Kumbasar

2008-01-01

173

The cellular redox state as a modulator in cadmium and copper responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.  

PubMed

The cellular redox state is an important determinant of metal phytotoxicity. In this study we investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) stress on the cellular redox balance in relation to oxidative signalling and damage in Arabidopsis thaliana. Both metals were easily taken up by the roots, but the translocation to the aboveground parts was restricted to Cd stress. In the roots, Cu directly induced an oxidative burst, whereas enzymatic ROS (reactive oxygen species) production via NADPH oxidases seems important in oxidative stress caused by Cd. Furthermore, in the roots, the glutathione metabolism plays a crucial role in controlling the gene regulation of the antioxidative defence mechanism under Cd stress. Metal-specific alterations were also noticed with regard to the microRNA regulation of CuZnSOD gene expression in both roots and leaves. The appearance of lipid peroxidation is dual: it can be an indication of oxidative damage as well as an indication of oxidative signalling as lipoxygenases are induced after metal exposure and are initial enzymes in oxylipin biosynthesis. In conclusion, the metal-induced cellular redox imbalance is strongly dependent on the chemical properties of the metal and the plant organ considered. The stress intensity determines its involvement in downstream responses in relation to oxidative damage or signalling. PMID:20828869

Cuypers, Ann; Smeets, Karen; Ruytinx, Jos; Opdenakker, Kelly; Keunen, Els; Remans, Tony; Horemans, Nele; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Van Sanden, Suzy; Van Belleghem, Frank; Guisez, Yves; Colpaert, Jan; Vangronsveld, Jaco

2010-09-15

174

Competitive biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper, and arsenic ions using algae.  

PubMed

The present study aims to evaluate the competitive biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper, and arsenic ions by using native algae. A series of experiments were carried out in a batch reactor to obtain equilibrium data for adsorption of single, binary, ternary, and quaternary metal solutions. The biosorption of these metals is based on ion exchange mechanism accompanied by the release of light metals such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Experimental parameters such as pH, initial metal concentrations, and temperature were studied. The optimum pH found for removal were 5 for Cd(2+) and As(3+) and 3 and 4 for Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy analysis was used to find the effects of functional groups of algae in biosorption process. The results showed that Pb(2+) made a greater change in the functional groups of algal biomass due to high affinity to this metal. An ion exchange model was found suitable for describing the biosorption process. The affinity constants sequence calculated for single system was K Pb > K Cu > K Cd > K As; these values reduced in binary, ternary, and quaternary systems. In addition, the experimental data showed that the biosorption of the four metals fitted well the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. PMID:23054774

Sulaymon, Abbas H; Mohammed, Ahmed A; Al-Musawi, Tariq J

2012-10-02

175

Copper, zinc, cadmium and lead biosorption by Gymnogongrus torulosus. Thermodynamics and kinetics studies.  

PubMed

Gymnogongrus torulosus adsorption efficiency for cadmium(II), copper(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) were studied in batch mode in different acidic conditions. The adsorbent removal efficiency was determined as a function of contact time, initial metal ions concentration, pH and temperature. G. torulosus was characterized by SEM, water adsorption surface area and EDS. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin models have been applied and results showed that the biosorption process was better described by the Langmuir model. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that fast metal uptakes follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and that intra-particle diffusion and/or chemisorption were the rate-limiting steps. Experimental results show that G. torulosus isotherm followed the biosorption series, Cu>Cd?Zn?Pb. Biosorption capacities were affected by solution parameters. The maximum metal uptake (qmax) increased with increasing pH. The affinity constant, qmax, and the pseudo-second-order kinetic constants were calculated for the adsorption of all studied metals onto G. torulosus. The Gibbs free energy of the adsorption process as well as the process enthalpy and entropy were calculated from experimental results. PMID:20817418

Areco, María Mar; dos Santos Afonso, María

2010-08-14

176

Toxicological effect of joint cadmium selenium quantum dots and copper ion exposure on zebrafish.  

PubMed

Quantum dots (QDs) have strong adsorption capacity; therefore, their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms from the facilitated transport of other trace toxic pollutants when they coexist has received increasing interest. However, the impact of cadmium selenium (CdSe) QDs and copper ion (Cu(2+)) joint exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo and larvae remains almost unknown. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the developmental toxicities to zebrafish exposed to combined pollution with CdSe QDs (500 µg/L) and Cu(2+) (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 µg/L CuC1(2)) compared with single exposure. Our findings for the first time revealed that: (1) QDs facilitated the accumulation of Cu(2+) in zebrafish; (2) QDs caused higher mortality, lower hatch rate, and more malformations of the exposed zebrafish; (3) junction, bifurcation, crossing, particles, and aggregation of the exposed FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae can be observed; (4) embryo cell apoptosis appeared in the head and tail region; and (5) synergistic effects played an important role during joint exposure. These observations provide a basic understanding of CdSe QDs and Cu(2+) joint toxicity to aquatic organisms and suggest the need for additional research to identify the toxicological mechanism. PMID:22714141

Zhang, Wei; Sun, Xue; Chen, Lin; Lin, Kuang-Fei; Dong, Qiao-Xiang; Huang, Chang-Jiang; Fu, Rong-Bing; Zhu, Jiang

2012-07-20

177

Oxidative status of Matricaria chamomilla plants related to cadmium and copper uptake.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) uptake by the plants of Matricaria chamomilla and relation to activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) up to 7 days of exposure to 3, 60 and 120 microM Cd or Cu was studied. Cd content in rosettes was ca. 10-fold higher in comparison to Cu while Cu was preferentially accumulated in the roots. In line with this observation, increase of CAT and GPX activity was similar in rosettes of Cd and Cu-treated plants, indicating non-redox active properties of Cd and low Cu accumulation. In the roots, Cu showed strong pro-oxidant effect, as judged from extreme stimulation of CAT and GPX, followed by increase of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. However, GPX seemed to be more important for alleviation of oxidative stress (ca. 93-250-fold higher activity in 120 microM Cu-treated roots). Cd had substantially lower influences and stimulated GR activity more than Cu. Activities of hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzymes in relation to its accumulation are also discussed. PMID:18389371

Kovácik, Jozef; Backor, Martin

2008-04-04

178

Differential effect of equal copper, cadmium and nickel concentration on biochemical reactions in wheat seedlings.  

PubMed

Influence of 75 microM copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) on growth, tissue metal accumulation, non-protein thiols (NPT) and glutathione (GSH) contents, membrane damage, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation as well as protease, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and peroxidase (POD) activities were studied in the shoots and roots of wheat seedlings after 7 days of metal exposure. The greatest growth reduction was found in response to Cu treatment; however accumulation of this metal in the wheat tissues was the lowest compared to the other metals used. All metals caused enhancement of electrolyte leakage from cells as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Proteolytic activity was enhanced only in Cu-exposed seedlings and in the roots it coincided with elevated protein carbonylation. The most pronounced increase in POD activity in the shoots was found after Ni treatment while in the roots in response to Cu. In contrast to Cu, application of Cd and Ni resulted in accumulation of NPT and induction of GST activity, which suggested involvement of these mechanisms in metal tolerance in wheat. PMID:20206384

Gajewska, Ewa; Sk?odowska, Maria

2010-03-04

179

Heavy metals zinc, cadmium, and copper stimulate pulmonary sensory neurons via direct activation of TRPA1.  

PubMed

Airway exposure to zinc dust and zinc-containing ambient particulates can cause symptoms of airway irritation and inflammation, but the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is selectively expressed in a subpopulation of pulmonary C-fiber afferents and has been considered as a major irritant sensor in the lung and airways. Using whole cell patch-clamp recording and Ca(2+) imaging, we have demonstrated that application of ZnCl(2) concentration dependently evoked inward current and Ca(2+) transient in isolated vagal pulmonary sensory neurons; both responses were almost completely inhibited after pretreatment with AP18, a specific TRPA1 antagonist. In anesthetized spontaneously breathing animals, intratracheal instillation of ZnCl(2) (2 mM, 25 microl) induced pronounced respiratory depression in wild-type mice, and the effect was essentially absent in TRPA1-deficient mice. In addition, our study showed that two other heavy metals, cadmium and copper, also stimulated pulmonary sensory neurons via a direct activation of TRPA1. In summary, our results suggest that activation of TRPA1 in pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves may contribute to the respiratory toxicity induced by airway exposure to these three heavy metals. PMID:20133428

Gu, Qihai; Lin, Ruei-Lung

2010-02-04

180

IN-HOUSE CORROSION RESEARCH EMPHASIZING LEAD, COPPER AND IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead and copper are directly regulated via the "Lead and Copper Rule;" however, water suppliers must balance all water treatment processes in order to simultaneously comply with all regulations. Specific research needs for copper and lead chemistry still exist, as applications o...

181

Inhibition of copper-catalyzed cysteine oxidation by nanomolar concentrations of iron salts.  

PubMed

Problems caused by the presence of adventitious metals in buffers and reagents are well recognized in studies of metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions. In most cases, metal contamination leads to an increase in rate, and chelating agents are inhibitory. In the present study, however, the rate of copper-catalyzed oxidation of cysteine was found to be increased by buffer purification with Chelex resin or by addition of micromolar concentrations of the specific iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). These effects are attributable to inhibition of copper-catalyzed oxidation by adventitious iron. In purified buffer at pH 7.25, containing 0.4 microM copper, cysteine was oxidized at a rate of 32 microM/min. Addition of iron salts to this buffer caused a dose-related decrease in this rate, up to a maximum of 85%. A 50% decrease in rate was recorded at an iron concentration of only 11 nM. Other transition metals were without effect. Similar effects of purification or addition of DFO on the rate of cysteine oxidation were seen in Tris, glycylglycine, Mops, and Pipes buffers. Catalase decreased the rate of cysteine oxidation, but the sensitivity to iron was similar in the presence and absence of catalase. Copper-catalyzed oxidation of cysteamine and reduced glutathione was much less sensitive to inhibition by iron. Our results offer an explanation for the conflicting literature reports of the effects of chelating agents and catalase on cysteine oxidation, and emphasize the need for buffer purification or addition of DFO in studies concerned with the oxidation or cytotoxicity of this thiol. The exceptional sensitivity of copper-catalyzed cysteine oxidation to iron makes this an attractive system for monitoring the iron content of buffers, and may also have application for determining the free iron content of physiological fluids. PMID:14990354

Munday, Rex; Munday, Christine M; Winterbourn, Christine C

2004-03-15

182

Migration of iron, lead, cadmium and tin from tinplate-coated cans into chickpeas.  

PubMed

Migration studies of trace metals were carried out on coated chickpea cans marketed in Lebanon. Four elements - iron (Fe), tin (Sn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) - were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion. Over 3 months, three different storage temperatures (5°C, room temperature and 40°C) were tested. In all cases, the migration of Fe reached a plateau after around 50 days of storage, while the migration of Pb was slow till 50 days, then it increased rapidly. Cd and Sn levels did not increase. Moreover, no effect of temperature was observed in the case of Fe, whereas Pb levels showed slower migration in cans stored at 5°C. Comparing cans from different chickpea brands (Lebanese and foreign) showed that the characteristics of the container have an effect on metal release. PMID:24059695

Kassouf, A; Chebib, H; Lebbos, N; Ouaini, R

2013-09-23

183

Evolution of Microstructures During Austempering of Ductile Irons Alloyed with Manganese and Copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influences of relatively high manganese (0.45 through 1.0 wt pct) and copper (0.56 through 1.13 wt pct) contents on microstructure development and phase transformation in three austempered ductile irons have been studied. The experimental ductile irons alloyed with copper and manganese are found to be practically free from intercellular manganese segregation. This suggests that the positive segregation of manganese is largely neutralized by the negative segregation of copper when these alloying elements are added in appropriate proportions. The drop in unreacted austenite volume (UAV) with increasing austempering temperature and time is quite significant in irons alloyed with copper and manganese. The ausferrite morphology also undergoes a transition from lenticular to feathery appearance of increasing coarseness with the increasing austempering temperature and time. SEM micrographs of the austempered samples from the base alloy containing manganese only, as well as copper plus manganese-alloyed irons, clearly reveal the presence of some martensite along with retained austenite and ferrite. X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of these phases. SEM examination further reveals the presence of twinned martensite in the copper plus manganese-alloyed samples. The possibility of strain-induced transformation of austenite to martensite during austempering heat treatment is suggested.

Dasgupta, Ranjan Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Chakrabarti, Ajit Kumar

2013-03-01

184

Reduction of copper(II) by iron(II).  

PubMed

Laboratory and field investigations have clearly demonstrated the important role of reduced iron (Fe(II)) in reductive transformations of first-row transition metal species. However, interactions of Fe(II) and copper (Cu) are not clearly understood. This study examined the reduction of Cu(II) by Fe(II) in stirred-batch experiments at pH 5.2 and 5.5 as influenced by chloride (Cl-) concentration (0.002-0.1 M), initial metal concentration (0.1-9.1 mM), and reaction time (1-60 min) under anoxic conditions. Reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by dissolved Fe(II) was rapid under all experimental conditions and the stability of the products explains the driving force for the redox reaction. Under conditions of low [Cl-] and high initial metal concentration, >40% of total Cu and Fe were removed from solution after 1 min, which accompanied formation of a brownish-red precipitate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the precipitates revealed the presence of cuprite (Cu2O), a Cu(I) mineral, based on d-spacings located at 0.248, 0.215, 0.151, and 0.129 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy corroborated XRD data for the presence of Cu2O, with features located at 518, 625, and 698 cm(-1). Increasing [Cl-] stabilized the dissolved Cu(I) product against Cu2O precipitation and resulted in more Fe precipitated from solution (relative to Cu) that appears to be present as poorly crystalline lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH). This process may be important in anoxic soil environments, where dissolved Fe(II) levels can accumulate. PMID:16091606

Matocha, C J; Karathanasis, A D; Rakshit, S; Wagner, K M

2005-08-09

185

Iron, copper and zinc isotopic fractionation up mammal trophic chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing body of evidence that some non-traditional elements exhibit stable isotope compositions that are distinct in botanical and animal products, providing potential new tracers for diet reconstructions. Here, we present data for iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) stable isotope compositions in plants and bones of herbivores and carnivores. The samples come from trophic chains located in the Western Cape area and in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The Fe, Cu and Zn isotope systematics are similar in both parks. However, local Cu, and possibly Zn, isotopic values of soils influence that of plants and of higher trophic levels. Between plants and bones of herbivores, the Zn isotope compositions are 66Zn-enriched by about 0.8‰ whereas no significant trophic enrichment is observed for Fe and Cu. Between bones of herbivores and bones of carnivores, the Fe isotope compositions are 56Fe-depleted by about 0.6‰, the Cu isotope compositions are 65Cu-enriched by about 1.0‰, and the Zn isotope compositions are slightly 66Zn-depleted by about 0.2‰. The isotopic distributions of the metals in the body partly explain the observed trophic isotopic systematics. However, it is also necessary to invoke differential intestinal metal absorption between herbivores and carnivores to account for the observed results. Further studies are necessary to fully understand how the Fe, Cu and Zn isotope values are regulated within the ecosystem's trophic levels, but the data already suggests significant potential as new paleodietary and paleoecological proxies.

Jaouen, Klervia; Pons, Marie-Laure; Balter, Vincent

2013-07-01

186

Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs.  

PubMed

Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson's disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson's disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to characterize both basal and D-penicillamine induced urinary copper, zinc and iron excretion in dogs in relation to hepatic copper concentration. Beagles, Beagle-Bedlington terrier cross-breeds homozygous for the COMMD1 gene mutation that causes copper toxicosis, and Labrador retrievers with normal or increased hepatic copper concentrations were investigated. The hepatic copper phenotype was determined by histological evaluation of liver biopsies and measurement of the hepatic copper concentration by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Urinary excretion of copper, iron and zinc was measured via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry under basal conditions and after oral administration of a single dose (20mg/kg bodyweight) of the chelator D-penicillamine. There was a rapid increase in urinary excretion of copper and zinc, but not iron after D-penicillamine administration. This increase was not different between dogs with high or normal hepatic copper concentrations. D-penicillamine-induced urinary copper excretion and the copper/creatinine ratio did not correlate with hepatic copper concentrations in the dogs studied, although basal urinary copper/zinc ratios did correlate with hepatic copper concentrations in Labrador retrievers. The latter parameter may be useful in diagnostic and follow-up protocols for copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers. PMID:23583003

Fieten, H; Hugen, S; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Hendriks, W H; Vernooij, J C M; Bode, P; Watson, A L; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J

2013-04-09

187

Effects of static magnetic field on dissolved oxygen levels in aqueous solutions containing copper(II), iron(II), and heme iron(III) complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal ions like copper and iron play important roles such as binding, transport, and storage of molecular dioxygen in a wide variety of living systems. The effects of static magnetic fields on the dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in aqueous solutions containing copper(II), iron(II), and their bioligand complexes were investigated. The DO levels in aqueous solutions containing the stable copper(II)

Hiromu Sakurai; Hiroyuki Yasui; Keisuke Kunitomi; Masayuki Kamatari; Noritsugu Kaneko; Akihiro Nakayama

2000-01-01

188

Determination of cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium and arsenic in crude oil cargoes.  

PubMed

One of the sources of trace heavy metal elements in air is emission by the oil industry, either directly through stack emissions from refineries or indirectly from emissions of combustion of hydrocarbons. Emission estimates are based mainly on the trace metal content of the crude oil processed. From a literature study carried out at the beginning of the 1990s it became clear that data on the trace metal content of crudes were scarce and showed a very large scatter. For this reason a measurement programme to assess the occurrence and concentrations of a number of trace metals, i.e. Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As), in crudes which are regularly processed in the Netherlands, was set up. By drafting strict sampling protocols and by constructing a special sampling device, as many as possible of the additional contamination sources were avoided. The study suggests that sample contamination may explain a significant amount of the scatter and some of the high concentrations reported in the literature for certain metals. The measured variation in the concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Cu is thought to be due to associated water and/or sediment particles from the producing wells or that picked up during transport. The greater consistency in our measurements for Cr and As suggests that these metals are predominantly associated with the hydrocarbon matrix. Based on the results of this work, it can be concluded that emissions of Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, and As by the oil industry in the Netherlands are most probably significantly lower than hitherto assumed. PMID:15092991

Stigter, J B; de Haan, H P; Guicherit, R; Dekkers, C P; Daane, M L

2000-03-01

189

Sorption of cadmium by an acid soil amended with compost and copper-mine tailing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humified materials from the compost industry and certain waste from mining operations can be used as low cost toxic metal adsorbents in soils having a very low sorption capacity. An experiment was designed to assess the sorption of cadmium (Cd) by an acid coarse-textured soil (pH 5.50) amended with peat moss-shrimp waste compost (PSC), and three copper-mine tailing samples rich in calcareous products, namely untreated tailing (MT), tailing + 10% of PSC (MTC-10) and tailing + 20% of PSC (MTC-20). The soil amendment rates ranged from 0 to 300 g/kg soil. The sorption measurement was carried out on 17 soils by adding 30 mL of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 100 mg Cd/L, as CdCl2, to 1.00 g of soil. The suspension was shaken for 30 min and equilibrated at room temperature for 7 days. After centrifuging, the Cd concentration in the supernatant was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The sorption coefficient (Ks) was used to interpret the sorption data. Triplicate samples of the soils were used throughout the sorption study. MT (pH 7.7) amendment treatment was more effective than PSC (pH 6.8) treatment in raising the pH of acid sandy soil. Sorption increased with amendment additions depending on the type and rate of amendment application. The compost alone had the highest affinity for Cd, while the tailing alone exhibited the least affinity. The increasing order of Cd sorbed after amendment was: PSC > MTC-20 > MTC-10 > MT. The results indicate that PSC and Cu-mine tailing amended with PSC can be used as effective sorbents for anthropogenic Cd in acid sandy soils.

Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

2009-04-01

190

Effects of glucose concentrations on cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc toxicity to a Klebsiella sp  

SciTech Connect

The influence of glucose concentration on Cd, CU, Hg, and Zn toxicity to a Klebsiella sp. was studied by following the degradation of /sup 14/C-labeled glucose at pH 6.0. Uptake of /sup 14/C into the cells was also determined. The carbon concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 40 mg liter/sup -1/, which are equivalent to soluble C concentrations in natural environments. The toxicity of Cu, Cd, and Zn to a Klebsiella sp. was affected considerably by the C concentration. Copper at 10/sup -5/ M was toxic when the carbon concentration was 10 or 40 mg liter/sup -1/, while at 0.01 to 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/ no toxicity was observed. Cadmium and zinc were toxic at 10/sup -2/ M in media containing 0.01 to 1.0 mg of C liter/sup -1/. At C concentrations greater than 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/, the inhibition of glucose degradation and carbon assimilation was observed at 10/sup -3/ M Cd and Zn. The toxicity of mercury seemed to be independent of the C concentration. Results of this study showed that the nutritional state of an organism may have a profound effect on its sensitivity to metals. Metals taken up by energy-driven transport system may be less toxic under conditions of C starvation. The C concentration should be taken into account when evaluating results from toxicity studies, especially as most microorganisms in nature live under energy-limited conditions.

Brynhildsen, L.; Lundgren, B.V.; Allard, B.; Rosswall, T.

1988-07-01

191

Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in breast milk are independent of maternal mineral status1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little is known about the regulation of iron, zinc, and copper in breast milk and the transport of these minerals across the mammary gland epithelium. Objective: The objective was to study associations between breast-milk concentrations of iron, zinc, and copper and maternal mineral status. Design: Milk samples from 191 Swedish and Honduran mothers were collected at 9 mo postpartum.

Magnus Domellöf; Bo Lönnerdal; Kathryn G Dewey; Roberta J Cohen; Olle Hernell

192

Accumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead from two contaminated sediments by three marine invertebrates: a laboratory study  

SciTech Connect

Animals from areas with contaminated sediments have been shown in some cases to contain high levels of trace metals. In other cases, the tissue levels of contaminants were relatively constant regardless of the metal contents of the sediments. The availability of sediment-bound metals to bottom-dwelling organisms has been the subject of a few studies. This study describes the uptake of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead from natural, highly contaminated sediments by three marine invertebrates: Nereis virens, Macoma balthica and Crangon septemspinosa.

Ray, S.; McLeese, D.W.; Peterson, M.R.

1981-03-01

193

Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

2013-05-09

194

Iron uptake system mediates nitrate-facilitated cadmium accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen (N) management is a promising agronomic strategy to minimize cadmium (Cd) contamination in crops. However, it is unclear how N affects Cd uptake by plants. Wild-type and iron uptake-inefficient tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant (T3238fer) plants were grown in pH-buffered hydroponic culture to investigate the direct effect of N-form on Cd uptake. Wild-type plants fed NO3? accumulated more Cd than plants fed NH4+. Iron uptake and LeIRT1 expression in roots were also greater in plants fed NO3?. However, in mutant T3238fer which loses FER function, LeIRT1 expression in roots was almost completely terminated, and the difference between NO3? and NH4+ treatments vanished. As a result, the N-form had no effect on Cd uptake in this mutant. Furthermore, suppression of LeIRT1 expression by NO synthesis inhibition with either tungstate or L-NAME, also substantially inhibited Cd uptake in roots, and the difference between N-form treatments was diminished. Considering all of these findings, it was concluded that the up-regulation of the Fe uptake system was responsible for NO3? -facilitated Cd accumulation in plants.

Luo, Bing Fang; Du, Shao Ting; Lu, Kai Xing; Liu, Wen Jing; Lin, Xian Yong; Jin, Chong Wei

2012-01-01

195

Increased serum copper and decreased serum zinc levels in children with iron deficiency anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate serum copper and zinc status in children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), 60 children with IDA aged\\u000a 1–14 yr and 64 healthy children as controls aged 1–14 yr were included the study. Serum copper levels were higher in children\\u000a with IDA (189 ± 49 (?g\\/dL) than those of controls (163 ± 37 ?g\\/dL) (p = 0.001).

Aydin Ece; Bekir Sami Uyamik; Akin I?can; Pelin Ertan; M. Ramazan Yi?itolu

1997-01-01

196

Altered Serum Iron and Copper Homeostasis Predicts Cognitive Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain is marked by severe neuronal death which has been partly attributed to increased oxidative stress. The pathophysiology accounting for this free radical injury is not well-delineated at this point, but one hypothesis is that a derangement in transition metal metabolism contributes to the process. We tested the hypothesis that peripheral derangement of transition metal metabolism is present early in the dementing process. We analyzed non-heme iron and copper levels in serum from subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and early stage senile dementia and followed these subjects over 5 years. An increase in the ratio of serum copper to non-heme iron levels predicted which subjects with mild cognitive impairment would progress to dementia versus those that would remain cognitively stable. This increase did not correlate with changes in expression of iron regulatory protein 2 or selected downstream targets in peripheral lymphocytes. A cDNA-based microarray (IronChip) containing genes relevant to iron and copper metabolism was used to assess transition metal metabolism in circulating lymphocytes from cognitively normal and demented subjects. No gene was identified as being dysregulated more than 2-fold, and verification using quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated no significant changes in expression for ALAS2, FOS, and CTR1. The increased ratio of serum copper to serum iron prior to dementia has potential as a biomarker for cognitive decline and mirrors other changes in serum previously reported by others, but iron and copper metabolism pathways appear to be broadly unaffected in peripheral blood in AD.

Mueller, Claudius; Schrag, Matthew; Crofton, Andrew; Stolte, Jens; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Magaki, Shino; Kirsch, Wolff

2013-01-01

197

Experimental study of methanol synthesis catalysts containing copper plated iron fibers  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted which evaluated the performance of methanol synthesis catalysts containing copper plated, polycrystalline iron fibers. The active catalyst material was comprised of Cu/ZnO/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with atomic ratio, Cu/Zn/Al = 6/3/1. It was necessary to copper plate the iron fibers since iron catalyzes the more thermodynamically favorable synthesis of methane from CO, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/. A deposition by displacement method and an electroless method were examined for copper plating the iron fibers. A combination of the two methods was finally used which left less than 1% surface iron exposed as determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis. Preliminary catalyst evaluations were conducted at 100 atm, feed gas composition = .904 H/sub 2//.068 CO/.028 CO/sub 2/, flow = 300 l/hr, and 250, 260, 270, 275, 280, and 290/sup 0/C. These conditions were changed in later evaluations to 80 atm, feed gas composition = .69 H/sub 2//.27 CO/.04 CO/sub 2/, flow = 28 l/hr, and 245, 255, 265, 275, 280, and 290/sup 0/C. The latter conditions were similar to those used by other investigators and by industry. The results of the final catalyst evaluations indicate that an improvement in performance is observed with catalysts supported with 5-10 weight percent copper plated, iron fibers. It is hypothesized that the copper plated iron fibers enhance catalyst performance by conducting thermal energy, resulting from the heat of reaction, away from the active catalytic site, thus lowering the temperature there, and creating a condition more thermodynamically favorable for methanol synthesis.

Bieser, A.L. Jr.

1983-01-01

198

Altered serum iron and copper homeostasis predicts cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is marked by severe neuronal death which has been partly attributed to increased oxidative stress. The pathophysiology accounting for this free radical injury is not well-delineated at this point, but one hypothesis is that a derangement in transition metal metabolism contributes to the process. We tested the hypothesis that peripheral derangement of transition metal metabolism is present early in the dementing process. We analyzed non-heme iron and copper levels in serum from subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and early stage senile dementia and followed these subjects over 5 years. An increase in the ratio of serum copper to non-heme iron levels predicted which subjects with mild cognitive impairment would progress to dementia versus those that would remain cognitively stable. This increase did not correlate with changes in expression of iron regulatory protein 2 or selected downstream targets in peripheral lymphocytes. A cDNA-based microarray (IronChip) containing genes relevant to iron and copper metabolism was used to assess transition metal metabolism in circulating lymphocytes from cognitively normal and demented subjects. No gene was identified as being dysregulated more than 2-fold, and verification using quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated no significant changes in expression for ALAS2, FOS, and CTR1. The increased ratio of serum copper to serum iron prior to dementia has potential as a biomarker for cognitive decline and mirrors other changes in serum previously reported by others, but iron and copper metabolism pathways appear to be broadly unaffected in peripheral blood in AD. PMID:22232013

Mueller, Claudius; Schrag, Matthew; Crofton, Andrew; Stolte, Jens; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Magaki, Shino; Kirsch, Wolff

2012-01-01

199

State of adsorption layers of fatty acids on the surfaces of iron, manganese, and copper ferrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

States of adsorbed substances in surface layers arising during the adsorption of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids from carbon tetrachloride, heptane, and cyclohexane solutions on the surfaces of iron, manganese, and copper ferrites, are investigated. Adsorption isotherms and two-dimensional state diagrams of surface layers of iron, manganese, and copper ferrites are obtained experimentally. It is shown that the adsorption of fatty acids from solutions in organic solvents proceeds via filling the volume of the ferrites' porous space with adsorption solutions, while the state of ferrite surface layers changes due to the structural rearrangement of adsorption solutions upon an increase in solute concentration.

Balmasova, O. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Korolev, V. V.

2012-07-01

200

Identification of copper ions in aqueous and vitreous of eyes containing copper and iron foreign bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of aqueous analysis by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer for copper ion content in samples from eyes containing intravitreal pure copper particles was investigated. It was demonstrated that values of copper ions rose well above the normal in the aqueous as well as in the vitreous of such eyes. The standard deviations of the mean values were generally high.

Y Yassur; H Zauberman; M Zidon

1975-01-01

201

[Iron, zinc and copper status in the elderly living in Warsaw district determined by hair analysis].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the iron, zinc and copper status of elderly people using hair trace element levels determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The samples of hair were taken in May-June 1999 from 73 people aged 75-80 years (50 men and 23 women) living in Warsaw district. The mean content of iron was 17.32 +/- 12.38 micrograms/g dry weight, zinc 176.44 +/- 64.33 micrograms/g d.w. and copper 11.25 +/- 6.32 micrograms/g d.w. Although these values were in range of reference intervals almost 40% of population had iron and zinc level below them, and for copper the result was even worse (50% of the elderly people). No significant differences between trace element content in hair of male and female have been observed. However it has revealed a trend that female hair contained less iron and more zinc than male hair. The mean copper level was similar for both sexes. It has been found that subject who had not excluded any food products from their diets had higher hair iron contents than those with some dietetic restrictions. PMID:11556095

Ka?uza, J; Jeruszka, M; Brzozowska, A

2001-01-01

202

Cadmium and Nickel Adsorption and Uptake in Cattail as Affected by Iron and Manganese Plaque on the Root Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) plaque on the adsorption and uptake of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in cattail (Typha latifolia L.) were investigated in nutrient solution cultures under laboratory conditions. Seedlings with and without Fe or Mn plaque on the roots (induced with 15 µg mL Fe or Mn) were exposed to 0.2 and 0.8 µg

Z. H. Ye; K. C. Cheung; M. H. Wong

2003-01-01

203

Study of the effect of cadmium vapor on the intensity of copper spectral lines excited in a discharge with a hollow cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations were performed with the following combinations of copper and cadmiumcompounds: Cu(N03) 2 + Cd(N03)2; Cu(N03) 2 + CdCI2; CuCI 2 + Cd(N03) 2 and CuCI 2 + CdCI 2. The copper concentration in the solution equaled 10 -4 %. We employed two methods for introducing the cadmium into the discharge zone of the hollow cathode. In the first

A. N. Rudnevskii; V. N. Muzgin; D. E. Maksimov

1987-01-01

204

Distribution behavior of cobalt, selenium, and tellurium between nickel-copper-iron matte and silica-saturated iron silicate slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution coefficients (D\\u000a X) of cobalt, selenium, and tellurium between nickel-copper-iron matte and silica-saturated iron silicate slag were determined\\u000a as a function of matte and slag compositions, temperature, and the partial pressure of oxygen. The effect of slag additives,\\u000a such as CaO, MgO, and Al2O3, on the distribution behavior of the minor elements was also investigated. Analysis of the

N. Choi; W. D. Cho

1997-01-01

205

Accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc in the liver of some passerine species wintering in central Norway.  

PubMed

The concentration (mg kg-1 dry weight) of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the liver of Parus palustris, P. montanus, P. major, Carduelis chloris and Pyrrhula pyrrhula was determined in birds collected in October-March, 1992-1995, in Central Norway. This study is especially focused on interspecific and age-dependent variations. The metal concentrations in liver are generally higher for adults than for juveniles, and there is an accumulation of Cd in the Parus species during winter. There is a positive correlation between Cd-Cu and Cu-Zn, but not for Cd-Zn. Juvenile P. montanus and P. major from a subalpine area had a higher accumulation of Cd and Cu than juvenile P. palustris from lowland areas, probably as an effect of a higher consumption of willow (Salix spp., known to have a high level of cadmium) seeds and insects living on willows, and a relatively high copper level in the ground of the subalpine area. PMID:8633220

Hogstad, O

1996-04-26

206

Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms.  

PubMed

The marine algae Sargassum sp., Padina sp., Ulva sp., and Gracillaria sp., harvested locally, were investigated for their biosorption performance in the removal of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel from dilute aqueous solutions. It was found that the biosorption capacities were significantly affected by solution pH, with higher pH favoring higher metal-ion removal. Kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried out at the optimal pH: at pH 5.0 for lead and copper, and at pH 5.5 for cadmium, zinc, and nickel. The metal removal rates were rapid, with 90% of the total adsorption taking place within 60 min. Sargassum sp. and Padina sp. showed the highest potential for the sorption of the metal ions, with the maximum uptake capacities ranging from 0.61 to 1.16 mmol/g for Sargassum sp. and 0.63 to 1.25 mmol/g for Padina sp. The general affinity sequence for Padina sp. was Pb>Cu>Cd>Zn>Ni, while that for Sargassum sp. was Pb>Zn>Cd>Cu>Ni. XPS and FTIR analysis of Sargassum sp. and Padina sp. revealed the chelating character of the ion coordination to carboxyl groups. It was confirmed that carboxyl, ether, alcoholic, and amino groups are responsible for the binding of the metal ions. PMID:15158390

Sheng, Ping Xin; Ting, Yen-Peng; Chen, J Paul; Hong, Liang

2004-07-01

207

Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

Erickson, M.M.

1981-01-01

208

Contribution of redox-active iron and copper to oxidative damage in Alzheimer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals are potent mediators of cellular injury, affecting every category of macromolecule, and are central to the oxidative injury hypothesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. Studies on redox-competent copper and iron indicate that redox activity in AD resides exclusively within the neuronal cytosol and that chelation with deferoxamine, DTPA, or, more recently, iodochlorhydroxyquin, removes this activity. We have

Rudy J Castellani; Kazuhiro Honda; Xiongwei Zhu; Adam D Cash; Akihiko Nunomura; George Perry; Mark A Smith

2004-01-01

209

COPPER DEFICIENCY REDUCES IRON ABSORPTION AND BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE IN MALE RATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary copper deficiency (CuD) in rats leads to iron (Fe) deficiency anemia. Is this because CuD reduces Fe absorption? Fe absorption in CuD rats was determined by feeding 59Fe and using whole-body counting (WBC) to assess the amount retained over time. Two groups, each with 45 male weanling rats, ...

210

Transport kinetics of zinc, copper, selenium, and iron in perfused human placental lobule in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport characteristics of essential trace elements as zinc, copper, selenium and iron have been studied in maternal–fetal direction in normal pregnancies, using in vitro perfusion of human placental lobules. Solutions of trace elements corresponding to twice the physiological concentrations were injected (100 µl bolus) into the maternal arterial perfusate. Serial perfusate samples were collected every 30 sec from venous outflows

M. Nandakumaran; H. M. Dashti; E. Al-Saleh; N. S. Al-Zaid

2003-01-01

211

Iron and Copper Content of Non-Milk Products Commonly Used in Ice Cream  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of information on the iron and copper content of the non-dairy ingredients that commonly are used in conjunction with dairy products in the manufacture of ice cream. These materials include such products as stabilizers, emulsifying agents, sugar, cocoas, vanillas, chocolate liquors and coatings, and flavoring extracts. It is possible that one or more of these ingredients

Harry Pyenson; P. H. Tracy

1948-01-01

212

Comparative Effects of Copper, Iron, Vanadium and Titanium on Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly implicated in the phathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The use of oxidants in dietary food stuff may lead to the production of oxidized LDL and may increase both the development and the progression of atherosclerosis. The present work investigated the effects of some elements including: copper (Cu), iron (Fe), vanadium (V) and

Mohsen Ani; Ali Asghar Moshtaghie; Hassan Ahmadvand

2007-01-01

213

DIETARY COPPER DEFICIENY REDUCES IRON ABSORPTION AND DUODENAL ENTEROCYTE HEPHAESTIN PROTEIN IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary copper (Cu) deficiency reduces iron (Fe) in male rats, but whether this occurs in female rats has been questioned. The mechanism for reduced Fe absorption in Cu deficiency is unknown, but may involve the intestinal Cu-dependent ferroxidase Dephaestin (Hp). A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was de...

214

Charcoal remains from an Iron Age copper smelting slag heap at Feinan, Wadi Arabah (Jordan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal remains were analysed from copper ore smelting at Khirbet en-Nahas, an Iron Age site in the region of Feinan between Wadi Arabah and the highland of Edom. For the first time, a section was dug into a stratified slag heap and separate charcoal samples were taken from each layer. Radiocarbon dates from the charcoal range from the 12th to

Thomas Engel

1993-01-01

215

Oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity of iron and copper: Role of Kupffer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron- or copper-mediated catalysis leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can attack biomolecules directly, with the consequent enhancement in membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and protein oxidation. Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can also be formed, leading to nitration of aromatic structures in addition to the oxidative deterioration of cellular components. Kupffer cells, the resident macrophages of

Luis A. Videla; Virginia Fernández; Gladys Tapia; Patricia Varela

2003-01-01

216

Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 ?g\\/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia

Amal A Hegazy; Manal M Zaher; Manal A Abd el-hafez; Amal A Morsy; Raya A Saleh

2010-01-01

217

IRON ABSORPTION AND INTESTINAL HEPHAESTIN PROTEIN IN COPPER-DEFICIENT RATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 100 years ago, a connection between copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) metabolism was established when some forms of anemia were found to respond to treatment with Cu but not Fe. It was later discovered that the Cu-dependent plasma ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin, was associated with Fe homeostasis. Cu ...

218

Gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper to nickel-chromium-iron. Welding procedure specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

C. H. Wodtke; D. R. Frizzell; W. A. Plunkett

1985-01-01

219

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Nickel-Copper to Nickel-Chromium-Iron. Welding Procedure Specification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERN...

C. H. Wodtke D. R. Frizzell W. A. Plunkett

1985-01-01

220

Gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper to nickel-chromium-iron. Welding procedure specification  

SciTech Connect

Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

1985-08-01

221

Comparative transcriptomic characterization of aluminum, sodium chloride, cadmium and copper rhizotoxicities in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Rhizotoxic ions in problem soils inhibit nutrient and water acquisition by roots, which in turn leads to reduced crop yields. Previous studies on the effects of rhizotoxic ions on root growth and physiological functions suggested that some mechanisms were common to all rhizotoxins, while others were more specific. To understand this complex system, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis with various rhizotoxic ions, followed by bioinformatics analysis, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Roots of Arabidopsis were treated with the major rhizotoxic stressors, aluminum (Al) ions, cadmium (Cd) ions, copper (Cu) ions and sodium (NaCl) chloride, and the gene expression responses were analyzed by DNA array technology. The top 2.5% of genes whose expression was most increased by each stressor were compared with identify common and specific gene expression responses induced by these stressors. A number of genes encoding glutathione-S-transferases, peroxidases, Ca-binding proteins and a trehalose-synthesizing enzyme were induced by all stressors. In contrast, gene ontological categorization identified sets of genes uniquely induced by each stressor, with distinct patterns of biological processes and molecular function. These contained known resistance genes for each stressor, such as AtALMT1 (encoding Al-activated malate transporter) in the Al-specific group and DREB (encoding dehydration responsive element binding protein) in the NaCl-specific group. These gene groups are likely to reflect the common and differential cellular responses and the induction of defense systems in response to each ion. We also identified co-expressed gene groups specific to rhizotoxic ions, which might aid further detailed investigation of the response mechanisms. Conclusion In order to understand the complex responses of roots to rhizotoxic ions, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis followed by bioinformatics characterization. Our analyses revealed that both general and specific genes were induced in Arabidopsis roots exposed to various rhizotoxic ions. Several defense systems, such as the production of reactive oxygen species and disturbance of Ca homeostasis, were triggered by all stressors, while specific defense genes were also induced by individual stressors. Similar studies in different plant species could help to clarify the resistance mechanisms at the molecular level to provide information that can be utilized for marker-assisted selection.

Zhao, Cheng-Ri; Ikka, Takashi; Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Suzuki, Yuji; Hibino, Takashi; Sato, Shigeru; Sakurai, Nozomu; Shibata, Daisuke; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

222

Removal of copper from iron-based metal with an aluminum sulfide/ferrous sulfide matte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An economically viable method for the removal of copper from iron, if available, could be used by steelmakers to turn high-copper-content scrap (above 0.1 wt.%) into useful products. Molten salt mixtures of charge-asymmetric cation species show a significant drop in the activity coefficient for monovalent cation species in the presence of trivalent or higher cation species. This phenomenon can be used to design a flux for the removal of copper as a cuprous species (monovalent) from iron-based metal. Distribution coefficients of copper (i.e., the ratio of the weight percent copper in a matte to that in the metal) were determined between a sulfide flux (containing aluminum sulfide, ferrous sulfide, and dilute concentrations of either magnesium sulfide or calcium sulfide) and carbon-saturated iron at 1,638 K. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 ± 5 was found, and the copper level in the iron was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.%. Magnesium sulfide and calcium sulfide both adversely affected the copper removal. The activity coefficient of cuprous sulfide dropped from 2.9 with a pure FeS matte to 0.4 with a binary matte containing XsbFeS = 0.18. The decrease with increasing concentrations of aluminum sulfide was due to the presence of the polyvalent aluminum cation in the flux. A liquid-liquid miscibility gap above XsbFeS = 0.43 was confirmed in the aluminum sulfide/ferrous sulfide pseudobinary system. Because a sulfide matte would result in a large sulfur content in the treated metal, distribution coefficients were also determined between an oxide flux (consisting of alumina, silica, calcia, and ferrous oxide) and iron with various concentration of carbon at 1,923 K. A maximum distribution coefficient of 0.5 was found. Finally, distribution coefficients were determined between a sulfide-modified oxide flux (consisting of alumina, silica, ferrous sulfide, and dilute amounts of calcia, magnesia, calcium sulfide, or magnesium sulfide) and iron with various concentrations of carbon at 1,823 K. A maximum distribution coefficient of 6.8 was found for iron with 0.1 wt.% carbon; distribution coefficients increased as carbon content decreased. Although the results are considered preliminary, further research with the mixed flux is strongly recommended because significantly higher distribution coefficients should be possible.

Cohen, Adam Barrett

223

Zinc, copper, iron, and chromium concentrations in young patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Homeostasis of trace elements can be disrupted by diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, disturbance in trace element status in diabetes mellitus may contribute to the insulin resistance and development of diabetic complications. The aim of present study was to compare the concentration of essential trace elements, zinc, copper, iron, and chromium in serum of patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 20) with those of nondiabetic control subjects (n = 20). The serum concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, and chromium were measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Shimadzu AA 670, Kyoto, Japan) after acid digestion. The results of this study showed that the mean values of zinc, copper, and chromium were significantly lower in the serum of patients with diabetes as compared to the control subjects (P < 0.05). Our results show that deficiency of some essential trace elements may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22351156

Basaki, M; Saeb, M; Nazifi, S; Shamsaei, H A

2012-02-21

224

Direct determination of lead in human blood and selenium, cadmium, copper, zinc in serum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry using Zeeman effect background correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedure for the direct determination of lead in human blood and selenium, cadmium, copper and zinc from human blood serum with micro quantities of the samples are described using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry with L'vov platform and Zeeman correction. No predigestion or extraction procedures are required. The analyses are performed by simple dilution of the specimen with Triton X-100

Zhao Jin; Jiang Shougui; Chen Shikun; Jiang Desen; D. Chakraborti

1990-01-01

225

Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Zinc, and Nickel in Lettuce and Dry Beans as Related to Mehlich-3 Extraction in Three Brazilian Latossols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown in three Brazilian Red-Yellow Latossols (Oxisols) in greenhouse conditions with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) applied to soils in treatments arranged as a randomized complete block design. Plant metals were analyzed in lettuce shoots and dry beans roots, stems, leaves, and seeds.

R. L. F. Fontes; J. M. N. Pereira; J. C. L. Neves; M. P. F. Fontes

2008-01-01

226

The deposition of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper from motor traffic on brachiaria enimi and soil along a major bombo road in Kampala city  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil and whole plants of Brachiaria enimi were collected beside a major road (Bombo road) and digested with a mixture of concentrated nitric acid, and perchloric acid. The analysis of the soil digests show that lead, cadmium, zinc and copper contents are high close to the road and decrease with distance from the road edge. Also the Pb, Cd,

J. T. Nyangababo; J. W. Hamya

1986-01-01

227

Seasonal Variation in Copper, Zinc, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium Levels in Hepatopancreas, Gill and Muscle Tissues of the Mussel Brachidontes pharaonis Fischer, Collected along the Mersin Coast, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium and lead were determined in the gill, hepatopancreas and muscle tissues of Brachidontes pharaonis collected from the Mersin coasts of Turkey. Water and animal samples were collected monthly from the four stations between\\u000a June 2002 and May 2003 for metal determinations. Metal levels in water samples of Mersin coasts were higher than those measured

Fahri Karayakar; Cahit Erdem; Bedii C?c?k

2007-01-01

228

Concentrations of cadmium, manganese, copper, zinc, and lead in the tissues of the oyster (Crassostrea iredalei) obtained from Setiu Lagoon, Terengganu, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals pollution in aquatic environments is a major problem contributing to human health issues. The study of these pollutants through bioindicators such as the oyster Crassostrea iredalei is important for (1) determining the levels and sources and (2) regulating the quantity of pollutants. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) in tissues

M. Azlisham; V. J. Vedamanikam; N. A. M. Shazilli

2009-01-01

229

Bioaccumulation of Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in some Tissues of Three Species of Marine Turtles Stranded Along the French Atlantic Coasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium, copper and zinc have been analysed in some tissues and organs of Loggerhead, Kemp’s Ridley (only muscle for this species) and Leatherback turtles stranded along the Atlantic coasts of France. The pancreas analysed only in Leatherback turtles exhibited the highest metal concentrations, which is very surprising for an organ which does not play a role in the detoxification processes.

F Caurant; P Bustamante; M Bordes; P Miramand

1999-01-01

230

Determination of copper, cadmium and lead in seawater and mineral water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with aluminum hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aluminum hydroxide coprecipitation method for the determination of cadmium, copper and lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in aqueous solutions, seawater and mineral water samples has been investigated. The coprecipitation conditions, such as the effect of the pH, the amount of carrier element, the effect of possible matrix ions and the time were examined in detail for the studied

G. Doner; A. Ege

2005-01-01

231

Short-term effects of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc on soil nematodes from different feeding and life-history strategy groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc on a nematode community were examined with a ‘natural soil method’. Changes in the indigenous nematode community structure were studied 1–2 weeks after the addition of these metals (as sulphates) to soil collected from an agroecosystem. The soil was acid and only contained a moderate quantity of organic matter as the main

Gerard W. Korthals; Albert van de Ende; Hanny van Megen; Theo M. Lexmond; Jan E. Kammenga; Tom Bongers

1996-01-01

232

Removal of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper from industrial wastewater by carbon developed from walnut, hazelnut, almond, pistachio shell, and apricot stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, adsorption of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) that exist in industrial wastewater onto the carbon produced from nutshells of walnut, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, and apricot stone has been investigated. All the agricultural shell or stone used were ground, sieved to a defined size range, and carbonized in an oven. Time and temperature of

Maryam Kazemipour; Mehdi Ansari; Shabnam Tajrobehkar; Majdeh Majdzadeh; Hamed Reihani Kermani

2008-01-01

233

Association of cadmium, zinc, copper, and nickel with components in naturally heavy metal?rich soils studied by parallel and sequential extractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new parallel and sequential extraction procedure was proposed to investigate the solubility of metals [cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni)] and their association with soil components in naturally metal?rich soils of Norway. Two different soils, alum shale (clay loam) and moraine (loam), developed on alum shale minerals were used. Each soil had two

R. P. Narwal; B. R. Singh; B. Salbu

1999-01-01

234

In vitro cytotoxicity testing of aquatic pollutants (cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel) using established fish cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxicity of cadmium toward cultured bluegill fry (BF-2) cells was determined using several assay endpoints. The concentrations of cadmium causing a 50% decrease in colony formation, cell replication, uptake of neutral red, population growth (as determined by protein analysis), and uptake of (3H)uridine and 50% detachment of cells (as determined by protein analysis) were 0.03, 0.04, 0.08, 0.09, 0.12,

H. Babich; C. Shopsis; E. Borenfreund

1986-01-01

235

Characterizing the role of rice NRAMP5 in Manganese, Iron and Cadmium Transport  

PubMed Central

Metals like manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are essential for metabolism, while cadmium (Cd) is toxic for virtually all living organisms. Understanding the transport of these metals is important for breeding better crops. We have identified that OsNRAMP5 contributes to Mn, Fe and Cd transport in rice. OsNRAMP5 expression was restricted to roots epidermis, exodermis, and outer layers of the cortex as well as in tissues around the xylem. OsNRAMP5 localized to the plasma membrane, and complemented the growth of yeast strains defective in Mn, Fe, and Cd transport. OsNRAMP5 RNAi (OsNRAMP5i) plants accumulated less Mn in the roots, and less Mn and Fe in shoots, and xylem sap. The suppression of OsNRAMP5 promoted Cd translocation to shoots, highlighting the importance of this gene for Cd phytoremediation. These data reveal that OsNRAMP5 contributes to Mn, Cd, and Fe transport in rice and is important for plant growth and development.

Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Bashir, Khurram; Shimo, Hugo; Senoura, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ono, Kazuko; Yano, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Satoru; Arao, Tomohito; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

2012-01-01

236

Oxidation resistant copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation resistant particles composed of copper and at least one metal having a valence of +2 or +3 and having an intermediate lattice energy for the metal in its hydroxide form are presented. The metal is selected from nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, cadmium, zinc, tin, magnesium, calcium and chromium. In one embodiment, the phases of copper and at least one metal in the particles are separate and the concentration of the metal is greater near the surface of the particles than inwardly thereof. Process for making the oxidation resistant copper particles includes the steps of dissolving a copper salt and a salt of at least one of the metals in a suitable solvent or diluent; forming primary particles of copper and at least one metal in basic form by mixing a base and the salt solution; separating, washing and drying the primary particles; reducing the primary particles to metallic form; and heat treating the particles in metallic form at an elevated temperature.

Edelstein, Alan S.; Kaatz, Forrest H.; Harris, Vincent G.

1993-11-01

237

Zinc Pyrithione Inhibits Yeast Growth through Copper Influx and Inactivation of Iron-Sulfur Proteins?†  

PubMed Central

Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is an antimicrobial material with widespread use in antidandruff shampoos and antifouling paints. Despite decades of commercial use, there is little understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. We used a combination of genome-wide approaches (yeast deletion mutants and microarrays) and traditional methods (gene constructs and atomic emission) to characterize the activity of ZPT against a model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ZPT acts through an increase in cellular copper levels that leads to loss of activity of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. ZPT was also found to mediate growth inhibition through an increase in copper in the scalp fungus Malassezia globosa. A model is presented in which pyrithione acts as a copper ionophore, enabling copper to enter cells and distribute across intracellular membranes. This is the first report of a metal-ligand complex that inhibits fungal growth by increasing the cellular level of a different metal.

Reeder, Nancy L.; Kaplan, Jerry; Xu, Jun; Youngquist, R. Scott; Wallace, Jared; Hu, Ping; Juhlin, Kenton D.; Schwartz, James R.; Grant, Raymond A.; Fieno, Angela; Nemeth, Suzanne; Reichling, Tim; Tiesman, Jay P.; Mills, Tim; Steinke, Mark; Wang, Shuo L.; Saunders, Charles W.

2011-01-01

238

Selenium, cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in sediments and mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the southern Basin of Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia.  

PubMed

Selenium, cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in sediments and the tissues of mullet (Mugil cephalus) collected from the southern basin of Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia. Trace metals in surficial sediments are enriched in trace metals relative to background concentrations (selenium, 3-19; cadmium, 14-42; copper, 1.5-3.6; zinc, 0.77-2.2 times background). Selenium, cadmium, and copper in Lake Macquarie mullet tissues are elevated compared to those in mullet collected from the Clyde River estuary, a relatively pristine location. Selenium and copper concentrations are also elevated compared to those reported in mullet tissues from other nonpolluted coastal environments. Zinc concentrations in Lake Macquarie mullet muscle tissues are significantly higher than those in muscle tissues of mullet from the Clyde River estuary, but mullet from both locations have similar zinc concentrations in other tissues. These results show that contamination of sediment with trace metals has resulted in elevated trace metals in the benthic feeding fish M. cephalus. Little of the variation of trace metal concentrations between fish was explained by variation in mass. Selenium concentrations in mullet are of concern in muscle tissues as they are above recommended acceptable limits for safe human consumption, while concentrations in tissues are at levels that may effect fish growth, reproduction, and survival. Copper concentrations in mullet tissues are also at levels that may reduce fish growth. PMID:11243327

Kirby, J; Maher, W; Krikowa, F

2001-02-01

239

Fabrication of a nanocomposite from in situ iron nanoparticle reinforced copper alloy.  

PubMed

In situ iron nanoparticle reinforced Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy has been fabricated by centrifugal casting in a vacuum chamber with a medium frequency electrical furnace. The microstructure of this alloy was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and the results show that the grains of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy without iron have a typical dendrite structure with dimensions from 500 to 1500 microm, and the grains of the alloy with the addition of 1% iron are small and equiaxed, with dimensions from 20 to 60 microm. Then, the relatively uniform dispersed particles in the copper matrix were identified with the HRTEM to be pure iron with dimensions in the order of 2-20 nm. The mechanical properties of the alloys were measured and the results show a significant increase in the tensile strength of the alloy with iron nanoparticles and a slight increase of the elongation compared to that without iron. The mechanism of formation of the iron nanoparticles was analyzed by thermodynamic and dynamic theories, and the results indicate that the in situ iron nanoparticles of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy can reasonably form during solidification in the centrifugal casting technique. PMID:19417426

Wang, Zidong; Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Qiangsong; Shih, I; Xu, J J

2009-01-26

240

Cadmium, copper, and lead in soils and garden produce near a metal smelter at Flin Flon, Manitoba  

SciTech Connect

Towns in the vicinity of base metal smelters are subject to contamination from atmospheric fallout containing heavy metals. Many smelters have been in operation for decades, and have resulted in substantial accumulation of metals in the surrounding soils. Metal contamination of edible vegetation near mines and smelters has been the source of health concerns in a number of countries. One smelter that has operated for more than half a century is located at Flin Flon, Manitoba. Many Flin Flon residents utilize home vegetable gardens year after year. However little is known regarding heavy metal contamination of locally grown garden produce. Since food can contribute as much as 90% of total body uptake of metals it is important to identify any sources which may account for the disproportionate share. The objective of the present study was to examine concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead in soils and garden produce in the vicinity of the Flin Flon smelter.

Pip, E. (Univ. of Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada))

1991-05-01

241

Sorption of lead, copper, and cadmium by calcium alginate. Metal binding stoichiometry and the pH effect.  

PubMed

Binding of heavy metal ions by calcium alginate has been described in the literature with many different models. In the present study, two most basic models were used to systematically compare their simultaneous description of metal uptake dependence on pH and metal ion concentration in the bulk solution. The experimental datasets corresponding to the binary sorption systems containing protons and heavy metal ion (cadmium, lead, or copper) were taken from the literature. The applicability and limitations of both models are discussed. Neither of the models gave a completely satisfactory description of all data. The two-site occupancy model yielded better results compared to the one-site occupancy model when considering the coherence of the parameters (e.g., affinity constants) but the quality of the obtained fits is similar in both cases. PMID:22538825

Plazinski, Wojciech

2012-04-27

242

Chemical-x-ray fluorescence determination of nickel, copper, zinc, and cadmium using ion-exchange cellulosic membranes  

SciTech Connect

The authors used ion-exchange membranes from cellulose impregnated with the reagent 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol as collector. Based on the investigations conducted, the authors have evolved an electrochemisorption-x-ray flourescence (ECSXRF) technique of nickel, copper, zinc, and cadmium determination that includes a stage of preconcentration of the metals on an ion-exchange membrane. Analysis of the data showed that methods are alike in reproducibility; the ECSXRF method developed does not have significant systematic errors, unlike the inversion chronopotentiometric method of analysis. The possibility of complete isolation of the microcomponents from the macroconstituents of the sample and their conversion into a unified matrix (membrane) eliminates the effect of matrix effects and allows analysis of objects of various compositions using a common procedure and common reference samples.

Sidakov, T.A.; Lobanov, F.I.; Makarov, N.V.; Stefanov, A.V.

1986-03-01

243

A test battery approach to the ecotoxicological evaluation of cadmium and copper employing a battery of marine bioassays.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are ubiquitous contaminants of the marine environment and can accumulate and persist in sediments. The toxicity of metal contaminants in sediments to organisms is dependent on the bioavailability of the metals in both the water and sediment phases and the sensitivity of the organism to the metal exposure. This study investigated the effects of two metal contaminants of concern (CdCl(2) and CuCl(2)) on a battery of marine bioassays employed for sediment assessment. Cadmium, a known carcinogen and widespread marine pollutant, was found to be the least toxic of the two assayed metals in all in vivo tests. However, CdCl(2) was found to be more toxic to the fish cell lines PLHC-1 and RTG-2 than CuCl(2). Tisbe battagliai was the most sensitive species to both metals and the Microtox and cell lines were the least sensitive (cadmium was found to be three orders of magnitude less toxic to Vibrio fischeri than to T. battagliai). The sensitivity of Tetraselmis suecica to the two metals varied greatly. Marine microalgae are among the organisms that can tolerate higher levels of cadmium. This hypothesis is demonstrated in this study where it was not possible to derive an EC(50) value for CdCl(2) and the marine prasinophyte, T. suecica. Conversely, CuCl(2) was observed to be highly toxic to the marine alga, EC(50) of 1.19 mg l(-1). The genotoxic effect of Cu on the marine phytoplankton was evaluated using the Comet assay. Copper concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 2.50 mg l(-1) were used to evaluate the effects. DNA damage was measured as percent number of comets and normal cells. There was no significant DNA damage observed at any concentration of CuCl(2) tested and no correlation with growth inhibition and genetic damage was found. PMID:19283472

Macken, Ailbhe; Giltrap, Michelle; Ryall, Kim; Foley, Barry; McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; Davoren, Maria

2009-03-13

244

Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 ?g/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control) groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ? 10 ?g/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 ?g/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ? 10 ?g/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits.

2010-01-01

245

National contaminant biomonitoring program: Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

From late 1984 to early 1985, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected a total of 315 composite samples of whole fish\\u000a from 109 stations nationwide, which were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Geometric\\u000a mean, maximum, and 85th percentile concentrations (?g\\/g wet weight) for 1984 samples were as follows: arsenic-0.14, 1.5, 0.27;\\u000a cadmium-0.03, 0.22, 0.05;

Christopher J. Schmitt; William G. Brumbaugh

1990-01-01

246

Ultrasonic recovery of copper and iron through the simultaneous utilization of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) spent acid etching solution and PCB waste sludge.  

PubMed

A method was developed to recover the copper and iron from Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) manufacturing generated spent acid etching solution and waste sludge with ultrasonic energy at laboratory scale. It demonstrated that copper-containing PCB spent etching solution could be utilized as a leaching solution to leach copper from copper contained PCB waste sludge. It also indicated that lime could be used as an alkaline precipitating agent in this method to precipitate iron from the mixture of acidic PCB spent etching solution and waste sludge. This method provided an effective technique for the recovery of copper and iron through simultaneous use of PCB spent acid solution and waste sludge. The leaching rates of copper and iron enhanced with ultrasound energy were reached at 93.76% and 2.07% respectively and effectively separated copper from iron. Followed by applying lime to precipitate copper from the mixture of leachate and rinsing water produced by the copper and iron separation, about 99.99% and 1.29% of soluble copper and calcium were settled as the solids respectively. Furthermore the settled copper could be made as commercial rate copper. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and temperature. This method provided a simple and reliable technique to recover copper and iron from waste streams generated by PCB manufacturing, and would significantly reduce the cost of chemicals used in the recovery. PMID:20932641

Huang, Zhiyuan; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang

2010-09-16

247

Direct Functionalization of (Un)protected Tetrahydroisoquinoline and Isochroman under Iron and Copper Catalysis: Two Metals, Two Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

A highly facile, straightforward synthesis of 1-(3-indolyl)-tetrahydroisoquinolines was developed using either simple copper or iron catalysts. N-protected and unprotected tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQ) could be used as starting materials. Extension of the substrate scope of the pronucleophile from indoles to pyrroles and electron-rich arenes was realized. Additionally, methoxyphenylation is not limited to THIQ but can be carried out on isochroman as well, again employing iron and copper catalysis.

2011-01-01

248

Polymorphisms in Iron Homeostasis Genes and Urinary Cadmium Concentrations among Nonsmoking Women in Argentina and Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background: Cadmium (Cd) is a human toxicant and carcinogen. Genetic variation might affect long-term accumulation. Cd is absorbed via iron transporters. Objectives: We evaluated the impact of iron homeostasis genes [divalent metal transporter 1 (SLC11A2), transferrin (TF), transferrin receptors (TFR2 and TFRC), and ferroportin (SLC40A1)] on Cd accumulation. Methods: Subjects were nonsmoking women living in the Argentinean Andes [n = 172; median urinary Cd (U-Cd) = 0.24 µg/L] and Bangladesh (n = 359; U-Cd = 0.54 µg/L) with Cd exposure mainly from food. Concentrations of U-Cd and Cd in whole blood or in erythrocytes (Ery-Cd) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fifty polymorphisms were genotyped by Sequenom. Gene expression was measured in whole blood (n = 72) with Illumina DirectHyb HumanHT-12 v4.0. Results: TFRC rs3804141 was consistently associated with U-Cd. In the Andean women, mean U-Cd concentrations were 22% (95% CI: –2, 51%), and they were 56% (95% CI: 10, 120%) higher in women with GA and AA genotypes, respectively, relative to women with the GG genotype. In the Bangladeshi women, mean U-Cd concentrations were 22% (95% CI: 1, 48%), and they were 58% (95% CI: –3, 157%) higher in women with GA and AA versus GG genotype, respectively [adjusted for age and plasma ferritin in both groups; ptrend = 0.006 (Andes) and 0.009 (Bangladesh)]. TFRC expression in blood was negatively correlated with plasma ferritin (rS = –0.33, p = 0.006), and positively correlated with Ery-Cd (significant at ferritin concentrations of < 30 µg/L only, rS = 0.40, p = 0.046). Rs3804141 did not modify these associations or predict TFRC expression. Cd was not consistently associated with any of the other polymorphisms evaluated. Conclusions: One TFRC polymorphism was associated with urine Cd concentration, a marker of Cd accumulation in the kidney, in two very different populations. The consistency of the findings supports the possibility of a causal association.

Rentschler, Gerda; Kippler, Maria; Axmon, Anna; Raqib, Rubhana; Ekstrom, Eva-Charlotte; Skerfving, Staffan; Vahter, Marie

2013-01-01

249

Manganese and iron oxide immobilized activated carbons precursor to dead biomasses in the remediation of cadmium-contaminated waters.  

PubMed

The aim of the present investigation was to exploit the high specific surface area of activated carbons in immobilizing the manganese and iron oxides as to obtain a suitable, efficient and cost effective and environment benign wastewater treatment process in the remediation of cadmium-contaminated waters. The manganese and iron oxides were impregnated in situ onto the surface and pores of the activated carbons precursors to the rice hulls and areca nut wastes. The solids were characterized with the help of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analytical data, and the BET specific surface area as obtained. The surface morphology of these solids was discussed with the help of scanning electron microscopic images. The activated carbon samples along with the manganese and iron immobilized activated carbons were further employed in the batch and column reactor operations in the remediation of cadmium-contaminated waters. The batch data showed that an increase in sorptive pH from 2.0 to 10.0 and concentration from 1.0 to 20 mg/L favoured the uptake of cadmium by these solids. Moreover, the 1,000 times increase in background electrolyte concentrations NaNO3 caused an insignificant decrease in cadmium uptake by these solids, which inferred that sorbing ions/species were sorbed specifically and forming 'inner-sphere' complexes onto the solid surface. The concentration dependence data were utilized to model various adsorption isotherms and indicated that Freundlich adsorption isotherm was reasonably fitted well. The kinetic data was fitted well to the pseudo-second-order rate equations; hence, the equilibrium sorption capacity was estimated. Furthermore, the dynamic experiments carried out by the column experiments and the breakthrough data were fitted well to the non-linear Thomas equations; accordingly, the loading capacity of the column was estimated. Iron or manganese immobilized activated carbons showed relatively higher loading capacity compared to its precursor activated carbons hence showing its possible implication in the remediation processes. Moreover, among these modified ACs, IIAC showed higher removal capacity than the MIAC solid. PMID:23589235

Lee, Seung-Mok; Lalhmunsiama; Choi, Sang-Il; Tiwari, Diwakar

2013-04-16

250

[Secondary Osteoporosis or Secondary Contributors to Bone Loss in Fracture. Bone metabolism and heavy metals (cadmium and iron) ].  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived phosphaturic factor and is known to regulate blood inorganic phosphate (Pi) . Cadmium (Cd) , a toxic transition metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health and through occupational and environmental exposure. Phosphaturia has been documented following Cd exposure in both human and experimental animals. In animal study, Cd administration increases serum FGF23 concentrations. Moreover, medication such as infusion of select iron-containing compounds increases serum FGF23 concentrations, with patients developing hypophosphatemia. Thus, a relationship between metal ion (Cd and Fe) and FGF23 metabolic pathway has been proposed. PMID:23999366

Kido, Shinsuke

2013-09-01

251

Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation  

PubMed Central

Summary Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions, xylem and phloem sap were obtained from Brassica napus to quantitatively analyze which thiol species are present in response to Cd exposure. High levels of PCs were identified in the phloem sap within 24 h of Cd exposure using combined mass spectrometry and fluorescence HPLC analyses. Unexpectedly, the concentration of Cd was more than four-fold higher in phloem sap compared to xylem sap. Cadmium exposure dramatically decreased iron levels in xylem and phloem sap whereas other essential heavy metals such as zinc and manganese remained unchanged. Data suggest that Cd inhibits vascular loading of iron but not nicotianamine. The high ratios [PCs]/[Cd] and [glutathione]/[Cd] in the phloem sap suggest that PCs and glutathione (GSH) can function as long-distance carriers of Cd. In contrast, only traces of PCs were detected in xylem sap. Our results suggest that, in addition to directional xylem Cd transport, the phloem is a major vascular system for long-distance source to sink transport of Cd as PC–Cd and glutathione–Cd complexes.

Mendoza-Cozatl, David G.; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian I.

2010-01-01

252

Exploration of the copper-related compensatory response in the Belgrade rat model of genetic iron deficiency.  

PubMed

The Menkes copper ATPase (Atp7a) and metallothionein (Mt1a) are induced in the duodenum of iron-deficient rats, and serum and hepatic copper levels increase. Induction of a multi-copper ferroxidase (ceruloplasmin; Cp) has also been documented. These findings hint at an important role for Cu during iron deficiency. The intestinal divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1) is also induced during iron deficiency. The hypothesis that Dmt1 is involved in the copper-related compensatory response during iron deficiency was tested, utilizing a mutant Dmt1 rat model, namely the Belgrade (b/b) rat. Data from b/b rats were compared with phenotypically normal, heterozygous +/b rats. Intestinal Atp7a and Dmt1 expression was increased in b/b rats, whereas Mt1a expression was unchanged. Serum and liver copper levels did not increase in the Belgrades nor did Cp protein or activity. The lack of fully functional Dmt1 may thus partially blunt the compensatory response to iron deficiency by 1) decreasing copper levels in enterocytes, as exemplified by a lack of Mt1a induction and a lesser induction of Atp7a, 2) abolishing the frequently described increase in liver and serum copper, and 3) attenuating the documented increase in Cp expression and activity. PMID:21852364

Jiang, Lingli; Ranganathan, Perungavur; Lu, Yan; Kim, Changae; Collins, James F

2011-08-18

253

Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in bovine hair in the new lead belt of missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in washed hair samples from four test cows exposed to multiple lead production sources of contamination and four control cows that were not exposed. Cadmium and lead were found in significantly higher concentrations in the hair collected from the test cows than in the hair of the control cows.

C. Richard Dorn; Patrick E. Phillips; James O. Pierce; Gerald R. Chase

1974-01-01

254

Trace Elements Status in Selenium-Deficient Rats—Interaction with Cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the metabolic and toxicological interactions between essential element selenium (Se) and toxic element cadmium (Cd)\\u000a have been reported for a long time, the experimental studies explored mostly acute, high-dose interactions. Limited data are\\u000a available regarding the effects of Se-deficiency on toxicokinetics of cadmium, as well as on the levels of key trace elements—copper,\\u000a zinc, and iron. In the present

Dana Kotyzová; Pavla ?erná; Ladislav Lešetický; Vladislav Eybl

2010-01-01

255

Generation of oxidant response to copper and iron nanoparticles and salts: Stimulation by ascorbate  

PubMed Central

The present work describes a two-stage approach to analyzing combustion-generated samples for their potential to produce oxidant stress. This approach is illustrated with the two commonly encountered transition metals, copper and iron. First, their abilities to generate hydroxyl radical were measured in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline solution containing ascorbate and/or citrate. Second, their abilities to induce heme oxygenase-1 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were assessed in cell culture. Combustion-generated copper oxide nanoparticles were active in both assays and were found to be soluble in culture medium. Depletion of glutathione in the cells or loading the cells with ascorbate greatly increased heme oxygenase-1 induction in the presence of copper. By contrast, iron oxide nanoparticles were active in the phosphate buffered saline but not in cell culture, and they aggregated in culture medium. Soluble salts of copper and iron exhibited the same contrast in activities as the respective combustion-generated particles. The results suggest that the capability of combustion-generated environmental samples to produce oxidant stress can be screened effectively in a two step process, first in phosphate buffered saline with ascorbate and subsequently in epithelial cell culture for those exhibiting activity initially. The results also point to an unanticipated interaction in cells of oxidant stress-generating metals with an anti-oxidant (ascorbate) that is usually missing in culture medium formulations. Thus, ascorbate supplementation of cultured human cells is likely to improve their ability to model the in vivo effects of particulate matter containing copper and other redox-active metals.

Rice, Robert H.; Vidrio, Edgar A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Qin, Qin; Willits, Neil H.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

2009-01-01

256

Generation of oxidant response to copper and iron nanoparticles and salts: Stimulation by ascorbate.  

PubMed

The present work describes a two-stage approach to analyzing combustion-generated samples for their potential to produce oxidant stress. This approach is illustrated with the two commonly encountered transition metals, copper and iron. First, their abilities to generate hydroxyl radical were measured in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline solution containing ascorbate and/or citrate. Second, their abilities to induce heme oxygenase-1 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were assessed in cell culture. Combustion-generated copper oxide nanoparticles were active in both assays and were found to be soluble in culture medium. Depletion of glutathione in the cells or loading the cells with ascorbate greatly increased heme oxygenase-1 induction in the presence of copper. By contrast, iron oxide nanoparticles were active in the phosphate-buffered saline but not in cell culture, and they aggregated in culture medium. Soluble salts of copper and iron exhibited the same contrast in activities as the respective combustion-generated particles. The results suggest that the capability of combustion-generated environmental samples to produce oxidant stress can be screened effectively in a two step process, first in phosphate-buffered saline with ascorbate and subsequently in epithelial cell culture for those exhibiting activity initially. The results also point to an unanticipated interaction in cells of oxidant stress-generating metals with an antioxidant (ascorbate) that is usually missing in culture medium formulations. Thus, ascorbate supplementation of cultured human cells is likely to improve their ability to model the in vivo effects of particulate matter containing copper and other redox-active metals. PMID:19683516

Rice, Robert H; Vidrio, Edgar A; Kumfer, Benjamin M; Qin, Qin; Willits, Neil H; Kennedy, Ian M; Anastasio, Cort

2009-08-14

257

Determination of lead, copper, zinc, magnesium, calcium and iron in fresh eggs by atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, lead, copper and zinc, calcium, magnesium and iron in fresh egg samples have been determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS–FAAS) with Zeeman-effect background correction. Y+Pd+citric acid (CA) has been found a powerful modifier mixture for the determination of Pb, Cu and Zn. Maximum pyrolysis and optimum atomization temperatures of analyte elements were determined in

Ziya Kiliç; Orhan Acar; Mehmet Ula?an; Murat Ilim

2002-01-01

258

Direct observation of liquid-phase sintering in the system iron-copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot-stage of a scanning electron microscope has been used to observe liquid-phase sintering in the system iron-copper. The densification behaviour of compacts of Fe and Cu particles were determined. The influence of particle size of both components and the amount of liquid phase developed were investigated. In samples with about 20 vol % liquid phase, the densification kinetics as

Leonhard Froschauer; Richard M. Fulrath

1975-01-01

259

Densification dynamics of copper and iron powder billets in hot shock compaction: Simulation and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results from computer simulation and analysis of experimental data on the densification of copper and\\u000a iron powder billets during hot shock compaction. It is established for the first time that the shear viscosity of the porous\\u000a material matrix shows a stronger dependence on the initial impact velocity than the billet temperature does. The estimated\\u000a activation energy

M. S. Koval’chenko; L. F. Ochkas

2008-01-01

260

Tensile properties of copper alloyed austempered ductile iron: Effect of austempering parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ductile iron containing 0.6% copper as the main alloying element was austenitized at 850 ?C for 120 min and was subsequently\\u000a austempered for 60 min at austempering temperatures of 270, 330, and 380 ?C. The samples were also austempered at 330 ?C for\\u000a austempering times of 30–150 min. The structural parameters for the austempered alloy austenite (X\\u000a \\u000a ?\\u000a ),

U. Batra; S. Ray; S. R. Prabhakar

2004-01-01

261

Evaluation of trace elements iron, zinc, copper and lead In the diet of female university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food consumption of 50 female students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia was recorded for 7 days. Foods and drinks most frequently consumed were selected for analysis of iron, zinc, copper and lead content. The mean daily intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat among the students are 6.5±1.4 MJ (1550±335 kcal), 59.8±18.5g. 227. 1±54.6 g and 46.0±11.5 g respectively. This diet

Zawiah Hashim

262

Effect of austempering heat treatment on fracture toughness of copper alloyed gray iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austempering heat treatment was applied to gray cast iron in order to study the effect of matrix toughening on fracture mechanics behavior. Copper alloying was applied to increase the hardenability of the metal. The as-cast material was austenitized at 900°C for 1.5h, and then austempered at 300°C\\/3h or 360°C\\/2h so as to obtain different matrix morphology, namely, lower ausferrite or

Cheng-Hsun Hsu; Yih-Hsun Shy; Yuan-Hsin Yu; Shen-Chih Lee

2000-01-01

263

Magnetic properties of alloys containing mischmetal, cobalt, copper, iron, and magnesium. Report of investigations\\/1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines investigated alloys containing mischmetal (MM), cobalt, copper, magnesium, and iron for use in permanent magnets in place of the scarce samarium-cobalt alloys. The magnetic properties of MM-Co, MM-Co-Cu, MM-Co-Cu-Mg, and MM-Co-Cu-Fe-Mg alloys were evaluated. Magnets were fabricated by powder metallurgy consisting of arc-melting the metals, crushing and grinding the resultant alloys, alining and compacting the powder,

J. W. Walkiewicz; J. S. Winston; M. M. Wong

1981-01-01

264

Copper and iron substituted hydrotalcites: properties and catalyst precursors for methylamines synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in which magnesium was partially substituted by copper or iron in the hydrotalcite-like layer were synthesized by a coprecipitation method. The effects of the substitution on the physicochemical properties of the samples were studied by using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray photoelectron

Gabriela Carja; Ryuichi Nakamura; Hiroo Niiyama

2002-01-01

265

Effects of Copper and Malleablizing Time on Mechanical Properties of Austempered Malleable Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, both the unalloyed and 1 wt pct copper alloyed white irons were successively treated with a duplex heating process consisting of malleablizing and austempering, and then the effects of copper and processing variables on microstructure and mechanical properties of the austempered malleable iron (AMI) were investigated. The results showed that AMI could effectively shorten malleablizing time to obtain the constituents of irregular graphite, acicular ferrite, and retained austenite in the microstructure. Moreover, 1 pct Cu-AMI had a higher retained austenite content than unalloyed AMI. This is because copper is an austenite stabilizer and acts to delay the start of the transformation into ausferrite. In the case of mechanical properties, AMI increased tensile strength (1083 to 1190 MPa) and impact toughness (16 to 22 J) by 2 to 3 times after 930 °C 20 hours malleablizing treatment as compared to as-cast (572 to 580 MPa and 5 to 6 J). In particular, 1 pct Cu-AMI had better performance than unalloyed AMI except for hardness. In comparison with conventional malleable irons, AMI was found to possess better tensile and impact properties.

Hsu, Cheng-Hsun; Lu, Jung-Kai; Chen, Fan-Shiong

2007-10-01

266

Retronasal perception and flavour thresholds of iron and copper in drinking water.  

PubMed

Drinking water flavour has a strong role in water quality perception, service satisfaction, willingness to pay and selection of water sources. Metallic flavours are often caused by the dissolved iron and copper, commonly found in groundwater or introduced to tap water by corroding infrastructure. Taste thresholds of iron and copper have been investigated by several studies; however, reported results and test methods vary considerably. This study determined the taste thresholds of ferrous and cuprous ions in room temperature reagent water by using the one-of-five test with multi-nation panellists in the United States. For ferrous and cuprous ions, individual thresholds ranged from 0.003 to >5 mg l(-1) and 0.035 to >5 mg l(-1), respectively. Population thresholds were determined by logistic regression and geometric mean methods as 0.031 and 0.05 mg l(-1) for ferrous ion, and 0.61 mg l(-1) for cuprous ion by both methods. The components of metallic sensation were investigated by use of nose-clips while panellists ingested iron and copper solutions. Results showed that metallic sensation has a significant odour component and should be treated as a flavour instead of a taste. Ferrous, cuprous and cupric ions also produced weak bitter and salty tastes as well as astringent mouthfeel. In comparison, ferric ion produced no sensation. PMID:21301110

Omur-Ozbek, Pinar; Dietrich, Andrea M

2011-03-01

267

Influence of orange juice in the levels and in the genotoxicity of iron and copper.  

PubMed

World consumption of natural juices is increasing as a consequence of the human search for a healthier life. The juice production industry, especially for orange juice, is expanding in several countries and particularly in Brazil. Despite scientific data reporting beneficial properties derived from juice consumption, some components of juices have been identified as mutagenic or carcinogenic. Carcinogenic or genotoxic effects may be mediated by the interaction of juice components with transition metals or by sub-products of juice auto-oxidation. In this study, the mutagenic potential of orange juice and two metallic agents used in dietary supplementation, FeSO(4) and CuSO(4), were investigated using the comet assay in mouse blood cells (in vivo). Both metal compounds were genotoxic for eukaryotic cells after 24h treatment at the doses used. Significant damage repair was observed after 48h of treatment with the same compounds. Orange juice had a modulating effect on the action of metallic sulfates. In the case of iron treatment, the presence of the orange juice had a preventive, but not restorative, effect. On the other hand, in the case of copper treatment, the effects were both preventive and restorative. PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis indicated a positive correlation between DNA damage and the hepatic levels of iron and a negative correlation between whole blood copper and DNA damage. A negative correlation between hepatic iron and whole blood copper content was also seen in the treatment with both ferrous and cupric sulfates. PMID:16263202

Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Prá, Daniel; Giulian, Raquel; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Yoneama, Maria Lúcia; da Silva, Juliana; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

2005-11-02

268

Alterations in the metabolism of endogenous trace metals due to cadmium, manganese and nickel - effect of partial hepatectomy  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cadmium, manganese and nickel on the levels of copper, manganese, iron and zinc in liver was studied in sham operated and partially hepatectomized rats, 72 hrs after metal administration. Partial hepatectomy produced significant increase in the level of zinc and decrease in the levels of copper, iron and manganese. The metabolic disposition of these essential micronutrients were significantly altered as a result of cadmium administration in both the groups. Manganese and nickel had little effect and only induced the level of zinc.

Srivastava, R.C.; Ahmad, I.; Kaur, G.; Hasan, S.K.

1988-01-01

269

Tensile properties of copper alloyed austempered ductile iron: Effect of austempering parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ductile iron containing 0.6% copper as the main alloying element was austenitized at 850 °C for 120 min and was subsequently austempered for 60 min at austempering temperatures of 270, 330, and 380 °C. The samples were also austempered at 330 °C for austempering times of 30 150 min. The structural parameters for the austempered alloy austenite (X ? ), average carbon content (C ? ), the product X ? C ? , and the size of the bainitic ferrite needle (d ? ) were determined using x-ray diffraction. The effect of austempering temperature and time has been studied with respect to tensile properties such as 0.2% proof stress, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), percentage of elongation, and quality index. These properties have been correlated with the structural parameters of the austempered ductile iron microstructure. Fracture studies have been carried out on the tensile fracture surfaces of the austempered ductile iron (ADI).

Batra, U.; Ray, S.; Prabhakar, S. R.

2004-10-01

270

Iron Nutrition Influence on Cadmium Accumulation by 'Arabidopsis thaliana' (L.) Heynh.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine whether Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., a putative Fe-efficient species, accumulated higher concentrations of Cd from a sparingly soluble Cd source (cadmium dihydrogen phosphate) when growing in Fe-defi...

K. D. Rodecap D. T. Tingey E. H. Lee

1994-01-01

271

THE EFFECT OF MERCURY, COPPER AND CADMIUM DURING SINGLE AND COMBINED EXPOSURE ON OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS WAL. AND CYPRINUS CARPIO L. LARVAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygen consumption of common carp and rainbow trout larvae exposed to mercury, cadmium and copper was measured. The experiment was performed on seven-month-old common carp (0.9-1.39 g) and one-month-old rainbow trout larvae (1.2-1.5 g) reared under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated for one hour with solutions of a single metal or mixtures of Hg+Cd, Cd+Cu or Hg+Cu. The

Barbara Jezierska; Piotr Sarnowski

272

Experimental studies of the interaction of aqueous metal cations with mineral substrates: Lead, cadmium, and copper with perthitic feldspar, muscovite, and biotite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between each of the metal ions copper(II), cadmium(II), and lead(II) in aqueous solution and the surfaces of the minerals muscovite, biotite, and perthitic feldspar have been studied using batch sorption experiments and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The purpose of the work has been to establish the extent of removal from solution of these metal

Morag L. Farquhar; David J. Vaughan; Colin R. Hughes; John M. Charnock; Katharine E. R. England

1997-01-01

273

Determination of cadmium(II), copper(II), manganese(II) and nickel(II) species in Antarctic seawater with complexing resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strong species of cadmium(II), copper(II), manganese(II) and nickel(II) in an Antarctic seawater sample are investigated by a method based on the sorption of metal ions on complexing resins. The resins compete with the ligands present in the sample to combine with the metal ions. Two resins with different adsorbing strengths were used. Very stable metal complexes were investigated with

Raffaela Biesuz; Giancarla Alberti; Girolamo D'Agostino; Emanuele Magi; Maria Pesavento

2006-01-01

274

Effects of copper, zinc, and cadmium ions on the production of phosphate from phytic acid by the phytase system in spruce forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The hydrolysis of phosphate from phytic acid by the acid soil phytase system was reduced in the presence of metal ions. Copper\\u000a was most effective in this respect — zinc and cadmium were less inhibitory. Binding to metals did not completely inhibit the\\u000a hydrolysis of phytic acid. At higher metal concentrations, where binding to other soil constituents, like humic acids,

Anders Svenson

1986-01-01

275

Leaching of antimony, cadmium, copper, lead, silver, tin and zinc prom copper piping with non?lead?based soldered joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were done on the leaching of Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn from 95\\/5 Sn\\/Sb?, 96\\/4 Sn\\/Ag?, 94\\/6 Sn\\/Ag?, and 95.5\\/4.0\\/0.5 Sn\\/Cu\\/Ag?soldered copper pipes into high?purity, tap, and well water samples as a function of standing time in a static test on new plumbing. There was no significant leaching of Ag, Cd, Pb, Sb and Sn from

K. S. Subramanian; J. W. Connor; J. C. Meranger

1991-01-01

276

Screening method for determination of high levels of cadmium, lead, and copper in foods by polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry using discrete nebulization technique.  

PubMed

A screening method for determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in foods was developed. The sample (1-3 g) is digested with HNO3-H2SO4-HClO4 in a centrifuge tube attached to a straight glass tube that prevents loss of HNO3 by volatilization. After digestion, potassium iodide, H2SO4, and MIBK (4-methyl 2-pentanone) are added, and the metals are extracted with MIBK as metal iodides. The MIBK solution is injected and the metals are determined by flame polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry using a discrete nebulization technique. Recoveries of metals from fortified milk powder, unpolished rice, fish, beef, peanut butter, apple, and cabbage were satisfactory. The analytical results for NBS Oyster Tissue and NIES Pepperbush, Chlorella, and Mussel agreed with certified or reference values except lead in Pepperbush. The limits of quantitation for cadmium, lead, and copper were 0.01, 0.09, and 0.02 ppm, respectively. This method is simple and safe for routine analysis of high levels of cadmium, lead, and copper in foods. PMID:3417611

Saito, I; Oshima, H; Kawamura, N; Yamada, M

277

Inducibility of metallothionein biosynthesis in the whole soft tissue of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to cadmium, copper, and pentachlorophenol.  

PubMed

Freshwater mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) were exposed to the elevated concentrations of Cd (10, 50, 100, and 500 microg/L), Cu (10, 30, 50, and 80 microg/L), and an organochlorinated pesticide, pentachlorophenol (PCP) (1, 10, and 100 microg/L). Induced synthesis of biomarker metallothionein (MT) and changes in concentrations of cytosolic Cd, Cu, and Zn in the whole soft tissue of mussels were monitored after a 7-day laboratory exposure to the contaminants. A clear dose-dependent elevation in the MT concentration was observed after exposure to Cd at doses of 10-100 microg/L, and this increase of MT content was accompanied with a linear increase of cytosolic Cd. Cd concentration of 500 microg/L caused no additional increase of MT and Cd in mussel cytosol, suggesting possible toxic effects due to exceeding cellular inducible/defense capacity. Cu exposure resulted with variable changes in MT concentrations, with no clear linear relationship between MT and Cu concentrations in water, although a progressive dose-dependent accumulation of Cu in the soluble fraction of mussel tissues was recorded. A decrease of cytosolic Zn was evident at higher exposure concentrations of both metals used. PCP in concentrations applied was unable to induce MT synthesis, but the higher concentrations of PCP influenced the cytosolic metal concentrations. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm the specificity of MT induction in D. polymorpha as an biological response on metal stimulation, especially by cadmium, being more closely correlated to MT than copper within the ecologically relevant concentration range. The strong induction potential of cadmium as well as an absence of MT induction following exposure to PCP as an organic chemical contaminant are supporting evidences for usage of zebra mussel MT as a specific biomarker of Cd exposure in biomonitoring programs. PMID:19365804

Ivankovi?, Dusica; Pavici?, Jasenka; Beatovi?, Vanja; Klobucar, Roberta Sauerborn; Klobucar, Göran Igor Vinko

2010-04-01

278

Behavior of cadmium, lead and zinc at the sediment–water interface by electrochemically initiated processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, electrokinetic remediation is one of the popular and cheapest in situ remediation techniques for contaminated soils. This method uses a low-level electrical energy and is known for removal of heavy metals like, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc and the metalloid arsenic from polluted and spiked soils. The driving force is the migration of those ions in

Reena Shrestha; R. Fischer; D. Rahner

2003-01-01

279

Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: influence of elevated dietary iron.  

PubMed

Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine>kidney>stomach>liver>gill>carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish. PMID:21371606

Kwong, Raymond W M; Andrés, Jose A; Niyogi, Som

2010-12-28

280

A comparative study of thermal behavior of iron and copper nanofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofluids consist of nanoparticles dispersed in heat transfer carrier fluid and are typically used for enhancing thermal conductivity in devices and systems. This study investigated the synthesis of iron and copper nanoparticle-based thermal fluids prepared using a two-step process. Chemical precipitation was used for the synthesis of the powders, and ultrasonic irradiation was used to disperse the nanoparticles in the carrier fluid (ethylene glycol). The size distributions of the nanopowders in the carrier fluid were determined using dynamic light scattering resulting in average particle sizes of around 500 nm. The crystallite sizes of the powders were below 20 nm. Thus, both types of nanofluids are comparable with regard to crystallite size, particle size, and morphology resulting in a direct comparison of material properties and their effect on thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. A guarded hot parallel-plate method and dynamic tests were used to compare the thermal conductivities of the nanofluids. It was shown that thermal conductivity can be enhanced by up to 70% for copper nanofluids. It was also demonstrated that for a given particle concentration, copper nanofluids are superior in thermal conductivity compared to iron nanofluids.

Sinha, Kaustav; Kavlicoglu, Barkan; Liu, Yanming; Gordaninejad, Faramarz; Graeve, Olivia A.

2009-09-01

281

Responses of seedling growth and antioxidant activity to excess iron and copper in Triticum aestivum L.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze phytotoxicity mechanism involved in root growth and to compare physiological changes in the leaves of wheat seedlings exposed to short term iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) stresses (0, 100, 300 and 500?M). All applied Fe or Cu concentrations reduced root and shoot lengths, but seed germination was inhibited by Cu only at 500?M. Analyses using fluorescent dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate indicated enhanced H(2)O(2) levels in seedling roots under Fe and Cu treatments. Cu stress at the same concentration induced a great reduction in cell viability and a strong damage on membrane lipid in the roots with respect to Fe treatment. Significant increases in the total chlorophyll (chl) content including chl a and chl b were observed in response to higher Fe concentrations, whereas the highest Cu concentration (500?M) led to significant decreases in the total chl content including chl a. Additionally, leaf peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were stimulated by Fe stress, but the highest Fe concentration exhibited inhibitory effect on leaf APX activity. In contrast, copper treatment resulted in an elevation in leaf catalase and POD activities. Therefore, H(2)O(2) content in the leaves associated with copper was significantly lower than that with iron at the same concentration. PMID:23025893

Li, Xiaoning; Ma, Haizhen; Jia, Pengxiang; Wang, Juan; Jia, Lingyun; Zhang, Tengguo; Yang, Yingli; Chen, Haijian; Wei, Xia

2012-09-29

282

Interactions of hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) with iron and copper: implications on toxicity and therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

Presented at the 19th International Conference on Chelation, London, UK, 13-16 November 2009 Preliminary spectrophotometric and potentiometric studies have shown that hydroxycarbamide or hydroxyurea (HU) can interact with copper(II) [Cu(II)], iron(II) [Fe(II)] and Fe(III) ions and form complexes, for example, a ratio of 1 HU:1 metal at pH 5. The affinity for Cu (log ?1 = 3.1) and Fe (log ?1 = 5) by HU is much lower than that of the Fe and Cu chelating drug deferiprone (L1), which is used for the treatment of iron overload. It is anticipated that under certain conditions of high concentrations of these metal ions such as in transfusional iron overload, the therapeutic, pharmacological and toxicological properties of HU could be affected. It is also suggested that excess chelatable and labile forms of Fe or Cu ions, such as non transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) or intracellular low molecular weight labile iron, are among the main factors that may cause variations in the therapeutic response to HU in cancer, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia intermedia and other groups of patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the interaction mechanisms of HU with metal ions in vitro, in vivo and in clinical conditions. PMID:21599436

Konstantinou, Eleni; Pashalidis, Ioannis; Kolnagou, Annita; Kontoghiorghes, George J

2011-01-01

283

Picosecond X-Ray Diffraction from Laser-Shocked Copper and Iron  

SciTech Connect

In situ X-ray diffraction allows the determination of the structure of transient states of matter. We have used laser-plasma generated X-rays to study how single crystals of metals (copper and iron) react to uniaxial shock compression. We find that copper, as a face-centred-cubic material, allows rapid generation and motion of dislocations, allowing close to hydrostatic conditions to be achieved on sub-nanosecond timescales. Detailed molecular dynamics calculations provide novel information about the process, and point towards methods whereby the dislocation density might be measured during the passage of the shock wave itself. We also report on recent experiments where we have obtained diffraction images from shock-compressed single-crystal iron. The single crystal sample transforms to the hcp phase above a critical pressure, below which it appears to be uniaxially compressed bcc, with no evidence of plasticity. Above the transition threshold, clear evidence for the hcp phase can be seen in the diffraction images, and via a mechanism that is also consistent with recent multi- million atom molecular dynamics simulations that use the Voter- Chen potential. We believe these data to be of import, in that they constitute the first conclusive in situ evidence of the transformed structure of iron during the passage of a shock wave.

Wark, J. S.; Hawreliak, J.; Higginbotham, A.; Rosolankova, K.; Sheppard, J. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Belak, J. F.; Collins, G. W.; Colvin, J. D.; Duchaineau, M.; Eggert, J. H.; Kalantar, D. H.; Lorenzana, H. E.; Remington, B. A.; Rudd, R. E.; Stolken, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Davies, H. M. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Germann, T. C.; Holian, B. L.; Kadau, K.; Lomdahl, P. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] (and others)

2006-07-28

284

Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status of young women fed vitamin B-6 deficient diets  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted in young women to determine the effect of vitamin B-6 deficient diets on copper, iron and zinc metabolism. Young women were confined to a metabolic research unit for 84 and 98 days. They were fed a vitamin B-6 deficient formula diet initially, followed by food diet containing four increasing levels of vitamin B-6. Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status were determined at intervals throughout the study. Absorption was determined using the stable isotopes {sup 65}Cu, {sup 54}Fe, and {sup 67}Zn. Status was based on serum copper and zinc, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume. Copper absorption averaged 18 {plus minus} 1% during vitamin B-6 depletion, significantly lower than 24 {plus minus} 1% during repletion, but serum copper was not affected and balance was positive. Iron absorption was not impaired significantly by vitamin B-6 deficient diets, but status declined during the depletion period. Zinc absorption averaged 40 {plus minus} 2% during depletion and 27 {plus minus} 2% during repletion. Zinc absorption and retention were significantly greater during vitamin B-6 depletion, but serum zinc declined suggesting the absorbed zinc was not available for utilization. The results suggest that vitamin B-6 depletion of young women may inhibit copper absorption, affect iron status and alter zinc metabolism. The effects of vitamin B-6 depletion differ markedly among these elements.

Turnlund, J.R.; Keyes, W.R.; Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Kretsch, M.J.; Sauberlich, H.E. (USDA/ARS, San Francisco, CA (United States) Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA (United States))

1991-03-11

285

Analysis of total copper, cadmium and lead in refuse-derived fuels (RDF): study on analytical errors using synthetic samples.  

PubMed

Components with extraordinarily high analyte contents, for example copper metal from wires or plastics stabilized with heavy metal compounds, are presumed to be a crucial source of errors in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) analysis. In order to study the error generation of those 'analyte carrier components', synthetic samples spiked with defined amounts of carrier materials were mixed, milled in a high speed rotor mill to particle sizes <1 mm, <0.5 mm and <0.2 mm, respectively, and analyzed repeatedly. Copper (Cu) metal and brass were used as Cu carriers, three kinds of polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) carriers, and paper and polyethylene as bulk components. In most cases, samples <0.2 mm delivered good recovery rates (rec), and low or moderate relative standard deviations (rsd), i.e. metallic Cu 87-91% rec, 14-35% rsd, Cd from flexible PVC yellow 90-92% rec, 8-10% rsd and Pb from rigid PVC 92-96% rec, 3-4% rsd. Cu from brass was overestimated (138-150% rec, 13-42% rsd), Cd from flexible PVC grey underestimated (72-75% rec, 4-7% rsd) in <0.2 mm samples. Samples <0.5 mm and <1 mm spiked with Cu or brass produced errors of up to 220% rsd (<0.5 mm) and 370% rsd (<1 mm). In the case of Pb from rigid PVC, poor recoveries (54-75%) were observed in spite of moderate variations (rsd 11-29%). In conclusion, time-consuming milling to <0.2 mm can reduce variation to acceptable levels, even given the presence of analyte carrier materials. Yet, the sources of systematic errors observed (likely segregation effects) remain uncertain. PMID:23027034

Skutan, Stefan; Aschenbrenner, Philipp

2012-10-01

286

Relationship between Paratuberculosis and the microelements Copper, Zinc, Iron, Selenium and Molybdenum in Beef Cattle.  

PubMed

To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship between selenium deficiencies in animals with Map infection and ELISA positive results. PMID:24159298

Paolicchi, F; Perea, J; Cseh, S; Morsella, C

2013-05-17

287

Relationship between Paratuberculosis and the microelements Copper, Zinc, Iron, Selenium and Molybdenum in Beef Cattle  

PubMed Central

To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship between selenium deficiencies in animals with Map infection and ELISA positive results.

Paolicchi, F.; Perea, J.; Cseh, S.; Morsella, C.

2013-01-01

288

Seasonal changes of zinc, copper, and iron in gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) fed fortified diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four groups of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) were fed diets with additional metal contents: a basal diet (diet A) contained Zn at 60.9 ± 1.9 mg\\/kg diet, Cu at 3.9 ±\\u000a 0.9 mg\\/kg diet, and Fe at 138.3 ± 6.8 mg\\/kg diet; the other diets were supplemented with copper (20 mg\\/kg, diet B), iron (100\\u000a mg\\/kg, diet C), or

Emilio Carpeme; Rossella Serra; Maurizio Manera; Gloria Isani

1999-01-01

289

Comparative study between probe focussed sonication and conventional stirring in the evaluation of cadmium and copper in plants.  

PubMed

Ultrasound (US)-assisted extraction has been widely used for metal ion extraction in plants due to its unique properties of decreased extraction time, minimal contamination, low reagent consumption and low cost. However, very few papers present a sound comparison between probe-focussed sonication and conventional stirring in the evaluation of metal ion extraction in plants. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted digestion has been evaluated and compared to magnetic stirring for total copper and cadmium determination by atomic absorption spectrometry in biological samples (plants, plankton and mussels). The same experimental conditions of sample amount and particle size, extractant solution and extraction time were applied for both ultrasound and magnetic stirring-assisted extraction methods in order to truly compare their effect on metal ion solubilisation. To gain further insight in this issue, dried and fresh plants were tested. The results obtained indicated that osmotic tension in cell walls, produced when dried and powdered samples were immersed in the extractant solution, had an important contribution to metal ion solubilisation, the enhancement due to US for the same purpose being negligible. PMID:20890593

Pereira, Sara; Fonseca, Luís P; Capelo, José L; Armas, Teresa; Vilhena, Fernanda; Pinto, Ana P; Gonçalves, Maria L S; Mota, A M

2010-10-02

290

Vitamin E attenuates liver injury induced by exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and copper in albino mice  

PubMed Central

Water pollution is the contamination of water resources by harmful wastes or toxins. Both community and private sources of drinking water are susceptible to a myriad of chemical contaminants. Heavy metals pollution of surface water can create health risks. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on male mice exposed to a mixture of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and copper) in their drinking water for seven weeks. Significant increases of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were detected in heavy metals-treated mice. Histopathologically, the liver sections from heavy metals-treated mice showed severe changes including disarrangement of hepatic strands, rupture in hepatocytes, advanced hepatocellular necrosis, dilation and congestion of blood vessels with hemorrhage, dense lymphocytic infiltration round the central vein and dark stained hepatocytic nuclei indicating cell pycnosis. Administration of vitamin E at a dose of 50 IU/kg body weight, five times weekly improved the observed biochemical and histopathological changes induced by these heavy metals intoxication. Hence, the results of this study suggest that vitamin E protects against these heavy metals-induced liver injury and the attenuating effect of vitamin E may be due to its antioxidant activity.

Al-Attar, Atef M.

2011-01-01

291

Vitamin E attenuates liver injury induced by exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and copper in albino mice.  

PubMed

Water pollution is the contamination of water resources by harmful wastes or toxins. Both community and private sources of drinking water are susceptible to a myriad of chemical contaminants. Heavy metals pollution of surface water can create health risks. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on male mice exposed to a mixture of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and copper) in their drinking water for seven weeks. Significant increases of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were detected in heavy metals-treated mice. Histopathologically, the liver sections from heavy metals-treated mice showed severe changes including disarrangement of hepatic strands, rupture in hepatocytes, advanced hepatocellular necrosis, dilation and congestion of blood vessels with hemorrhage, dense lymphocytic infiltration round the central vein and dark stained hepatocytic nuclei indicating cell pycnosis. Administration of vitamin E at a dose of 50 IU/kg body weight, five times weekly improved the observed biochemical and histopathological changes induced by these heavy metals intoxication. Hence, the results of this study suggest that vitamin E protects against these heavy metals-induced liver injury and the attenuating effect of vitamin E may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:23961152

Al-Attar, Atef M

2011-08-05

292

Deriving freshwater quality criteria for copper, cadmium, aluminum and manganese for protection of aquatic life in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Freshwater quality criteria for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia, which were Macrobrachiumlanchesteri (prawn), two fish -Poeciliareticulata and Rasborasumatrana, Melanoidestuberculata (snail), Stenocyprismajor (ostracod), Chironomusjavanus (midge larvae), Naiselinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynusmelanostictus (tadpole), to determine 96-h LC50 values for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn. The final acute values (FAVs) for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn were 2.5, 3.0, 977.8, and 78.3 ?gL(-1), respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a Criterion Maximum Concentration (CMC) and a criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn of 1.3, 1.5, 488.9, and 39.1 ?gL(-1) and 0.3, 0.36, 117.8, and 9.4 ?gL(-1), respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that R.sumatrana, M.lanchesteri, C.javanus, and N.elinguis were the most sensitive to Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn, respectively. PMID:23246727

Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Nadzifah, Y; Nur-Amalina, R; Umirah, N S

2012-12-13

293

NMR-based metabolomic studies on the toxicological effects of cadmium and copper on green mussels Perna viridis.  

PubMed

Traditional toxicology studies have focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. In this study, a system biology tool, metabolomics, was applied to the marine mussel Perna viridis to investigate changes in the metabolic profiles of soft tissue as a response to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both as single metal and as a mixture. The major metabolite changes corresponding to metal exposure are related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Following metal exposure for 1 week, there was a significant increase in the levels of branched chain amino acids, histidine, glutamate, glutamine, hypotaurine, dimethylglycine, arginine and ATP/ADP. For the Cu+Cd co-exposed mussels, the levels of lactate, branched chain amino acid, succinate, and NAD increased, whereas the levels of glucose, glycogen, and ATP/ADP decreased, indicating a different metabolic profile for the single metal exposure groups. After 2 weeks of exposure, the mussels showed acclimatization to Cd exposure based on the recovery of some metabolites. However, the metabolic profile induced by the metal mixture was very similar to that from Cu exposure, suggesting that Cu dominantly induced the metabolic disturbances. Both Cu and Cd may lead to neurotoxicity, disturbances in energy metabolism, and osmoregulation changes. These results demonstrate the high applicability and reliability of NMR-based metabolomics in interpreting the toxicological mechanisms of metals using global metabolic biomarkers. PMID:20843565

Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2010-08-24

294

Contact Killing of Bacteria on Copper Is Suppressed if Bacterial-Metal Contact Is Prevented and Is Induced on Iron by Copper Ions  

PubMed Central

Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces, and copper ions released from the surface have been proposed to play a major role in the killing process. However, it has remained unclear whether contact of the bacteria with the copper surface is also an important factor. Using laser interference lithography, we engineered copper surfaces which were covered with a grid of an inert polymer which prevented contact of the bacteria with the surface. Using Enterococcus hirae as a model organism, we showed that the release of ionic copper from these modified surfaces was not significantly reduced. In contrast, killing of bacteria was strongly attenuated. When E. hirae cells were exposed to a solid iron surface, the loss of cell viability was the same as on glass. However, exposing cells to iron in the presence of 4 mM CuSO4 led to complete killing in 100 min. These experiments suggest that contact killing proceeds by a mechanism whereby the metal-bacterial contact damages the cell envelope, which, in turn, makes the cells susceptible to further damage by copper ions.

Mathews, Salima; Hans, Michael

2013-01-01

295

Bioaccumulation of iron, zinc, cadmium and chromium by juvenile snail Limicolaria aurora J., fed edible mushroom Pleurotus spp from Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The effects of uptake of metals (iron, zinc, cadmium and chromium) by juvenile snail Limicolaria aurora fed edible mushroom Pleurotus spp from 3 contaminated farm sites and a laboratory grown species (control) respectively were investigated. The 120 snails were fed in plastic snaileries for 4 weeks in the laboratory. Control site was risk free. Metal uptake was low and bioaccumulation in L. aurora tissue was below FAO/WHO standard of 1 mg/kg for chromium and cadmium. Snails were considered safe for consumption. PMID:23229305

Ebenso, I E; Solomon, I P; Akoje, C C; Akpan, I P; Eko, P M; Akpan, E A; Omole, A J

2012-12-11

296

Austempering and austempered ductile iron microstructure in copper alloyed ductile iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in the austempered microstructure, the volume fraction of retained austenite, X?, the average carbon content of retained austenite, C?, their product X?C? and the size of bainitic ferrite needles with austempering temperature for 0.6% Cu alloyed ductile iron have been investigated\\u000a for three austempering temperatures of 270, 330, and 380 ?C for 60 min at each temperature after

Uma Batra; S. Ray; S. R. Prabhakar

2003-01-01

297

Ferric iron uptake genes are differentially expressed in the presence of copper sulfides in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain LR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is one of the most widely used microorganisms in bioleaching operations to recover copper from low-grade copper sulfide ores.\\u000a This work aimed to investigate the relative expression of genes related to the iron uptake system when A. ferrooxidans LR was maintained in contact with chalcopyrite or bornite as the sole energy source. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis\\u000a revealed that

Lúcio F. C. Ferraz; Leandro C. L. Verde; Renato Vicentini; Ana P. Felício; Marcelo L. Ribeiro; Fabiana Alexandrino; Maria T. M. Novo; Oswaldo Garcia; Daniel J. Rigden; Laura M. M. Ottoboni

2011-01-01

298

Maternal-fetal status of copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium and zinc in insulin-dependent diabetic pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to assess the sta- tus of essential trace elements such as copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium and zinc in insulin-dependent diabetic pregnancies at term and to compare the data with a control group. Fetal-maternal ratios of the ele- ments and copper:zinc ratio were also computed in the control and study populations. Methodology: Samples from maternal vein, umbilical

Eyad Al-Saleh; Moorkath Nandakumaran; Majed Al-Shammari; Maasoumah Makhseed; Teena Sadan; Assem Harouny

2005-01-01

299

Copper  

MedlinePLUS

... form. Copper is often added to vitamin and mineral supplements. But most people are able to get ... arthritis. Today, many multivitamins and other herbal and mineral supplements include copper. What is the evidence? Copper ...

300

Temperature Dependences of Laser Induced Plasma Thresholds and Periodic Structures by Nanosecond Infrared Laser for Copper, Iron, and Chrome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependences of laser induced plasma thresholds for copper, iron, and chrome with linearly and circularly polarized pulses from a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 4 ns) were evaluated at different temperatures from 123 to 423 K. The temperature dependence of copper with linearly polarized pulses was different from those of iron and chrome. On the other hand, the dependences of all materials with circularly polarized light showed the same tendency. The geometries of the ablated sites presented interesting tendencies, revealing some aspects of interaction between metal materials and laser that warrant further investigation.

Mikami, Katsuhiro; Motokoshi, Shinji; Fujita, Masayuki; Somekawa, Toshihiro; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Tanaka, Kazuo A

2012-06-01

301

Content of iron, copper and zinc in white sugar samples from Polish and other European sugar factories.  

PubMed

White sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small, significant amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The aim was to evaluate the content of iron, copper and zinc in samples of white sugar from Polish factories compared with commercial white sugar samples from other European countries. The investigations were conducted on 72 campaign-averaged white sugar samples from 37 different Polish sugar factories from 1996 to 2000 and on 16 commercial white sugar samples from nine European countries. The content of iron, copper and zinc in those sugar samples was determined by means of FAAS both in the sediment and in the solution after filtration on 0.45- micro m filters of sugar water solution. The content of iron, copper and zinc was low (averages 0.29, 0.06 and 0.07 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in all the white sugar samples from Polish sugar factories and other European countries. Iron and copper found in all white sugar samples were mainly in insoluble form - 77 and 69%, respectively. The contents of water-insoluble iron and water-soluble zinc in white sugar increase with a lowering of the quality of sugar evaluated according to the standards of the EU sugar market regime. PMID:12443561

Wojtczak, M; Król, B

2002-10-01

302

Copper and iron concentrations in Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) from different sites in Ireland and after culture experiments in relation to thallus age and epiphytism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, copper concentrations in plants of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis (Fucales, Phaeophyta) increased with the concentrations in the culture media and were highest in younger, meristematic thallus parts. After initial accumulation in high-copper medium and subsequent transfer to clean seawater for 5 days, no release of copper could be detected. Iron concentrations in A. nodosum tissue were

Dagmar B. Stengel; Matthew J. Dring

2000-01-01

303

The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: (1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; (2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These events are controlled by the transcription factor SPL7 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cadmium (Cd), on the other hand, is a non-essential and a highly toxic metal that interferes with homeostasis of essential elements by competing for cellular binding sites. Whether Cd affects Cu homeostasis in plants is unknown. We found that Cd stimulates Cu accumulation in roots of A. thaliana and increases mRNA expression of three plasma membrane-localized Cu uptake transporters, COPT1, COPT2 and COPT6. Further analysis of Cd sensitivity of single and triple copt1copt2copt6 mutants, and transgenic plants ectopically expressing COPT6 suggested that Cu uptake is an essential component of Cd resistance in A. thaliana. Analysis of the contribution of the SPL7-dependent pathway to Cd-induced expression of COPT1, COPT2 and COPT6 showed that it occurs, in part, through mimicking the SPL7-dependent transcriptional Cu deficiency response. This response also involves components of the Cu reallocation system, miRNA398, FSD1, CSD1 and CSD2. Furthermore, seedlings of the spl7-1 mutant accumulate up to 2-fold less Cu in roots than the wild-type, are hypersensitive to Cd, and are more sensitive to Cd than the triple copt1copt2copt6 mutant. Together these data show that exposure to excess Cd triggers SPL7-dependent Cu deficiency responses that include Cu uptake and reallocation that are required for basal Cd tolerance in A. thaliana. PMID:23835944

Gayomba, Sheena R; Jung, Ha-Il; Yan, Jiapei; Danku, John; Rutzke, Michael A; Bernal, Maria; Krämer, Ute; Kochian, Leon V; Salt, David E; Vatamaniuk, Olena K

2013-08-21

304

Integrating naive Bayes models and external knowledge to examine copper and iron homeostasis in S. cerevisiae.  

PubMed

A novel suite of analytical techniques and visualization tools are applied to 78 published transcription profiling experiments monitoring 5,687 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes in studies examining cell cycle, responses to stress, and diauxic shift. A naive Bayes model discovered and characterized 45 classes of gene profile vectors. An enrichment measure quantified the association between these classes and specific external knowledge defined by four sets of categories to which genes can be assigned: 106 protein functions, 5 stages of the cell cycle, 265 transcription factors, and 16 chromosomal locations. Many of the 38 genes in class 42 are known to play roles in copper and iron homeostasis. The 17 uncharacterized open reading frames in this class may be involved in similar homeostatic processes; human homologs of two of them could be associated with as yet undefined disease states arising from aberrant metal ion regulation. The Met4, Met31, and Met32 transcription factors may play a role in coregulating genes involved in copper and iron metabolism. Extensions of the simple graphical model used for clustering to learning more complex models of genetic networks are discussed. PMID:11120873

Moler, E J; Radisky, D C; Mian, I S

2000-12-18

305

Rapid Size- Controlled Synthesis of Dextran-Coated, Copper-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of dual modality probes enabled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has been on the rise in recent years due to the potential for these probes to facilitate combining the complementary high resolution of MRI and the high sensitivity of PET. The efficient synthesis of multimodal probes that include the radiolabels for PET can be hindered due to prolonged reaction times during radioisotope incorporation, and the resulting decay of the radiolabel. Along with a time-efficient synthesis, one also needs an optimal synthesis that yields products in a desirable size range (between 20-100 nm) to increase blood retention time. In this work, we describe a novel, rapid, microwave-based synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles doped with copper (DIO/Cu). Traditional methods for synthesizing dextran-coated iron oxide particles require refluxing for 2 hours and result in approximately 50 nm particles. We demonstrate that microwave synthesis can produce 50 nm nanoparticles in 5 minutes of heating. We discuss the various parameters used in the microwave synthesis protocol to vary the size distribution of DIO/Cu, and demonstrate the successful incorporation of copper into these particles with the aim of future use for rapid 64Cu incorporation.

Wong, Ray M.

306

Dynamic properties of edge dislocations decorated by interstitial dislocation loops in alpha-iron and copper.  

SciTech Connect

Clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in the form of parallel crowdions are created directly in high-energy displacement cascades produced in metals by neutron irradiation. They are equivalent to small perfect dislocation loops and, in isolation in pure metals, undergo fast thermally-activated glide in the direction of their Burgers vector. Their strain field and ability to glide allows long-range interaction with other extended defects. Indeed, dislocations decorated by dislocation loops are commonly observed after neutron irradiation. Dislocations gliding under applied stress also encounter these mobile defects. These effects influence mechanical properties and require further investigation. This paper presents results from an atomic-scale study of copper and {alpha}-iron at either 0 K or 300 K. Loop drag and breakaway effects are investigated for an edge dislocation under applied stress interacting with a row of SIA loops below its glide plane. The maximum speed at which a loop is dragged is lower in copper than iron, and the applied stress at which this occurs is also lower. These differences in the dynamics of cluster-dislocation interaction are determined by the atomic structure of the defects and cannot be investigated by continuum treatment.

Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Bacon, David J [University of Liverpool; Rong, Zhouwen [University of Liverpool; Singh, Bachu [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark

2004-01-01

307

Calorie restriction up-regulates iron and copper transport genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Calorie restriction (CR) is a non genetic intervention, known to confer longevity benefits across the various phyla from unicellular yeast to mammals. CR also invokes homeostatic responses similar to stress, however the sequence of molecular events leading to longevity is still illusive. In this study, we analysed the whole genome gene expression profile in response to CR, mutations mimicking CR, heat shock and H(2)O(2) from a gene ontology perspective. Our analysis revealed that mitochondrion is a common hub in the gene expression programme under these conditions and the electron transport chain (ETC) is a major player. Consequently the genes involved in the metal ion transport were also significantly up-regulated. We confirmed the results of the in silico analysis using quantitative real time PCR which showed up-regulation of genes involved in respiration and transport of iron and copper. The promoter activity of one of the representative genes, FET3, was also found to be higher upon calorie restriction. Altogether, our results indicate that upon calorie restriction the levels of iron and copper fall in cells, which elicits a transcriptional response up-regulating the genes involved in their uptake to maintain cellular homeostasis. PMID:21031176

Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Mittal, Nitish; Deswal, Sumit; Roy, Nilanjan

2010-10-28

308

Iron, copper, and nickel behavior in buffered, neutral aluminum chloride:1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron, copper, and nickel electrodes were examined as possible metal\\/metal(II) chloride cathodes for the room temperature sodium\\/metal chloride battery in a molten salt composed of sodium chloride (NaCl), aluminum chloride (AlClâ), and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC). The iron electrode was investigated in basic, neutral-like, and acidic MEIC:AlClâ melts. The solubility and the kinetics of the reduction of Fe(II) was a function

Stephen Pye; J. Winnick; P. A. Kohl

1997-01-01

309

Atmospheric pollution in the Venice area. II. Iron, manganese, lead, vanadium and cadmium in suspended particulate.  

PubMed

The average yearly and semestral concentrations of some metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Cd) contained in the suspended particulate of three different sites in the Venice area, are presented. The 24-h concentrations of the five metals fit a log-normal distribution. The correlation coefficients between metals, and between metals and sulphur dioxide, suspended particles, and sulphates are also reported; they are very high in the insular zone (historical centre of Venice). This is not found for cadmium, which shows a different behaviour with respect to the other metals. Cadmium is the only pollutant studied whose concentration is higher in the insular urban zone than in the industrial and urban zones of the mainland. PMID:3810148

Bertolaccini, M A; Gucci, P M

1986-12-01

310

Studies on the Conduction Process of Cadmium-Substituted Copper Chromite Spinels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical resistivity (?p) and thermoelectric power (?) measurements were carried out in air on Cu1-xCdxCr2O4 (0 <= x <= 1.0) spinel oxides in the temperature ranges 300-873 K and 300-723 K, respectively. Thermal activation energy (Ea), carrier concentration (n), activation energy for carrier concentration generation (En), and mobility (?) values have been calculated from the resistivity and thermoelectric power data. The results show that conduction in cadmium-substituted CuCr2O4 samples is by hopping of charge carriers on the octahedral sites. The charge carrier hopping is, however, impeded at lower temperatures due to the larger Crocl-Crocl distance when the large Cd2+ ion (97 pm) is substituted for the Cu2+ ion (72 pm) in the tetrahedral site of the CuCr2O4 lattice. The temperature dependence of ? shows a change in the sign of the slope at the temperature at which hopping conduction becomes evident.

Basak, D.; Ghose, J.

1994-10-01

311

Partitioning and distribution of dissolved copper, cadmium and organic matter in Mediterranean marine coastal areas: The case of a mucilage event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved copper and cadmium partitioning and their interaction with organic matter were investigated in shallow coastal areas of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). The percentage of DGT-labile copper as for total dissolved copper ranged from 13 to 34% during summer and from 23 to 36% during winter, whereas the corresponding percentage for DGT-labile cadmium was higher in summer (38 68%), in comparison to winter (29 44%). The CCu was found to be 100 260 nM during summer while in winter the range was 42 430 nM. The corresponding CCd reached 27 and 45 nM, respectively. The mean TEP value in summer was high (208 ?g/L xanthan equiv.), while in winter it reached 441 ?g/L xanthan equiv., which indicates significant phytoplankton activity in winter, a feature occasionally observed in the stratified study areas after the breaking down of the thermocline/pycnocline, followed by consequent nutrient enrichment of the surface layers by nutrients accumulated in the sea bottom. A significant fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exhibited surface active properties and was determined as surface active substances (SAS) in mg/L eq. of nonionic surfactant Triton-X-100. Carbohydrates were also determined and they represented up to 33% of the DOC.

Scoullos, M.; Plavsic, M.; Karavoltsos, S.; Sakellari, A.

2006-04-01

312

Extraction and concentration study of cadmium from zinc plant leach solutions by emulsion liquid membrane using trioctylamine as extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cementation cake (CINKUR Co., Turkiye) was leached with hydrochloric acid. The extraction and concentration of cadmium from these acidic leach solutions, containing various other ions, such as zinc, iron, lead, aluminium, copper, cobalt, and nickel, by an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) using trioctylamine (TOA) as extractant were studied. The study has highlighted the importance and influence of membrane composition

Recep Ali Kumbasar

2009-01-01

313

Milk trace elements in lactating cows environmentally exposed to higher level of lead and cadmium around different industrial units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was carried out to assess the trace mineral profile of milk from lactating cows reared around different industrial units and to examine the effect of blood and milk concentration of lead and cadmium on copper, cobalt, zinc and iron levels in milk. Respective blood and milk samples were collected from a total of 201 apparently healthy lactating

R. C. Patra; D. Swarup; P. Kumar; D. Nandi; R. Naresh; S. L. Ali

2008-01-01

314

Genetic Effects on Toxic and Essential Elements in Humans: Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Selenium, and Zinc in Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives An excess of toxic trace elements or a deficiency of essential ones has been implicated in many common diseases or public health problems, but little is known about causes of variation between people living within similar environments. We estimated effects of personal and socioeconomic characteristics on concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in erythrocytes and tested for genetic effects using data from twin pairs. Methods We used blood samples from 2,926 adult twins living in Australia (1,925 women and 1,001 men; 30–92 years of age) and determined element concentrations in erythrocytes by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. We assessed associations between element concentrations and personal and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as the sources of genetic and environmental variation and covariation in element concentrations. We evaluated the chromosomal locations of genes affecting these characteristics by linkage analysis in 501 dizygotic twin pairs. Results Concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn, and of As and Hg showed substantial correlations, concentrations of As and Hg due mainly to common genetic effects. Genetic linkage analysis showed significant linkage for Pb [chromosome 3, near SLC4A7 (solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, member 7)] and suggestive linkage for Cd (chromosomes 2, 18, 20, and X), Hg (chromosome 5), Se (chromosomes 4 and 8), and Zn {chromosome 2, near SLC11A1 [solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters)]}. Conclusions Although environmental exposure is a precondition for accumulation of toxic elements, individual characteristics and genetic factors are also important. Identification of the contributory genetic polymorphisms will improve our understanding of trace and toxic element uptake and distribution mechanisms.

Whitfield, John B.; Dy, Veronica; McQuilty, Robert; Zhu, Gu; Heath, Andrew C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2010-01-01

315

A new 2D heterometallic Cu\\/Cd mixed-anion polymer with dicyanamide and thiocyanate bridges formed via the reaction of elemental copper, cadmium dicyanamide and ethylenediamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new heterometallic 2D polymer [Cu(en)2Cd(dca)2(SCN)2]n (en=ethylenediamine; dca=dicyanamide, N(CN)2?), the first example of a compound containing the unique mixed-anion Cd(dca)2(SCN)22? fragment, has been prepared from copper powder, cadmium dicyanamide, ammonium thiocyanate and ethylenediamine in methanol solution in air. The polymeric sheets of the compound comprise two different rings – 28-membered [Cu2Cd4(?1,5-dca)2(?1,3-NCS)4] macrocycles in which two 12-membered [Cd2(?1,5-dca)2] rings form sections.

Svitlana R Petrusenko; Vladimir N Kokozay; Brian W Skelton; Wolfgang Linert

2004-01-01

316

Determination of copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, lead, cadmium, and mercury ions in water by solid-phase extraction and the RP-HPLC with UV-Vis detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the simultaneous determination of seven heavy metal ions in water by solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed. The copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, lead, cadmium, and mercury ions were pre-column derivatized with tetra(m-aminophenyl)porphyrin (Tm-APP) to form colored chelates. The metal-Tm-APP chelates in 100 mL of sample were preconcentrated to 1 mL by solid-phase

Qiufen Hu; Guangyu Yang; Yiyun Zhao; Jiayuan Yin

2003-01-01

317

Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in cultured oysters under two contrasting climatic conditions in coastal lagoons from SE Gulf of California, Mexico.  

PubMed

In order to determine the metal concentrations in cultured oysters from four coastal lagoons from SE Gulf of California, several individuals of Crassostrea gigas and C. corteziensis were collected and their cadmium, copper, lead and zinc levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The concentration of metals in oyster soft tissue was Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb. In two lagoons, Cd concentrations (10.1-13.5 ?g g(-1) dw) exceeded the maximum level allowed according to the Official Mexican Standard (NOM-031-SSA1-1993), which is equivalent to the WHO recommended Cd levels in organisms used for human consumption. PMID:21748472

Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba

2011-07-07

318

Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium and Zinc Utilization of Humans as Affected by Consumption of Black, Decaffeinated Black and Green Teas  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: The black, decaffeinated black and green teas had little, if any, influence on the subjects’ utilization of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium and zinc.Controversy exists as to the nutritional effects of tea. Both beneficial and detrimental nutritional effects have been demonstrated in animal and human studies. The objectives of the study were to compare effects of black, decaffeinated black

E. A. Prystai; C. V Kies; J. A. Driskell

1997-01-01

319

Uptake of iron, zinc, manganese, and copper by seedlings of hybrid and traditional rice cultivars from different soil types  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pot experiments, uptake of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) by hybrid rice from different soil types was compared with a traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar. The concentration and total uptake of Fe in the shoots of hybrid rice grown in Oxisol and Ultisol were lower than those of the traditional cultivar. The concentration and

X. Yang; V. Römheld; H. Marschner

1994-01-01

320

Influence of iron and copper nanoparticle powder on the production of lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the fungus Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot fungi are one of the key group of microorganisms that help to enrich the soil via degradation of wood. In the current communication, influence of iron and copper nanoparticles on the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Trametes versicolor have been investigated. The production of enzymes in the presence of the two nanoparticles was compared to that of ferrous

Vishal Shah; Petra Dobiášová; Petr Baldrian; František Nerud; Amit Kumar; Sudipta Seal

2010-01-01

321

pH-Dependent reactivity of oxidants formed by iron and copper-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by iron and copper leads to the generation of reactive oxidants capable of oxidizing various organic compounds. However, the specific nature of the reactive oxidants is still unclear, with evidence suggesting the production of hydroxyl radical or high-valent metal species. To identify the reactive species in the Fenton system, the oxidation of a series of different compounds (phenol, benzoic acid, methanol, Reactive Black 5 and arsenite) was studied for iron- and copper-catalyzed reactions at varying pH values. At lower pH values, more reactive oxidants appear to be formed in both iron and copper-catalyzed systems. The aromatic compounds, phenol and benzoic acid, were not oxidized under neutral or alkaline pH conditions, whereas methanol, Reactive Black 5, and arsenite were oxidized to a different degree, depending on the catalytic system. The oxidants responsible for the oxidation of compounds at neutral and alkaline pH values are likely to be high-valent metal complexes of iron and copper (i.e., ferryl and cupryl ions). PMID:23433935

Lee, Hongshin; Lee, Hye-Jin; Sedlak, David L; Lee, Changha

2013-02-20

322

Group concentration and atomic-absorption determination of iron, manganese, Zinc, Copper, Cobalt, and nickel in powdered molybdenum and tungsten  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a rapid, selective, and simple method for the group concentration and separation of trace concentrations (n /SUP ./ 10/sup -4/%) of iron (III), manganese (II), zinc (II), copper (II), cobalt (II), and nickel (II) from powdered molybdenum and tungsten using the polymeric chelate sorbent polystyrene-methyleneiminino-4-nitro-6-sulfophenol.

Basargin, N.N.

1986-08-01

323

Copper, iron, and zinc imbalances in severely degenerated brain regions in Alzheimer's disease: possible relation to oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) levels in five different brain regions (amygdala, hippocampus, inferior parietal lobule, superior and middle temporal gyri, and cerebellum) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched control subjects. A significant decrease in Cu, and significant increases in Zn and Fe were found in AD

M. A Deibel; W. D Ehmann; W. R Markesbery

1996-01-01

324

Iron, Zinc, and Copper Concentration in Serum, Various Organs, and Hair of Dogs with Experimentally Induced Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of iron, zinc, and copper in serum, pancreas, liver, duodenum, kidneys, myocardium, brain, and hair was studied in dogs with experimentally induced exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was performed surgically in eight healthy, 8-month-old, mongrel dogs (group I). An equal number of dogs, of the same breed and age, were used as controls (group II). One month

Katerina Adamama-Moraitou; Timoleon Rallis; Achilles Papasteriadis; Nikolaos Roubies; Helen Kaldrimidou

2001-01-01

325

Concentrations of Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, and Zinc in Young Female Hair with Different Body Mass Indexes in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the metal concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, and zinc in three groups of young female hair (n = 180), from women aged between 15 to 19 years, with different body mass indexes (BMI) of BMI < 18, BMI between 18 and 23, and BMI > 24 was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The hair samples

Chin-Thin Wang; Wei-Tun Chang; Lin-Her Jeng; Po-En Liu; Li-Yun Liud

2005-01-01

326

Management of dietary essential metals (iron, copper, zinc, chromium and manganese) by Wistar and Zucker obese rats fed a self-selected high-energy diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The balances and content of essential elements (iron, copper, zinc, chromium and manganese) in the body of Wistar, Zucker lean and Zucker obese rats fed a reference or cafeteria diet from day 30 to 60 after birth have been studied. Intestinal iron absorption compensated for low iron content of the cafeteria diet and the extra needs of growth and fat

José-Antonio Fernández-López; Montserrat Esteve; Immaculada Rafecas; Xavier Remesar; Marià Alemany

1994-01-01

327

No significant effect of iron deficiency on cadmium body burden or kidney dysfunction among women in the general population in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine if iron-deficient conditions modify body burden or health effects of cadmium among women in the general population in Japan.Methods. In 2002, 1,482 women aged 20 to 74 years in six prefectures in Japan provided informed consent to participate in this study. They offered peripheral blood and spot urine samples, and answered questionnaires on their social habits and

T. Tsukahara; T. Ezaki; J. Moriguchi; K. Furuki; Y. Fukui; H. Ukai; S. Okamoto; H. Sakurai; M. Ikeda

2003-01-01

328

Modeling of copper(II), cadmium(II), and lead(II) adsorption on red mud  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption of toxic heavy metal cations, i.e., Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II), on red muds has been modeled with the aid of a modified Langmuir approach assuming single-site adsorption and of a double-site binding model incorporating the effect of pH. For equilibrium concentrations of metal solutions between 0.03 and 5.8 mmol.dm{sup {minus}3} and equilibrium pH between 4.4 and 5.6, adsorption equilibrium constants corresponding to single- and double-site binding were found by linear and nonlinear least-squares approximation, respectively, and the double-site model was shown to conform better to experimental data. The contributions of the monomeric and dimeric hydroxo-complexes of Cu(II) to total copper adsorption at a fixed pH were also investigated. The Langmuir parameters of adsorption were found with the aid of the linearized Langmuir isotherm. This work aims to clarify heavy metal adsorption behavior on composite sorbents consisting of hydrated oxides.

Apak, R.; Gueclue, K. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry; Turgut, M.H. [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1998-07-01

329

ESR of copper and iron complexes with antitumor and cytotoxic properties.  

PubMed Central

The relatively few iron and copper metal complexes which have been examined in cells and tissues for their redox properties, radical generation properties, and antitumor activity are discussed for studies which utilized electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). A common property of a number of metal complexes, which include bleomycin, adriamycin, and thiosemicarbazones described in this review, is that they are readily reduced by thiol compounds and oxidized by oxygen or reduced species of oxygen to produce radicals. Structural features of these reactions are identified by ESR spectroscopy in model systems and often in cells. Furthermore, ESR spectroscopy has been most useful to probe the environment of the complexes in cells and to measure the rate of reduction of their oxidized forms. As a result of these studies, it is anticipated that more attention will be given to the exploration of redox-active metal complexes as drugs.

Antholine, W E; Kalyanaraman, B; Petering, D H

1985-01-01

330

Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1992-01-01

331

Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. The work done in the fourth quarter can be summarized as follows: (1) Calibration of the gas chromatograph for low and high H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} is completed. (2) The determination of surface areas and densities of the promoted sorbents is completed. (3) Preliminary screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor has started.

Akyurtlu, A.

1991-10-01

332

Analytical methods for copper, zinc and iron quantification in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Highly complex analytical methods with different accuracies of measurement, reproducibilities and ease of analyses are currently being used to quantify metals in cellular media and tissue samples. In this review, the analytical methods commonly used for iron, copper and zinc quantification in mammalian cells are presented and discussed. Herein, we present a literature survey of the most commonly found concentrations of these metals in various mammalian cells in culture and tissues. The aim of this review is to help researchers in metallomic-related areas identify the method that best suits their needs for the accurate quantification of these metals in cells. This accuracy goes beyond simple knowledge of the limit of detection of each technique and needs to be evaluated through comparisons with similar previous studies. PMID:23925479

Cerchiaro, Giselle; Manieri, Tania Maria; Bertuchi, Fernanda Rodrigues

2013-09-25

333

Distribution of nickel between copper-nickel and alumina saturated iron silicate slags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of nickel in slag was determined by equilibrating copper-nickel alloys with alumina-saturated iron silicate slags in an alumina crucible at 1573 K. The experiments were carried out under controlled oxygen partial pressures in the range of 10-10 to 10-8 atm by use of suitable CO-CO2 gas mixtures, and at Fe/SiO2 ratio 1.34. The results showed that nickel dissolves in slag both as Ni2+ (nickel oxide) and Ni‡ (nickel metal), and the relation obtained was: (Wt pct Ni in slag) = (ie33-01) The activity coefficient of nickel oxide (?dgNio) and distribution coefficient of nickel (ANi) is calculated to be 0.375 and 233.3, respectively. ?dgNio and ANi are found to be independent of oxygen partial pressures. The presence of alumina increases the solubility of nickel in slags.

Reddy, R. G.; Acholonu, C. C.

1984-01-01

334

Three histidine residues of amyloid-beta peptide control the redox activity of copper and iron.  

PubMed

Zinc, iron and copper are concentrated in senile plaques of Alzheimer disease. Copper and iron catalyze the Fenton-Haber-Weiss reaction, which likely contributes to oxidative stress in neuronal cells. In this study, we found that ascorbate oxidase activity and the intensity of ascorbate radicals measured using ESR spectroscopy, generated by free Cu(II), was decreased in the presence of amyloid-beta (Abeta), the major component of senile plaques. Specifically, the ascorbate oxidase activity was strongly inhibited (85% decrease) in the presence of Abeta1-16 or Abeta1-42, whereas it was only slightly inhibited in the presence of Abeta1-12 or Abeta25-35 (<20% inhibition). Ascorbate-dependent hydroxyl radical generation by free Cu(II) decreased in the presence of Abeta in the identical order of Abeta1-42, Abeta1-16 > Abeta1-12 and was abolished in the presence of 2-fold molar excess glycylhystidyllysine (GHK). Ascorbate oxidase activity and ascorbate-dependent hydroxyl radical generation by free Fe(III) were inhibited by Abeta1-42, Abeta1-16, and Abeta1-12. Although Cu(II)-Abeta shows a significant SOD-like activity, the rate constant for the reaction of superoxide with Cu(II)-Abeta was much slower than that with SOD. Overall, our results suggest that His6, His13, and His14 residues of Abeta1-42 control the redox activity of transition metals present in senile plaques. PMID:17929832

Nakamura, M; Shishido, N; Nunomura, Akihiko; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George; Hayashi, Y; Nakayama, K; Hayashi, T

2007-10-11

335

Bioremediation of copper-containing wastewater by sulfate reducing bacteria coupled with iron.  

PubMed

In order to treat copper-containing wastewater effectively using sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), iron (Fe(0)) was added to enhance the activity of SRB. The SRB system and the SRB + Fe(0) system were operated under continuous operation. The sulfate reduction efficiency of the SRB + Fe(0) system was twice as much as that of the SRB system with the sulfate loading rate at 125  mg L(-1) h(-1). The effect of COD/SO4(2-) on sulfate reduction indicates an enhanced activity of SRB by adding Fe(0). 99% of total sulfate was deducted in both systems at pH 4.0-7.0, and temperature slightly influenced the removal of sulfate in the SRB + Fe(0) system. In the copper-containing wastewater treatment, the SRB + Fe(0) system shows a better performance since sulfate removal in this system was higher than the SRB system, and the removal ratio of Cu(2+) was held above 95% in SRB + Fe(0) system at all influent Cu(2+) concentrations. PMID:23981707

Bai, He; Kang, Yong; Quan, Hongen; Han, Yang; Sun, Jiao; Feng, Ying

2013-08-26

336

Regulation of Brain Iron and Copper Homeostasis by Brain Barrier Systems: Implication in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential to neuronal function; excess or deficiency of either is known to underlie the pathoetiology of several commonly known neurodegenerative disorders. This delicate balance of Fe and Cu in the central milieu is maintained by the brain barrier systems, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) between the blood and brain interstitial fluid and the blood- cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This review provides a concise description on the structural and functional characteristics of the brain barrier systems. Current understanding of Fe and Cu transport across the brain barriers is thoroughly examined, with major focuses on whether the BBB and BCB coordinate the direction of Fe and Cu fluxes between the blood and brain/CSF. In particular, the mechanism by which pertinent metal transporters in the barriers, such as the transferrin receptor (TfR), divalent metal transporter (DMT1), copper transporter (CTR1), ATP7A/B, and ferroportin (FPN), regulate metal movement across the barriers is explored. Finally, the detrimental consequences of dysfunctional metal transport by brain barriers, as a result of endogenous disorders or exogenous insults, are discussed. Understanding the regulation of Fe and Cu homeostasis in the central nervous system aids in the design of new drugs targeted on the regulatory proteins at the brain barriers for the treatment of metal’s deficiency or overload-related neurological diseases.

Zheng, Wei; Monnot, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

337

Regulation of brain iron and copper homeostasis by brain barrier systems: implication in neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential to neuronal function; excess or deficiency of either is known to underlie the pathoetiology of several commonly known neurodegenerative disorders. This delicate balance of Fe and Cu in the central milieu is maintained by the brain barrier systems, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) between the blood and brain interstitial fluid and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This review provides a concise description on the structural and functional characteristics of the brain barrier systems. Current understanding of Fe and Cu transport across the brain barriers is thoroughly examined, with major focuses on whether the BBB and BCB coordinate the direction of Fe and Cu fluxes between the blood and brain/CSF. In particular, the mechanism by which pertinent metal transporters in the barriers, such as the transferrin receptor (TfR), divalent metal transporter (DMT1), copper transporter (CTR1), ATP7A/B, and ferroportin (FPN), regulate metal movement across the barriers is explored. Finally, the detrimental consequences of dysfunctional metal transport by brain barriers, as a result of endogenous disorders or exogenous insults, are discussed. Understanding the regulation of Fe and Cu homeostasis in the central nervous system aids in the design of new drugs targeted on the regulatory proteins at the brain barriers for the treatment of metal's deficiency or overload-related neurological diseases. PMID:22115751

Zheng, Wei; Monnot, Andrew D

2011-11-13

338

Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function in relation to biomarkers of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in men.  

PubMed Central

Blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum zinc (SZn), seminal fluid zinc (SfZn), serum copper (SCu), and parameters of semen quality and of reproductive endocrine function were measured in 149 healthy male industrial workers 20-43 years of age. The group contained 98 subjects with slight to moderate occupational exposure to Pb and 51 reference subjects. All of the subjects lived in Zagreb, Croatia. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of BPb, ALAD, and/or EP with reproductive parameters indicated a Pb-related decrease in sperm density, in counts of total, motile, and viable sperm, in the percentage and count of progressively motile sperm, in parameters of prostate secretory function (SfZn, acid phosphatase, and citric acid in seminal fluid), and an increase in abnormal sperm head morphology, serum testosterone, and estradiol. These associations were confirmed by results of multiple regression, which also showed significant (p < 0. 05) influence of BCd, SZn, SCu, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, or age on certain reproductive parameters. These effects were mainly of lower rank and intensity as compared to Pb-related reproductive effects, whereas BCd contributed to a decrease in sperm motility and an increase in abnormal sperm morphology and serum testosterone. No significant Pb- or Cd-related influence was found on levels of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C(4) and fructose in seminal fluid or on follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in serum. The seminal fluid concentrations of Pb (SfPb) and Cd (SfCd) were measured in 118 of the 149 subjects, and a highly significant (p < 0.0001) correlation was found between BPb and SfPb levels (r = 0.571) and between BCd and SfCd levels (r = 0.490). The overall study results indicate that even moderate exposures to Pb (BPb < 400 microg/L) and Cd (BCd < 10 microg/L) can significantly reduce human semen quality without conclusive evidence of impairment of male reproductive endocrine function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Telisman, S; Cvitkovic, P; Jurasovic, J; Pizent, A; Gavella, M; Rocic, B

2000-01-01

339

Study of Reaction Mechanisms for Copper-Cobalt-Iron Sulfide Concentrates in the Presence of Lime and Carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction mechanisms for the carbothermic reduction of complex mineral sulfide concentrates in the presence of lime were studied between 1073 K and 1323 K. The reaction mechanisms were studied by stopping the reduction experiments at different times and analyzing the reaction products by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Magnetite (Fe3O4) and digenite (Cu1.8S) were the initial phases formed during reduction of CuFeS2 and Cu5FeS4 mineral particles, such that metallization of iron occurred before copper above 1173 K and at an equal stoichiometric ratio of CaO and C. The metallization of iron was found to take place via reduction of intermediate oxide phase (Fe3O4/FeO), whereas metallization of copper occurred via diffusion of S2- ions away from the mineral particles or via formation of Cu-O-S liquid phase. Metallic iron and cobalt were embedded in the copper matrix due to a preferential reduction of iron and cobalt from the Cu-Fe-S and Cu-Co-S type of mineral particles. The effects of CaO/C ratio were analyzed and the rate of reactions was increasing with an increase in the CaO/C ratio. The formation of liquid phase has been discussed. The experimental results were found to be in good agreement with the thermodynamic predictions.

Hara, Yotamu Stephen Rainford

2013-09-01

340

Effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on growth, reproduction and survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny): Assessing the environmental impact of point-source metal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida: Oligochaeta) was exposed to a geometric series of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in artificial soil using the OECD recommended protocol. Mortality, growth and cocoon production were measured over 56 days to deter- mine LCso and EC~ values. No observed effect concen- trations ( NOECs) were also estimated. Furthermore, the percentage of viable

D. J. Spurgeon; S. P. Hopkin; D. T. Jones

1994-01-01

341

The Homeostasis of Iron, Copper, and Zinc in Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis, Cryptococcus Neoformans Var. Grubii, and Cryptococcus Gattii: A Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Iron, copper, and zinc are essential for all living organisms. Moreover, the homeostasis of these metals is vital to microorganisms during pathogenic interactions with a host. Most pathogens have developed specific mechanisms for the uptake of micronutrients from their hosts in order to counteract the low availability of essential ions in infected tissues. We report here an analysis of genes potentially involved in iron, copper, and zinc uptake and homeostasis in the fungal pathogens Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus species, little is known regarding the regulation of these elements in P. brasiliensis. We also present amino acid sequences analyses of deduced proteins in order to examine possible conserved domains. The genomic data reveals, for the first time, genes associated to iron, copper, and zinc assimilation and homeostasis in P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, analyses of the three fungal species identified homologs to genes associated with high-affinity uptake systems, vacuolar and mitochondrial iron storage, copper uptake and reduction, and zinc assimilation. However, homologs to genes involved in siderophore production were only found in P. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in silico analysis of the genomes of P. brasiliensis Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18 revealed significant differences in the presence and/or number of genes involved in metal homeostasis, such as in genes related to iron reduction and oxidation. The broad analyses of the genomes of P. brasiliensis, C. neoformans var. grubii, and C. gattii for genes involved in metal homeostasis provide important groundwork for numerous interesting future areas of investigation that are required in order to validate and explore the function of the identified genes and gene pathways.

Silva, Mirelle Garcia; Schrank, Augusto; Bailao, Elisa Flavia L.C.; Bailao, Alexandre Melo; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Staats, Charley Christian; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pereira, Maristela; Salem-Izacc, Silvia Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares; Oliveira, Rosely Maria Zancope; Silva, Livia Kmetzsch Rosa e; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; de Almeida Soares, Celia Maria

2011-01-01

342

A stable-isotope study of zinc, copper, and iron absorption and retention by young women fed vitamin B6--deficient diets13  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACI' A 98-d study was conducted in young women to determine the effect of vitamin B-6--deficient diets on zinc, copper, and iron metabolism. Young women were fed vitamin B-6-.dcficicnt formula initially, followed by food diets containing four increasing amounts ofvitamin B-6. Zinc, copper, and iron absorption, retention, and status were determined at intervals throughout the study. Zinc absorption and retention

Judith R Turniund; William R Keyes; Carol A Hudson; Antoinette A Betschart; Mary J Kretsch; Howerde E Sauberlich

343

Comparison of the early stages of corrosion of copper and iron investigated by in situ TM-AFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) was used for the investigation of the early stages of atmospheric corrosion of pure copper and pure iron. The information obtained by this method is the change of the topography of the sample surfaces with emphasis on the shape and lateral distribution of the corrosion products grown within the first 1300 min of weathering. Investigations were carried out in synthetic air at 80 and 90% relative humidity (RH) with additions of 250 ppb SO 2 and 250 ppb NO 2. On a polished copper surface the growth of corrosion products could be observed already at 80% RH and 250 ppb SO 2, whereas an iron surface had to be exposed to 90% RH with 250 ppb SO 2 and 250 ppb NO 2 to produce detectable changes on the surface.

Kleber, Ch.; Weissenrieder, J.; Schreiner, M.; Leygraf, C.

2002-06-01

344

An intrusion-related origin for Cu–Au mineralization in iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG) provinces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major Cu–Au deposits of iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG) style are temporally associated with oxidized, potassic granitoids similar to those linked to major porphyry Cu–Au deposits. Stable and radiogenic isotope evidence indicates fluids and ore components were likely sourced from the intrusions. IOCG deposits form over a range of crustal levels because CO2-rich fluids separate from the magmas at higher pressures than

Peter J. Pollard

2006-01-01

345

The effect of malathion, diazinon, and various concentrations of zinc, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and mercury on fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), and\\u000a iron (Fe) were conducted. Mortalities ofBarilius vagra andCyprinus carpio (common carp) were variable but LC50-96 hr were similar for pesticides. AdultB. vagra seem to be more sensitive to malathion than juvenile carp. Both juvenile carp and adultB. vagra were extremely sensitive

M. K. Alam; O. E. Maughan

1992-01-01

346

Multiple Menkes copper ATPase (Atp7a) transcript and protein variants are induced by iron deficiency in rat duodenal enterocytes.  

PubMed

The Menkes copper ATPase (Atp7a) pumps copper into the trans-Golgi for cuproenzyme synthesis, and translocates to the basolateral membrane of enterocytes for copper export. Recent studies demonstrated that three 5' end splice variants of the Atp7a transcript exist in rat duodenum, all of which are strongly induced during iron deprivation. To explore a possible role for Atp7a (and copper) in intestinal iron absorption, the current studies were undertaken to test the hypothesis that multiple Atp7a transcript and protein variants exist in intestinal epithelial cells. Northern blot analyses using probes generated from the full-length Atp7a cDNA revealed several specific hybridization bands, all of which were more intense in RNA samples extracted from duodenal enterocytes isolated from iron-deficient rats. A PCR-based approach, using forward primers specific for the alternative 5' end splice variants and a reverse primer in exon 23, demonstrated that 3 full-length transcripts exist in rat IEC-6 cells. To identify possible Atp7a protein variants, three distinct polyclonal antisera were utilized. The specificity of the antisera was first established by western blotting and immunoprecipitation studies using samples derived from isolated rat enterocytes and Atp7a knockdown IEC-6 cells. Several specific immunoreactive bands were documented, and a unique Atp7a protein distribution in cytosolic vesicle-like structures was noted. In conclusion, multiple Atp7a transcript and protein variants exist in rodent intestinal epithelial cells and are induced by dietary iron deprivation. Further studies will be designed to determine the subcellular distribution of Atp7a protein variants and possible unique functions of each. PMID:22579041

Lu, Yan; Kim, Changae; Collins, James F

2012-05-10

347

Rapid quantification of iron, copper and zinc in food premixes using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid method for the determination of iron, copper and zinc in food premixes (used during human food processing) by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been established and validated using 25 samples. Reference values were obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy after microwave acidic digestions. Studied samples presenting wide ranges of concentrations: Fe=500–35000mg\\/kg, Cu=50–4000mg\\/kg and Zn=700–32000mg\\/kg

Loïc Perring; Daniel Andrey; Daniel Hammer

2005-01-01

348

Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated Repair of Oxidized Base Damage in Human Genome by Copper and Iron  

PubMed Central

Dyshomeostasis of transition metals iron and copper as well as accumulation of oxidative DNA damage have been implicated in multitude of human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. These metals oxidize DNA bases by generating reactive oxygen species. Most oxidized bases in mammalian genomes are repaired via the base excision repair pathway, initiated with one of four major DNA glycosylases: NTH1 or OGG1 (of the Nth family) or NEIL1 or NEIL2 (of the Nei family). Here we show that Fe(II/III) and Cu(II) at physiological levels bind to NEIL1 and NEIL2 to alter their secondary structure and strongly inhibit repair of mutagenic 5-hydroxyuracil, a common cytosine oxidation product, both in vitro and in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell extract by affecting the base excision and AP lyase activities of NEILs. The specificity of iron/copper inhibition of NEILs is indicated by a lack of similar inhibition of OGG1, which also indicated that the inhibition is due to metal binding to the enzymes and not DNA. Fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance studies show submicromolar binding of copper/iron to NEILs but not OGG1. Furthermore, Fe(II) inhibits the interaction of NEIL1 with downstream base excision repair proteins DNA polymerase ? and flap endonuclease-1 by 4–6-fold. These results indicate that iron/copper overload in the neurodegenerative diseases could act as a double-edged sword by both increasing oxidative genome damage and preventing their repair. Interestingly, specific chelators, including the natural chemopreventive compound curcumin, reverse the inhibition of NEILs both in vitro and in cells, suggesting their therapeutic potential.

Hegde, Muralidhar L.; Hegde, Pavana M.; Holthauzen, Luis M. F.; Hazra, Tapas K.; Rao, K. S. Jagannatha; Mitra, Sankar

2010-01-01

349

MULTIPLE MENKES COPPER ATPASE (ATP7A) TRANSCRIPT AND PROTEIN VARIANTS ARE INDUCED BY IRON DEFICIENCY IN RAT DOUDENAL ENTEROCYTES  

PubMed Central

The Menkes copper ATPase (Atp7a) pumps copper into the trans-Golgi for cuproenzyme synthesis, and translocates to the basolateral membrane of enterocytes for copper export. Recent studies demonstrated that three 5’ end splice variants of the Atp7a transcript exist in rat duodenum, all of which are strongly induced during iron deprivation. To explore a possible role for Atp7a (and copper) in intestinal iron absorption, the current studies were undertaken to test the hypothesis that multiple Atp7a transcript and protein variants exist in intestinal epithelial cells. Northern blot analyses using probes generated from the full-length Atp7a cDNA revealed several specific hybridization bands, all of which were more intense in RNA samples extracted from duodenal enterocytes isolated from iron-deficient rats. A PCR-based approach, using forward primers specific for the alternative 5’ end splice variants and a reverse primer in exon 23, demonstrated that 3 full-length transcripts exist in rat IEC-6 cells. To identify possible Atp7a protein variants, three distinct polyclonal antisera were utilized. The specificity of the antisera was first established by western blotting and immunoprecipitation studies using samples derived from isolated rat enterocytes and Atp7a knockdown IEC-6 cells. Several specific immunoreactive bands were documented, and a unique Atp7a protein distribution in cytosolic vesicle-like structures was noted. In conclusion, multiple Atp7a transcript and protein variants exist in rodent intestinal epithelial cells and are induced by dietary iron deprivation. Further studies will be designed to determine the subcellular distribution of Atp7a protein variants and possible unique functions of each.

Lu, Yan; Kim, Changae; Collins, James F.

2013-01-01

350

Synovial fluid and plasma selenium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a great number of studies have investigated the possible role of trace elements in the etiology and pathogenesis\\u000a of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoartritis (OA). We studied synovial fluid and plasma concentrations of selenium (Se),\\u000a zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in patients with RA and OA and compared them with sex- and age-matched healthy subjects.

M. Yazar; S. Sarban; A. Kocyigit; U. E. Isikan

2005-01-01

351

Tribological behaviour and statistical experimental design of sintered iron–copper based composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sintered iron–copper based composites for automotive brake pads have a complex composite composition and should have good physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this paper, we obtained frictional composites by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) technique and we have characterized them by microstructural and tribological point of view. The morphology of raw powders was determined by SEM and the surfaces of obtained sintered friction materials were analyzed by ESEM, EDS elemental and compo-images analyses. One lot of samples were tested on a "pin-on-disc" type wear machine under dry sliding conditions, at applied load between 3.5 and 11.5 × 10?1 MPa and 12.5 and 16.9 m/s relative speed in braking point at constant temperature. The other lot of samples were tested on an inertial test stand according to a methodology simulating the real conditions of dry friction, at a contact pressure of 2.5–3 MPa, at 300–1200 rpm. The most important characteristics required for sintered friction materials are high and stable friction coefficient during breaking and also, for high durability in service, must have: low wear, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability at elevated temperature. Because of the tribological characteristics importance (wear rate and friction coefficient) of sintered iron–copper based composites, we predicted the tribological behaviour through statistical analysis. For the first lot of samples, the response variables Yi (represented by the wear rate and friction coefficient) have been correlated with x1 and x2 (the code value of applied load and relative speed in braking points, respectively) using a linear factorial design approach. We obtained brake friction materials with improved wear resistance characteristics and high and stable friction coefficients. It has been shown, through experimental data and obtained linear regression equations, that the sintered composites wear rate increases with increasing applied load and relative speed, but in the same conditions, the frictional coefficients slowly decrease.

Popescu, Ileana Nicoleta; Ghi??, Constantin; Bratu, Vasile; Palacios Navarro, Guillermo

2013-11-01

352

Iron, copper, and nickel behavior in buffered, neutral aluminum chloride:1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Iron, copper, and nickel electrodes were examined as possible metal/metal(II) chloride cathodes for the room temperature sodium/metal chloride battery in a molten salt composed of sodium chloride (NaCl), aluminum chloride (AlCl{sub 3}), and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC). The iron electrode was investigated in basic, neutral-like, and acidic MEIC:AlCl{sub 3} melts. The solubility and the kinetics of the reduction of Fe(II) was a function of acidity. In the basic melt, the FeCl{sub 2} was soluble; however, its reduction was not observed due to slow kinetics. In the neutral-like and acidic melts, the quasi-reversible reduction of Fe(II) to Fe(0) was observed. The redox potential of copper was approximately 1 V more positive of iron; however, the oxidized copper was soluble in the neutral-like melt, making it unacceptable without a separator. The oxidized and reduced forms of nickel were insoluble and the redox potential was 2.5 V positive of Na/Na{sup +}. The nickel electrode supported a charge density of 3.5 mC/cm{sup 2} at room temperature, suggesting that a high-surface-area electrode would be needed in a practical device.

Pye, S.; Winnick, J.; Kohl, P.A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1997-06-01

353

Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc content of hair from two populations of rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

The concentrations of the elements copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in hair of caged (in Maryland) and free-ranging (in Puerto Rico) rhesus monkey populations were determined. Significant chronological age-related decreases were evident for the trace elements Mn and Zn in both populations (P < or = 0.01) and for Cu and Fe in free-ranging monkeys (P < or = 0.005). The only overall gender difference was higher hair Mn concentration in free-ranging males than in females (P < 0.03). There were no significant differences in hair Cu, Fe, or Mn related to pregnancy status. Hair Zn was lower in samples from pregnant than from nonpregnant monkeys from the caged monkeys (P < or = 0.05), but did not differ in the free-ranging monkeys. Comparison of the two populations revealed that hair Zn levels were significantly higher in caged vs free-ranging animals (P < 0.001). We attribute this higher hair Zn in the caged monkeys to contact and ingestion of Zn from their galvanized enclosures. Hair iron levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in free-ranging monkeys, possibly as a result of Fe-rich soil ingestion from their environment. These data support continued investigation of the use of hair as an indicator of the exposure of large groups or populations to potentially high levels of specific minerals, and the use of nonhuman primates as models for the study of trace element deficiency and/or toxicity in humans. PMID:8862746

Marriott, B M; Smith, J C; Jacobs, R M; Jones, A O; Altman, J D

1996-01-01

354

Mixed messages in iron oxide–copper–gold systems of the Cloncurry district, Australia: insights from PIXE analysis of halogens and copper in fluid inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proterozoic rocks of the Cloncurry district in NW Queensland, Australia, are host to giant (tens to hundreds of square kilometers)\\u000a hydrothermal systems that include (1) barren regional sodic–calcic alteration, (2) granite-hosted hydrothermal complexes with\\u000a magmatic–hydrothermal transition features, and (3) iron oxide–copper–gold (IOCG) deposits. Fluid inclusion microthermometry\\u000a and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) show that IOCG deposits and the granite-hosted hydrothermal complexes

Timothy Baker; Roger Mustard; Bin Fu; Patrick J. Williams; Guoyi Dong; Louise Fisher; Geordie Mark; Chris G. Ryan

2008-01-01

355

Insoluble detoxification of trace metals in a marine copepod Tigriopus brevicornis (Müller) exposed to copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, silver and mercury.  

PubMed

The marine harpacticoid copepods Tigriopus brevicornis were collected along the French Atlantic Coast (Loire Atlantique) and subsequently exposed to different lethal and sublethal concentrations of various metals (copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, silver and mercury) for varying lengths of time. Ultrastructural investigations of control and experimentally exposed copepods were performed to investigate the intracellular localization of metals using transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Copepod digestive epithelium cells as well as the cuticular integument were found to be the major metal storage tissues. Different types of metal-containing granules were found in both metal-exposed copepods and the controls: (1) within lysosomes, (2) in intracellular calcospherites and (3) in extracellular tiny granules. The elemental composition of the granules was determined on ultrathin sections by means of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results were interpreted by considering previous data in order to understand how Tigriopus brevicornis copes with the presence of metals in its environment. PMID:17629789

Barka, Sabria

2007-07-15

356

Influence of Copper Addition and Temperature on the Kinetics of Austempering in Ductile Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a material that exhibits excellent mechanical properties because of its special microstructure, combining ferrite and austenite supersaturated with carbon. Two ADI alloys, Fe-3.5 pct C-2.5 pct Si and Fe-3.6 pct C-2.7 pct Si-0.7 pct Cu, austempered for various times at 623 K (350 °C) and 673 K (400 °C) followed by water quenching, were investigated. The first ferrite needles nucleate mainly at the graphite/austenite interface. The austenite and ferrite weight fractions increase with the austempering time until stabilization is reached. The increase in the lattice parameter of the austenite during austempering corresponds to an increase of carbon content in the austenite. The increase in the ferrite weight fraction is associated with a decrease in microhardness. As the austempering temperature increases, the ferrite weight fraction decreases, the high carbon austenite weight fraction increases, but the carbon content in the latter decreases. Copper addition increases the high carbon austenite weight fraction. The results are discussed based on the phases composing the Fe-2Si-C system.

Amran, Yogev; Katsman, Alexander; Schaaf, Peter; Bamberger, Menachem

2010-10-01

357

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast Ductile Irons Alloyed with Manganese and Copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of manganese and copper addition, singly as well as in combination, on the microstructure, micro-segregation, and mechanical properties of ductile irons. Alloy A (3.18C, 2.64Si, 0.45Mn), alloy B (3.35C, 2.51Si, 0.82Mn), alloy C (3.16C, 2.80Si, 1.08Mn, 0.56Cu), and alloy D (3.18C, 3.00Si, 1.04Mn, 1.13Cu) were melted and cast in the form of Y-block test pieces. The cast microstructures varied from ferrito-pearlitic in alloys A, B, and C to pearlitic in alloy D. However, on XRD analysis and SEM examination, the presence of martensite patches was also detected. There was a marginal decrease in nodule count in alloy B. In alloys C and D, nodule counts were higher, but the proportion of ferrite decreased drastically. Alloy D was found to be the strongest (UTS ? 800 MPa, El = 5%) with alloys A and C coming next in strength; while alloy B was weakest of the four. The presence of martensite patches in association with pearlite appears to be responsible for low toughness of these alloys. Microprobe analysis shows some silicon segregation near the graphite nodules and practically little segregation of manganese. Elemental mapping by FE-SEM does not indicate any manganese segregation.

Dasgupta, Ranjan Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Chakrabarti, Ajit Kumar; Ganguli, Ashis Chandra

2012-08-01

358

Three-dimensional electric field predictions of an iron-copper galvanic couple  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on completed experimental electric field scans and the corresponding finite element field predictions, it appears that the finite element numerical technique presents a strong analytical tool in calculating the nearfield electric intensity distributions about active microcells. These calculations were analytically achieved with the new double membrane finite element configuration representing nonlinear polarization and with a local tangent slope (impedance) definition dependent on the local potential difference. The experimental determination of the multidimensional current density structure was realized with a newly developed scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). The finite element model developed in this paper uses a priori measured uncoupled polarization curves for pure iron and pure copper. The current densities and the electric field intensities were calculated in the X, Y, and Z directions within specific regions of the electrolyte and on its boundaries. Results appear to indicate that first-order anodic mass loss can be predicated using (1) numerically predicted current density distributions on the anodic surface and (2) Faraday's law. The electric field correlation established in this work for the three-dimensional current density components provides the confidence to proceed in the evaluation of time-dependent effects of electric fields and multipolarized surfaces associated with pitting and crevice corrosion.

Kasper, Rolf G.

1987-02-01

359

Anticonvulsant-induced changes in tissue manganese, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Human epileptics have been reported to have low blood manganese (Mn) concentrations in comparison to nonepileptics, an observation that is important because Mn deficiency can increase seizure susceptibility in experimental animals. Factors that have been suggested to contribute to the low blood Mn levels in epileptics include anticonvulsant use, seizure-induced tissue redistribution of Mn, and genetics; in the present study, the first of these possibilities was tested. Wistar rats were fed semipurified diets containing diphenylhydantoin ([DPH] 3 g/kg diet), phenobarbital ([PB] 2 g/kg diet), or primidone ([PRIM] 3 g/kg diet) for 7 weeks, at which time they were killed and tissues collected and analyzed for Mn, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) concentrations. In comparison to pair-fed rats, DPH- and PRIM-fed rats had significantly elevated liver Mn concentrations, while Mn concentrations in blood, brain, heart, and kidney were unaffected by anticonvulsant exposure. Changes in the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Fe in specific tissues were also found. Overall, these findings suggest that the anticonvulsants tested do not lead to significant derangements in the metabolism of Mn. PMID:8345801

Critchfield, J W; Carl, F G; Keen, C L

1993-07-01

360

The release of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium from the mineral tissue of teeth under the influence of soft drinks and sour-tasting food.  

PubMed

This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the effects of consuming sour-tasting food and refreshing drinks on the bone tissue of teeth among teenagers. The cumulative effect of a year-long exposure of teeth to the erosive effects of a model system of acidic media (citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, apple vinegar, lemonade, the soft drink Sprite, mineral water) was studied. The effects were registered based on the amount of released biometal ions, of zinc and copper, and toxic lead, during a period of 24 hr at room temperature, using the potentiometric stripping analysis. In the given time span, amounts ranging from 75 to 750 ppm of zinc, from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm of copper, and up to 1.5 ppm of lead were released from the dental matrix, while the release of cadmium was below the level of detection. The changes to the mineral structure of the bone tissue were monitored by the Fourier's transformation infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy technique. These studies have shown that under the influence of an acidic medium significant erosion to the tooth enamel ensues and that the eroded surfaces had a radius of 1-5 ?m. PMID:22141735

Nikoli?, Ružica; Kali?anin, Biljana; Krsti?, Nenad

2011-12-05

361

Removal of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper from industrial wastewater by carbon developed from walnut, hazelnut, almond, pistachio shell, and apricot stone.  

PubMed

In this work, adsorption of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) that exist in industrial wastewater onto the carbon produced from nutshells of walnut, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, and apricot stone has been investigated. All the agricultural shell or stone used were ground, sieved to a defined size range, and carbonized in an oven. Time and temperature of heating were optimized at 15 min and 800 degrees C, respectively, to reach maximum removal efficiency. Removal efficiency was optimized regarding to the initial pH, flow rate, and dose of adsorbent. The maximum removal occurred at pH 6-10, flow rate of 3 mL/min, and 0.1g of the adsorbent. Capacity of carbon sources for removing cations will be considerably decreased in the following times of passing through them. Results showed that the cations studied significantly can be removed by the carbon sources. Efficiency of carbon to remove the cations from real wastewater produced by copper industries was also studied. Finding showed that not only these cations can be removed considerably by the carbon sources noted above, but also removing efficiency are much more in the real samples. These results were in adoption to those obtained by standard mixture synthetic wastewater. PMID:17548149

Kazemipour, Maryam; Ansari, Mehdi; Tajrobehkar, Shabnam; Majdzadeh, Majdeh; Kermani, Hamed Reihani

2007-05-03

362

Effect of the metals iron, copper and silver on fluorobenzene biodegradation by Labrys portucalensis.  

PubMed

Organic and metallic pollutants are ubiquitous in the environment. Many metals are reported to be toxic to microorganisms and to inhibit biodegradation. The effect of the metals iron, copper and silver on the metabolism of Labrys portucalensis F11 and on fluorobenzene (FB) biodegradation was examined. The results indicate that the addition of 1 mM of Fe(2+) to the culture medium has a positive effect on bacterial growth and has no impact in the biodegradation of 1 and 2 mM of FB. The presence of 1 mM of Cu(2+) was found to strongly inhibit the growth of F11 cultures and to reduce the biodegradation of 1 and 2 mM of FB to ca. 50 %, with 80 % of stoichiometrically expected fluoride released. In the experiments with resting cells, the FB degraded (from 2 mM supplied) was reduced ca. 20 % whereas the fluoride released was reduced to 45 % of that stoichiometrically expected. Ag(+) was the most potent inhibitor of FB degradation. In experiments with growing cells, the addition of 1 mM of Ag(+) to the culture medium containing 1 and 2 mM of FB resulted in no fluoride release, whereas FB degradation was only one third of that observed in control cultures. In the experiments with resting cells, the addition of Ag(+) resulted in 25 % reduction in substrate degradation and fluoride release was only 20 % of that stoichiometrically expected. The accumulation of catechol and 4-fluorocatechol in cultures supplemented with Cu(2+) or Ag(+) suggest inhibition of the key enzyme of FB metabolism-catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. PMID:22842857

Moreira, Irina S; Amorim, Catarina L; Carvalho, Maria F; Ferreira, António C; Afonso, Carlos M; Castro, Paula M L

2012-07-29

363

The acute toxicity of iron and copper: biomolecule oxidation and oxidative damage in rat liver.  

PubMed

The transition metals iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are needed at low levels for normal health and at higher levels they become toxic for humans and animals. The acute liver toxicity of Fe and Cu was studied in Sprague Dawley male rats (200 g) that received ip 0-60 mg/kg FeCl(2) or 0-30 mg/kg CuSO(4). Dose and time-responses were determined for spontaneous in situ liver chemiluminescence, phospholipid lipoperoxidation, protein oxidation and lipid soluble antioxidants. The doses linearly defined the tissue content of both metals. Liver chemiluminescence increased 4 times and 2 times after Fe and Cu overloads, with half maximal responses at contents (C(50%)) of 110 ?gFe/g and 42 ?gCu/g liver, and with half maximal time responses (t(1/2)) of 4h for both metals. Phospholipid peroxidation increased 4 and 1.8 times with C(50%) of 118 ?g Fe/g and 45 ?g Cu/g and with t(1/2) of 7h and 8h. Protein oxidation increased 1.6 times for Fe with C(50%) at 113 ?g Fe/g and 1.2 times for Cu with 50 ?g Cu/g and t(1/2) of 4h and 5h respectively. The accumulation of Fe and Cu in liver enhanced the rate of free radical reactions and produced oxidative damage. A similar free radical-mediated process, through the formation HO(•) and RO(•) by a Fenton-like homolytic scission of H(2)O(2) and ROOH, seems to operate as the chemical mechanism for the liver toxicity of both metals. PMID:23010331

Boveris, Alberto; Musacco-Sebio, Rosario; Ferrarotti, Nidia; Saporito-Magriñá, Christian; Torti, Horacio; Massot, Francisco; Repetto, Marisa G

2012-07-11

364

Influence of copper, iron, zinc and fe (3) (+) haemoglobin levels on the etiopathogenesis of chronic calcific pancreatitis--a study in patients with pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Chronic pancreatitis is a serious condition associated with severe abdominal pain, and a significant percentage of patients progresses to irreversible calcification in pancreas. The present study evaluates the degree to which the levels of trace elements, copper, iron, selenium, zinc and haemoglobin-Fe(3+), in blood, serum and pancreas have any role to play in the calcification process associated with fibrosis in pancreas. Twenty-seven calcific (CCP) and 23 non-calcific chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients and equal number of age- and sex-matched normal volunteers (50) were enrolled in the study. Surgically removed pancreatic tissue and blood samples were analysed for copper, iron, selenium, zinc, protein, collagen and lipid peroxidation products in terms of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, glutathione, methemoglobin, methemoglobin reductase and ceruloplasmin activity levels. We could find that the pancreatic tissue levels of copper, iron, protein and collagen contents were significantly elevated in CCP patients when compared to CP patients. Serum levels of copper, free ionic copper and iron were also elevated in CCP patients. The serum and the pancreatic tissue level of zinc and selenium showed a significant decrease in CCP patients. The level of methemoglobin was elevated more significantly with the concomitant decline in the activity of methemoglobin reductase. There was a positive correlation between the pancreatic level of copper and iron with the collagen and protein levels. The results of the present study revealed that the levels of copper and iron, the pro-oxidants and zinc and selenium may influence calcification process in CCP patients. Hypoxia-related tissue injury due to the formation of oxidised haemoglobin may also contribute to the pathogenesis of calcification in pancreas. PMID:20809271

Arumugam, Geetha; Padmanaban, Monika; Krishnan, Dhanya; Panneerselvam, Saranya; Rajagopal, Surendran

2010-09-01

365

Synthesis, Characterization, and Electrochemical Study of Complexes with 4,4?Bis(Salicylideneimino) Diphenylether and Cobalt(II), Copper(II), Zinc(II), and Cadmium(II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 4,4?-bis(salicyleneimino) diphenyl ether is a N2O3 Schiff base but it acts as a tetradentate ligand. Its complexes with cobalt (II), copper(II), zinc(II), and cadmium (II) were characterised using spectroscopic determinations, d.s.c. and cyclic voltammetry. In these compounds, the coordination occurs through the non-ionised phenolic hydroxyl of the ligand and the nitrogen atom of the azomethine moiety. These new complexes

S. Issaadi; D. Haffar; T. Douadi; S. Chafaa; D. Séraphin; M. A. Khan; Gilles Bouet

2005-01-01

366

Observed transitions in n = 2 ground configurations of copper, nickel, iron, chromium and germanium in tokamak discharges  

SciTech Connect

A number of spectrum lines of highly ionized copper, nickel, iron, chromium, and germanium have been observed and the corresponding transitions identified. The element under study is introduced into the discharge of the PLT Tokamak by means of rapid ablation by a laser pulse. The ionization state is generally distinguishable from the time behavior of the emitted light. New identifications of transitions are based on predicted wavelengths (from isoelectronic extrapolation and other data) and on approximate expected intensities. All the transitions pertain to the ground configurations of the respective ions, which are the only states strongly populated at tokamak plasma conditions. These lines are expected to be useful for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics in the 1-3 keV temperature range, and they provide direct measurement of intersystem energy separations from chromium through copper in the oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon isoelectronic sequences.

Hinnov, E.; Suckewer, S.; Cohen, S.; Sato, K.

1981-11-01

367

Reduced cadmium body burden in cadmium-exposed calves fed supplemental zinc  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of practical supplemental dietary zinc to modify the cadmium content in edible bovine tissues and to identify copper interactions with cadmium and zinc. The effect of supplemental zinc (200 or 600 ..mu..g/g) on the concentrations of cadmium, zinc, and copper in liver, kidney cortex, muscle, and blood of calves fed 50 ..mu..g/g cadmium for 60 days was evaluated. Blood samples were collected before and eight times after starting to feed cadmium or cadmium plus zinc. Liver, kidney, and muscle samples were collected when calves were slaughtered (baseline, at beginning of experimental feeding; cadmium-fed, at end of 60 days feeding). The cadmium concentrations of all sample types collected were markedly increased by the feeding of cadmium. Feeding 600 ..mu..g/g supplemental zinc significantly increased the zinc concentrations of liver, kidney cortex, and blood and decreased the cadmium accumulation in these organs as well as muscle. The copper concentrations of muscle or blood were not altered by feeding cadmium with or without zinc but those of liver and kidney cortex were significantly increased by higher dietary levels of zinc and cadmium. The potential use of dietary zinc salts in reducing cadmium body burden in food animals suspected or known to have high cadmium intakes is suggested.

Lamphere, D.N.; Dorn, C.R.; Reddy, C.S.; Meyer, A.W.

1984-02-01

368

Concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead and copper in fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms in an emission area of a copper smelter and a mercury smelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four metals were determined by AAS techniques in 56 samples of 23 wild mushroom species collected in a heavily polluted area in eastern Slovakia in 1997 and 1998. The area has been contaminated from historical polymetallic ores mining and smelting and by emissions from a mercury smelter between 1969 and 1993 and from a copper smelter since 1951. No significant

L. Svoboda; K Zimmermannová; P Kala?

2000-01-01

369

Molecular-level investigation into copper complexes on vermiculite: Effect of reduction of structural iron on copper complexation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present results that describe the speciation of Cu sorbed to the clay mineral vermiculite, with special attention to the effects of reduction on Cu sorption complexes. Sorption complexes were studied using powdered extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, polarized EXAFS spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ionic strength (I), background ion, and clay reduction (structural iron)

Luca J. Furnare; Arturas Vailionis; Daniel G. Strawn

2005-01-01

370

Attenuation in iron of neutrons produced by 120 GeV/c positive hadrons on a thick copper target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deep penetration experiment in a thick iron shield was carried out at CERN, at the CERN-EU high-energy Field (CERF) facility. A 120 GeV/c positive hadron beam impinged on a 50 cm thick copper target located inside an irradiation cave covered by an iron shield, the thickness of which could be varied from 40 to 240 cm. Measurements of neutron fluence and ambient dose equivalent were performed with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer and an extended-range rem counter and the results compared with Monte Carlo simulations carried out with the FLUKA code. A comparison with literature data shows an acceptable agreement. A discussion is also given on the contribution of the neutron background and of its influence on a deep penetration experiment.

Agosteo, Stefano; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, Luisa

2013-10-01

371

Dietary Copper, Manganese and Iron Affect the Formation of Aberrant Crypts in Colon of Rats Administered 3,2*Dimethyl4Aminobiphenyl1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are preneoplastic lesions for colon cancer. Altered amounts of copper-zinc (CuZnSOD) and manganese (MnSOD) superoxide dismutases have been implicated in multistage carcinogesis of both rodents and humans. Dietary factors are potential modulators of both CuZnSOD and MnSOD activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of dietary copper, manganese, and iron on

Cindy D. Davis; Yi Feng

372

Prevention of iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage by catecholamine and amino acid neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin: metal binding as a general antioxidant mechanism.  

PubMed

Concentrations of labile iron and copper are elevated in patients with neurological disorders, causing interest in metal-neurotransmitter interactions. Catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and amino acid (glycine, glutamate, and 4-aminobutyrate) neurotransmitters are antioxidants also known to bind metal ions. To investigate the role of metal binding as an antioxidant mechanism for these neurotransmitters, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and curcumin, their abilities to prevent iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage were quantified, cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the relationship between their redox potentials and DNA damage prevention, and UV-vis studies were conducted to determine iron and copper binding as well as iron oxidation rates. In contrast to amino acid neurotransmitters, catecholamine neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin prevent significant iron-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 3.2 to 18 ?M) and are electrochemically active. However, glycine and glutamate are more effective at preventing copper-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 35 and 12.9 ?M, respectively) than L-DOPA, the only catecholamine to prevent this damage (IC(50) = 73 ?M). This metal-mediated DNA damage prevention is directly related to the metal-binding behaviour of these compounds. When bound to iron or copper, the catecholamines, amino acids, and curcumin significantly shift iron oxidation potentials and stabilize Fe(3+) over Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) over Cu(+), a factor that may prevent metal redox cycling in vivo. These results highlight the disparate antioxidant activities of neurotransmitters, drugs, and supplements and highlight the importance of considering metal binding when identifying antioxidants to treat and prevent neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22450660

García, Carla R; Angelé-Martínez, Carlos; Wilkes, Jenna A; Wang, Hsiao C; Battin, Erin E; Brumaghim, Julia L

2012-03-26

373

Friedreich's ataxia causes redistribution of iron, copper, and zinc in the dentate nucleus.  

PubMed

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) causes selective atrophy of the large neurons of the dentate nucleus (DN). High iron (Fe) concentration and failure to clear the metal from the affected brain tissue are potential risk factors in the progression of the lesion. The DN also contains relatively high amounts of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), but the importance of these metals in FRDA has not been established. This report describes nondestructive quantitative X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and "mapping" of Fe, Cu, and Zn in polyethylene glycol-dimethylsulfoxide (PEG/DMSO)-embedded DN of 10 FRDA patients and 13 controls. Fe fluorescence arose predominantly from the hilar white matter, whereas Cu and Zn were present at peak levels in DN gray matter. Despite collapse of the DN in FRDA, the location of the peak Fe signal did not change. In contrast, the Cu and Zn regions broadened and overlapped extensively with the Fe-rich region. Maximal metal concentrations did not differ from normal (in micrograms per milliliter of solid PEG/DMSO as means ± S.D.): Fe normal, 364 ± 117, FRDA, 344 ± 159; Cu normal, 33 ± 13, FRDA, 33 ± 18; and Zn normal, 32 ± 16, FRDA, 33 ± 19. Tissues were recovered from PEG/DMSO and transferred into paraffin for matching with immunohistochemistry of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and ferritin. NSE and GAD reaction products confirmed neuronal atrophy and grumose degeneration that coincided with abnormally diffuse Cu and Zn zones. Ferritin immunohistochemistry matched Fe XRF maps, revealing the most abundant reaction product in oligodendroglia of the DN hilus. In FRDA, these cells were smaller and more numerous than normal. In the atrophic DN gray matter of FRDA, anti-ferritin labeled mostly hypertrophic microglia. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence of the Cu-responsive proteins Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and Cu(++)-transporting ATPase ?-peptide did not detect specific responses to Cu redistribution in FRDA. In contrast, metallothionein (MT)-positive processes were more abundant than normal and contributed to the gliosis of the DN. The isoforms of MT, MT-1/2, and brain-specific MT-3 displayed only limited co-localization with glial fibrillary acidic protein. The results suggest that MT can provide effective protection against endogenous Cu and Zn toxicity in FRDA, similar to the neuroprotective sequestration of Fe in holoferritin. PMID:22562713

Koeppen, Arnulf H; Ramirez, R Liane; Yu, Devin; Collins, Sarah E; Qian, Jiang; Parsons, Patrick J; Yang, Karl X; Chen, Zewu; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E; Feustel, Paul J

2012-12-01

374

Bosonics in the copper and iron based high transition temperature superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been long established that the phenomenon of superconductivity is administered by lattice deformations (phonons) which act to pair electrons into spinless bosons free to condense into a coherent ground state. This superconducting phase is protected up to a critical temperature above which thermal fluctuations are potent enough to destroy the resistance free phase. The strength of this phonon mediation has been calculated by strong coupling theory and found to be capable of accommodating pairing up to near 40 K. So with the advent of copper-oxide (cuprate) superconductors boasting transitions temperatures exceeding 90 K it was clear that these material represented a new breed of superconducting physics. More than twenty years after the initial discovery of these high-transition temperatures the most basic questions are yet to be answered, the most fundamental of which is by what mechanism does pairing occur? The field splits between those who feel that a boson mediator is still necessary to act as the virtual glue which binds electrons into cooper pairs while others insist that really the Coulomb force alone is enough to induce pairing physics. Even within the boson-seeker community there is no consensus on what particular type of boson is contained in this system whether it be a lattice excitation or spin excitation. This answer has been clouded by previous experimental results on the hole-doped cuprates which have made strong cases for every scenario rendering them largely inconclusive. For this answer though it is possible to explore materials that have not yet been clouded by conflicting results by performing the first high resolution ultra-high-vacuum low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of an electron-doped cuprate. A distinct and unambiguous bosonic mode is found at energy near 10.5 meV. Through comparison with other experimental data it is found that this mode does not fit the characteristics of a phonon. It is found, through comparison with neutron scattering experiments on the same sample, that this mode is consistent with a spin collective mode. Further more it is found that this mode is linked with the strength of superconductivity nominating it as the possible electron pairing mechanism. Doping and temperature dependence studies are performed to investigate this possibility. Finally the same procedures developed can be applied to the newly discovered iron based superconductors which may represent yet another type of new superconductor physics. Initial results on the first bosonic mode STM study of SrFe 2-xCoxAs 2 and BaFe2-xCo xAs2 are presented.

Niestemski, Francis Charles

375

Circulating Immune Complexes and trace elements (Copper, Iron and Selenium) as markers in oral precancer and cancer : a randomised, controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the levels of circulating immune complexes, trace elements (copper, iron and selenium) in serum of patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), oral leukoplakia (L), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), analyze the alteration and identify the best predictors amongst these parameters for disease occurrence and progression. Methods Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were estimated using 37.5% Polyethylene Glycol 6000(PEG) serum precipitation. Serum estimation of copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) was done using the Oxalyl Dihydrazide method, Colorimetric Dipyridyl method and the Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltametry respectively. Results The data analysis revealed increased circulating immune complex levels in the precancer and cancer patients. Serum copper levels showed gradual increase from precancer to cancer patients. However, serum iron levels were decreased significantly in the cancer group. Selenium levels showed marked decrease in the cancer group. Among CIC, serum, copper, iron and selenium the best predictors for the occurrence of lesions were age, serum iron, CIC, serum selenium in the decreasing order. Conclusion The present study shows that these immunological and biological markers may be associated with the pathogenesis of oral premalignant and malignant lesions and their progressions. Concerted efforts would, therefore, help in early detection, management, and monitoring the efficacy of treatment.

Khanna, Sunali S; Karjodkar, Freny R

2006-01-01

376

Synthesis of a chitosan derivative recognizing planar metal ion and its selective adsorption equilibria of copper(II) over iron(III) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the selectivity of copper(II)\\/iron(III), crosslinked N-(2-pyridyhnethyl)chitosan (PMC) with lower affinity for iron(III) was synthesized by crosslinking the Schiff's base formed in order to prevent amino groups to be metal adsorption sites from a attack of (chloromethyl)oxirane. The final chitosan derivative, PMC, was obtained by reducing the imine moiety of the Schiff's base with sodium borohydride. By

Yoshinari Baba; Koichi Masaaki; Yoshinobu Kawano

1998-01-01

377

Deuteron activation analysis for the determination of carbon in iron and copper oxide, reagents for 14 C-dating by accelerator mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the14C-dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) iron and copper oxide are used during sample preparation. In an investigation on the origin of the14C-blank, which in practice determines the dating limit of AMS, the carbon contamination was measured in both reagents by deuteron activation analysis via the12C(d,n)13N reaction. A first batch of iron was analysed radiochemically and a carbon concentration

K. De Neve; K. Strijckmans; K. Vandeputte; R. Dams

1997-01-01

378

Domoic acid: The synergy of iron, copper, and the toxicity of diatoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatom blooms generated by the alleviation of iron limitation in high nitrate-low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the oceans often are composed of pennate diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia, many of which periodically produce the potent neurotoxin domoic acid. We show that toxigenic diatoms have an inducible high-affinity iron uptake capability that enables them to grow efficiently on iron complexed by

Mark L. Wells; Charles G. Trick; William P. Cochlan; Margaret P. Hughes; Vera L. Trainer

2005-01-01

379

Effects of cadmium and copper on peroxidase, NADH oxidase and IAA oxidase activities in cell wall, soluble and microsomal membrane fractions of pea roots.  

PubMed

Twelve-day-old seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L.) that were treated for 4 days by 20 and 100 micromol/l Cd(NO3)2 or CuSO4 showed a growth reduction in all organs. From root protein extracts, the activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX; EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), coniferyl alcohol peroxidase (CAPX), NADH oxidase, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase were measured in covalently--and ionically--[symbol: see text] bound cell wall, soluble, and microsomal membrane fractions. With the exception of 20 micromol/l Cu, metal treatments enhanced GPX activity in all fractions. Only IAA oxidase activity was metal-elevated in the covalently bound cell wall fraction, while the ionic one showed Cd stimulation for all assayed enzymic activities. These effects were not entirely observed in Cu-treated plants, since APX and IAA oxidase activities were only enhanced in this fraction. However, soluble extract showed stimulation of APX activity, while in the microsomal fraction metal exposure also increased the activities of CAPX and NADH oxidase. Differential responses of root cell fractions to the presence of cadmium and copper ions are discussed in regard to the contribution of their enzymic capacities in antioxidant, lignification, and auxin degradation pathways. Comparisons between metals and dose effects are also underlined. PMID:15602814

Chaoui, Abdelilah; Jarrar, Brahim; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

2004-11-01

380

Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline  

SciTech Connect

Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

Saito, Takashi (Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Atsugi (Japan))

1994-06-01

381

The impact of a copper smelter on adjacent soil zinc and cadmium fractions and soil organic carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We investigated the chemical fractions of Zn, Cd and Cu in soils collected from positions at different distances from a copper\\u000a smelter and studied the relationships between distribution patterns of Zn, Cd and Cu, fractions and soil organic carbon (SOC),\\u000a especially “black carbon” (BC), in contaminated soils. The relationships between soil particle size and concentrations of\\u000a Zn and Cd in

Ling Liu; Longhua Wu; Yongming Luo; Changbo Zhang; Yugen Jiang; Xiya Qiu

2010-01-01

382

Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, th...

A. Cohen M. Blander

1995-01-01

383

Preparing Copper Powder from Cemented Copper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques were developed for preparing metallurgical-grade copper powder from industrially produced cement copper. Flotation was used for rejecting discrete gangue particles, acid leaching to remove residual iron and aluminum, hydrogen reduction to elimi...

J. K. Winter L. G. Evans R. D. Groves

1971-01-01

384

IRON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Iron is an essential mineral. Although abundant in nature, it is mostly insoluble and biological absorbable forms are limited to most organisms. Iron is of fundamental importance to a variety of iron-containing proteins, especially the oxygen-carrying molecules hemoglobin and myoglobin. Iron may als...

385

Identification of Genes Involved in the Toxic Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against Iron and Copper Overload by Parallel Analysis of Deletion Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and copper are essential nutrients for life as they are required for the function of many proteins but can be toxic if present in excess. Accumulation of these metals in the human body as a consequence of overload disorders and\\/or high environmental exposures has detrimental effects on health. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an accepted cellular model for

William J. Jo; Alex Loguinov; Michelle Chang; Henri Wintz; Corey Nislow; Adam P. Arkin; Guri Giaever; Chris D. Vulpe

2008-01-01

386

The presence of traces of iron and copper ions during ?-irradiation does not result in clear mutational hot spots in the lacI gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative radicals, which are produced during ionizing irradiation of DNA in water, damage the DNA and may result in mutations, which are in general randomly distributed. Alternatively, the addition of transition metal ions, like iron or copper, to DNA in combination with H2O2 and a reducing agent also results in the production of oxidative radicals. Due to binding of the

Carola A Wijker; M Vincent; M Lafleur

1999-01-01

387

Circulating Immune Complexes and trace elements (Copper, Iron and Selenium) as markers in oral precancer and cancer : a randomised, controlled clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the levels of circulating immune complexes, trace elements (copper, iron and selenium) in serum of patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), oral leukoplakia (L), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), analyze the alteration and identify the best predictors amongst these parameters for disease occurrence and progression. METHODS: Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were estimated using 37.5% Polyethylene Glycol

Sunali S Khanna; Freny R Karjodkar

2006-01-01

388

Welding Procedure Specification: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Nickel-Copper to Nickel-Chromium-Iron. Supplement 1. Records of Procedure Qualification Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness range of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal ...

C. H. Wodtke D. R. Frizzell W. A. Plunkett

1986-01-01

389

Photochemical aerobic detoxification of aqueous phenol and chlorophenol solutions promoted by iron salts and iron, vanadium, and copper oxides  

SciTech Connect

Phenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in air in the presence of soluble iron salts or insoluble V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO decompose in aqueous solution when irradiated by a luminescent lamp. The degree and the rate of decomposition are strongly influenced by the nature of the substrate and metal-containing promoter. As a result of decomposition, toxicity of solutions containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol with respect to two types of living organisms - Protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) and bacteria (Beneckea harveyi) - decreases significantly.

Nizova, G.V.; Bochkova, M.M.; Kozlova, N.B.; Shul`pin, G.B. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-09-10

390

Evaluation of micronutrient (zinc, copper and iron) levels in periodontitis patients with and without diabetes mellitus type 2: A biochemical study.  

PubMed

Context: Periodontal tissue destruction is caused by an inappropriate host response to microorganisms. Diabetes is a metabolic disease and most of its complications are due to hyperglycemia. Periodontitis is considered as its sixth complication. Micronutrients such as zinc, copper and iron are essential for human health. There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus and that these nutrients might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of this disease and its complication. An association between micronutrients and periodontitis has also been suggested by preliminary studies. However, till date there is a lack of relevant clinical data. Aim: This study was designed to estimate and compare the serum levels of zinc, copper and iron in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients and healthy individuals with and without periodontitis. Setting and Design: Single centre case-control study. Subjects and Materials: This study included 150 subjects, 50 in each group. Group 1 comprised of 50 subject with diabetes mellitus type 2 and periodontitis. Group 2 comprised of 50 subjects with chronic periodontitis and Group 3 comprised of 50 control subjects. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry method was used to measure clinical level of zinc and copper in serum. Estimation of serum iron levels was done by bathophenanthroline method. Statistical analysis: The results obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis by analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison tests using statistical software SPSS version 17. Results: The results showed that the serum levels of zinc decreased and serum levels of iron and copper increased in diabetes patients with periodontitis compared to healthy individuals with and without periodontitis. Conclusion: Imbalance of Zinc, copper and iron levels in the serum can predispose an individual to the risk of developing periodontitis. PMID:24047840

Thomas, Biju; Gautam, Anshuman; Prasad, B Rajendra; Kumari, Suchetha

391

Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on the Distribution Patterns of Zinc, Copper, and Magnesium in Rabbits Exposed to Prolonged Cadmium Intoxication  

PubMed Central

The present study is designed to investigate whether magnesium (Mg) supplementation may prevent Cd-induced alterations in zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg) status in rabbits. For this purpose, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mg were estimated in blood, urine, and organs (brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, skeletal muscle, and bone) of rabbits given Cd (10?mg/kg b.w.) and rabbits cotreated with Mg (40?mg/kg b.w.) orally, as aqueous solutions of Cd chloride and Mg acetate every day for 4 weeks. Samples were mineralized with conc. HNO3 and HClO4 (4:1) and metals concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Magnesium supplementation succeeded to overcome Cd-induced disbalance of investigated bioelements. Beneficial effects of Mg were observed on Zn levels in blood and urine, on Cu levels in urine, and on Mg levels in blood. Magnesium pretreatment also managed to counteract or reduce all Cd-induced changes in levels of Cu and Mg in organs, while it did not exert this effect on Zn levels. These findings suggest that enhanced dietary Mg intake during Cd exposure can have at least partly beneficial effect on Cd-induced alterations in homeostasis of zinc, copper, and magnesium.

Bulat, Zorica; ?ukic-Cosic, Danijela; Antonijevic, Biljana; Bulat, Petar; Vujanovic, Dragana; Buha, Aleksandra; Matovic, Vesna

2012-01-01

392

Interaction of Copper with Iron, Iodine, and Thyroid Hormone Status in Goitrous Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many developing countries, men and women are at high risk of goiter and iron deficiency. The aim of the recent study is\\u000a to assess the interaction of (Cu), with iron (Fe), iodine\\/iodide (I), and thyroid hormones in goitrous patients. Sixty goitrous\\u000a male (GMPs) and 72 female patients (GFPs) were evaluated for the Cu, Fe, I, and thyroid hormones status

Tasneem Gul Kazi; Ghulam Abbas Kandhro; Hassan Imran Afridi; Naveed Kazi; Jameel Ahmed Baig; Mohammad Balal Arain; Abdul Qadir Shah; Nasreen Syed; Sham Kumar; Nida Fatima Kolachi; Sumaira Khan

2010-01-01

393

Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1992-09-01

394

Copper, iron, zinc, and selenium dietary intake and status of Nepalese lactating women and their breast-fed infants.  

PubMed

The dietary intake of copper, iron, zinc, and selenium of 26 Nepalese lactating mothers was estimated from chemical analysis of 24-h food and beverage composites. Fasting blood and milk samples were obtained from the mothers and blood samples were obtained from the infants. The Nepalese mothers consumed significantly more Cu, significantly less Fe and Se, and similar amounts of Zn as compared with American lactating women. Blood Fe status indices and plasma concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Se were lower in the Nepalese mothers than in the American mothers. These lower values may in part be related to the high neutral detergent fiber and phytate content of the Nepalese diet, which could make these minerals less available for absorption. The high exposure to infections in Nepal may also depress Fe status indices and plasma Zn concentrations. The lower dietary Se intake of the Nepalese mothers was reflected in lower milk concentrations. PMID:3354498

Moser, P B; Reynolds, R D; Acharya, S; Howard, M P; Andon, M B; Lewis, S A

1988-04-01

395

Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper. Quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. The work done in the fourth quarter can be summarized as follows: (1) Calibration of the gas chromatograph for low and high H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} is completed. (2) The determination of surface areas and densities of the promoted sorbents is completed. (3) Preliminary screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor has started.

Akyurtlu, A.

1991-10-01

396

Calculation of binodals and spinodals in multicomponent alloys by different statistical methods with application to iron-copper-manganese alloys  

SciTech Connect

A generalization of the pair-cluster (PC) approximation in the theory of disordered systems to multicomponent alloys is proposed. It is shown that phase equilibrium boundaries (binodals) calculated in the mean-field (MF) approximation, which is used in standard calculations of phase diagrams by the CALPHAD method, coincide with the results of rigorous calculations for dilute alloys; however, the application of these methods to calculating the boundaries of the stability region with respect to the decomposition of an alloy (spinodals) leads to large errors. At the same time, in the PC approximation, the description of all statistical properties, including binodals and spinodals, turns out to be exact for dilute alloys. The methods developed are illustrated by an example of iron-copper-manganese ternary alloys.

Vaks, V. G., E-mail: vaks@mbslab.kiae.ru; Zhuravlev, I. A.; Khromov, K. Yu. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-11-15

397

Interactions of free copper (II) ions alone or in complex with iron (III) ions with erythrocytes of marine fish Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

As a consequence of human activity, various toxicants - especially metal ions - enter aquatic ecosystems and many fish are exposed to considerable levels. As the free ion and in some complexes, there is no doubt that copper promotes damage to cellular molecules and structures through radical formation. Therefore, we have investigated the influence of copper uptake by the red blood of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and its oxidative action and effects on cells in the presence of complexed and uncomplexed Fe3+ ions. Erythrocytes were exposed to various concentrations of CuSO4, Fe(NO3)3, and K3Fe(CN)6 for up to 5h, and the effects of copper ions alone and in the combination with iron determined. The results show that inside the cells cupric ion interacts with hemoglobin, causing methemoglobin formation by direct electron transfer from heme Fe2+ to Cu2+. Potassium ferricyanide as a source of complexed iron decreases Met-Hb formation induced by copper ions unlike Fe(NO3)3. We also found that incubation of fish erythrocytes with copper increased hemolysis of cells. But complexed and uncomplexed iron protected the effect of copper. CuSO4 increased the level of lipid peroxidation and a protective effect on complexed iron was observed. Incubation of erythrocytes with copper ions resulted in the loss of a considerable part of thiol content at 10 and 20 microM. This effect was decreased by potassium ferricyanide and Fe(NO3)3 only after 1 and 3h of incubation. The level of nuclear DNA damage assayed by comet assay showed that 20 microM CuSO4 as well as 20 microM Fe(NO3)3 and 10 mM K3Fe(CN)6 induce single- and double-strand breaks. The lower changes were observed after the exposure of cells to K3Fe(CN)6. The data suggest that complexed iron can act protectively against copper ions in contrast to Fe(NO3)3. PMID:19524693

Labieniec, Magdalena; Milowska, Katarzyna; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Rucinska, Agata; Sadowska, Magdalena; Jokiel, Marta; Brichon, Gerard; Gabryelak, Teresa

2009-06-12

398

Effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on growth, reproduction and survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny): Assessing the environmental impact of point-source metal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

The earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida: Oligochaeta) was exposed to a geometric series of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in artificial soil using the OECD recommended protocol. Mortality, growth and cocoon production were measured over 56 days to determine LC50 and EC50 values. No observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were also estimated. Furthermore, the percentage of viable cocoons and number of juveniles emerging per cocoon was recorded. Cocoon production was more sensitive than mortality for all the metals, particularly cadmium and copper for which NOEC reproduction values were an order of magnitude lower than those for NOEC mortality. However, there was no significant effect of metals on the viability of cocoons. The weights of earthworms declined in all treatments (including the controls) during the experiment. This was probably due to the lack of suitable food in the OECD standard soil medium used. It was concluded that future experiments should include animal manure in the test medium. The LC50, EC50 and NOEC values determined in this study were compared with concentrations of metals in soils in the vicinity of a smelting works at Avonmouth, southwest England. The 14-day LC50 for zinc in Eisenia fetida was exceeded in soils covering an area of 75 km2 around the works, compared to 4.2 km2 for copper and 4.7 km2 for lead. Soil values for cadmium did not exceed the LC50 value anywhere in the region. Similar estimates of relative effects on reproduction confirmed that zinc is most likely to be responsible for the absence of earthworms from sites close to the Avonmouth works. However, the OECD standard test overestimated the potential effects of metals on populations, since earthworms can be found as close as 1 km from the smelting works. The discrepancy between test and field observations was probably due to the greater availability of the metals in the artificial soil. PMID:15091707

Spurgeon, D J; Hopkin, S P; Jones, D T

1994-01-01

399

Assessment of zerovalent iron for stabilization of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilization of soil contaminated with trace elements is a remediation practice that does not reduce the total content of contaminants, but lowers the amounts of mobile and bioavailable fractions. This study evaluated the efficiency of Fe0 to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of Cr, Cu, As and Zn in a chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil using chemical, biochemical and biotoxicity

Jurate Kumpiene; Solvita Ore; Giancarlo Renella; Michel Mench; Anders Lagerkvist; Christian Maurice

2006-01-01

400

The Phalabowra (Palabora) carbonatite-hosted magnetite–copper sulfide deposit, South Africa: an end-member of the iron-oxide copper–gold–rare earth element deposit group?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olympic Dam-type iron-oxide copper–gold deposits are widely recognised in terrains with significant Palaeoproterozoic to\\u000a Mesoproterozoic granitic magmatism. Most researchers favour a magmatic association for these deposits, but none of the 100–2000?Mt\\u000a recognised copper-bearing deposits has a spatial and\\/or temporal relationship to an intrusive body of sufficient dimensions\\u000a to produce the hosting giant breccia and\\/or hydrothermal systems. In other words, if

David I. Groves; Noreen M. Vielreicher

2001-01-01

401

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

... high in calories but low in vitamins and minerals. Sugar sweetened sodas and most desserts are examples ... higher doses of iron supplementation [ 86 ]. Iron and mineral interactions Some researchers have raised concerns about interactions ...

402

Copper and cadmium effects on growth and extracellular exudation of the marine toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella: 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy approach.  

PubMed

In this study, metal contamination experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper and cadmium on the growth of the marine toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and on the production of dissolved organic matter (Dissolved Organic Carbon: DOC; Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter: FDOM). This species was exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu(2+) (9.93×10(-10)-1.00×10(-7)M) or Cd(2+) (1.30×10(-8)-4.38×10(-7)M), to simulate polluted environments. The drastic effects were observed at pCu(2+)=7.96 (Cu(2+): 1.08×10(-8)M) and pCd(2+)=7.28 (Cd(2+): 5.19×10(-8)M), where cyst formation occurred. Lower levels of Cu(2+) (pCu(2+)>9.00) and Cd(2+) (pCd(2+)>7.28) had no effect on growth. However, when levels of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) were beyond 10(-7)M, the growth was totally inhibited. The DOC released per cell (DOC/Cell) was different depending on the exposure time and the metal contamination, with higher DOC/Cell values in response to Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), comparatively to the control. Samples were also analyzed by 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy, using the Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) algorithm to characterize the FDOM. The PARAFAC analytical treatment revealed four components (C1, C2, C3 and C4) that could be associated with two contributions: one, related to the biological activity; the other, linked to the decomposition of organic matter. The C1 component combined a tryptophan peak and a characteristic humic substances response, and the C2 component was considered as a tryptophan protein fluorophore. The C3 and C4 components were associated to marine organic matter production. PMID:23928326

Herzi, Faouzi; Jean, Natacha; Zhao, Huiyu; Mounier, Stéphane; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Hlaili, Asma Sakka

2013-08-05

403

Bioaccumulation and Tissue Distribution of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Crassostrea virginica Grown at Two Different Depths in Jamaica Bay, New York.  

PubMed

Historically, Jamaica Bay was a site of extensive oyster beds and shellfish culture leases that supported a significant oyster fishery in the New York area. The industrial and urban expansion of the early 1900's led to over-harvesting and a deterioration in water and bay sediment quality that coincided with shellfish decline and the ultimate disappearance of oysters from the bay. Over the past 50 years, efforts to arrest and reverse the pollution problems of Jamaica Bay have been undertaken but the area still contains metals and other pollutants at levels higher than NYS Water Quality Standards. Previous we showed that Crassostrea virginica seed transplanted to the bay had excellent growth and survival despite the bay's pollution problems. In this study we measured the one-year bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of four metals in C. virginica seed that were transplanted to the bay at two different depths: one foot from the surface and one foot above the sediment. Tissues of C. virginica were dissected, dried and digested in nitric acid. Arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc levels were measured using electrothermal vaporization with deuterium lamp background correction in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer fitted with a THGA graphite furnace. Metals were distributed in the various tissues in ?g/g dry weight amounts, which correlate well with published values for whole oysters grown in other polluted areas. Metal distributions were not homogeneous throughout the animals and in most of the tissues tested, oysters grown near the surface accumulated more metal than those positioned near bay sediment. PMID:21841973

Rodney, Eric; Herrera, Pedro; Luxama, Juan; Boykin, Mark; Crawford, Alisa; Carroll, Margaret A; Catapane, Edward J

2007-01-01

404

Bioaccumulation and Tissue Distribution of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Crassostrea virginica Grown at Two Different Depths in Jamaica Bay, New York  

PubMed Central

Historically, Jamaica Bay was a site of extensive oyster beds and shellfish culture leases that supported a significant oyster fishery in the New York area. The industrial and urban expansion of the early 1900’s led to over-harvesting and a deterioration in water and bay sediment quality that coincided with shellfish decline and the ultimate disappearance of oysters from the bay. Over the past 50 years, efforts to arrest and reverse the pollution problems of Jamaica Bay have been undertaken but the area still contains metals and other pollutants at levels higher than NYS Water Quality Standards. Previous we showed that Crassostrea virginica seed transplanted to the bay had excellent growth and survival despite the bay’s pollution problems. In this study we measured the one-year bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of four metals in C. virginica seed that were transplanted to the bay at two different depths: one foot from the surface and one foot above the sediment. Tissues of C. virginica were dissected, dried and digested in nitric acid. Arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc levels were measured using electrothermal vaporization with deuterium lamp background correction in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer fitted with a THGA graphite furnace. Metals were distributed in the various tissues in ?g/g dry weight amounts, which correlate well with published values for whole oysters grown in other polluted areas. Metal distributions were not homogeneous throughout the animals and in most of the tissues tested, oysters grown near the surface accumulated more metal than those positioned near bay sediment.

Rodney, Eric; Herrera, Pedro; Luxama, Juan; Boykin, Mark; Crawford, Alisa; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

2011-01-01

405

Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish  

SciTech Connect

The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Shady Side, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

406

The Crd1 gene encodes a putative di-iron enzyme required for photosystem I accumulation in copper deficiency and hypoxia in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

PubMed Central

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii adapts to copper deficiency by degrading apoplastocyanin and inducing Cyc6 and Cpx1 encoding cytochrome c6 and coproporphyrinogen oxidase, respectively. To identify other components in this pathway, colonies resulting from insertional mutagenesis were screened for copper- conditional phenotypes. Twelve crd (copper response defect) strains were identified. In copper-deficient conditions, the crd strains fail to accumulate photosystem I and light-harvesting complex I, and they contain reduced amounts of light-harvesting complex II. Cyc6, Cpx1 expression and plastocyanin accumulation remain copper responsive. The crd phenotype is rescued by a similar amount of copper as is required for repression of Cyc6 and Cpx1 and for maintenance of plastocyanin at its usual stoichiometry, suggesting that the affected gene is a target of the same signal transduction pathway. The crd strains represent alleles at a single locus, CRD1, which encodes a 47 kDa, hydrophilic protein with a consensus carboxylate-bridged di-iron binding site. Crd1 homologs are present in the genomes of photosynthetic organisms. In Chlamydomonas, Crd1 expression is activated in copper- or oxygen-deficient cells, and Crd1 function is required for adaptation to these conditions.

Moseley, Jeffrey; Quinn, Jeanette; Eriksson, Mats; Merchant, Sabeeha

2000-01-01

407

IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

408

Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, iron, and calcium in human hair as a function of gender, age, smoking, and hair dyeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair samples were collected randomly from 110 subjects (55 male and 55 female) ranging in age from (<15–60) years. Each subject was asked to complete a personal questionnaire describing his\\/her sex, age, general health, smoking, use of hair dyes, occupational area, and living habits. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ca in human hair samples were evaluated using

Adnan Massadeh; Abdul-Wahab El-Rjoob; Hala Smadi

2011-01-01

409

Iron Absorption by Infants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research team studied absorption of iron from carefully selected iron-fortified foods that are now commercially available or are attractive candidates for future iron fortification. Because of possible adverse interactions with zinc and copper when in...

S. J. Fomon

1995-01-01

410

Solubilization of Cu 2+ from copper ore by iron-oxidizing bacteria isolated from the natural environment and identification of the enzyme that determines Cu 2+ solubilization activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubilization of Cu2+ from copper concentrate by 67 strains of iron-oxidizing bacteria isolated from the natural environment was studied. In the case of static growth on copper concentrate (5%)-salt medium (pH 2.5) at 30°C, Cu2+ solubilization activities of 65 strains including Thiobacillus ferrooxidans strains AP19-3, OK-2, OK-3, OK1–50, Funis and NASF-1 ranged from 2.5–3.5 mg Cu2+\\/ml\\/33 d. In contrast, the

Tsuyoshi Sugio; Fauzia Akhter

1996-01-01

411

Experimental analysis of iron impact on heavy metal (copper) migration in the soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focusses on analysis of the impact of iron particles on heavy metals migration in the soil within the northern area of Klaipeda city. The city has been chosen due to its function as a transit harbour locating 19 big companies related to the sea business and cargo services. Like every ecosystem, the soil is characterized by accumulating different

Vaidotas Vaišis; Lidija Šuksta

2010-01-01

412

The effect of copper additions to the mechanical properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous unpublished studies into the wear behaviour of austempered ductile irons have shown that under sliding conditions, the mechanism is one of the initial delaminations followed by so generated third body wear. Microstructural examination indicated that the sub-surface crack propagation (which lead to the delamination) was initiating at graphite spheroids in the ADI. This is similar to that type of

P. W. Shelton; A. A. Bonner

2006-01-01

413

Effect of copper content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a modified nodular iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the drilling operation of two crankshafts, both made of modified nodular iron, the drilling tool failed in one of them and a failure analysis was conducted on the two crankshafts. Results indicate that in the crankshaft where the drilling tool failed had a finer pearlitic microstructure with a higher hardness compared with the other. This difference in the microstructure

M. A. Neri; C. Carreño

2003-01-01

414

Rosette iron deficiency transcript and microRNA profiling reveals links between copper and iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe) is an essential plant micronutrient, and its deficiency limits plant growth and development on alkaline soils. Under Fe deficiency, plant responses include up-regulation of genes involved in Fe uptake from the soil. However, little is known about shoot responses to Fe deficiency. Using microarrays to probe gene expression in Kas-1 and Tsu-1 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, and comparison with existing Col-0 data, revealed conserved rosette gene expression responses to Fe deficiency. Fe-regulated genes included known metal homeostasis-related genes, and a number of genes of unknown function. Several genes responded to Fe deficiency in both roots and rosettes. Fe deficiency led to up-regulation of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes CSD1 and CSD2, and down-regulation of FeSOD genes FSD1 and FSD2. Eight microRNAs were found to respond to Fe deficiency. Three of these (miR397a, miR398a, and miR398b/c) are known to regulate transcripts of Cu-containing proteins, and were down-regulated by Fe deficiency, suggesting that they could be involved in plant adaptation to Fe limitation. Indeed, Fe deficiency led to accumulation of Cu in rosettes, prior to any detectable decrease in Fe concentration. ccs1 mutants that lack functional Cu,ZnSOD proteins were prone to greater oxidative stress under Fe deficiency, indicating that increased Cu concentration under Fe limitation has an important role in oxidative stress prevention. The present results show that Cu accumulation, microRNA regulation, and associated differential expression of Fe and CuSOD genes are coordinated responses to Fe limitation.

Waters, Brian M.; Stein, Ricardo J.

2012-01-01

415

Zinc, cadmium, and copper mobility and accumulation in reeds (Phragmites australis) in urban sediments from two stormwater infiltration basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infiltration basins are stormwater management techniques that are widely used to reduce stormwater volume. The settling of stormwater particles leads to a contaminated sediment layer at the basin surface. Phragmites australis used in constructed wetlands are widely present in infiltration basins. Such plant can play a role on the fate of heavy metals either directly by their uptake or indirectly by modification of physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment. The aim of this study is to assess Zn, Cd and Cu potential mobility and their bioaccumulation by reeds during plant's growth in urban sediments offering two different geochemical contexts. Methodology is based on the monitoring (in june, august and december) of physico-chemical characteristics of sediment deposit in two basins. These basins, "Minerve" and "Grézieu", located on both sides of Lyon city are characteristic of two different geochemical context. "Minerve" is in the east and "Grézieu" in the west part. The geology of the eastern part of Lyon is characterized by carbonated fluvio-glacial deposits. In the western part, the subsoil is mainly composed of gneiss and granit. Moreover, 20 cm of gravel and a sand layer were initially added at the surface of the "Grézieu" basin. In "Minerve", a clay material was initially added and a filter trench was built along the basin to allow water infiltration. We characterized the sediment deposit by the identification of their geochemical characteristics (Zn, Cu, Cd, total content, pH, CEC, C/N, carbonates and major elements contents …). Then we studied the potential mobility of the three metals by single chemical extraction (CaCl2 for the exchangeable phase, acetate buffer for the acido-soluble phase and diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) for the fraction associated to the organic matter). The accumulation of Zn, Cd and Cu in aerial parts and roots of the reeds was also measured. The results show clearly that "Grézieu" sediment is more enriched in organic matter and metals than "Minerve". For example, Zn contents are equal to 400 mg/kgDW in "Grézieu" whereas it is equal to 80 mg/kgDW in "Minerve". In the most contaminated basin "Grézieu", metals mobility is mainly controlled by their association with carbonates and organic matter. Thus, copper associated with organic matter may represent almost 70% of the total copper content. In the "Minerve" sediment, the metals are distributed on the different sediment components, with very stable associations on the different mineral phases. The reed accumulates more metal in the context of the most contaminated basin (Grézieu), but without any differences in bioconcentration factors. The high metal contents in "Grézieu" sediments limited also the growth of reed. Moreover, for "Grézieu" sediment, characteristics evolve with the seasons. Thus, texture decreases from June to December in parallel with an increase in organic matter and metals in the sediment deposit.

Bedell, J.-P.; Saulais, S.; Delolme, C.

2012-04-01

416

Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.  

PubMed

Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2) + NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination. PMID:21860854

del Carmen Hernández-Soriano, Maria; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

2011-08-22

417

Abundant, seasonally variable supply of glacier flour-derived iron drives high nitrate consumption in Copper River plume and adjacent Gulf of Alaska continental shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work has suggested that high iron supply may contribute to a northward increase in phytoplankton biomass along the U.S. west coast, consistent with “bottom-up” control of these coastal ecosystems. We examine this hypothesis in waters of the Copper River plume and nearby continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Alaska (GoA). These are the first data we know of examining “bottom up” control of this coastal ecosystem by the supply of nitrate and iron. These are also the first data we know of that examine seasonal variability in the mechanisms that supply iron to this region, and in the iron concentrations. High concentrations (several hundred nM) of “total dissolveable” Fe (unfiltered, pH ~2) were present in surface waters spanning the continental shelf in early April 2010, from resuspension of fine glacial flour. Concentrations decreased dramatically beyond the shelf break. This fine particulate matter represents a large source of “dissolved” Fe to these waters. Surface-water nitrate concentrations were fairly uniform (~15 uM) across the entire shelf at this time, due to deep winter mixing. By late July this shelf particulate Fe source is greatly diminished, owing to strong stratification. Yet there is abundant “total dissolveable” Fe (several mM) at this time from the Copper River plume (largest single freshwater source to the GoA) and lower (several hundred nM) concentrations in the AK coastal current (that reflect the cumulative impact of melting glaciers from further south). By late July this abundant supply of iron in the Copper River vicinity, together with strong stratification, lead to complete consumption of surface-water nitrate across the entire shelf (and extending tens of km beyond the shelf). These data are consistent with the idea that high primary productivity in this region is fueled by abundant wintertime surface-water nitrate, together with iron supply from fine, labile, glacier-derived particulate matter from seasonally variable sources.

Crusius, J.; Schroth, A. W.; Campbell, R. W.; Nielsen, J. L.; Hoyer, I. R.; Brooks, W.

2010-12-01

418

Trace determination of iron, cobalt, nickel and copper in zirconium fluoride by substoichiometric radioactivation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace amounts of transition elements (Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) in zirconium fluoride and NBS SRM's were determined by substoichiometric radioactivation analysis. The contents of impurities in sublimed sample were less than those of high-purity material and of reagent grade. The detection limits of these elements in zirconium fluoride were 10 ng\\/g for iron, 0.01 ng\\/g for cobalt, 1 ng\\/g

K. Kobayashi; T. Shigematsu

1987-01-01

419

Heat treatment of copper-alloy cast irons with spheroidal graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ukrainian Scientific-Research Institute of Metallurgy has developed cast irons with 1.5-4.0% Ni, 0.1-0.5% Mo, and 1.5-3.3% Cu and which are intended for the fabrication of rolls for the finishing stands of structural and merchant mills producing hot-rolled products [I-3]. In the cast state [i] and after a second kind of annealing (heating to 1000°C and cooling at a rate

V. I. Vakula; T. S. Skoblo; V. A. Dubrov

1987-01-01

420

Phytotoxicity and some interactions of the essential trace metals iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, copper, and boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential trace elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B in high concentrations can produce phytotoxicities. Iron toxicity resulted from 5 × 10 M and 10 M FeSO4, but not from equivalent amounts of FeEDDHA (ferric ethylenediamine di (o?hydroxyphenylacetic acid) ). Leaf concentrations in bush beans of 465 ?g Mn\\/g, 291 ?g B\\/g, and 321 ?g Zn\\/g all on the

A. Wallace; E. M. Romney; G. V. Alexander; J. Kinnear

1977-01-01

421

Carbon and oxygen isotope constraints on fluid sources and fluid–wallrock interaction in regional alteration and iron-oxide–copper–gold mineralisation, eastern Mt Isa Block, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source of metasomatic fluids in iron-oxide–copper–gold districts is contentious with models for magmatic and other fluid sources having been proposed. For this study, ?\\u000a 18O and ?\\u000a 13C ratios were measured from carbonate mineral separates in the Proterozoic eastern Mt Isa Block of Northwest Queensland, Australia. Isotopic analyses are supported by petrography, mineral chemistry and cathodoluminescence imagery. Marine meta-carbonate

Lucas J. Marshall; Nicholas H. S. Oliver; Garry J. Davidson

2006-01-01

422

Influence of Copper, Iron, Zinc and Fe 3 + Haemoglobin Levels on the Etiopathogenesis of Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis—A Study in Patients with Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pancreatitis is a serious condition associated with severe abdominal pain, and a significant percentage of patients\\u000a progresses to irreversible calcification in pancreas. The present study evaluates the degree to which the levels of trace\\u000a elements, copper, iron, selenium, zinc and haemoglobin-Fe3+, in blood, serum and pancreas have any role to play in the calcification process associated with fibrosis in

Geetha Arumugam; Monika Padmanaban; Dhanya Krishnan; Saranya Panneerselvam; Surendran Rajagopal

2011-01-01

423

Determination of Copper, Iron, Nickel, and Zinc in Ethanol Fuel by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using On?Line Preconcentration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an on?line system for preconcentration and determination of copper, iron, nickel, and zinc at µg L level by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) has been developed. Amberlite XAD?4 functionalized with 3,4?dihydroxybenzoic acid packed in a minicolumn was used as metal sorbent. The retained metals can be quickly eluted from sorbent material, with the eluent stream consisting of hydrochloric

Leonardo S. G. Teixeira; Marcos de A. Bezerra; Valfredo A. Lemos; Hilda C. dos Santos; Djane S. de Jesus; Antônio C. S. Costa

2005-01-01

424

Reconnaissance-scale conceptual fuzzy-logic prospectivity modelling for iron oxide copper-gold deposits in the northern Fennoscandian Shield, Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual approach used in this study incorporates spatial analysis techniques for data integration and analysis to perform reconnaissance-scale mineral prospectivity mapping for iron oxide copper – gold (IOCG) mineralisation in Finland. The known IOCG occurrences in Finland are characterised by the following features: (i) an epigenetic magnetite-rich host-rock; (ii) an association of Fe – Cu – Au ± Co ± U; (iii) ore minerals comprising magnetite, chalcopyrite, pyrite or

V. Nykänen; D. I. Groves; V. J. Ojala; P. Eilu; S. J. Gardoll

2008-01-01

425

Comparative study of alloxan effects in copper-loaded and iron-loaded rats: lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, proteasome and antioxidant enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in-vivo effects of alloxan on protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, as well as on proteasome and antioxidant enzyme activities\\u000a in liver and kidney of copper-loaded and iron-loaded rats, were studied. In control animals, a single alloxan dose (120 mg\\/kg,\\u000a i.p.) increased blood-glucose concentration at the 24th hr and 48th hr and, especially, on the 5th day. For these periods

Albena Alexandrova; Almira Georgieva; Lubomir Petrov; Elina Tsvetanova; Margarita Kirkova

2006-01-01

426

Effects of free iron oxyhydrates and soil organic matter on copper sorption-desorption behavior by size fractions of aggregates from two paddy soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of free iron oxyhydrates (Fed) and soil organic matter (SOM) on copper (Cu2+) sorption-desorption behavior by size fractions of aggregates from two typical paddy soils (Ferric-Accumulic Stagnic Anthrosol (Soil H) and Gleyic Stagnic Anthrosol (Soil W)) were investigated with and without treatments of dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and of H2O2. The size fractions of aggregates were obtained from the undisturbed bulk topsoil

Fang WANG; Genxing PAN; Lianqing LI

2009-01-01

427

Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13\\/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl

C. H. Edwards; J. S. Adkins; B. Harrison

1986-01-01

428

Electron transfer characterization of iron and cobalt porphyrins and copper complexes, and of their metal-carbon and metal-oxygen bond energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron-transfer and oxidation-reduction chemistry for the alkyl-iron and alkyl-cobalt porphyrins [(Por)M-R] and copper complexes has been investigated on the basis of cyclic voltammetric and controlled-potential-electrolysis measurements. Half-wave potentials for the oxidation and the reduction of (Por)M-R are directly influenced by the nature of the electron-donating or electron-withdrawing groups on the porphyrin ring and the structure of the alkyl groups.

Qui; Aimin

1992-01-01

429

Welding procedure specification: gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper to nickel-chromium-iron. Supplement 1. Records of procedure qualification tests  

SciTech Connect

Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness range of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

1986-06-01

430

Copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in blood serum and diet of dairy cattle on semi-industrial farms in central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood serum and diet concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in Holstein dairy\\u000a cattle kept under semi-industrial farming in Isfahan province, central Iran. Moreover, the effects of season, pregnancy, and\\u000a daily milk yield on serum Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations were also evaluated. The study was carried out on 12 semi-industrial

Vahid Noaman; Mohsen Rasti; Ahmad Reza Ranjbari; Edris Shirvani

431

Effect of pressure on the behavior of copper-, iron-, and nickel-based oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion  

SciTech Connect

This work analyzes the main characteristics related to the chemical looping combustion (CLC) process necessary to use the syngas obtained in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. The kinetics of reduction with H{sub 2} and CO and oxidation with O{sub 2} of three high-reactivity oxygen carriers used in the CLC system have been determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer at atmospheric pressure. The iron- and nickel-based oxygen carriers were prepared by freeze-granulation, and the copper-based oxygen carrier was prepared by impregnation. The changing grain size model (CGSM) was used for the kinetic determination, assuming spherical grains for the freeze-granulated particles containing iron and nickel and a platelike geometry for the reacting surface of the copper-based impregnated particles. The dependence of the reaction rates on temperature was low, with the activation energy values varying from 14 to 33 kJ mol{sup -1} for the reduction and 7 to 15 kJ mol{sup -1} for the oxidation. The reaction order depended on the reacting gas and oxygen carrier, with values ranging from 0.25 to 1. However, an increase in the operating pressure for the IGCC + CLC system increases the thermal efficiency of the process, and the CO{sub 2} is recovered as a high pressure gas, decreasing the energy demand for further compression. The effect of pressure on the behavior of the oxygen carriers has been analyzed in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer at 1073 K and pressures up to 30 atm. It has been found that an increase in total pressure has a negative effect on the reaction rates of all the oxygen carriers. Moreover, the use of the CGSM with the kinetic parameters obtained at atmospheric pressure predicted higher reaction rates than those experimentally obtained at higher pressures, and therefore, the kinetic parameters necessary to design pressurized CLC plants must be determined at the operating pressure. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Juan Adanez; Luis F. de Diego; Pilar Gayan; Alberto Abad [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Department of Energy and Environment

2006-02-01

432

Quantitative separation of zinc traces from cadmium matrices by solid-phase extraction with polyurethane foam.  

PubMed

A system for separation of zinc traces from large amounts of cadmium is proposed in this paper. It is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc in the form of thiocyanate complexes by the polyurethane foam. The following parameters were studied: effect of pH and of the thiocyanate concentration on the zinc extraction, shaking time required for quantitative extraction, amount of PU foam necessary for complete extraction, conditions for the separation of zinc from cadmium, influence of other cations and anions on the zinc sorption by PU foam, and required conditions for back extraction of zinc from the PU foam. The results show that zinc traces can be separated from large amounts of cadmium at pH 3.0+/-0.50, with the range of thiocyanate concentration from 0.15 to 0.20 mol l(-1), and the shaking time of 5 min. The back extraction of zinc can be done by shaking it with water for 10 min. Calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium, aluminum, nickel and iron(II) are efficiently separated. Iron(III), copper(II) and cobalt(II) are extracted simultaneously with zinc, but the iron reduction with ascorbic acid and the use of citrate to mask copper(II) and cobalt(II) increase the selectivity of the zinc extraction. The anions nitrate, chloride, sulfate, acetate, thiosulphate, tartarate, oxalate, fluoride, citrate, and carbonate do not affect the zinc extraction. Phosphate and EDTA must be absent. The method proposed was applied to determine zinc in cadmium salts using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) as a spectrophotometric reagent. The result achieved did not show significant difference in the accuracy and precision (95% confidence level) with those obtained by ICP-AES analysis. PMID:18967283

Santiago de Jesus, D; Souza de Carvalho, M; Spínola Costa, A C; Costa Ferreira, S L

1998-08-01

433

Nickel-cobalt-iron-copper sulfides and arsenides in solution-collapse breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona  

SciTech Connect

An extensive suite of Ni-Co-Fe-Cu sulfides and arsenides lies within the matrix of solution-collapse breccias buried deep within the plateaus of the Grand Canyon region. Ceilings over large caverns in the Redwall collapsed, brecciating the overlying sandstone and forming cylindrical breccia pipes up to 300 ft in diameter that extend vertically as much as 3,000 ft. These highly permeable breccias served as a host for the precipitation of a suite of over 100 minerals, including uraninite, sphalerite, galena and various copper phases, in addition to the Ni-Co-bearing-phase discussed here. Intricately zoned crystals of small (<1 mm), euhedral Ni-Co-Fe-As-S minerals were the first to form during the second major episode of mineralization in these pipes. Several of these phases replace minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, from the first episode. Extensive microprobe work has been done on samples from two breccia pipe mines, the Hack 2 and Orphan, which are about 50 miles apart. Mineral compositions are similar except that no copper is found in the Ni-Co-Fe phases from the Hack 2 mine, while pyrites containing 1 wt % Cu are common from the Orphan, which was mined for copper. In some of these pyrites', Cu is dominant and the mineral is actually villamaninite. Pyrites from both mines characteristically contain 0.5 to 3 wt % As. Metal contents in zones pyrite-bravoite-vaesite (M[sub 1]S[sub 2]) crystals at the Hack 2 mine range from Fe[sub 1] to Fe[sub .12], Ni[sub 0] to Ni[sub .86], and Co[sub 0] to Co[sub .10]. The metal content for polydymite-siegenite-violarite averages about (Ni[sub 2.33]Co[sub .39]Fe[sub .23])(S[sub 3.9]As[sub .1]). Orphan mine pyrite-bravoite-vaesite-villamaninite ranges in composition from pure FeS[sub 2] to (Ni[sub .6]Fe[sub .21]Co[sub .17])S[sub 2], and (Cu[sub .46]Ni[sub .27]Fe[sub .21]Co[sub .13])S[sub 2]. Of all the sulfides or arsenides found in these breccia pipes, only nickeline consistently occurs as the pure end member.

Wenrich, K.J. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Hlava, P.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-04-01

434

Effects of chloride, sulfate and natural organic matter (NOM) on the accumulation and release of trace-level inorganic contaminants from corroding iron.  

PubMed

This study examined effects of varying levels of anions (chloride and sulfate) and natural organic matter (NOM) on iron release from and accumulation of inorganic contaminants in corrosion scales formed on iron coupons exposed to drinking water. Changes of concentrations of sulfate and chloride were observed to affect iron release and, in lesser extent, the retention of representative inorganic contaminants (vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium); but, effects of NOM were more pronounced. DOC concentration of 1 mg/L caused iron release to increase, with average soluble and total iron concentrations being four and two times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of NOM. In the presence of NOM, the retention of inorganic contaminants by corrosion scales was reduced. This was especially prominent for lead, vanadium, chromium and copper whose retention by the scales decreased from >80% in the absence of NOM to <30% in its presence. Some of the contaminants, notably copper, chromium, zinc and nickel retained on the surface of iron coupons in the presence of DOC largely retained their mobility and were released readily when ambient water chemistry changed. Vanadium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium retained by the scales were largely unsusceptible to changes of NOM and chloride levels. Modeling indicated that the observed effects were associated with the formation of metal-NOM complexes and effects of NOM on the sorption of the inorganic contaminants on solid phases that are typical for iron corrosion in drinking water. PMID:23863395

Peng, Ching-Yu; Ferguson, John F; Korshin, Gregory V

2013-06-14

435

Enthalpies of formation of borides of iron, cobalt, and nickel by solution calorimetry in liquid copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enthalpies of formation at 1385 ?2 K of the following crystalline borides have been determined by high temperature solution\\u000a calorimetry using liquid copper as the calorimetric solvent. Fe2B-67.87 ?8.05 kJ mol?1, Co2B -58.1 ?7.0 kJ mol?1, Ni2B -67.66 ?4.12 kJ ml?1, FeB-64.63 ?4.34 kJ mol?1, CoB -69.52 ?6.0 kJ mol?1, and NiB -40.2 ?3.77 kJ mol?1. The enthalpy of

Seichi Sato; O. J. Kleppa

1982-01-01

436

Interaction of copper with iron, iodine, and thyroid hormone status in goitrous patients.  

PubMed

In many developing countries, men and women are at high risk of goiter and iron deficiency. The aim of the recent study is to assess the interaction of (Cu), with iron (Fe), iodine/iodide (I), and thyroid hormones in goitrous patients. Sixty goitrous male (GMPs) and 72 female patients (GFPs) were evaluated for the Cu, Fe, I, and thyroid hormones status in biological samples (serum and urine), and compared to non-goitrous subjects of both genders (M = 106, F = 120). The biological samples were analyzed for Cu and Fe concentration using atomic absorption spectrometer, while I was measured by the potentiometric method, prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion (MD). Quality control for the method was established with certified samples. Significantly higher mean values of Cu in serum, and urine samples of GMPs and GFPs, while lower value of Fe and I were observed as compared to control subjects (p < 0.015), respectively. The mean values of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) were found to be lower in goitrous patients of both genders than in the age-matched healthy controls (p < 0.006 and 0.002), respectively, in contrast high mean values of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were detected in patients (p < 0.009), as compared to non-goitrous subjects. It was observed that the deficiencies of Fe, I, and thyroid hormone in goitrous patients could be influenced by efficiency of Cu. PMID:19693445

Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Syed, Nasreen; Kumar, Sham; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Khan, Sumaira

2009-08-08