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Sample records for cadmium copper iron

  1. Effects of zinc, iron and copper deficiencies on cadmium in tissues of Japanese quail.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, M R; Tao, S H; Stone, C L; Fry, B E

    1984-01-01

    Experiments with young Japanese quail were conducted to determine whether combined moderate deficiencies of zinc, iron and copper would cause greater uptake and tissue retention of cadmium than the single deficiencies. Birds were fed the experimental diets containing 62 ppb cadmium from hatching to 16 days of age. On day 9 each bird received a dose of 109CdCl2 in its diet. On day 10, the duodenal and jejunal-ileal tissues contained large amounts of cadmium, and there were many significant effects of treatment on cadmium-109 retention in the livers and kidneys. At day 16, zinc deficiency caused increased cadmium in the liver, whereas iron and copper deficiencies each caused increased cadmium in the kidneys. Combined deficiencies had little or no greater effect than single deficiencies and in some cases the combined effect was less than that of a single deficiency. PMID:6734571

  2. Effect of dietary phytic acid and cadmium on the availability of cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, and manganese to rats

    SciTech Connect

    Turecki, T.; Ewan, R.C.; Stahr, H.M.

    1995-05-01

    The main route of cadmium intake for general population, both human and animal, is via ingestion. The intestinal absorption of cadmium is relatively low, 6% of a single oral dose for humans and less than 2% for various animal species. However, due to poor excretion, accumulation of cadmium occurs, primarily in kidney. The chronic exposure even to low levels of dietary cadmium can lead to the development of renal disturbances. Fox (1988) suggests that phytic acid might be a dietary component capable to influence the intestinal absorption of cadmium. Phytic acid naturally occurs as the major phosphorus storage constituent of most cereals, legumes, and oilseeds. At physiological pH, phytic acid is ionized and has a strong affinity for divalent cations. The potential of phytic acid to decrease the availability of Zn has been for long time of concern for nutritionists. Phytic acid has also been reported to decrease the availability of other trace metals. For nonessential elements, reduced availability of lead has been observed. The experimental data concerning the effect of dietary phytic acid on the availability of dietary cadmium are limited to the work of Rose and Quarterman (1984). The objective of this experiment was to examine: (1) the effect of dietary phytic acid on the availability of cadmium under conditions of chronic dietary exposure of rats to cadmium, and (2) the effect of dietary phytic acid and of chronic dietary exposure to cadmium on the availability of zinc, copper, iron, and manganese to rats. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Effect of acute administration of cadmium on the disposition of copper, zinc, and iron in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.L.; King, L.J.; Parke, D.V.W.

    1980-02-01

    Acute administration of subcutaneous doses of cadmium (0.1 to 1.5 mg/kg) to male rats results in high plasma concentrations of copper 24 hr after treatment. In contrast, plasma zinc and iron levels were markedly reduced. The magnitude and significance of the changes in plasma metal ion concentrations were dependent upon the dose of cadmium administered. Liver copper levels were slightly but not significantly increased, but circulating ceruloplasmin levels increased as the total plasma copper increased. Biliary excretion of copper was markedly inhibited after cadmium administration (subcutaneous and oral) and the degree of inhibition was directly related to the dose. Simultaneous parenteral administration of zinc did not counteract this effect. These results suggest that cadmium blocks the excretion of copper into the bile leading to an accumulation of copper in the liver, which in turn, stimulates the synthesis of ceruloplasmin. The mechanisms by which cadmium may inhibit biliary copper excretion are discussed.

  4. Effects of dietary copper, cadmium, iron, molybdenum and manganese on selenium utilization by the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel Rahim, A.G.; Arthur, J.R.; Mills, C.F.

    1986-03-01

    The possible antagonistic effects of different dietary concentrations of copper (1.3-200 mg/kg), cadmium (1-5 mg/kg), iron (20-500 mg/kg), molybdenum (0.3-50 mg/kg) and manganese (0.2-200 mg/kg) on selenium utilization by the rat were studied by the measurement of the absorption and organ distribution of dietary selenium as (75Se)selenite and by effects on organ glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px: EC 1.11.1.9) activity. Although a high concentration of copper (200 mg/kg) in the diet did not alter the percentage absorption and total-body retention of doses of 75SeO3(2)- by rats, after such treatment tissue 75Se distribution was changed and was lower total selenium in some tissues. After copper treatment (200 mg/kg diet) GSH-Px activity of liver, testis, kidney and whole blood was also lower. Dietary cadmium, iron, molybdenum and manganese at the concentrations investigated had no significant effects on selenium metabolism. Thus it is unlikely that copper, cadmium, iron, molybdenum and manganese at normal dietary concentrations will have a major effect on selenium metabolism in the rat, especially if adequate amounts of selenium are being consumed.

  5. Effects of zinc, iron and copper deficiencies on cadmium in tissues of Japanese quail. [Coturnix coturnix japonica

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Stone, C.L.; Fry, B.E. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Experiments with young Japanese quail were conducted to determine whether combined moderate deficiencies of zinc, iron and copper would cause greater uptake and tissue retention of cadmium than the single deficiencies. Birds were fed the experimental diets containing 62 ppb cadmium from hatching to 16 days of age. On day 9 each bird received a dose of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ in its diet. On day 10, the duodenal and jejunal-ileal tissues contained large amounts of cadmium, and there were many significant effects of treatment on cadmium-109 retention in the livers and kidneys. At day 16, zinc deficiency caused increased cadmium in the liver, whereas iron and copper deficiencies each caused increased cadmium in the kidneys. Combined deficiencies had little or no greater effect than single deficiencies and in some cases the combined effect was less than that of a single deficiency. 13 references, 11 tables.

  6. Assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and iron by the spider Dysdera crocata, a predator of woodlice

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkin, S.P.; Martin, M.H.

    1985-02-01

    In this paper, an experiment is described on the assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and iron by Dysdera crocata collected from a site in central Bristol. The spiders were fed on woodlice from their own site, and on woodlice from a site contaminated by a smelting works which contained much higher levels of zinc, cadmium and lead than the spiders would have been used to in their normal diet.

  7. Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.

  8. Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Ilbaeck, N.-G. . E-mail: nils-gunnar.ilback@slv.se; Lindh, U.; Minqin, R.; Friman, G.; Watt, F.

    2006-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is known to be associated with certain pathological conditions of the brain. However, whether nonessential trace elements could influence the balance of essential trace elements in the brain is unknown. In this study the brain Fe, Cu, and Cd contents were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their distributions determined by nuclear microscopy in the early phase (day 3) of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in nonexposed and in Cd-exposed female Balb/c mice. In CB3 infection the brain is a well-known target that has not been studied with regard to trace element balance. The brain concentration of Cu compared with that of noninfected control mice was increased by 9% (P<0.05) in infected mice not exposed to Cd and by 10% (not significant) in infected Cd-exposed mice. A similar response was seen for Fe, which in infected Cd-exposed mice, compared to noninfected control mice, tended to increase by 16%. Cu showed an even tissue distribution, whereas Fe was distributed in focal deposits. Changes in Cd concentration in the brain of infected mice were less consistent but evenly distributed. Further studies are needed to define whether the accumulation and distribution of trace elements in the brain have an impact on brain function.

  9. Effect of chronic cadmium administration on liver and kidney concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, manganese, and chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Friel, J.K.; Borgman, R.F.; Chandra, R.K.

    1987-04-01

    Chronic Cd exposure in animals brings about significant morphological and functional changes in both liver and kidney. Most studies of cadmium effects on essential metal tissue distribution involve large concentrations of either Cd or essential metals added to the diet. The effect of Cd ingestion on trace metal metabolism of animals consuming usual diets may be marked, as elements whose physical and chemical properties are enough alike...will act antagonistically to each other biologically. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of a chronic low dose of Cd added to an otherwise normal diet on the liver and kidney accumulation of zinc, copper, iron, manganese and chromium in the mouse at different times after the cessation of cadmium ingestion.

  10. Inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric method is described for the determination of six elements in a variety of geological materials. Sixteen reference materials are analysed by this technique to demonstrate its use in geochemical exploration. Samples are decomposed with nitric, hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids, and the residue dissolved in hydrochloric acid and diluted to volume. The elements are determined in two groups based on compatibility of instrument operating conditions and consideration of crustal abundance levels. Cadmium, Cu, Pb and Zn are determined as a group in the 50-ml sample solution under one set of instrument conditions with the use of scatter correction. Limitations of the scatter correction technique used with the fluorescence instrument are discussed. Iron and Mn are determined together using another set of instrumental conditions on a 1-50 dilution of the sample solution without the use of scatter correction. The ranges of concentration (??g g-1) of these elements in the sample that can be determined are: Cd, 0.3-500; Cu, 0.4-500; Fe, 85-250 000; Mn, 45-100 000; Pb, 5-10 000; and Zn, 0.4-300. The precision of the method is usually less than 5% relative standard deviation (RSD) over a wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy is shown by the agreement between values obtained and those recommended for the reference materials.

  11. Influence of copper and iron on subacute cadmium intoxication in protein-malnourished rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, P.C.; Kachru, D.N.; Tandon, S.K.

    1986-10-01

    Male albino rats maintained on low-protein (9%) diets were dosed intraperitoneally with 0.75 mg Cd/kg, as cadmium chloride, for 20 days. Groups of these animals were provided with diets supplemented with 40 ppm Cu, 400 ppm Fe or a combination of both during the exposure period. Hepatic and renal distribution of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Fe along with activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases and ribonuclease and glutathione content were studied. Uptake of Cd both in liver and in kidney was significant and was accompanied by increased Zn and depletion of Fe concentration. The Cu level remained unaltered. Dietary supplementation of Cu or Fe interacted effectively and influenced the metal distribution. Acid and alkaline phosphatases in both liver and kidney were inhibited by Cd exposure. However, Cu and/or Fe supplements could to a varying degree offset the Cd-induced inhibition. Cadmium exposure did not, however, elicit any effect on hepatic and renal ribonuclease activity of low-protein-fed animals. The glutathione concentration registered profound increase on Cd exposure, possibly to act as a defense mechanism.

  12. Detection of copper, lead, cadmium and iron in wine using electronic tongue sensor system.

    PubMed

    Simões da Costa, A M; Delgadillo, I; Rudnitskaya, A

    2014-11-01

    An array of 10 potentiometric chemical sensors has been applied to the detection of total Fe, Cu, Pb and Cd content in digested wine. As digestion of organic matter of wine is necessary prior to the trace metal detection using potentiometric sensors, sample preparation procedures have been optimized. Different variants of wet and microwave digestion and dry ashing, 14 conditions in total, have been tested. Decomposition of organic matter was assessed using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and total phenolic content. Dry ashing was found to be the most effective method of wine digestion. Measurements with sensors in individual solutions of Fe(III), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) prepared on different backgrounds have shown that their detection limits were below typical concentration levels of these metals in wines and, in the case of Cu, Pb and Cd below maximum allowed concentrations. Detection of Fe in digested wine samples was possible using discrete iron-sensitive sensors with chalcogenide glass membranes with RMSEP of 0.05 mmol L(-1) in the concentration range from 0.0786 to 0.472 mmol L(-1). Low concentration levels of Cu, Pb and Cd in wine and cross-sensitivity of respective sensors resulted in the non-linearity of their responses, requiring back-propagation neural network for the calibration. Calibration models have been calculated using measurements in the model mixed solutions containing all three metals and a set of digested wine sample. RMSEP values for Cu, Pb and Cd were 3.9, 39 and 1.2 μmol L(-1) in model solutions and 2, 150 and 1 μmol L(-1) in digested wine samples. PMID:25127565

  13. Simultaneous coprecipitation of lead, cobalt, copper, cadmium, iron and nickel in food samples with zirconium(IV) hydroxide prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    PubMed

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-09-01

    A simple and new coprecipitation procedure is developed for the determination of trace quantities of heavy metals (lead, cobalt, copper, cadmium, iron and nickel) in natural water and food samples. Analyte ions were coprecipitated by using zirconium(IV) hydroxide. The determination of metal levels was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The influences of analytical parameters including pH, amount of zirconium(IV), sample volume, etc. were investigated on the recoveries of analyte ions. The effects of possible matrix ions were also examined. The recoveries of the analyte ions were in the range of 95-100%. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The detection limits for the analyte ions based on 3 sigma (n=21) were in the range of 0.27-2.50 microgL(-1). Relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 8%. The validation of the presented coprecipitation procedure was performed by the analysis certified reference materials (GBW 07605 Tea and LGC 6010 Hard drinking water). The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and food samples like coffee, fish, tobacco, black and green tea. PMID:19539005

  14. Levels of lead, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc in deciduous teeth of children living in Irbid, Jordan by ICP-OES: some factors affecting their concentrations.

    PubMed

    Alomary, A; Al-Momani, I F; Obeidat, S M; Massadeh, A M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in deciduous teeth from children living in Jordan and to investigate the affecting factors. Deciduous teeth samples (n = 320, without fillings) were collected from 5- to 12-year-old children and analyzed for Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. A questionnaire was used to gather information on each child, such as sex, age, tooth type (incisors, canines, and molars), tooth position within the mouth (upper or lower jaw), caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, type of drinking water (tap water, home purified water, and plant purified water), and zone of residence (close to or far from heavy traffic roads). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn were 30.26, 0.55, 6.23, 34.72, and 128.21 μg/g, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a clear relation between the concentrations of the metals analyzed in this study and tooth type, tooth position within the mouth, caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and type of drinking water. No significant differences in the concentrations of the five metals analyzed were observed due to sex. Our results also show that no significant difference among Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations and age among the ages of 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12, except for Pb, which decreases at age 11-12. PMID:22851195

  15. Clean hydrometallurgical route to recover zinc, silver, lead, copper, cadmium and iron from hazardous jarosite residues produced during zinc hydrometallurgy.

    PubMed

    Ju, Shaohua; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Peiyi; Wang, Yihui

    2011-08-30

    A hydrometallurgical process for treating the hazardous jarosite residue from zinc hydrometallurgy was proposed, for not only detoxifying the residue, but also recovering the contained valuable metal components. The jarosite was initially activated and decomposed by sintering at 650°C for 1h. The sintered residue was leached in 6mol L(-1) aqueous NH(4)Cl solution at 105°C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. During reduction with Zn powder, more than 93% of Pb, Cu, Ag and Cd can be simultaneously recovered. Then the NH(4)Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1h at 160°C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. The final residue was almost completely detoxified, and contains about 55wt% Fe, which can be used as an iron concentration. PMID:21684683

  16. Cloud point extraction of copper, lead, cadmium, and iron using 2,6-diamino-4-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine and nonionic surfactant, and their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination in water and canned food samples.

    PubMed

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    A cloud point extraction procedure was optimized for the separation and preconcentration of lead(II), cadmium(II), copper(II), and iron(III) ions in various water and canned food samples. The metal ions formed complexes with 2,6-diamino-4-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine that were extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 1 M HNO3 in methanol prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, surfactant concentration, temperature, and incubation time, were optimized. LOD values based on three times the SD of the blank (3Sb) were 0.38, 0.48, 1.33, and 1.85 microg/L for cadmium(II), copper(II), lead(II), and iron(III) ions, respectively. The precision (RSD) of the method was in the 1.86-3.06% range (n=7). Validation of the procedure was carried out by analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST-SRM) 1568a Rice Flour and GBW 07605 Tea. The method was applied to water and canned food samples for determination of metal ions. PMID:22970587

  17. Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.

    1986-03-01

    Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothioneinlike protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected.

  18. Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed Central

    Engel, D W; Brouwer, M

    1986-01-01

    Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially cadmium and zinc were bound to macromolecules with molecular weights of greater than 70,000, approximately 45,000 and less than 5000, and for copper greater than 70,000, 10,000-7,000, and less than 5000. Therefore, only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7,000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothionein-like protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. There is, however, a tissue threshold concentration of cadmium of 80 to 100 micrograms Cd/g wet weight required for induction. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected. PMID:3709469

  19. Carbon - Copper - Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochvar, Nataliya; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer; Semenova, Elena; Sheftel, Elena

    This document is part of Volume 11 ‘Ternary Alloy Systems: Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data’, Subvolume D ‘Iron Systems’, of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV ‘Physical Chemistry’.

  20. Cobalt - Copper - Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchanin, Mikhail; Velikanova, Tamara

    This document is part of Volume 11 ‘Ternary Alloy Systems: Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data’, Subvolume D ‘Iron Systems’, of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV ‘Physical Chemistry’.

  1. Adsorption mechanism of copper and cadmium onto defatted waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Yabutani, Hitoshi; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed using waste biomass (i.e., coffee grounds (CG) and rice bran (RB)) was investigated. The amount of crude protein in defatted CG (D-CG) or RB (D-RB) was greater than that in CG or RB, respectively. The amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed using CG was greater than that using RB. Additionally, the amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed was not affected by the presence of fat in CG. Adsorption data was fitted to the Freundlich equation, and the correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.794-0.991. The main adsorption mechanism was thought to be monolayer adsorption onto the surface of the waste biomass. The adsorption rate data was fitted to the pseudo-second-order model, and the correlation coefficient average was in the range of 0.891-0.945. This result showed that the rate-limiting step may be chemisorption. Moreover, the amount of copper or cadmium desorbed from CG or RB using 0.01 mol/L or 1.00 mol/L HNO(3) was investigated. Desorption with 0.01 mol/L HNO(3) resulted in the recovery of 86-97% of the copper and cadmium, indicating that copper or cadmium that was adsorbed using waste biomass was recoverable. PMID:21701100

  2. Copper, silver, gold and zinc, cadmium, mercury oxides and hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkse, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of solubility data published up to 1984, including evaluations of the data. Data are presented on the following: copper (I) oxide; copper (II) oxide and hydroxide; silver (I) oxide; silver (II) oxide; gold (III) hydroxide; zinc oxide and hydroxide; cadmium oxide and hydroxide; and mercury (II) oxide.

  3. Biosorption of cadmium and copper contaminated water by Scenedesmus abundans.

    PubMed

    Terry, Patricia A; Stone, Wendy

    2002-04-01

    Experiments were conducted comparing the individual removals of cadmium and copper from water via biosorption using Scenedesmus abundans, a common green algae, to removal in a multi-component system to determine competitive effects, if any, between the metals. The goal was to characterize the biological treatment of water contaminated with heavy metals using live aquatic species. In addition, experiments were performed to measure cell viability as a function of metal concentration and also to compare metal removal using living species to that using nonliving ones. It was shown that, while both living and nonliving S. abundans removed cadmium and copper from water, living algae significantly outperformed nonliving algae. Further, in characterizing biosorption by three concentrations of live S. abundans, capacity curves were created comparing the metal biosorbed per mass algae to the initial metal concentration in solution. The algae concentration was not a factor in the biosorption of either metal individually, such that the capacity of the algae for the metal increased with decreasing algae concentration. At the lowest algae concentration considered, competitive effects were observed at copper and cadmium concentrations above 4 mg/l each. At the highest algae concentration considered, no competitive effects were observed in the range of cadmium and copper concentrations studied (1-7 mg/l). It was concluded that biological treatment of heavy metal contaminated water is possible and that at adequately high algae concentrations, multi-component metal systems can be remediated to the same level as individual metals. PMID:11996145

  4. Effects of time, soil organic matter, and iron oxides on the relative retention and redistribution of lead, cadmium, and copper on soils.

    PubMed

    Diagboya, Paul N; Olu-Owolabi, Bamidele I; Adebowale, Kayode O

    2015-07-01

    In order to predict the bioavailability of toxic metals in soils undergoing degradation of organic matter (OM) and iron oxides (IOs), it is vital to understand the roles of these soil components in relation to metal retention and redistribution with time. In this present work, batch competitive sorptions of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) were investigated between 1 and 90 days. Results showed that competition affected Cd(II) sorption more than Cu(II) and Pb(II). The sorption followed the trend Pb(II) > > Cu(II) > Cd(II), irrespective of aging, and this high preference for Pb(II) ions in soils reduced with time. Removal of OM led to reduction in distribution coefficient (K d) values of ≈33% for all cations within the first day. However, K d increased nearly 100% after 7 days and over 1000% after 90-day period. The enhanced K d values indicated that sorptions occurred on the long run on surfaces which were masked by OM. Removal of IO caused selective increases in the K d values, but this was dependent on the dominant soil constituent(s) in the absence of IO. The K d values of the IO-degraded samples nearly remained constant irrespective of aging indicating that sorptions on soil components other than the IO are nearly instantaneous while iron oxides played greater role than other constituents with time. Hence, in the soils studied, organic matter content determines the immediate relative metal retention while iron oxides determine the redistribution of metals with time. PMID:25721528

  5. The possible role of gradual accumulation of copper, cadmium, lead and iron and gradual depletion of zinc, magnesium, selenium, vitamins B2, B6, D, and E and essential fatty acids in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S

    2000-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a much higher incidence among caucasians that in any other race. Furthermore: females are much more susceptible than males and white females living in colder, wetter areas are much more susceptible than those living in warmer areas. On the other hand, menstruating women have increased copper (Cu) absorption and half-life, so they tend to accumulate more Cu than males. Moreover, rapidly growing girls have an increased demand for zinc (Zn), but their rapidly decreasing production of melatonin results in impaired Zn absorption, which is exacerbated by the high Cu levels. The low Zn levels result in deficient CuZnSuperoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), which in turn leads to increased levels of superoxide. Menstruating females also often present with low magnesium (Mg) and vitamin B6 levels. Vitamin B6 moderates intracellular nitric oxide (NO) production and extracellular Mg is required for NO release from the cell, so that a deficiency of these nutrients results in increased NO production in the cell and reduced release from the cell. The trapped NO combines with superoxide to form peroxinitrite, an extremely powerful free radical that leads to the myelin damage of MS. Iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation also increase superoxide production. Which explains MS in males, who tend to accumulate Fe much faster and Cu much less rapidly than females. Since vitamin D is paramount for Mg absorption, the much reduced exposure to sunlight in the higher latitudes may account for the higher incidence in these areas. Moreover, vitamin B2 is a cofactor for xanthine oxidase, and its deficiency exacerbates the low levels of uric acid caused by high Cu levels, resulting in myelin degeneration. Finally Selenium (Se) and vitamin E prevent lipid peroxidation and EPA and DHA upregulate CuZnSOD. Therefore, supplementation with 100 mg MG, 25 mg vit B6, 10 mg vit B2, 15 mg Zn and 400 IU vit D and E, 100 microg Se, 180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA per day between 14 and 16 years of age may prevent MS. PMID:10985916

  6. Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

  7. Defective copper transport in the copt5 mutant affects cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Carrió-Seguí, Angela; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Sanz, Amparo; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium toxicity interferes with essential metal homeostasis, which is a problem for both plant nutrition and the consumption of healthy food by humans. Copper uptake is performed by the members of the Arabidopsis high affinity copper transporter (COPT) family. One of the members, COPT5, is involved in copper recycling from the vacuole toward the cytosolic compartment. We show herein that copt5 mutants are more sensitive to cadmium stress than wild-type plants, as indicated by reduced growth. Exacerbated cadmium toxicity in copt5 mutants is due specifically to altered copper traffic through the COPT5 transporter. Three different processes which have been shown to affect cadmium tolerance are altered in copt5 mutants. First, ethylene biosynthesis diminishes under copper deficiency and, in the presence of cadmium, ethylene production diminishes further. Copper deficiency responses are also attenuated under cadmium treatment. Remarkably, while copt5 roots present higher oxidative stress toxicity symptoms than controls, aerial copt5 parts display lower oxidative stress, as seen by reduced cadmium delivery to shoots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that copper transport plays a key role in cadmium resistance, and suggest that oxidative stress triggers an NADPH oxidase-mediated signaling pathway, which contributes to cadmium translocation and basal plant resistance. The slightly lower cadmium levels that reach aerial parts in the copt5 mutants, irrespective of the copper content in the media, suggest a new biotechnological approach to minimize toxic cadmium entry into food chains. PMID:25432970

  8. Differential growth effects of copper, cadmium and zinc on maize

    SciTech Connect

    Bonham-Smith, P.C.; Kapoor, M.; Bewley, J.D.

    1986-04-01

    Heavy metals in the growth medium of maize seedlings results in decreased growth rates. Copper has a greater effect than cadmium or zinc on both shoot and root growth. All 3 metals are taken up into the roots, as shown by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Protein profiles from plants grown in water and zinc show no differences in root or shoot profiles, whereas plants in copper and cadmium show substantial differences. Four day growth in the presence of 200..mu..M CdCl/sub 2/ or CuSO/sub 4/ protects the seedlings from a subsequent 3 hr heat shock at 40/sup 0/C or 45/sup 0/C. In vivo protein labelling prior to heat shock shows no heat shock proteins (hsps) to be present; however this is being further analyzed using antibodies to the hsps and the maize hsp70 clone pMON 9502. Seedlings subjected to a 1mM CdCl/sub 2/ stress do show a time course induction of a 70kd protein. Growth of seedlings in copper, cadmium or zinc results in a redistribution of embryo magnesium and calcium from mesocotyl to root when compared to the distribution found in seedlings grown in water.

  9. Formation and segregation of copper, cadmium, and silver chlorides in photochromic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Mashir, Yu.I.

    1995-11-01

    The mechanism of formation and segregation of copper, cadmium, and silver chlorides in photochromic glass is considered. The possibility of obtaining photochromic glass with copper and cadmium halogenides with highly concentrated light-sensitive phases is established. The glass ensures substantial induced absorption in a thin layer (up to 0.3 mm).

  10. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals. PMID:25051614

  11. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels. • Individuals with the DMT1 IVS4+44 CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. • Individuals with DMT1 IVS4+44 CC genotype may be more susceptible for metal toxicity.

  12. Copper Reduction and Contact Killing of Bacteria by Iron Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Salima; Kumar, Ranjeet

    2015-01-01

    The well-established killing of bacteria by copper surfaces, also called contact killing, is currently believed to be a combined effect of bacterial contact with the copper surface and the dissolution of copper, resulting in lethal bacterial damage. Iron can similarly be released in ionic form from iron surfaces and would thus be expected to also exhibit contact killing, although essentially no contact killing is observed by iron surfaces. However, we show here that the exposure of bacteria to iron surfaces in the presence of copper ions results in efficient contact killing. The process involves reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ by iron; Cu+ has been shown to be considerably more toxic to cells than Cu2+. The specific Cu+ chelator, bicinchoninic acid, suppresses contact killing by chelating the Cu+ ions. These findings underline the importance of Cu+ ions in the contact killing process and infer that iron-based alloys containing copper could provide novel antimicrobial materials. PMID:26150470

  13. Copper Reduction and Contact Killing of Bacteria by Iron Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Salima; Kumar, Ranjeet; Solioz, Marc

    2015-09-01

    The well-established killing of bacteria by copper surfaces, also called contact killing, is currently believed to be a combined effect of bacterial contact with the copper surface and the dissolution of copper, resulting in lethal bacterial damage. Iron can similarly be released in ionic form from iron surfaces and would thus be expected to also exhibit contact killing, although essentially no contact killing is observed by iron surfaces. However, we show here that the exposure of bacteria to iron surfaces in the presence of copper ions results in efficient contact killing. The process involves reduction of Cu(2+) to Cu(+) by iron; Cu(+) has been shown to be considerably more toxic to cells than Cu(2+). The specific Cu(+) chelator, bicinchoninic acid, suppresses contact killing by chelating the Cu(+) ions. These findings underline the importance of Cu(+) ions in the contact killing process and infer that iron-based alloys containing copper could provide novel antimicrobial materials. PMID:26150470

  14. Iron versus Copper II. Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the differences between iron and copper. Describes various aspects of the behaviors of these two elements, including those of biological and environmental significance. Addresses the evolution of the atmosphere and sedimentary ore formation, the phylogeny of iron and copper, and some anthropological notes regarding the use of the metals.…

  15. Iron versus Copper II. Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the differences between iron and copper. Describes various aspects of the behaviors of these two elements, including those of biological and environmental significance. Addresses the evolution of the atmosphere and sedimentary ore formation, the phylogeny of iron and copper, and some anthropological notes regarding the use of the metals.

  16. Cadmium, zinc, and copper in horse liver and in horse liver metallothionein: comparisons with kidney cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Nordberg, M.; Palm, B.; Piscator, M.

    1981-10-01

    Cadmium, zinc, and copper were determined in liver and in kidney cortex samples obtained from 33 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in liver ranged from 0.002 to 0.165 mmole/kg and in kidney from 0.01 to 2.15 mmole/kg. There was a significant correlation between liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium. The average kidney concentration of cadmium was about 15 times that of liver. Zinc concentrations increased with increasing cadmium concentrations in both liver and kidney. The relative increase of zinc with cadmium was more pronounced in liver than in kidney. However, the absolute increase of zinc was larger in kidney due to the much higher concentration of cadmium in kidney compared to liver. Any significant correlation between copper and cadmium, or copper and zinc, could not be revealed. Sephadex gel filtration was performed on supernatants from homogenates of kidney and liver from 19 of the horses. In both organs the major part of cadmium was recovered in protein fractions corresponding to metallothionein (MT), in which the increase of zinc also took place. The molar ratio between zinc and cadmium was higher in MT fractions obtained from liver than in MT fractions obtained from kidney.

  17. Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism. (ERB)

  18. Comparative studies on the toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and copper toward the isolated perfused rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Strubelt, O.; Kremer, J.; Tilse, A.; Keogh, J.; Pentz, K.R.; Younes, M.

    1996-02-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium, mercury, and copper were compared over the range 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mM using the isolated perfused rat liver preparation. All metals caused similar changes in various parameters used to describe general toxicity. Reductions in oxygen consumption, perfusion flow, and biliary secretion were found, while lactate dehydrogenase release , as well as liver weight, increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Each metal caused similar magnitudes of changes and exerted similar potency. Measurement of other parameters revealed a number of differences. Although all metals reduced hepatic ATP concentration, mercury and cadmium were more potent than copper. Cadmium was the most potent at decreasing reduced glutathione levels. Mercury was most effective at increasing tissue calcium content, while copper was less so, and cadmium ineffective. Only copper significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while all metals increased its release into perfusate, cadmium seemed the most potent metal in increasing MDA release, but it was least efficacious, while copper was the most. Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and Trolox C only reduced cadmium`s influence on MDA in perfusate; but did not affect cadmium`s ability to alter most other parameters of vitality. Albumin reversed the toxic effects of copper and mercury, but not cadmium. While metal-induced reductions in perfusion flow accounted for some of the toxic effects of the metals, the results as a whole supported the suggestion that all metals exerted toxicity at the mitochondria, since ATP levels were reduced in a manner that could not be reproduced by perfusion flow reduction alone. Lipid peroxidation appears to play little role in determining toxicity induced by any of these metals. Furthermore, albumin may play an important physiological role in preventing hepatic injury that might otherwise be induced through acute metal intoxication. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. TOXICOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF NATURAL AND CULTURED POPULATIONS OF ARACTIA TONSA TO CADMIUM, COPPER, AND MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultured Acartia tonsa manifested a reproducible toxicological response through six generations. There were no statistically significant differences in the responses of F1 and F6 generations to cadmium, copper, and mercury. Cultured and field populations (parental) exposed to cad...

  20. EFFECT OF AGE ON SENSITIVITY OF 'DAPHNIA MAGNA' TO CADMIUM, COPPER AND CYANAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean...

  1. Baseline toxicity data for freshwater bryozoa exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Pardue, W.J.; Wood, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    Four heavy metals - copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc - were used to determine baseline toxicity data for three species of phylactolaemate bryozoa. Techniques used in germinating test organisms are described, and baseline toxicity data are presented. Minimal interspecific variation in toxicity was noted for each heavy metal. In general, copper was most toxic, followed by cadmium, chromium, and zinc. Available data indicate that bryozoans are more sensitive to these metals than many other invertebrates and fish.

  2. Copper stress affects iron homeostasis by destabilizing iron-sulfur cluster formation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chillappagari, Shashi; Seubert, Andreas; Trip, Hein; Kuipers, Oscar P; Marahiel, Mohamed A; Miethke, Marcus

    2010-05-01

    Copper and iron are essential elements for cellular growth. Although bacteria have to overcome limitations of these metals by affine and selective uptake, excessive amounts of both metals are toxic for the cells. Here we investigated the influences of copper stress on iron homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis, and we present evidence that copper excess leads to imbalances of intracellular iron metabolism by disturbing assembly of iron-sulfur cofactors. Connections between copper and iron homeostasis were initially observed in microarray studies showing upregulation of Fur-dependent genes under conditions of copper excess. This effect was found to be relieved in a csoR mutant showing constitutive copper efflux. In contrast, stronger Fur-dependent gene induction was found in a copper efflux-deficient copA mutant. A significant induction of the PerR regulon was not observed under copper stress, indicating that oxidative stress did not play a major role under these conditions. Intracellular iron and copper quantification revealed that the total iron content was stable during different states of copper excess or efflux and hence that global iron limitation did not account for copper-dependent Fur derepression. Strikingly, the microarray data for copper stress revealed a broad effect on the expression of genes coding for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis (suf genes) and associated pathways such as cysteine biosynthesis and genes coding for iron-sulfur cluster proteins. Since these effects suggested an interaction of copper and iron-sulfur cluster maturation, a mutant with a conditional mutation of sufU, encoding the essential iron-sulfur scaffold protein in B. subtilis, was assayed for copper sensitivity, and its growth was found to be highly susceptible to copper stress. Further, different intracellular levels of SufU were found to influence the strength of Fur-dependent gene expression. By investigating the influence of copper on cluster-loaded SufU in vitro, Cu(I) was found to destabilize the scaffolded cluster at submicromolar concentrations. Thus, by interfering with iron-sulfur cluster formation, copper stress leads to enhanced expression of cluster scaffold and target proteins as well as iron and sulfur acquisition pathways, suggesting a possible feedback strategy to reestablish cluster biogenesis. PMID:20233928

  3. Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Garcia Moscoso, Jose Luis; Kumar, Sandeep; Cao, Xiaoyan; Mao, Jingdong; Schafran, Gary

    2012-10-30

    Biochar produced from switchgrass via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was used as a sorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution. The cold activation process using KOH at room temperature was developed to enhance the porous structure and sorption properties of the HTC biochar. The sorption efficiency of HTC biochar and alkali activated HTC biochar (HTCB) for removing copper and cadmium from aqueous solution were compared with commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The present batch adsorption study describes the effects of solution pH, biochar dose, and contact time on copper and cadmium removal efficiency from single metal ion aqueous solutions. The activated HTCB exhibited a higher adsorption potential for copper and cadmium than HTC biochar and PAC. Experiments conducted with an initial metal concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 5.0 and contact time of 24 h resulted in close to 100% copper and cadmium removal by activated HTCB at 2 g/L, far greater than what was observed for HTC biochar (16% and 5.6%) and PAC (4% and 7.7%). The adsorption capacities of activated HTCB for cadmium removal were 34 mg/g (0.313 mmol/g) and copper removal was 31 mg/g (0.503 mmol/g). PMID:22687632

  4. Multi-Copper Oxidases and Human Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vashchenko, Ganna; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-copper oxidases (MCOs) are a small group of enzymes that oxidize their substrate with the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to two water molecules. Generally, multi-copper oxidases are promiscuous with regards to their reducing substrates and are capable of performing various functions in different species. To date, three multi-copper oxidases have been detected in humans—ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen. Each of these enzymes has a high specificity towards iron with the resulting ferroxidase activity being associated with ferroportin, the only known iron exporter protein in humans. Ferroportin exports iron as Fe2+, but transferrin, the major iron transporter protein of blood, can bind only Fe3+ effectively. Iron oxidation in enterocytes is mediated mainly by hephaestin thus allowing dietary iron to enter the bloodstream. Zyklopen is involved in iron efflux from placental trophoblasts during iron transfer from mother to fetus. Release of iron from the liver relies on ferroportin and the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin which is found in blood in a soluble form. Ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen show distinctive expression patterns and have unique mechanisms for regulating their expression. These features of human multi-copper ferroxidases can serve as a basis for the precise control of iron efflux in different tissues. In this manuscript, we review the biochemical and biological properties of the three human MCOs and discuss their potential roles in human iron homeostasis. PMID:23807651

  5. Copper's influence on iron metabolism in K562 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, S.S.; Armstrong, E. )

    1991-03-15

    Copper deficiency is associated with a cellular defect in iron metabolism that results in poor hemoglobin synthesis. In order to determine this mechanisms, K562 cells, a human erythroleukemic cell line, were incubated with 1 mM bethocuproine disulfonic acid (BCS) to produce a copper deficiency or were supplemented with 8 {mu}M copper. Hemoglobin was simultaneously induced in some cells by the addition of 25 {mu}M hemin to the culture medium. Incubation with BCS resulted in a 30 to 40% reduction in intracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity while supplementation resulted in a 20 to 50% increase in activity. The authors then examined the effect of these copper manipulations on {sup 59}Fe uptake from transferrin, on ferritin levels and on hemoglobin levels. Hemoglobin was only slightly affected by the copper treatments. In both noninduced cells and induced cells, copper supplementation resulted in a greater level of intracellular iron, a greater level of immunoreactive ferritin, and an enhanced uptake of {sup 59}Fe from transferrin. In BCS-incubated cells, intracellular iron, ferritin and {sup 59}Fe uptake from transferrin were reduced by at least 50%. Because the ferritin levels were reduced, intracellular iron mobilization did not appear to be impaired in copper deficiency. The results suggest that copper deficiency impairs the transport of iron by transferrin into the cell.

  6. Reduction of copper sulphate with elemental iron for preparation of copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazim, Muhammad

    Reduction of copper sulphate with elemental iron also known as cementation is a well known process used for the recovery of copper for a long time. In this study, the kinetics of the reaction of copper sulphate with iron wire and iron powder has been investigated. The reaction kinetics was studied as a function of different process parameters such as initial concentration, temperature and pH. In this research work, the effects of the above three parameters were studied for both types of iron substrates. It was found that with the iron wire the reaction obeys first order kinetics with respect to copper concentration whereas with the iron powder the order was found to be 1.5. The initial concentration was found to have considerable effect on the reaction kinetics of copper sulphate with elemental iron. The rate of reaction increases with an increase in the initial copper concentration up to a certain level and then decreases for the case of iron wire. However, for the reaction of copper sulphate with iron powder, the reaction rate decreases with an increase in the initial copper concentration. The effect of temperature on the reaction rate of copper sulphate for both types iron substrates (iron wire and iron powder) has also been studied in the temperature range of 23-54ºC. In both the cases, the reaction rate increases with an increase in temperature according to Arrhenius law. The activation energy for the reactions of copper sulphate with iron wire and iron powder was found to be 25.36 kJ/mol and 26.32 kJ/mol, respectively. The copper cementation reaction was found to be suitable to operate at a pH of 2.5-3 for iron wire and a pH of 3-4 for iron powder considering possible inhibition by copper hydroxyl complex formation at higher pH and the possible excess iron consumption by hydrogen reduction at lower pH. The copper particles were produced by the reduction of copper sulphate with elemental iron. The produced copper particles were obtained in the micro to nano range. Nowadays, nano sized particles has potential applications in different engineering and industrial fields. In this research work, emphasis was given to produce copper nano-particles. The reaction of copper sulphate solution with iron wire was studied in the presence of different organic solvents to verify the size and purity of the produced copper particles. 1-butanol proved to be a competent solvent in producing nearly nano sized copper particles with particles size as small as 165 nanometers in the form of clusters and purity as high as 93.67 weight% of copper. In order to determine the copper particles with the smallest size (nano range) and copper purity to a considerable level, characterization was done with the produced copper particles. For this purpose, the effect of sonication, addition of surfactant and chelation by adding EDTA were studied. It can be concluded that nano size copper particles with size less than 100 nm with copper purity of 100% were produced by reaction of 5% copper sulphate solution in the presence of 2 ml surfactant with iron wire and sonication. These copper nano particles have potential applications as catalysts for different industrial organic reactions. Finally, optimization studies of the process parameters effect on the reaction yield of copper sulphate with both types of iron substrates (wire and powder) were carried out using MATLAB 7.0 software. In this study, the relationship between three process variables namely the initial concentration of copper, temperature and pH of solution with reaction yield of copper cementation reaction was investigated for both the cases. Cubic mixture models were developed by using three levels full factorial design to find out the main effects and interactions of these process variables on the reaction yields of copper. The validity of the cubic mixture regressed models have been verified with high regression coefficients and through normal probability curves for residuals. Finally, response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum operating conditions of the cementation reaction that can provide the maximum yield. Response surface and contour plots were proved to be effective in investigating the optimum process variables for copper yield. The optimum conditions for the reaction of copper sulphate with iron wire as determined by optimization toolbox of MATLAB 7.0 software were an initial copper concentration of 2808 ppm, temperature of 54°C and pH of 2.86 giving a maximum yield of 0.99. On the other hand, the optimum conditions for the reaction of copper sulphate with iron powder as determined by optimization toolbox of MATLAB 7.0 software were an initial copper concentration of 2248 ppm, temperature of 54°C and pH of 3.46 giving maximum yield of 0.90.

  7. Ecological risk assessment of copper and cadmium in surface waters of Chesapeake Bay watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Scott, M.C.; Killen, W.D.

    1998-06-01

    This ecological risk assessment was designed to characterize risk of copper and cadmium exposure in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations with the probability distributions of species response data determined from laboratory studies. The overlap of these distributions was a measure of risk to aquatic life. Dissolved copper and cadmium exposure data were available from six primary data sources covering 102 stations in 18 basins in the Chesapeake Bay watershed from 1985 through 1996. Highest environmental concentrations of copper (based on 90th percentiles) were reported in the Chesapeake and Delaware (C and D) Canal, Choptank River, Middle River, and Potomac River; the lowest concentrations of copper were reported in the lower and middle mainstem Chesapeake Bay and Nanticoke River. Based on the calculation of 90th percentiles, cadmium concentrations were highest in the C and D Canal, Potomac River, Upper Chesapeake Bay, and West Chesapeake watershed. Lowest environmental concentrations of cadmium were reported in the lower and middle mainstem Chesapeake Bay and Susquehanna River. The ecological effects data used for this risk assessment were derived primarily from acute copper and cadmium laboratory toxicity tests conducted in both fresh water and salt water; chronic data were much more limited. The 10th percentile (concentration protecting 90% of the species) for all species derived from the freshwater acute copper toxicity database was 8.3 {micro}g/L. For acute saltwater copper data, the 10th percentile for all species was 6.3 {micro}g/L copper. The acute 10th percentile for all saltwater species was 31.7 {micro}g/L cadmium. Highest potential ecological risk from copper exposures was reported in the C and D Canal area of the northern Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  8. Influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in Bangladeshi women

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Akesson, Agneta; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie . E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se

    2007-07-15

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental contaminant present in food. The absorption in the intestine increases in individuals with low iron stores, but the effect of zinc deficiency is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in pregnant Bangladeshi women. We measured cadmium in urine from 890 women using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Further, we also measured ferritin and zinc in plasma. The median cadmium concentration in urine was 0.59 {mu}g/L (adjusted to mean specific gravity of 1.012 g/mL). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that urinary cadmium was associated with plasma ferritin and plasma zinc via a significant interaction between dichotomized plasma ferritin and plasma zinc. The analysis was adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women with low iron stores and adequate zinc status had significantly higher urinary cadmium compared to women with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. There was no difference in urinary cadmium between women with both low iron stores and zinc status compared to those with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. In conclusion, low iron stores were associated with increased cadmium accumulation, but only at adequate zinc status.

  9. Cu-Fe-Pt (Copper-Iron-Platinum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materials Science International Team MSIT

    This document is part of Subvolume C2 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 2: Selected Copper Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Copper-Iron-Platinum.

  10. Cr-Cu-Fe (Chromium-Copper-Iron)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materials Science International Team MSIT

    This document is part of Subvolume C2 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 2: Selected Copper Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Chromium-Copper-Iron.

  11. Effect of zinc on copper and iron bioavailability as influenced by dietary copper and fat source

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, A.C.; Jones, B.P.; Lin, F.; Sinthusek, G.; Frimpong, N.A.; Wu, S.

    1986-03-05

    In a number of experiments, they have observed that liver copper levels of young male rats fed low zinc diets were essentially the same as liver copper levels of rats fed adequate zinc. Liver iron levels of rats fed low zinc diets, however, tended to be markedly higher than liver iron levels of rats fed adequate zinc. Increases in dietary zinc (up to 200 ppm) were generally associated with decreases in liver iron deposition, but had little effect on liver copper deposition. Iron bioavailability appeared to be enhanced when fat sources high in saturated fatty acids were used, and there was evidence that the type of dietary fat influenced the effect of zinc on iron bioavailability. Liver copper deposition, however, did not appear to be markedly affected by the type of dietary fat suggesting that copper bioavailability is less affected by fat source. Increases in dietary copper were associated with increases in liver copper levels and decreases in liver iron levels of rats fed increasing levels of zinc. These data suggest that potential interrelationships between dietary factors not being considered as experimental variables could have significant effects on results and on the interrelationships between dietary variables which are being studied.

  12. The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yan-Fei; Zhu, Cheng

    2009-08-14

    Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

  13. Effect of age on sensitivity of daphnia magna to cadmium, copper and cyanazine

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Cairns, M.A.; Onjukka, S.T.; Titus, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper, and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean copper EC50 values ranged from 6 to 18 micrograms/L. Cyanazine EC50 values ranged from 53 to 106 micrograms/L. The 1-d-old Daphnia mean EC50s were 48 and 49 micrograms/L for cadmium, 10 and 10 micrograms/L for copper and 84 and 86 microgram/L for cyanazine, respectively. These similar sensitivities indicate that older animals can be used in tests equally as well as younger animals, thus simplifying the recovery of daphnids in acute sediment toxicity tests.

  14. Zinc, copper, manganese, and iron in chronic alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Moreno, F; González-Reimers, E; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Galindo-Martín, L; Hernandez-Torres, O; Batista-López, N; Molina-Perez, M

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and/or liver damage may alter liver content of several trace elements, as iron, zinc, copper, and manganese. This alteration may play a role on ongoing liver fibrogenesis. Based on these facts we have determined liver, serum, and urinary Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe levels in a group of alcoholic cirrhotics and noncirrhotics with normal renal function, comparing them with those of controls. We have observed low liver zinc and high liver copper--this last in relation with histomorphometrically determined total amount of liver fibrosis--and manganese contents in cirrhotics, together with increased excretion of zinc and iron and decreased excretion of manganese. Zinc, iron, and copper excretion kept a relation with data of severity of cirrhosis, including mortality in the case of urinary copper, independently of the use of diuretics. Thus, liver copper and urinary iron, zinc, and copper excretion seem to be related with data of severity of chronic alcoholic liver disease. Low urinary manganese excretion may play a role on liver manganese overload. PMID:9014022

  15. Sorption of cadmium and copper ions on natural and synthetic hydroxylapatite particles

    SciTech Connect

    Fernane, F.; Mecherri, M.O.; Sharrock, P. Hadioui, M.; Lounici, H.; Fedoroff, M.

    2008-05-15

    The sorption of divalent cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions on natural and synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated by the batch method and under dynamic conditions in columns at 22 deg. C and pH 5. The effect of cadmium and copper concentration on sorption was studied. Both types of apatites are efficient, despite their different composition and morphology. The sorption mechanism involves an ion exchange for Cd(II), while Cu(II) leads to precipitation of a newly formed solid. Thus, the sorption efficiency depends on the experimental conditions and the specific physicochemical properties of the apatites used. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir equation.

  16. The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

    2014-07-01

    The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

  17. Improvement of acute cadmium toxicity by pretreatment with copper salt

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Katakura, M.; Sugawara, N.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of Cd compounds has been thoroughly reviewed. Furthermore, modification of the toxicity by other metals is well known. For example, pre-treatment with Zn significantly decreases the lethality of Cd. Testicular injuries induced by Cd are improved by simultaneous injection of Zn or Se. Thus, such preventive action might be expected as a result of prior or simultaneous injection of Cu salts. Hill et al (1963) reported that supplementation of the basal diet (1 ppm Cu) with 40 ppm copper sulphate markedly reduced Cd-induced lethality. Gunn and Gould (1970) reported that Cu affords protection against testicular injuries caused by Cd. Recently, Kaji et al (1992) found that Cu could prevent Cd cytotoxicity in cultured vascular endothelial cells. On the other hand, Irons and Smith (1976) reported previously that injection of Cu along with Cd decreases the binding of Cd to hepatic metallothionein (MT) and increases the toxicity of the Cd. An interactive increase in toxicity caused by a similar mechanism was observed in embryonic chick bone treated with both Cd and Cu in a culture system. Accordingly, we should accumulate further data to understand the preventive effect of Cu against Cd toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Cu pretreatment on the acute toxicity of Cd in mice. We focused on two organs, the liver and testis. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. The influence of iron stores on cadmium body burden in a Thai population.

    PubMed

    Apinan, Roongnapa; Satarug, Soisunwan; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Mahavorasirikul, Wiratchanee; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium is a toxin of increasing public health concern due to its presence in most human foodstuffs and in cigarette smoke. Exposure to cadmium leads to tissue bioaccumulation and, in particular, has nephrotoxic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cadmium body burden and iron stores in a Thai population. A total of 182 healthy adult Thai subjects of both genders (89 males, 93 females) aged between 18 and 57 years and weighing 40-95 kg were included in this study. The total amounts of cadmium excreted in urine over 2 h (microg/g creatinine) were used as an index of long-term cadmium exposure. Quantitation of cadmium was performed using electrothermal (graphite furnace) atomic absorption spectrometry. The urinary cadmium excreted displayed a normal frequency distribution. The average urinary cadmium level did not exceed the WHO maximum tolerable internal dose for the non-exposed population (2 microg/g creatinine). Body iron stores reflected by serum ferritin levels did not show any correlation with cadmium burden in both males and females, although a relatively stronger influence of body iron store status on cadmium burden was shown in females. When the levels of serum ferritin were stratified into five levels (<20, 20-100, 101-200, 201-300, and >300 microg/l), a significant difference in total cadmium body burden was observed between females and males only in the group with a low level of serum ferritin of <20 microg/l. The cadmium body burden in females was about twice that in males in this group. PMID:19806462

  19. Effect of oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride on friction behavior of copper-iron contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with an iron rider on a copper disk and a copper rider on an iron disk. The sputter cleaned iron and copper disk surfaces were saturated with oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride at atmospheric pressure. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the surfaces. Lower friction was obtained in all experiments with the copper rider sliding on the iron disk than when the couple was reversed. For both iron and copper disks, methyl mercaptan gave the best surface coverage and was most effective in reducing friction. For both iron and copper disks, methyl chloride was the least effective in reducing friction. With sliding, copper transferred to iron and iron to copper.

  20. [Simultaneous determination of copper and iron by catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    He, Chi-yang; Wu, Gen-hua; Cheng, Qiong; Chen, You-cun

    2004-06-01

    A simultaneous catalytic effect copper (II) and iron (III) on the oxidation of acid chrome blue K by potassium bromate in dilute sulfuric acid medium was observed. But there was an obvious difference in their reaction rates, and the ratio of the reaction constant changed with time. And their spectral addiitive properties were not satisfactory. The simultaneous determination of copper and iron by catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method was realized by using a three-layer Levenberg-Marquardt BP neural network to cope with the experimental data. The optimum conditions of reaction and determination were studied. The calculation results of the determination in synthetic samples and human hair were satisfactory. PMID:15766195

  1. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF 'TANYTARSUS DISSIMILIS' (CHIRONOMIDAE) EXPOSED TO COPPER, CADMIUM, ZINC, AND LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tanytarsus dissimilis (Johannsen) was exposed to four heavy metals. Static exposure began during embryogenesis and continued through hatching and larval development to the 2nd or 3rd instar. The LC50 concentrations for cadmium, copper, and zinc were 3.8, 16.3, and 36.8 micrograms...

  2. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  3. Dysregulation of iron and copper homeostasis in nonalcoholic fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Aigner, Elmar; Weiss, Günter; Datz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Elevated iron stores as indicated by hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation and mostly mild hepatic iron deposition are a characteristic finding in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Excess iron is observed in approximately one third of NAFLD patients and is commonly referred to as the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome”. Clinical evidence suggests that elevated body iron stores aggravate the clinical course of NAFLD with regard to liver-related and extrahepatic disease complications which relates to the fact that excess iron catalyses the formation of toxic hydroxyl-radicals subsequently resulting in cellular damage. Iron removal improves insulin sensitivity, delays the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, improves pathologic liver function tests and likewise ameliorates NAFLD histology. Several mechanisms contribute to pathologic iron accumulation in NAFLD. These include impaired iron export from hepatocytes and mesenchymal Kupffer cells as a consequence of imbalances in the concentrations of iron regulatory factors, such as hepcidin, cytokines, copper or other dietary factors. This review summarizes the knowledge about iron homeostasis in NAFLD and the rationale for its therapeutic implications. PMID:25729473

  4. SERUM LEVELS OF COPPER AND IRON IN DENGUE FEVER

    PubMed Central

    SOUNDRAVALLY, Rajendiran; SHERIN, Jacob; AGIESHKUMAR, Balakrishna Pillai; DAISY, Mariya Samadanam; CLEETUS, Cherupanakkal; NARAYANAN, Parameswaran; KADHIRAVAN, Tamilarasu; SUJATHA, Sistla; HARICHANDRAKUMAR, Kottyen Thazhath

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of trace elements in dengue virulence is not yet known. The present study assessed the serum levels of two micronutrients, copper and iron, in cases of dengue fever. The study involved 96 patients of whom 48 had either severe or non-severe forms of dengue (with and without warning signs), and the remaining 48 were patients with other febrile illnesses (OFI), used as controls. Serum levels of copper and iron were evaluated at admission and by the time of defervescence using commercially available kits. At admission, no difference in the level of serum copper was observed between cases and controls. In the group of dengue cases, the copper level was found to be significantly decreased in severe and non-severe cases with warning signs, compared to non-severe cases without warning signs. In contrast, by the time of defervescence the copper level was found to be increased in all dengue cases compared to OFI controls, but no difference was observed among dengue cases. Unlike OFI controls, dengue cases showed an increasing pattern of copper levels from admission until defervescence. On the other hand, no such significant differences were observed in the serum level of iron in the clinical groups, except for a decreased iron level found in severe cases, compared to non-severe dengue without warning signs. The results show that copper is associated with dengue severity and this finding emphasizes the need to investigate the involvement of trace elements in disease severity so as to improve the prognosis of dengue. PMID:26422155

  5. SERUM LEVELS OF COPPER AND IRON IN DENGUE FEVER.

    PubMed

    Soundravally, Rajendiran; Sherin, Jacob; Agieshkumar, Balakrishna Pillai; Daisy, Mariya Samadanam; Cleetus, Cherupanakkal; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Sujatha, Sistla; Harichandrakumar, Kottyen Thazhath

    2015-01-01

    The role of trace elements in dengue virulence is not yet known. The present study assessed the serum levels of two micronutrients, copper and iron, in cases of dengue fever. The study involved 96 patients of whom 48 had either severe or non-severe forms of dengue (with and without warning signs), and the remaining 48 were patients with other febrile illnesses (OFI), used as controls. Serum levels of copper and iron were evaluated at admission and by the time of defervescence using commercially available kits. At admission, no difference in the level of serum copper was observed between cases and controls. In the group of dengue cases, the copper level was found to be significantly decreased in severe and non-severe cases with warning signs, compared to non-severe cases without warning signs. In contrast, by the time of defervescence the copper level was found to be increased in all dengue cases compared to OFI controls, but no difference was observed among dengue cases. Unlike OFI controls, dengue cases showed an increasing pattern of copper levels from admission until defervescence. On the other hand, no such significant differences were observed in the serum level of iron in the clinical groups, except for a decreased iron level found in severe cases, compared to non-severe dengue without warning signs. The results show that copper is associated with dengue severity and this finding emphasizes the need to investigate the involvement of trace elements in disease severity so as to improve the prognosis of dengue. PMID:26422155

  6. Iron may play a role in pancreatic atrophy in copper deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, M.; Lewis, C.G.; Lure, M.D. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD Univ. of Maryland, College Park )

    1991-03-15

    The present study was undertaken to determine if pancreatic atrophy in copper deficient rats fed fructose is associated with excessive iron deposition. Weanling male and female rats were fed a copper deficient or copper adequate diet containing 62% carbohydrate as either fructose or starch. Another group of weanling rats consumed a copper deficient diet containing fructose that was low in iron. After consuming their respective diets for five weeks, the highest pancreatic iron concentration was seen in male rats consuming the copper deficient diet containing fructose. These animals also exhibited pancreatic atrophy. In contrast, neither copper deficient female rats fed fructose nor males fed starch exhibited pancreatic atrophy and their pancreata did not contain high levels of iron. In addition, reducing the availability of dietary iron in copper deficient rats fed fructose decreased pancreatic iron concentration and ameliorated the pathology. The data suggest that pancreatic atrophy in copper deficiency may be related to iron deposition in that tissue.

  7. Copper, cadmium, and nickel accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bagatto, G.; Aikhan, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Sudbury basin, an elliptical 646 square mile depression containing a number of freshwater reservoirs, has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. The purpose of the present study was to compare tissue concentration of copper, cadmium and nickel in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish from the sites were also examined to determine if particular body tissues were specific sites for metal accumulation.

  8. Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

  9. Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, J; Rastogi, S C

    1977-01-01

    Garages and auto-repair workshops may be polluted with other heavy metals besides lead. Blood of autoworkers with high lead content was analysed for cadmium, chromium, copper manganese, nickel, ALAD activity and carboxyhaemoglobin level. Cadmium and copper levels in blood of autoworkers were comparable with those of the control subjects while chroimium and nickel levels were significantly higher (P less than 0-01 for both metals), and scattered raised values of manganese were found. There was no significant mutual correlation between levels of various heavy metals determined in whole blood. High copper levels were slightly related to decreasing ALAD activity (P less than 0-1). Nineteen per cent of autoworkers were found to have an abnormally blood level of carboxyhaemoglobin. The amount of particulate heavy metal in autoworkshop air was not related to biochemical abnormalities found in the autoworkers. Various sources of pollution of these heavy metals in autoworkshops are discussed. PMID:71915

  10. Retronasal smell and detection thresholds of iron and copper salts.

    PubMed

    Epke, Effie M; Lawless, Harry T

    2007-10-22

    Iron and copper salts, when placed in the mouth, may give rise to odorous compounds which complicate their functioning as chemical stimuli. The contribution of retronasal smell to perception of these metal salts at threshold has not been determined. Detection thresholds of the sulfate and chloride salts of ferrous iron and copper, and sodium chloride (as a control) were determined using a modified forced-choice ascending method of limits, with and without nasal occlusion. Threshold values were calculated from geometric means of individual estimates, and from interpolation on logistic regression and percent correct plots. Nasal occlusion raised thresholds for iron salts and copper but not sodium. The geometric mean detection thresholds with the nose open were 30, 64, 7.8, and 8.2 microM for FeSO(4), FeCl(2), CuSO(4), CuCl(2), respectively but rose to 160, 227, 24.6 and 15.6 with the nose closed. Metal salts of both iron and copper create a retronasally perceived olfactory stimulus at low concentration levels, probably arising from lipid oxidation products generated in the mouth. PMID:17532013

  11. Evaluation of Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper, Iron, and Zinc/Copper Ratio in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Pourfallah, F; Javadian, S; Zamani, Z; Saghiri, R; Sadeghi, S; Zarea, B; Faiaz, Sh; Mirkhani, F; Fatemi, N

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc/ copper ratio in the serum of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qom Province, center of Iran. Methods: Serum levels of zinc and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and serum iron concentration was measured by using an Auto Analyzer. The study group consisted of 60 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and the control group of 100 healthy volunteers from the same area who were not exposed to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Result: There were no statistically significant differences in age and body mass index between the two groups. Serum Zn (P< 0.001) and Fe (P< 0.05) levels were lower in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis than the control group. We also found serum Cu concentration (P< 0.05) in the patient group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, zinc/ copper ratio (P< 0.001) was lower in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis than in the control group. Conclusion: Our data indicated that Zn/Cu ratio was significantly lower in patients with CL as compared to the controls. Earlier reports suggest that, this ratio imbalance could be a useful marker for immune dysfunction in leishmaniasis. There was also strong association of Zn, Cu and Fe with CL. It suggests the use of blood zinc, copper, iron concentration and the copper/zinc ratio (Zn/Cu), as a means for estimating the prognosis of CL. PMID:22808376

  12. Regional Distribution of Copper, Zinc and Iron in Brain of Wistar Rat Model for Non-Wilsonian Brain Copper Toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    In previous studies, we have reported first in vivo evidence of copper deposition in the choroid plexus, cognitive impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type II cells) and astrogliosis (increase in number of astrocytes), and degenerated neurons coupled with significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. Nonetheless, hippocampus iron levels were not affected by chronic copper-intoxication. Notwithstanding information on distribution of copper, zinc and iron status in different regions of brain due to chronic copper exposure remains fragmentary. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on copper, zinc and iron levels in different regions of the brain using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Copper-intoxicated group showed significantly increased cortex, cerebellum and striatum copper content (76, 46.8 and 80.7 % increase, respectively) compared to control group. However, non-significant changes were observed for the zinc and iron content in cortex, cerebellum and striatum due to chronic copper exposure. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes differential copper buildup in cortex, cerebellum and striatum region of central nervous system of male Wistar rats; signifying the critical requirement to discretely evaluate the effect of copper neurotoxicity in different brain regions, and ensuing neuropathological and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26855494

  13. OPT3 is a phloem-specific iron transporter that is essential for systemic iron signaling and redistribution of iron and cadmium in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Cadmium, on the other hand, is a non-essential and highly toxic element that competes with iron for uptake and partitioning in plant tissues, posing a threat to crop productivity and human health. Knowledge of signaling mechanis...

  14. Iron Acquisition by Phytosiderophores Contributes to Cadmium Tolerance1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Anderson R.; Scheuermann, Enrico B.; Prechsl, Ulrich E.; Erenoglu, Bülent; Schaaf, Gabriel; Hayen, Heiko; Weber, Günther; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2007-01-01

    Based on the ability of phytosiderophores to chelate other heavy metals besides iron (Fe), phytosiderophores were suggested to prevent graminaceous plants from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. To assess interactions between Cd and phytosiderophore-mediated Fe acquisition, maize (Zea mays) plants were grown hydroponically under limiting Fe supply. Exposure to Cd decreased uptake rates of 59Fe(III)-phytosiderophores and enhanced the expression of the Fe-phytosiderophore transporter gene ZmYS1 in roots as well as the release of the phytosiderophore 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) from roots under Fe deficiency. However, DMA hardly mobilized Cd from soil or from a Cd-loaded resin in comparison to the synthetic chelators diaminetriaminepentaacetic acid and HEDTA. While nano-electrospray-high resolution mass spectrometry revealed the formation of an intact Cd(II)-DMA complex in aqueous solutions, competition studies with Fe(III) and zinc(II) showed that the formed Cd(II)-DMA complex was weak. Unlike HEDTA, DMA did not protect yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells from Cd toxicity but improved yeast growth in the presence of Cd when yeast cells expressed ZmYS1. When supplied with Fe-DMA as a Fe source, transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-ZmYS1 gene construct showed less growth depression than wild-type plants in response to Cd. These results indicate that inhibition of ZmYS1-mediated Fe-DMA transport by Cd is not related to Cd-DMA complex formation and that Cd-induced phytosiderophore release cannot protect maize plants from Cd toxicity. Instead, phytosiderophore-mediated Fe acquisition can improve Fe uptake in the presence of Cd and thereby provides an advantage under Cd stress relative to Fe acquisition via ferrous Fe. PMID:17337530

  15. Determination of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead human renal calculi in both cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, I.; Itoh, M.; Tsukada, S.

    1987-08-01

    A number of investigators have reported about heavy metal contents in food, blood, urine, and animal tissues, including bone, hair, feather, and tooth. However, few data concerning calculi are reported as yet. Heavy metal contents in the calculi might reflect the level of metals absorbed from respiratory tract, skin and intestine. When absorbed metals from respiration are distributed in blood, a part of cadmium is accumulated in liver and kidney, and of lead is in bone, annular vessel and kidney. The remainder is excreted in the urine through the urinary tracts. From intestine, they are distributed by the blood to the liver, and excreted in the urine in the same manner of respiration. It is well known that renal calculi are produced in the urinary tract. The present study is focused on the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead in human renal calculi, samples collected from Hokuriku which is one of the most cadmium polluted areas and from Chugoku which is recognized as a non-polluted one in Japan.

  16. Zinc, iron, manganese, and magnesium accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bagatto, G.; Alikhan, M.A.

    1987-06-01

    The Sudbury basin has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. Elevated concentrations of copper, cadmium, and nickel have been reported in crayfish populations close to the Sudbury smelting works. The present study compares concentrations of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. These metals were selected since they are known to be emitted in moderately high quantities into the Sudbury environment as byproduct of the smelting process. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish were also examined to determined specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

  17. Lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and copper in chicken feathers from Tuskegee, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Love, M.J.; Booker, T.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    The feather has been widely used as a indicator tissue of metal exposure in birds. The feathers were collected from Tuskegee University poultry farm (TUPF) and Harrison Poultry farm (HPF) chicken and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper contaminations. The mean levels of lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper in TUPF chicken were 3.67, 0.13, 12.23, 0.22, and 7.71 ppm, respectively, and in HPF chicken were 5.32, 0.096, 11.03, 0.15, and 8.06 ppm, respectively. The mean levels of these metals did not show any significant difference between TUPF and HPF chicken.

  18. Lipid peroxidation in the gill and hepatopancreas of Oziotelphusa senex senex fabricius during cadmium and copper exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P.S. ); Bhagyalakshmi, A. )

    1994-11-01

    Environmental contamination by metals has increased in recent years due to the excessive use of metals in agriculture and industry. Due to their bioconcentration, immutable and non-degradable properties, these metals constitute a major source of pollutants. Among these metals cadmium, lead and mercury are non-essential, where as copper, iron, manganese, and zinc are essential elements. They are required in trace amounts by all forms of life but are toxic when present in excess. Considerable information is available on the toxic effects of cadmium on biological mechanisms at all integration levels, such as molecular, biochemical, physiological and behavioural, in animals. It is also well known that heavy metal contamination alters cellular physiology, particularly by affecting aspects such as transport across plasma membranes, mitochondrial functions, lysosomal stability etc. Even though it has been demonstrated that the in vitro addition of heavy metals stimulates membrane lipid peroxidation, the in vivo effects exerted by different cations on this process are still not clear. The present work reports the effect of exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu and Cd on lipid peroxidation in the tissues of the edible freshwater crab, Oziotelphusa senex senex. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Iron, copper, and zinc distribution of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; Robinson, Christopher A; Rajput, Alex; Rajput, Ali H; Harder, Sheri L; Nichol, Helen

    2009-06-01

    Synchrotron rapid-scanning X-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is employed for the first time to simultaneously map iron, copper, and zinc in the normal cerebellum. The cerebellum is a major repository of metals that are essential to normal function. Therefore, mapping the normal metal distribution is an important first step towards understanding how multiple metals may induce oxidative damage, protein aggregation, and neurotoxicity leading to cerebellar degeneration in a wide range of diseases. We found that cerebellar white and grey matter could be sharply defined based upon the unique metal content of each region. The dentate nucleus was particularly metal-rich with copper localized to the periphery and iron and zinc abundant centrally. We discuss how RS-XRF metal mapping in the normal brain may yield important clues to the mechanisms of degeneration in the dentate nucleus. PMID:19139969

  20. Localization and Toxic Effects of Cadmium, Copper, and Uranium in Azolla1

    PubMed Central

    Sela, Mordechai; Tel-Or, Elisha; Fritz, Eberhardt; Huttermann, Aloys

    1988-01-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:16666274

  1. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla

    SciTech Connect

    Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

    1988-09-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

  2. Cadmium, copper, cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc in the water column of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Westerlund, S.; Oehman, P. Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg )

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents results from the first complete investigation of the dissolved and suspended trace metals cadmium, copper, cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc in the water column of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. A total of 35 stations was covered in the central Weddell Sea and the shelf areas around the Filchner Depression and Dronning Mauds Land. Snow samples were collected from the sea ice and from the Antarctic continent to evaluate the importance of the fresh water influence on the Weddell Sea. Oceanographic data, i.e., salinity, temperature, and nutrients, are used to link the trace metal results to the different water masses. The general range found is for cadmium, 0.5-0.8 nM; copper, 2.0-2.9 nM; cobalt, 20-40 nM; nickel, 6-7 nM; lead, 10 pM; zinc, 3-7 nM. The suspended trace metals are a small fraction, but considerably higher than in other oceans. The lowest concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc are found in the surface layer and in the whole water column at the Filchner Depression. Cobalt shows an increase in the surface water compared to the deep water. This is suggested to be generated by the terrogent material from the Antarctic continent from the melting of the ice. No evidence of anthropogenic lead can be seen in the lead profile. Nutrient trace metal relations found show poor statistical correlation in contrast to what is found in other oceans. This assumes that cadmium, copper, and zinc are not directly linked to the bioproduction cycle. However, the nutrient trace metal ratios found support the theory that the Weddell Sea is the ultimate source for generation of the nutrient trace metal ratios in the Pacific Ocean.

  3. Lead, chromium, tin, iron and cadmium in foods in welded cans.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Slorach, S

    1987-01-01

    The levels of lead, chromium, tin, iron and cadmium in fruit and vegetables in welded tinplate cans were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels found were compared with those in foods in soldered tinplate cans and fresh foods. The results show that the lead levels in foods in welded cans were much lower than those in similar foods in soldered cans. Foods in unlacquered welded cans contain much more lead, chromium and tin than foods in lacquered welded cans. The cadmium and iron levels in canned fruit and vegetables in welded cans were similar to those found in the corresponding fresh foods. PMID:3653455

  4. Methods for making a supported iron-copper catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst is described for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO+H.sub.2 utilizing a porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support impregnated with iron and copper and optionally promoted with an alkali metal. The use of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support results in the suppression of heavy waxes (C.sub.26 + hydrocarbons), particularly in slurry phase operation, when compared to unsupported or co-precipitated catalysts.

  5. Cadmium Toxicity Induced Alterations in the Root Proteome of Green Gram in Contrasting Response towards Iron Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Mohamed, Rozi; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium signifies a severe threat to crop productivity and green gram is a notably iron sensitive plant which shows considerable variation towards cadmium stress. A gel-based proteomics analysis was performed with the roots of green gram exposed to iron and cadmium combined treatments. The resulting data show that twenty three proteins were down-regulated in iron-deprived roots either in the absence (−Fe/−Cd) or presence (−Fe/+Cd) of cadmium. These down-regulated proteins were however well expressed in roots under iron sufficient conditions, even in the presence of cadmium (+Fe/+Cd). The functional classification of these proteins determined that 21% of the proteins are associated with nutrient metabolism. The other proteins in higher quantities are involved in either transcription or translation regulation, and the rest are involved in biosynthesis metabolism, antioxidant pathways, molecular chaperones and stress response. On the other hand, several protein spots were also absent in roots in response to iron deprivation either in absence (−Fe/−Cd) or presence (−Fe/+Cd) of cadmium but were well expressed in the presence of iron (+Fe/+Cd). Results suggest that green gram plants exposed to cadmium stress are able to change the nutrient metabolic balance in roots, but in the mean time regulate cadmium toxicity through iron supplements. PMID:24739807

  6. Iron and copper catalysis of PCDD/F formation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Junhong; Buekens, Alfons; Olie, Kees; Yang, Jie; Chen, Tong; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) was explored during de novo tests designed to compare the catalytic activity of copper (II) chloride (CuCl2) with that of iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3) and to test some synergistic effect between these two catalytic compounds. Both copper chloride (CuCl2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) were earlier proposed as catalysts to explain the PCDD/F emissions from, e.g. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). In addition, haematite (Fe2O3) is the main iron ore and could be responsible for the typical iron ore sintering plant fingerprint. A total of nine model fly ash (MFA) samples were prepared by mixing and grinding of sodium chloride (NaCl), activated carbon and a powder matrix of silica (SiO2) with the selected metal compound(s). The conditions of these de novo tests were 1 h in duration, 350 °C in a flow of synthetic combustion gas (10 vol.% oxygen in nitrogen). The effect of Fe-Cu catalyst concentration on yield and distribution pattern of PCDD/F was systematically explored; three strongly differing ratios of [Fe]:[Cu] were considered (1:1, 10:1 and 100:1) to study the potential interactions of Fe2O3 and CuCl2 suggested earlier. The results show some slight rise of PCDD/F formed with raising iron concentration from 0 to 10.1 wt% (no Cu added; 0.1 wt% Cu), as well as strong surging of both amount and average chlorination level of PCDD/F when rising amounts of copper (0 to 1.1 wt%) are introduced. The resulting fingerprints are compared with those from sintering and from MSWI. PMID:26416123

  7. OPT3 Is a Phloem-Specific Iron Transporter That Is Essential for Systemic Iron Signaling and Redistribution of Iron and Cadmium in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Zhiyang; Gayomba, Sheena R.; Jung, Ha-il; Vimalakumari, Nanditha K.; Pieros, Miguel; Craft, Eric; Rutzke, Michael A.; Danku, John; Lahner, Brett; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Vatamaniuk, Olena K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Knowledge of the signaling mechanisms that communicate iron demand from shoots to roots to regulate iron uptake as well as the transport systems mediating iron partitioning into edible plant tissues is critical for the development of crop biofortification strategies. Here, we report that OPT3, previously classified as an oligopeptide transporter, is a plasma membrane transporter capable of transporting transition ions in vitro. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana show that OPT3 loads iron into the phloem, facilitates iron recirculation from the xylem to the phloem, and regulates both shoot-to-root iron signaling and iron redistribution from mature to developing tissues. We also uncovered an aspect of crosstalk between iron homeostasis and cadmium partitioning that is mediated by OPT3. Together, these discoveries provide promising avenues for targeted strategies directed at increasing iron while decreasing cadmium density in the edible portions of crops and improving agricultural productivity in iron deficient soils. PMID:24867923

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron and copper disease states

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Clanton, J.A.; Smith, F.W.; Hutchison, J.; Mallard, J.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-11-01

    The tissue levels of paramagnetic ions are an important factor in the determination of T/sub 1/ values as observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The increased levels of iron present in human disease states such as hemochromatosis lead to decreased T/sub 1/ values. The mean liver T/sub 1/ of three patients with iron storage disease was determined to be 130 msec, significantly different from the value of 154 msec, the mean for 14 normal controls. Whether NMR will be able to detect the increased copper levels in liver and brain in Wilson disease remains for further clinical trials to evaluate. NMR imaging, however, does serve as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of states of iron overload and as a technique to follow progression of disease or response to medical therapy.

  9. Quenching of cast iron with a high copper content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Natalia; Bataev, Anatoly; Razumakov, Aleksey

    2015-10-01

    The structure, hardness, and microhardness of hypoeutectic white cast iron alloyed with copper after quenching at 1000 and 1120°C is studied. Features of cupric inclusion separation are detected and its size distribution is shown. After quenching the structure consists of martensite, residual austenite, and vermicular graphite. A decrease in the size and volume fraction of globular cupric inclusions is detected, along with the complete dissolution of nanoscale cupric inclusions, which are located in the ferrite of pearlite colonies. The result of these structural changes is a 30% increase in iron hardness. Cast iron quenching at 1120° C is followed by an increase in the austenite volume fraction to 69%. This effect is due to a decrease in the volume fraction of graphite and a corresponding increase in the carbon content in γ-Fe. Cupric inclusions are located mainly along boundaries of austenitic grains.

  10. Decreased hephaestin activity in the intestine of copper-deficient mice causes systemic iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huijun; Huang, Gang; Su, Trent; Gao, Hua; Attieh, Zouhair K; McKie, Andrew T; Anderson, Gregory J; Vulpe, Chris D

    2006-05-01

    Copper and iron metabolism intersect in mammals. Copper deficiency simultaneously leads to decreased iron levels in some tissues and iron deficiency anemia, whereas it results in iron overload in other tissues such as the intestine and liver. The copper requirement of the multicopper ferroxidases hephaestin and ceruloplasmin likely explains this link between copper and iron homeostasis in mammals. We investigated the effect of in vivo and in vitro copper deficiency on hephaestin (Heph) expression and activity. C57BL/6J mice were separated into 2 groups on the day of parturition. One group was fed a copper-deficient diet and another was fed a control diet for 6 wk. Copper-deficient mice had significantly lower hephaestin and ceruloplasmin (approximately 50% of controls) ferroxidase activity. Liver hepcidin expression was significantly downregulated by copper deficiency (approximately 60% of controls), and enterocyte mRNA and protein levels of ferroportin1 were increased to 2.5 and 10 times, respectively, relative to controls, by copper deficiency, indicating a systemic iron deficiency in the copper-deficient mice. Interestingly, hephaestin protein levels were significantly decreased to approximately 40% of control, suggesting that decreased enterocyte copper content leads to decreased hephaestin synthesis and/or stability. We also examined the effect of copper deficiency on hephaestin in vitro in the HT29 cell line and found dramatically decreased hephaestin synthesis and activity. Both in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that copper is required for the proper processing and/or stability of hephaestin. PMID:16614410

  11. Promotion of atherogenesis by copper or iron-Which is more likely?

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Reshmi; Ren, Minqin; Ning, Pan; Tan Kwong Huat, Benny; Halliwell, Barry . E-mail: bchbh@nus.edu.sg; Watt, Frank

    2007-02-02

    Iron levels increase in atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol fed-rabbits and play a role in atherosclerosis. We investigated whether copper also rises. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed high-cholesterol diets for 8 weeks. After sacrifice, lesion sizes were determined, and elemental analyses of the lesion and unaffected artery wall performed using nuclear microscopy. Unlike iron, lesion copper is decreased by about half compared with the unaffected artery wall, and much less copper than iron is present. Our data suggest that iron may be more likely to play a role in the promotion of atherosclerosis than copper.

  12. Removal of copper and cadmium from the aqueous solutions by activated carbon derived from Ceiba pentandra hulls.

    PubMed

    Rao, M Madhava; Ramesh, A; Rao, G Purna Chandra; Seshaiah, K

    2006-02-28

    Activated carbon prepared from Ceiba pentandra hulls, an agricultural solid waste by-product, for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solutions has been studied. Parameters such as equilibrium time, effect of pH and adsorbent dose on removal were studied. The adsorbent exhibited good sorption potential for copper and cadmium at pH 6.0. C=O and S=O functional groups present on the carbon surface were the adsorption sites to remove metal ions from solution. The experimental data was analysed by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium was calculated from Langmuir isotherm and found to be 20.8 and 19.5 mg/g, respectively. The sorption kinetics of the copper and cadmium have been analysed by Lagergren pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The desorption studies were carried out using dilute hydrochloric acid solution and the effect of HCl concentration on desorption was also studied. Maximum desorption of 90% for copper and 88% for cadmium occurred with 0.2 M HCl. PMID:16191464

  13. LEACHING OF CADMIUM, TELLURIUM AND COPPER FROM CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2004-02-03

    Separating the metals from the glass is the first step in recycling end-of-life cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules and manufacturing scrap. We accomplished this by leaching the metals in solutions of various concentrations of acids and hydrogen peroxide. A relatively dilute solution of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide was found to be most effective for leaching cadmium and tellurium from broken pieces of CdTe PV modules. A solution comprising 5 mL of hydrogen peroxide per kg of PV scrap in 1 M sulfuric acid, gave better results than the 12 mL H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/kg, 3.2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution currently used in the industry. Our study also showed that this dilute solution is more effective than hydrochloric-acid solutions and it can be reused after adding a small amount of hydrogen peroxide. These findings, when implemented in large-scale operation, would result in significant savings due to reductions in volume of the concentrated leaching agents (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and of the alkaline reagents required to neutralize the residuals of leaching.

  14. Temporal and spatial variations of copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc in Ten Mile Creek in South Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Lin, Youjian; Phlips, Edward J; Stoffella, Peter J; Powell, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) often seriously deteriorate water quality. Spatial and temporal fluctuations of the metal concentrations in the Ten Mile Creek (Florida) (TMC) were monitored on a weekly basis at 7 sampling sites, from June 2005 to September 2007. River sediment samples were also collected from these sites in April, June, and October 2006 and January 2007, and analyzed for water, Mehlich 1 (M1), and Mehlich 3 (M3)-extractable metals (Mehlich, 1953, 1984), to examine the role of sediments as sources or sinks of the metals. The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium in the water samples were copper (2.53 microg/L), and cadmium (copper, and 0.25 microg/L for cadmium), pulse concentrations of the metals significantly exceeded these limits. Correlations of lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium concentrations in the TMC to other environmental factors, including the results of principal component analysis, suggest that there are different sources of metals. These sources include surface runoff from agricultural lands or urban wastewater, geological backgrounds, and tidal flow. Water-, M1-, and M3-extractable lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium concentrations in river sediments indicate the possibility that river sediment serves as an internal source of the metals for the TMC. This hypothesis was supported by positive correlations between concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in the river water and their respective water-extractable concentrations in the sediments. PMID:19280898

  15. Isoflavones Reduce Copper with Minimal Impact on Iron In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Karlíčková, Jana; Macáková, Kateřina; Říha, Michal; Pinheiro, Liliane Maria Teixeira; Filipský, Tomáš; Horňasová, Veronika; Hrdina, Radomír; Mladěnka, Přemysl

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones are commonly consumed in many Asian countries and have potentially positive effects on human being. Only a few and rather controversial data on their interactions with copper and iron are available to date. 13 structurally related isoflavones were tested in the competitive manner for their Cu/Fe-chelating/reducing properties. Notwithstanding the 5-hydroxy-4-keto chelation site was associated with ferric, ferrous, and cupric chelation, the chelation potential of isoflavones was low and no cuprous chelation was observed. None of isoflavones was able to substantially reduce ferric ions, but the vast majority reduced cupric ions. The most important feature for cupric reduction was the presence of an unsubstituted 4′-hydroxyl; contrarily the presence of a free 5-hydroxyl decreased or abolished the reduction due to chelation of cupric ions. The results from this study may enable additional experiments which might clarify the effects of isoflavones on human being and/or mechanisms of copper absorption. PMID:26273421

  16. Tissue disposition of zinc and copper following repeated administration of cadmium and selenium to rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielnicka, J.; Bem, E.M.; Brzeznicka, E.A.; Kasperek, M.

    1985-08-01

    Female rats were divided into four groups of five rats each including one control group (C). The animals were administered Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ (Se), (CdCl/sub 2/Cd), and Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ + CdCl/sub 2/ (Cd +Se). Sodium selenite was given intragastrically at a dose of 0.5 mg Se/kg every day and cadmium chloride was injected subcutaneously every other day at a dose of 0.3 mg Cd/kg for 2 weeks. Exposure of rats to Cd caused an increase in the concentration of copper in the kidneys, blood, and liver and a decrease in the lung, but increased the concentration of zinc in the liver and brain and diminished it in the muscles and bones. In animals exposed to Se an increase in the copper concentration was observed in blood and brain; zinc was increased in the blood, heart, brain, and stomach, but decreased in the kidneys. Exposure of rats to Cd + Se resulted in an increase of copper in the kidneys and a decrease in the spleen, lungs, stomach, muscles and bones. Se prevented the cadmium-induced diminution of the zinc levels in the muscles and bones.

  17. Phytoplankton copper requirement under iron limited condition in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, H.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Kumar, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    Copper, a redox reactive transition metal, plays a vital role in many cellular redox reactions. Recent investigations show that many eukaryotic microorganisms including marine and coastal diatom utilize copper to perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism and the requirement of copper increases with decreasing iron concentrations. However, very less information is available about the role of copper in diatom physiology. Here we report for the first time about the copper utilization by coastal diatom during iron limited condition in the Bay of Bengal coast. The diatom Chaetoceros gracilis was isolated from the Visakhapatnam coast and was grown in different copper concentrations (15nM -1000nM). The concentration of total chlorophyll, the growth rate, the concentration of biogenic silica, the ratio of biogenic silica to particulate organic carbon and the ratio of total chlorophyll to particulate organic carbon were found to be increased with increasing copper concentration up to 125nM and decreased thereafter reaching a minimum value at 1000nM. 13C of Particulate organic carbon varied inversely with increasing copper concentrations indicating the signature of enhanced carbon fixation which is in agreement with the enhanced biomass and growth rate. However, to get a better understanding about the role of copper behind the enhanced growth, we had incubated the cells simultaneously in iron replete, copper replete and in varying copper concentration in presence of 200nM of iron. Surprisingly, in all cases significant enhancement in growth and biomass production was observed. The cells grown in only iron and added with copper showed very similar increase whereas, in presence of iron increasing copper concentration did not show any enhancement effect. Increased growth and biomass production in response to iron addition shows that phytoplankton growth is limited by iron in the study area. Furthermore, this observation indicates that in case of iron limitation the coastal diatom perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism where copper plays a vital role. Down regulation of high affinity iron acquisition mechanism was indicated by unaltered growth when copper was added in presence of iron. Collectively, our present study shows that copper likely plays an important role in the physiology of coastal diatom apart from the toxicological studies conducted earlier. A detailed investigation is needed to understand the high affinity iron acquisition mechanism existing in coastal diatom from the study area.

  18. Effect of cadmium on prenatal development and on tissue cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, B.

    1987-02-01

    Administration of 60 and 180 ppm Cd in the drinking water of female rats from Day 1 to Day 20 of gestation resulted in a pronounced accumulation of Cd in all organs examined with the highest increase in the intestinal wall. The copper concentration was decreased in the liver and in the intestine of females from both groups in a dose-dependent manner and in the blood of females given Cd (180 ppm). The zinc concentration was decreased only in the kidney and the intestine of females from the higher level group. The serum glucose level, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were not affected in maternal blood, but the hematocrit was reduced in fetal blood in the 60-ppm Cd group. The fetal body weight and length were decreased in both groups though litter size was not affected. The fetal growth retardation was not concomitant with an increase of Cd concentration or with a decrease of copper and zinc concentration in fetal organs. Cd concentration was not changed in the fetal brain, liver, and kidney and increased only in the gastrointestinal tract of fetuses from the 180-ppm Cd group. The zinc concentration was decreased in fetal liver in the 180-ppm group and in brain of fetuses from the 60-ppm Cd group. The copper concentration was decreased in the gastrointestinal tract and increased in kidney of fetuses from the higher level group.

  19. Radiation induced chemical activity at iron and copper oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Sarah C.

    The radiolysis of three iron oxides, two copper oxides, and aluminum oxide with varying amounts of water were performed using gamma-rays and 5 MeV 4He ions. The adsorbed water on the surfaces was characterized using temperature programmed desorption and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, which indicated that all of the oxides had chemisorbed water on the surface. Physisorbed water was observed on the Fe2O 3 and Al2O3 surfaces as well. Molecular hydrogen was produced from adsorbed water only on Fe2O3 and Al 2O3, while the other compounds did not show any hydrogen production due to the low amounts of water on the surfaces. Slurries of varying amounts of water were also examined for hydrogen production, and they showed yields that were greater than the yield for bulk water. However, the yields of hydrogen from the copper compounds were much lower than those of the iron suggesting that the copper oxides are relatively inert to radiation induced damage to nearby water. X-ray diffraction measurements did not show any indication of changes to the bulk crystal structure due to radiolysis for any of the oxides. The surfaces of the oxides were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the iron samples, FeO and Fe3O4, Raman spectroscopy revealed areas of Fe2O3 had formed following irradiation with He ions. XPS indicated the formation of a new oxygen species on the iron oxide surfaces. Raman spectroscopy of the copper oxides did not reveal any changes in the surface composition, however, XPS measurements showed a decrease in the amount of OH groups on the surface of Cu2O, while for the CuO samples the amount of OH groups were found to increase following radiolysis. Pristine Al2O3 showed the presence of a surface oxyhydroxide layer which was observed to decrease following radiolysis, consistent with the formation of molecular hydrogen.

  20. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake. PMID:25618652

  1. Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake.

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, M; Akesson, A; Nermell, B; Vahter, M

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of intake and uptake of cadmium in relation to diet composition were carried out in 57 nonsmoking women, 20-50 years of age. A vegetarian/high-fiber diet and a mixed-diet group were constructed based on results from a food frequency questionnaire. Duplicate diets and the corresponding feces were collected during 4 consecutive days in parallel with dietary recording of type and amount of food ingested for determination of the dietary intake of cadmium and various nutrients. Blood and 24-hr urine samples were collected for determination of cadmium, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc. There were no differences in the intake of nutrients between the mixed-diet and the high-fiber diet groups, except for a significantly higher intake of fiber (p < 0.001) and cadmium (p < 0.002) in the high-fiber group. Fecal cadmium corresponded to 98% in the mixed-diet group and 100% in the high-fiber diet group. No differences in blood cadmium (BCd) or urinary cadmium (UCd) between groups could be detected. There was a tendency toward higher BCd and UCd concentrations with increasing fiber intake; however, the concentrations were not statistically significant at the 5% level, indicating an inhibitory effect of fiber on the gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium. Sixty-seven percent of the women had serum ferritin < 30 micrograms/l, indicating reduced body iron stores, which were highly associated with higher BCd (irrespective of fiber intake). BCd was mainly correlated with UCd, serum ferritin, age, anf fibre intake. UCd and serum ferritin explained almost 60% of the variation in BCd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713018

  2. Iron supplementation does not affect copper and zinc absorption in breastfed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron supplements are commonly recommended for infants but were suggested to inhibit zinc and copper absorption. The objective of this study was to investigate potential effects of iron supplementation, infant age, and mineral status on zinc and copper absorption in infants at 6 and 9 mo of age. Twen...

  3. Copper Accumulates in Hemosiderins in Livers of Patients with Iron Overload Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Yukiya; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Wakusawa, Shinya; Hayashi, Hisao; Kumagai, Kotaro; Morotomi, Natsuko; Yamashita, Tetsuji; Kawanaka, Miwa; Watanabe, Minemori; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Tai, Mayumi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Kentarou; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    In biology, redox reactions are essential and sometimes harmful, and therefore, iron metabolism is tightly regulated by cuproproteins. Since the state of copper in iron overload syndromes remains unclear, we investigated whether copper metabolism is altered in these syndromes. Eleven patients with iron overload syndromes participated in this study. The clinical diagnoses were aceruloplasminemia (n=2), hemochromatosis (n=5), ferroportin disease (n=2), and receiving excess intravenous iron supplementation (n=2). Liver specimens were analyzed using a light microscope and transmission electron microscope equipped with an X-ray analyzer. In addition to a large amount of iron associated with oxygen and phosphorus, the iron-rich hemosiderins of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells contained small amounts of copper and sulfur, regardless of disease etiology. Two-dimensional imaging clearly showed that cuproproteins were distributed homogenously with iron complexes within hemosiderins. Copper stasis was unlikely in noncirrhotic patients. The enhanced induction of cuproproteins by excess iron may contribute to copper accumulation in hemosiderins. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that copper accumulates in hemosiderins in iron overload conditions, perhaps due to alterations in copper metabolism. PMID:26356991

  4. Copper Accumulates in Hemosiderins in Livers of Patients with Iron Overload Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yukiya; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Wakusawa, Shinya; Hayashi, Hisao; Kumagai, Kotaro; Morotomi, Natsuko; Yamashita, Tetsuji; Kawanaka, Miwa; Watanabe, Minemori; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Tai, Mayumi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Kentarou; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi

    2015-06-28

    In biology, redox reactions are essential and sometimes harmful, and therefore, iron metabolism is tightly regulated by cuproproteins. Since the state of copper in iron overload syndromes remains unclear, we investigated whether copper metabolism is altered in these syndromes. Eleven patients with iron overload syndromes participated in this study. The clinical diagnoses were aceruloplasminemia (n=2), hemochromatosis (n=5), ferroportin disease (n=2), and receiving excess intravenous iron supplementation (n=2). Liver specimens were analyzed using a light microscope and transmission electron microscope equipped with an X-ray analyzer. In addition to a large amount of iron associated with oxygen and phosphorus, the iron-rich hemosiderins of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells contained small amounts of copper and sulfur, regardless of disease etiology. Two-dimensional imaging clearly showed that cuproproteins were distributed homogenously with iron complexes within hemosiderins. Copper stasis was unlikely in noncirrhotic patients. The enhanced induction of cuproproteins by excess iron may contribute to copper accumulation in hemosiderins. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that copper accumulates in hemosiderins in iron overload conditions, perhaps due to alterations in copper metabolism. PMID:26356991

  5. Shellac-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for removal of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jilai; Chen, Long; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Deng, Jiuhua; Niu, Qiuya; He, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a new effective adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solution synthesized by coating a shellac layer, a natural biodegradable and renewable resin with abundant hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, on the surface of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging showed shellac-coated magnetic nanoparticle (SCMN) adsorbents had a core-shell structure with a core of 20 nm and shell of 5 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic analysis suggested the occurrence of reaction between carboxyl groups on the SCMN adsorbent surface and cadmium ions in aqueous solution. Kinetic data were well described by pseudo second-order model and adsorption isotherms were fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich models with maximum adsorption capacity of 18.80 mg/g. SCMN adsorbents provided a favorable adsorption capacity under high salinity conditions, and cadmium could easily be desorbed using mild organic acid solutions at low concentration. PMID:23513435

  6. Interface driven magnetic interactions in nanostructured thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Desautels, R. D. Lierop, J. van; Shueh, C.; Lin, K.-W.; Freeland, J. W.

    2015-05-07

    We have fabricated thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix using a dual ion beam assisted deposition technique. A secondary End-Hall ion beam bombarded the iron atoms during deposition altering significantly the morphology of the films and allowing for control of the intermixing between iron and copper components. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray reflectometry experiments indicated that the morphology of the films was that of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction pattern identified fcc-copper and amorphous iron. An increased amount of disorder was observed with a reduction in the amount of deposited iron from a 1:1 Fe:Cu ratio to 0.25:0.75 Fe:Cu ratio. Interfacial copper-iron alloys were identified by DC susceptibility experiments through their reduced T{sub C,Alloy} (370, 310, and 280 K) compared with that of bulk iron (∼1000 K). Element specific x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments were performed to identify the contributions to the magnetism from the iron and the copper-iron alloy.

  7. Response of plasma copper, ceruloplasmin, iron and ions in carp, Cyprinus carpio to waterborne copper ion and nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Aliakbar; Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Cyprinus carpio was exposed to 0.25mgL(-1) copper as either copper sulfate (CuSO4) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-Cu), and 25mgL(-1) copper as nano-Cu for 14days. CuSO4 and high concentration of nano-Cu led to a significant increase in plasma total copper levels. Plasma free copper levels increased significantly in all copper-exposed treatments. Except for low concentration of nano-Cu after 7 and 14days, copper exposure generally led to a significant decrease in plasma ceruloplasmin levels. Plasma iron levels increased significantly in CuSO4 (all times) and nano-Cu (7th and 14th days) treatments. A significant elevation in plasma total iron binding capacity (TIBC) was observed after 3days in the fish exposed to low concentration nano-Cu, and after 14days in all copper-exposed treatments. Transferrin saturation (TSA) ratio showed significant increase in CuSO4 (3rd and 7th days) and the high concentration nano-Cu (7th day) treatments. Decrease in plasma chloride (7th and 14th days) and sodium (14th days) was observed in CuSO4 treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that ionic copper is mainly absorbed via fish gill, whereas, nano-copper are more likely absorbed via gut. Also, data suggest that ionic copper has more adverse effects on the examined plasma biochemical characteristics compared to the equivalent nano-copper concentration, which may be due to the lower copper absorption by fish in the nano-copper suspension. PMID:26408942

  8. Specific features of photoluminescence properties of copper-doped cadmium selenide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Tselikov, G. I.; Dorofeev, S. G.; Tananaev, P. N.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2011-09-15

    The effect of doping with copper on the photoluminescence properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots 4 nm in dimension is studied. The quenching of the excitonic photoluminescence band related to the quantum dots and the appearance of an impurity photoluminescence band in the near-infrared region are observed after doping of the quantum dots with copper. It is established that, on doping of the quantum dots, the photoluminescence kinetics undergoes substantial changes. The photoluminescence kinetics of the undoped quantum dots is adequately described by a sum of exponential relaxation relations, whereas the photoluminescence kinetics experimentally observed in the region of the impurity band of the copper-doped samples follows stretched exponential decay, with the average lifetimes 0.3-0.6 {mu}s at the photon energies in the range of 1.47-1.82 eV. The experimentally observed changes in the photoluminescence properties are attributed to transformation of radiative centers in the quantum dots when doped with copper atoms.

  9. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  10. Sequential injection lab-on-valve simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of copper and iron.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Shinsuke; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao; Grudpan, Kate; Polasek, Miroslav

    2006-01-15

    A sequential injection (SI) method in a lab-on-valve (LOV) format for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper and iron has been devised. The detection chemistry is based on the complex formation of 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-n-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]aniline (5-Br-PSAA) with copper(II) and/or iron(II) at pH 4.6. Copper(II) reacts with 5-Br-PSAA to form the complex which has an absorption maximum at 580 nm but iron(III) does not react. In the presence of a reducing agent only iron(II)-5-Br-PSAA complex is formed and detected at 558 nm. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the determinable ranges are 0.1-2 mg l(-1) for copper and 0.1-5 mg l(-1) for iron, respectively, with a sampling rate of 18 h(-1). The limits of detection are 50 microg l(-1) for copper and 25 microg l(-1) for iron. The relative standard deviations (n=15) are 2% for 0.5 mg l(-1) copper and 1.8% for 0.5 mg l(-1) iron when determined in standard solutions. The recoveries range between 96 and 105% when determining 0.25-2 mg l(-1) of copper and 0.2-5 mg l(-1) of iron in artificial mixtures at copper/iron ratios of 1:10 to 5:1. The proposed SI-LOV method is successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of copper and iron in multi-element standard solution and in industrial wastewater samples. PMID:18970353

  11. ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT A MERCURY FILM ELECTRODE: BASELINE CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN SELECTED NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...

  12. The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, D. R.; Dreisinger, D. B.; Lancaster, T.; Richmond, G. D.; Tomlinson, M.

    2004-07-01

    The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.’s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland, Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the solvent extraction/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for neutralization of the raffinate bleed) and has the potential to deliver higher current efficiencies in copper electrowinning, leading to increased copper production.

  13. Factors controlling cadmium and mercury accumulations in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Blazka, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    In this study the role of calcium channels and processes associated with the uptakes of copper, iron and zinc play in the accumulation of cadmium and mercury was investigated in freshly isolated as well as cultured hepatocytes. Cadmium inhibits the accumulations of calcium, copper, iron and zinc because of its higher affinity for the anionic membrane binding sites in the plasma membrane. Similar to the accumulation of essential metals, the uptake of cadmium is rapid, biphasic and sensitive to temperature. As no single metal completely blocked the entry of cadmium, it appears that cadmium enters the hepatocyte by more than one process. The results showed that calcium channels play an important role in the accumulation of cadmium under conditions where other mechanisms have become saturated. Calcium channels are a temperature-sensitive route that is responsible for as much as 25% of cadmium uptake. Copper, iron and zinc enter the hepatocyte by different membrane binding sites and carriers. After examining the interaction between the essential metals and cadmium, it appears the 75% of the binding sites and carriers used by cadmium are associated with zinc transport. Also, the processes associated with copper and iron uptakes contribute to less than 25% of cadmium accumulation. None of the metals tested had an effect on mercury accumulation. Because of its size, mercury is unable to enter the heptocyte through the calcium channel. However, its greater affinity for different anionic binding ligands enables it to displace other metals from the membrane binding sites and carriers. As a result, 2.5 times more mercury than cadmium is associated with the cellular membranes. The accumulation of mercury occurs by processes insensitive to temperature which include membrane binding, simple diffusion and ion pores. The nature of cadmium and mercury accumulation is different and further study is needed to elucidate the specific membrane proteins associated with their uptakes.

  14. Characterization of biological iron sulfide composites and its application in the treatment of cadmium-contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Xie, Yifei; Li, Xudong

    2015-03-01

    A strain of sulfate reducing bacteria, which could generate biological iron sulfide composites, was applied for Cd (II) removal from wastewater. The influence of biological iron sulfide composites dosage, initial pH and temperature on the rate of Cd (II) removal from wastewater by biological iron sulfide composites were investigated. The microscopic morphological characteristics and elemental composition changes of the biological iron sulfide before and after treatment was compared, using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry, then the mechanism of Cd (II) removal was explored. The results showed that Cd (II) reduction rate increased with increase in dosage of biological iron sulfide composites and initial temperature. At 25 degrees C, pH 4.0, with dosage of sulfide and cadmium ions molar equal to 99.93% Cd (II) was removed from cadmium wastewater (100 mg l(-1)), and the residual concentration of cadmium reached Chinese Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). The present study revealed that bio- precipitation of FeS, the main component of biological iron sulfide composites, played leading role in the process of Cd (II) reduction. Therefore, it is prospective to apply biological iron sulfide composites in the emergency treatment of cadmium-contaminated wastewater. PMID:25895261

  15. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

  16. Field screening of chromium, cadmium, zinc, copper, and lead in sediments by stripping analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B. ); Wang, J.; Setladji, R.; Lu, J. )

    1994-11-01

    Stripping analysis (SA) was successfully employed for field verification of metals contaminants in soils and sediments at hazardous waste sites. Microwave digestion procedures were tailored to meet the needs of field activities and electrochemical measurements. An adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) scheme was used for monitoring total chromium and for chromium speciation, while conventional anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) were used for measuring cadmium, zinc, copper, and lead. The results demonstrate that SA is capable of on-site identification of contaminated layers in soils and sediments. Concentration values measured by SA correlated well with those obtained by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved atomic or mass spectroscopy methods. The remarkable sensitivity, portability, low-power need, and low cost of SA make it an attractive choice for on-site analysis of selected metals during site characterization and remediation activities. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Effects of cadmium and copper on chemotaxis of marine and freshwater ciliates

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Gunderson, J.H.; Derk, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    Recommendations of a workshop on biological screening requested the inclusion of behavior studies to reveal subtle, dysfunctional effects of pollutants on organisms and suggestions for additional research in development of behavioral tests incorporated into testing protocols were made at the ASTM Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology. The present study addresses these research needs by examining a rapid behavioral bioassay using protozoa, microfauna with important roles in microbial-based food chains, regeneration of nutrients, and regulation of bacterial populations in aquatic environments. In this study, ciliated protozoa from both marine and freshwater environments were examined with respect to their response to an attractant in the presence of a variety of concentrations of cadmium and copper.

  18. Toxicity and accumulation of copper and cadmium in the alga Scenedesmus obliquus LH

    SciTech Connect

    Drbal, K.; Veber, K.; Zahradnik, J.

    1985-06-01

    The techniques of determination of toxic and inhibitory effects, and of measuring the kinetics of metal sorption, used by individual authors differ widely in basic parameters, especially in the experimental concentrations of algal suspensions and in methods of separation of algae. Some authors assume that the drop in the concentration of the metal in the solution, or its concentration in the biomass, are a measure of sorption of the metals by the algae. This is not entirely correct; our study led to this conclusion on the basis of measurement of inhibition of growth and sorption of copper and cadmium ions in dense algal suspensions in a photoautotrophic regime of an intensive culture, and comparison of disappearance of these ions from the solution in the absence of the algae.

  19. Sorption of cadmium, copper, and zinc onto soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, H.D.; Chapman, S.K.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments involved testing the sorption properties of soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus to evaluate the feasibility of using these materials for acid mine reclamation. The metals cadmium, copper, and zinc were chosen since they are generally present in sulfide mine waste and are toxic. Their toxicity warrants their removal. To appropriate sulfide mine conditions, solutions of individual metals were prepared with concentrations between five and fifty milligrams/Liter and pH levels between three and seven. Results show forty to seventy percent metal removal for the fungus, and seventy-five to one-hundred percent removal by the coal. The pH of all the metal solutions equilibrated to between four and six when the fungus was used, and between five and seven for the coal. Sorption kinetics studies are currently underway and will be reported.

  20. Overlap of copper and iron uptake systems in mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Gammon, Micah G.; Maynard, Margaret K.; White, Olivia L.; Cobine, Jai A.; Mahone, Wilkerson K.

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial carrier family protein Pic2 imports copper into the matrix. Deletion of PIC2 causes defects in mitochondrial copper uptake and copper-dependent growth phenotypes owing to decreased cytochrome c oxidase activity. However, copper import is not completely eliminated in this mutant, so alternative transport systems must exist. Deletion of MRS3, a component of the iron import machinery, also causes a copper-dependent growth defect on non-fermentable carbon. Deletion of both PIC2 and MRS3 led to a more severe respiratory growth defect than either individual mutant. In addition, MRS3 expressed from a high copy number vector was able to suppress the oxygen consumption and copper uptake defects of a strain lacking PIC2. When expressed in Lactococcus lactis, Mrs3 mediated copper and iron import. Finally, a PIC2 and MRS3 double mutant prevented the copper-dependent activation of a heterologously expressed copper sensor in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Taken together, these data support a role for the iron transporter Mrs3 in copper import into the mitochondrial matrix. PMID:26763345

  1. Role of copper promotion in precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.J.; Xu, L.; Davis, B.H.

    1996-10-01

    Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was conducted on precipitated iron-silicon catalysts. The affect of copper promotion on the activity and selectivity of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and syngas activated catalysts is presented. High activity and stability have been obtained for potassium promoted catalysts when operating at 270{degrees}C; however, it has been found that promotion with potassium and copper is essential to obtaining good activity in a wax producing mode at 230{degrees}C. Promotion with copper is critical to achieving good activity when pretreating catalysts with hydrogen or with syngas at high pressure. XRD and Mossbauer data indicate that copper facilitates the reduction of iron oxide to metallic iron and iron carbides during hydrogen and syngas pretreatments.

  2. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  3. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 83.154 ?g/100g, 0.445 0.006, 0.050 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 133.953 ?g/100g, 0.007 0.003, 0.060 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit. PMID:24734090

  4. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  5. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  6. Iron, Manganese and Copper Release from Synthetic Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, Douglas W.

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic stir-flow dissolution experiments were performed on iron- (Fe-SHA), manganese- (Mn-SHA), and copper- (Cu-SHA) containing synthetic hydroxyapatites. Solution treatments consisted of de-ionized water, citric acid and DTPA. Initially, Mn concentrations were higher than Cu concentrations and Fe concentrations were the lowest in all treatments. At later times Mn and Cu concentrations dropped in the DTPA treatment while Fe rose to the concentration similar to Mn and Cu. At all times, metal release concentrations in the water and citric acid treatments followed the trend of Mn>Cu>Fe. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data and ^31P NMR indicated that the metals substituted for Ca in the SHA structure. However, EPR data suggested that a metal (hydr)oxide phase existed either on the SHA surface or between the SHA crystallites. The metal concentration trend of Mn>Cu>Fe suggested that the initial solution metal concentrations are dependent on the dissolution of (hydr)oxides from SHA surfaces or between SHA crystallites. Similar metal concentrations at later times in the DTPA experiments suggests that metal concentrations were controlled by the release of Mn, Cu, or Fe from the SHA structure.

  7. Daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water: the Seattle study of trace metal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sharrett, A.R.; Carter, A.P.; Orheim, R.M.; Feinleib, M.

    1982-08-01

    The daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water is estimated for men, women, and children living in Seattle based on their reported water consumption and the metal concentrations in water from their homes. Metal concentrations were closely associated with the type of plumbing in the home, which was found to be accurately reported by the subjects. Residents of homes with copper plumbing consumed a substantial proportion of their daily required copper from their drinking water, an important finding in view of the possible suboptimal copper levels in American diets. Lead intake levels from water in new homes was comparable to estimated U.S. dietary intakes, but was low relative to levels thought to be toxic. The results suggest practical methods for assessing the associations of chronic diseases with long-term, low-level exposures to these metals.

  8. Biochemical Evolution of Iron and Copper Proteins, Substances Vital to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes studies in the area of biochemical evolution of iron, copper, and heme proteins to provide an historical outline. Included are lists of major kinds of proteins and enzymes and charts illustrating electron flow in a cytochrome electron transport system and interconversion of jerrous to ferric ion in iron metabolism. (CC)

  9. The diverse roles of FRO family metalloreductases in iron and copper homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshika; Wilson, Grandon T.; Connolly, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential for plants and are important for the function of a number of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis and respiration. As the molecular mechanisms that control uptake, trafficking and storage of these nutrients emerge, the importance of metalloreductase-catalyzed reactions in iron and copper metabolism has become clear. This review focuses on the ferric reductase oxidase (FRO) family of metalloreductases in plants and highlights new insights into the roles of FRO family members in metal homeostasis. Arabidopsis FRO2 was first identified as the ferric chelate reductase that reduces ferric iron-chelates at the root surface-rhizosphere interface. The resulting ferrous iron is subsequently transported across the plasma membrane of root epidermal cells by the ferrous iron transporter, IRT1. Recent work has shown that two other members of the FRO family (FRO4 and FRO5) function redundantly to reduce copper to facilitate its uptake from the soil. In addition, FROs appear to play important roles in subcellular compartmentalization of iron as FRO7 is known to contribute to delivery of iron to chloroplasts while mitochondrial family members FRO3 and FRO8 are hypothesized to influence mitochondrial metal ion homeostasis. Finally, recent studies have underscored the importance of plasma membrane-localized ferric reductase activity in leaves for photosynthetic efficiency. Taken together, these studies highlight a number of diverse roles for FROs in both iron and copper metabolism in plants. PMID:24711810

  10. OPT3 Is a Component of the Iron-Signaling Network between Leaves and Roots and Misregulation of OPT3 Leads to an Over-Accumulation of Cadmium in Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Xie, Qingqing; Akmakjian, Garo Z.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Patel, Ami; Stacey, Minviluz G.; Song, Lihui; Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Stacey, Gary; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and seeds are the main dietary sources of zinc, iron, manganese, and copper, but are also the main entry point for toxic elements such as cadmium into the food chain. We report here that an Arabidopsis oligopeptide transporter mutant, opt3-2, over-accumulates cadmium (Cd) in seeds and roots but, unexpectedly, under-accumulates Cd in leaves. The cadmium distribution in opt3-2 differs from iron, zinc, and manganese, suggesting a metal-specific mechanism for metal partitioning within the plant. The opt3-2 mutant constitutively up-regulates the Fe/Zn/Cd transporter IRT1 and FRO2 in roots, indicative of an iron-deficiency response. No genetic mutants that impair the shoot-to-root signaling of iron status in leaves have been identified. Interestingly, shoot-specific expression of OPT3 rescues the Cd sensitivity and complements the aberrant expression of IRT1 in opt3-2 roots, suggesting that OPT3 is required to relay the iron status from leaves to roots. OPT3 expression was found in the vasculature with preferential expression in the phloem at the plasma membrane. Using radioisotope experiments, we found that mobilization of Fe from leaves is severely affected in opt3-2, suggesting that Fe mobilization out of leaves is required for proper trace-metal homeostasis. When expressed in yeast, OPT3 does not localize to the plasma membrane, precluding the identification of the OPT3 substrate. Our in planta results show that OPT3 is important for leaf phloem-loading of iron and plays a key role regulating Fe, Zn, and Cd distribution within the plant. Furthermore, ferric chelate reductase activity analyses provide evidence that iron is not the sole signal transferred from leaves to roots in leaf iron status signaling. PMID:24880337

  11. Impairment of Interrelated Iron- and Copper Homeostatic Mechanisms in Brain Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Skjørringe, Tina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Iron and copper are important co-factors for a number of enzymes in the brain, including enzymes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and myelin formation. Both shortage and an excess of iron or copper will affect the brain. The transport of iron and copper into the brain from the circulation is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead to altered copper homeostasis in the brain. Similarly, changes in dietary copper affect the brain iron homeostasis. Moreover, the uptake routes of iron and copper overlap each other which affect the interplay between the concentrations of the two metals in the brain. The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) is involved in the uptake of both iron and copper. Furthermore, copper is an essential co-factor in numerous proteins that are vital for iron homeostasis and affects the binding of iron-response proteins to iron-response elements in the mRNA of the transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, all highly involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake, and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells that express various transporters. PMID:23055972

  12. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  13. Synthesis of cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads as immunosensing probes for the detection of AFP, CEA and PSA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zifeng; Liu, Na; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-08-15

    A double-water-in-oil-emulsion procedure was designed to synthesize cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads less than 200n m diameter under mild conditions. The cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads can be activated to immobilize biomacromolecules and can directly produce distinctive electrochemical signals. Using the novel alginate nanobeads labeled with antibodies as electrochemical probes, a sandwich-type immunosensor was constructed using AFP, CEA and PSA as model analytes. This proposed immunosensor shows wide linear range with detection limits of 0.01, 0.0086 and 0.0075 ng mL(-1) for AFP, CEA and PSA, respectively. Analysis of clinical serum samples using this immunosensor was well consistent with the data determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It suggested that the alginate nanobeads electrochemical probes could be generally extended to other multiple analytes detection. PMID:25797848

  14. Evolution of Texture and Microstructure in Deformed and Annealed Copper-Iron Multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, K. S.; Rollett, A. D.; Suwas, Satyam

    2016-02-01

    The effect of multiple phases on the evolution of texture during cold rolling and annealing of a copper-iron multilayer, fabricated by accumulative roll bonding, has been studied. The presence of an iron layer affects the deformation texture of the copper layer only at very large strains. On the other hand, a strong effect of copper on iron is observed at both small and large strains. At smaller strains, the larger deformation carried by the copper suppresses the texture development in the iron, whereas, at higher strains, selection of specific orientation relationship at the interface influences the texture of the iron layer. Shear banding and continuous dynamic recrystallization were found to influence the evolution of texture in the copper layer. The influence of large plastic deformation on the recrystallization behavior of copper is demonstrated with the suppression of typical fcc annealing texture components, described as constrained recrystallization. Evolution of typical annealing texture component is suppressed because of the multilayer microstructure. The plane of the interface formed during deformation is determined by a combination of the rolling texture of individual phases, constrained annealing, and the tendency to form a low-energy interface between the two phases during annealing.

  15. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  16. IN-HOUSE CORROSION RESEARCH EMPHASIZING LEAD, COPPER AND IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead and copper are directly regulated via the "Lead and Copper Rule;" however, water suppliers must balance all water treatment processes in order to simultaneously comply with all regulations. Specific research needs for copper and lead chemistry still exist, as applications o...

  17. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  18. Influences of petroleum on accumulation of copper and cadmium in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu-Hong; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Zhang, Qian-Ru

    2006-01-01

    Using the exposure simulation experiment, the action of petroleum affecting the accumulation of the trace metals including copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in littoral polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from the Shuangtaizi Estuary in Liaoning Province, China was examined. The results showed that there was a markedly non-linear relationship between the accumulation of Cu in worms and the experimental concentration of Cu in exposure solutions when the concentration of petroleum remained at 0, 100, and 220 microl/L, respectively. However, significantly non-linear relationship for worms exposed to Cd was observed only when the concentration of added petroleum was 0 and 220 microl/L. The accumulation of Cu in worms did not differ significantly among the three different levels of petroleum concentrations combined with various concentrations of Cu. So was the accumulation of Cd in worms (p > 0.05). However, the addition of petroleum in exposure solutions brought about an increase in the accumulation of Cu in Nereis diversicolor, in comparison with single Cu pollution. On the other hand, when the concentration of added petroleum remained at 100 microl/L, the accumulation of Cd in worms was lower than that in worms exposed to various concentrations of only cadmium. However, the worms exposed to Cd and petroleum 220 microl/L did not show obvious and identical increase in the accumulation of Cd, compared with single Cd exposure. The accumulation of both Cu and Cd in worms did not increase significantly with the increases in concentrations of Cu or Cd in exposure solutions combined with petroleum (0, 100, and 220 microl/L) under the experimental conditions. Although Nereis diversicolor is exposed to very high Cu and Cd in exposure solutions, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms are sufficient to cope with the extra metal influx in order to survive. PMID:20050557

  19. Influence of indigenous and added iron on copper extraction from soil.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Luca

    2009-10-15

    Experimental tests of copper leaching from a low permeability soil are presented and discussed. The objective of the experiments was to investigate the influence of indigenous and added iron in the soil towards copper mobilization. Metals' leaching was performed by flushing (column tests) or washing (batch tests) the soil with an aqueous solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA. An excess of EDTA was used in flushing tests (up to a EDTA:Cu molar ratio of about 26.2:1), while, in washing tests, the investigated EDTA vs. copper molar ratios were in the range between 1 (equimolar tests) and 8. Copper extraction yield in flushing tests (up to about 85%) was found to depend upon contact time between the soil and the leaching solution and the characteristics of the conditioning solution. The saturation of the soil with a NaNO(3) solution before the treatment, favoured the flushing process reducing the time of percolation, but resulted in a lower metal extraction during the following percolation of EDTA. The indigenous iron was competitive with copper to form EDTA complexes only when it was present in the organic and oxides-hydroxides fractions. Artificial iron addition to the soil resulted in an increase of both the exchangeable iron and the iron bonded to the organic fraction of the soil, thus increasing the overall amount of iron available to extraction. In both batch and continuous tests, the mechanism of copper extraction was found to involve the former dissolution of metal salts, that lead to an initial high concentration of both copper and selected competitive cations (essentially Ca(2+)), and the following EDTA exchange reaction between calcium and copper complexes. The initial metal salts dissolution was found to be pH-dependant. PMID:19477586

  20. Recovery of iron from copper slag by deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-qing; Ping, Shuo; Wang, Hong-yu; Ni, Wen

    2013-11-01

    Aiming at recovering iron from high-iron-content copper slag, this article introduced a combination technology of deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation, investigated the iron recovery efficiency and optimized the technical conditions. When coke powder with 86wt% fixed carbon was used as a reductant, iron was successfully extracted from the copper slag. Under the optimized condition of the coke powder content of 14wt%, the calcium-to-silicon mass ratio (Ca/Si) of 0.2, the roasting temperature of 1300°C, the roasting time of 3 h, the grinding time of 20 min, and the magnetic field intensity of 61 kA·m-1, the iron recovery rate of the copper slag can reach 91.82%, and the extracted iron powder has an iron grade of 96.21%. With the characteristics of high iron grade and low impurity content, the extracted iron powder can be used as high-quality raw materials of weathering steel.

  1. Cadmium accumulation and interactions with zinc, copper, and manganese, analysed by ICP-MS in a long-term Caco-2 TC7 cell model.

    PubMed

    Noël, Laurent; Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Guérin, Thierry; Huet, Hélène; Frémy, Jean-Marc; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2006-10-01

    The influence of long-term exposure to cadmium (Cd) on essential minerals was investigated using a Caco-2 TC7 cells and a multi-analytical tool: microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Intracellular levels, effects on cadmium accumulation, distribution, and reference concentration ranges of the following elements were determined: Na, Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Cd. Results showed that Caco-2 TC7 cells incubated long-term with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 micromol Cd/l for 5 weeks exhibited a significant increase in cadmium accumulation. Furthermore, this accumulation was more marked in cells exposed long-term to cadmium compared with controls, and that this exposure resulted in a significant accumulation of copper and zinc but not of the other elements measured. Interactions of Cd with three elements: zinc, copper, and manganese were particularly studied. Exposed to 30 micromol/l of the element, manganese showed the highest inhibition and copper the lowest on cadmium intracellular accumulation but Zn, Cu, and Mn behave differently in terms of their mutual competition with Cd. Indeed, increasing cadmium in the culture medium resulted in a gradual and significant increase in the accumulation of zinc. There was a significant decrease in manganese from 5 micromol Cd/l exposure, and no variation was observed with copper. PMID:16937253

  2. Cadmium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cadmium ; CASRN 7440 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  3. Iron, copper and zinc isotopic fractionation up mammal trophic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Pons, Marie-Laure; Balter, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that some non-traditional elements exhibit stable isotope compositions that are distinct in botanical and animal products, providing potential new tracers for diet reconstructions. Here, we present data for iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) stable isotope compositions in plants and bones of herbivores and carnivores. The samples come from trophic chains located in the Western Cape area and in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The Fe, Cu and Zn isotope systematics are similar in both parks. However, local Cu, and possibly Zn, isotopic values of soils influence that of plants and of higher trophic levels. Between plants and bones of herbivores, the Zn isotope compositions are 66Zn-enriched by about 0.8‰ whereas no significant trophic enrichment is observed for Fe and Cu. Between bones of herbivores and bones of carnivores, the Fe isotope compositions are 56Fe-depleted by about 0.6‰, the Cu isotope compositions are 65Cu-enriched by about 1.0‰, and the Zn isotope compositions are slightly 66Zn-depleted by about 0.2‰. The isotopic distributions of the metals in the body partly explain the observed trophic isotopic systematics. However, it is also necessary to invoke differential intestinal metal absorption between herbivores and carnivores to account for the observed results. Further studies are necessary to fully understand how the Fe, Cu and Zn isotope values are regulated within the ecosystem's trophic levels, but the data already suggests significant potential as new paleodietary and paleoecological proxies.

  4. Effects of inflammation on copper, iron, and zinc metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore, V.; Ochillo, R.F.

    1986-03-05

    The objective of the present study was to study changes in copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) metabolism due to acute and chronic inflammation in the rat. Carrageenin-induced foot edema (CE) and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) were used as models as acute and chronic inflammation, respectively. A non-inflamed control group was included in each study. Rats were sacrificed 72 h post-carrageenin in the CE study, and 21 days post-adjuvant in the AA study. Samples of bone, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, plasma, and spleen were analyzed for Cu, Zn, and Fe by atomic absorption spectrometry. Only those metal conc. in the inflamed group which showed a significant change with respect to the corresponding control group are reported. In the CE study: 1) Cu conc. increased in pancreas(75%), lungs(74%), and kidneys(47%), and decreased in the spleen(22%); 2) Zn conc. increased in pancreas(25%), lungs(27%), and in kidneys(18%); and 3) Fe conc. increased in pancreas(50%), lungs(21%), liver(26%), and brain(17%), and decreased in the muscle(21%). In the AA study: 1) Cu conc. increased in plasma(159%), liver(126%). pancreas(90%), lungs(42%), bone(22%) and in the brain(13%); 2) Zn conc. increased in the liver(88%), pancreas(77%), and in kidneys(15%); and 3) Fe conc. increased in the liver(43%), pancreas(66%), and in the brain(31%). Results indicate that both acute and chronic inflammation have a pronounced effect on Cu, Zn, and Fe metabolism.

  5. Evolution of Microstructures During Austempering of Ductile Irons Alloyed with Manganese and Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Ranjan Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Chakrabarti, Ajit Kumar

    2013-03-01

    The influences of relatively high manganese (0.45 through 1.0 wt pct) and copper (0.56 through 1.13 wt pct) contents on microstructure development and phase transformation in three austempered ductile irons have been studied. The experimental ductile irons alloyed with copper and manganese are found to be practically free from intercellular manganese segregation. This suggests that the positive segregation of manganese is largely neutralized by the negative segregation of copper when these alloying elements are added in appropriate proportions. The drop in unreacted austenite volume (UAV) with increasing austempering temperature and time is quite significant in irons alloyed with copper and manganese. The ausferrite morphology also undergoes a transition from lenticular to feathery appearance of increasing coarseness with the increasing austempering temperature and time. SEM micrographs of the austempered samples from the base alloy containing manganese only, as well as copper plus manganese-alloyed irons, clearly reveal the presence of some martensite along with retained austenite and ferrite. X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of these phases. SEM examination further reveals the presence of twinned martensite in the copper plus manganese-alloyed samples. The possibility of strain-induced transformation of austenite to martensite during austempering heat treatment is suggested.

  6. THE COMPARATIVE EXCLUSION OF ZINC AND IRON FROM RICE GRAIN IN RELATION TO RICE GRAIN CADMIUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice grain samples collected from within an isolated and geo-physically unique Zinc/Cadmium (Zn/Cd) co-contaminated area in Thailand suggests that the rice plant effectively controls grain Zn and Iron (Fe) uptake even though concurrent aqua regia digested soil Zn and Fe concentrations ranged from 25...

  7. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    SciTech Connect

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle; Lise Brantsaeter, Anne; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A.

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  8. Influences of macroalga-derived dissolved organic carbon on the aquatic toxicity of copper and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Martin T K; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Wong, Ming H

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from macroalga (Sargassum) on the acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) to a freshwater cladoceran (Daphnia magna) was investigated. Potassium-loaded macroalga was incubated with ultrapure water to extract macroalgal DOC, which was then spiked with the constituents of the Elendt M7 hard water media. The 48 h median lethal concentration of Cu increased linearly with DOC levels but that of Cd was relatively independent of DOC levels (0-44 mg l(-1)). The independence of Cd toxicity on DOC level might be due to the competitive effect of high calcium concentrations in the media with Cd for the binding sites of DOC. The decreased Cu toxicity was a result of reduced Cu uptake as evidenced in a separate accumulation test. Also, the capability of the macroalgal DOC on reducing Cu toxicity was found to be comparable to DOC tested in other studies. Therefore, the present study suggested that the biosorption treatment process using macroalgae should consider the effect of DOC release from the biomass as a step of modifying the metal toxicity as well as influencing metal biosorption capacity. PMID:16709424

  9. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Bakary, Inza; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Soro, Metongo Bernard; Trokourey, Albert; Bokra, Yobou

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal contaminations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead were assessed simultaneously in water, sediment, and in the bivalve Arca senilis from the Milliardaires Bay (Cote d'Ivoire) between February and October 2008. The metal load in sediments doubled from the dry season to the rainy season. On the contrary, metal concentrations in waters decreased significantly from the dry season to the rainy season. Zn and Pb concentrations in A. senilis showed similar seasonal variation with sediments. On the other hand, A. senilis regulated Cu concentrations by eliminating about twelve times the concentration accumulated during the dry season. Apparent Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration gradients were observed, but no significant differences between stations for sediment, water, and A. senilis. Concentrations in sediment increased from stations close to Abidjan Harbor towards farther stations, while concentrations in A. senilis showed a reverse gradient. The distribution gradient of A. senilis indicates pollution from local sources, but a transplant experiment is needed to better understand the observed spatial trend. Zn and Cu concentrations may pose little risk to human health and the environment, but they are the highest on the regional scale. On the contrary, Cd and Pb concentrations in A. senilis exceeded the maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission. Complementary studies including chemical speciation should be considered to provide a more accurate assessment of the risk of heavy metals to the environment. PMID:26581608

  10. Determination and Evaluation of Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Zinc in Agricultural Soils of Western Macedonia, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, A.; Prochaska, C.; Papadopoulos, F.; Gantidis, N.; Metaxa, E.

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of major phytotoxic metals―including cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)―in agricultural soils of Western Macedonia, Greece. We also wanted to determine the possible relationships among elements and between soil properties and elemental concentrations. Surface soil samples, n = 570, were collected and analyzed. The results of the elemental analysis showed that the mean metal concentrations were consistent with reported typical concentrations found in Greek agricultural soils in the cases of Zn and Cu. Cd exhibited lower and Ni higher mean concentrations than the typical levels reported in the literature. Metal concentrations in the majority of the examined samples (>69%) were found to be higher than the respective critical plant-deficiency levels. However, only 0.4% and 0.2% of the analyzed soil samples, respectively, exhibited Cd and Ni concentrations higher than the levels that cause plant toxicity, as referenced by other investigators. These results suggest that the soils studied can be considered as unpolluted with respect to the examined food-chain metal contaminants. However, the levels of the metal concentrations in some of the soil samples, and the low correlation of the metals with soil properties, suggest an anthropogenic rather that lithogenic origin.

  11. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  12. Heavy metals zinc, cadmium, and copper stimulate pulmonary sensory neurons via direct activation of TRPA1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruei-Lung

    2010-01-01

    Airway exposure to zinc dust and zinc-containing ambient particulates can cause symptoms of airway irritation and inflammation, but the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is selectively expressed in a subpopulation of pulmonary C-fiber afferents and has been considered as a major irritant sensor in the lung and airways. Using whole cell patch-clamp recording and Ca2+ imaging, we have demonstrated that application of ZnCl2 concentration dependently evoked inward current and Ca2+ transient in isolated vagal pulmonary sensory neurons; both responses were almost completely inhibited after pretreatment with AP18, a specific TRPA1 antagonist. In anesthetized spontaneously breathing animals, intratracheal instillation of ZnCl2 (2 mM, 25 μl) induced pronounced respiratory depression in wild-type mice, and the effect was essentially absent in TRPA1-deficient mice. In addition, our study showed that two other heavy metals, cadmium and copper, also stimulated pulmonary sensory neurons via a direct activation of TRPA1. In summary, our results suggest that activation of TRPA1 in pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves may contribute to the respiratory toxicity induced by airway exposure to these three heavy metals. PMID:20133428

  13. Zinc(II) and copper(II) complexes with hydroxypyrone iron chelators.

    PubMed

    Lachowicz, Joanna Izabela; Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Crisponi, Guido; Jaraquemada-Pelaez, Maria de Guadalupe; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Jezierska, Julia; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elżbieta; Peana, Massimiliano; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Niclós-Gutiérrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa Maria

    2015-10-01

    High stability of the complexes formed at physiological pH is one of the basic requisites that a good iron chelator must possess. At the same time the chelating agent must be selective toward iron, i.e., the stability of iron complexes must be significantly higher than that of the complexes formed with essential metal ions, in order that these last ones do not perturb iron chelation. In the frame of our research on iron chelators we have designed and synthesized a series of tetradentate derivatives of kojic acid, and examined their binding properties toward Fe(3+) and Al(3+). In this paper, for a characterization of the behavior of the proposed iron chelating agents in biological fluids, their complex formation equilibria with copper(II) and zinc(II) ions have been fully characterized together with a speciation study, showing the degree at which the iron chelators interfere with the homeostatic equilibria of these two essential metal ions. PMID:26281974

  14. Cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc concentrations in tissues of the king crab (Pseudocarcinus gigas) from southeast Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Turoczy, N J; Mitchell, B D; Levings, A H; Rajendram, V S

    2001-10-01

    The concentrations of cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc were determined in muscle (body, claw, and leg), hepatopancreas, and gill tissues of Pseudocarcinus gigas, an exceptionally large, long-lived, and deep-dwelling crab species. The accumulation patterns observed are discussed in terms of both intra- and interspecies variations, with particular attention to the possible consequences of the extreme size and depth range of P. gigas. Metal concentrations did not depend significantly on sex of the crab. Significant differences between tissues were detected for all metals, and the distribution of metal between the tissues was different for each metal. Significant correlations were found between metal concentrations in the various tissues and crab size, and these are discussed and rationalised. The concentrations of mercury and zinc in muscle tissue increased with crab size and were high compared to other crab species. The concentrations of cadmium and copper present in edible tissues were not especially high compared to other crab species, but the concentration of cadmium in the hepatopancreas is of dietary concern. PMID:11686644

  15. Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. II. Different mechanisms for copper versus cadmium detoxification in the copper-sensitive cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype).

    PubMed

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M H; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-10-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 microm Cu(2+) remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the "sun reaction" type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  16. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 μm Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  17. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated iron with an aluminum sulfide ferrous sulfide flux.

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.; Energy Technology

    1998-04-01

    Scrap iron and steel have long been considered as resources in the steelmaking industry, and their value is largely determined by the impurity content. Copper is a particularly troublesome impurity because of its role in causing hot shortness and should be kept below ==0.1 wt pct. A method for reducing copper content in steel to <0.1 wt pct could lead to increased use of lower-quality scrap.

  18. Some new chromogens for iron, cobalt, and copper Substituted hydrazidines and 1,2,4-triazines containing the ferroin group.

    PubMed

    Schilt, A A

    1966-07-01

    The spectral characteristics and solution conditions requisite for formation of the iron(II), cobalt(II), and copper(I) complexes of some newly synthesised compounds containing the ferroin functional grouping have been determined. These properties are useful for evaluation of the possible analytical effectiveness of the compounds as spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of iron, cobalt, and copper. PMID:18959951

  19. State of adsorption layers of fatty acids on the surfaces of iron, manganese, and copper ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmasova, O. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Korolev, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    States of adsorbed substances in surface layers arising during the adsorption of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids from carbon tetrachloride, heptane, and cyclohexane solutions on the surfaces of iron, manganese, and copper ferrites, are investigated. Adsorption isotherms and two-dimensional state diagrams of surface layers of iron, manganese, and copper ferrites are obtained experimentally. It is shown that the adsorption of fatty acids from solutions in organic solvents proceeds via filling the volume of the ferrites' porous space with adsorption solutions, while the state of ferrite surface layers changes due to the structural rearrangement of adsorption solutions upon an increase in solute concentration.

  20. Iron and copper in male reproduction: a double-edged sword.

    PubMed

    Tvrda, Eva; Peer, Rohan; Sikka, Suresh C; Agarwal, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential trace nutrients playing important roles in general health and fertility. However, both elements are highly toxic when accumulating in large quantities. Their direct or indirect impact on the structure and function of male gonads and gametes is not completely understood yet. Excess or deficiency of either element may lead to defective spermatogenesis, reduced libido, and oxidative damage to the testicular tissue and spermatozoa, ultimately leading to fertility impairment. This review will detail the complex information currently available on the dual roles iron and copper play in male reproduction. PMID:25245929

  1. Trace Element Status (Iron, Zinc, Copper, Chromium, Cobalt, and Nickel) in Iron-Deficiency Anaemia of Children under 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Angelova, Maria Georgieva; Petkova-Marinova, Tsvetelina Valentinova; Pogorielov, Maksym Vladimirovich; Loboda, Andrii Nikolaevich; Nedkova-Kolarova, Vania Nedkova; Bozhinova, Atanaska Naumova

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine trace element status and aetiologic factors for development of trace elements deficiencies in children with iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) aged 0 to 3 years. Contingent and Methods. 30 patients of the University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria—I group; 48 patients of the Sumy Regional Child's Clinical Hospital, Sumy, Ukraine—II group; 25 healthy controls were investigated. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt, and nickel were determined spectrophotometrically and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. Because the obtained serum levels of zinc, copper, and chromium were near the lower reference limits, I group was divided into IA and IB. In IA group, serum concentrations were lower than the reference values for 47%, 57%, and 73% of patients, respectively. In IB group, these were within the reference values. In II group, results for zinc, cobalt, and nickel were significantly lower (P < 0.05), and results for copper were significantly higher in comparison to controls. Conclusion. Low serum concentrations of zinc, copper, cobalt, and nickel were mainly due to inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, and micronutrient interactions in both studied groups. Increased serum copper in II group was probably due to metabolic changes resulting from adaptations in IDA. Data can be used for developing a diagnostic algorithm for IDA. PMID:24839556

  2. Phormidium autumnale growth and anatoxin-a production under iron and copper stress.

    PubMed

    Harland, Francine M J; Wood, Susanna A; Moltchanova, Elena; Williamson, Wendy M; Gaw, Sally

    2013-12-01

    Studies on planktonic cyanobacteria have shown variability in cyanotoxin production, in response to changes in growth phase and environmental factors. Few studies have investigated cyanotoxin regulation in benthic mat-forming species, despite increasing reports on poisoning events caused by ingestion of these organisms. In this study, a method was developed to investigate changes in cyanotoxin quota in liquid cultures of benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria. Iron and copper are important in cellular processes and are well known to affect growth and selected metabolite production in cyanobacteria and algae. The effect of iron (40-4000 μg L(-1)) and copper (2.5-250 μg L(-1)) on growth and anatoxin-a quota in Phormidium autumnale was investigated in batch culture. These concentrations were chosen to span those found in freshwater, as well as those previously reported to be toxic to cyanobacteria. Anatoxin-a concentrations varied throughout the growth curve, with a maximum quota of between 0.49 and 0.55 pg cell(-1) measured within the first two weeks of growth. Growth rates were significantly affected by copper and iron concentrations (P < 0.0001); however, no statistically significant difference between anatoxin-a quota maxima was observed. When the iron concentrations were 800 and 4000 μg L(-1), the P. autumnale cultures did not firmly attach to the substratum. At 250 μg L(-1) copper or either 40 or 4000 μg L(-1) iron, growth was suppressed. PMID:24351714

  3. Heat treatment of copper-alloy cast irons with spheroidal graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Vakula, V.I.; Skoblo, T.S.; Dubrov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The features of structural formation and hardening of cast iron during tempering were investigated. The basic components of the charge were steel scraps and foundry iron and nickel. Copper, ferromolybdenum, and ferrosilicon were used for alloying and a nickel-magnesium foundry alloy and ferrocerium were used as the modifiers. The microstructure of the cast-iron specimens were analyzed using optical, electron, and emission microscopy. Mechanical tests determined the following parameters: bending strength, resilience, tensile strength, and Brinell hardness. The phase composition was determined by x-ray structural analysis and the carbide phase composition was determined by the chemical methods. It was found that tempering copper-alloy cast irons with spheroidal graphite increases bending strength, tensile strength and resilience.

  4. Impact of wine production on the fractionation of copper and iron in Chardonnay wine: Implications for oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Rousseva, Michaela; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Clark, Andrew C

    2016-07-15

    Copper and iron in wine can influence oxidative, reductive and colloidal stability. The current study utilises a solid phase extraction technique to fractionate these metals into hydrophobic, cationic and residual forms, with quantification by ICP-OES. The impact of aspects of wine production on the metal fractions was examined, along with the relationship between metal fractions and oxygen decay rates. Addition of copper and iron to juice, followed by fermentation, favoured an increase in all of their respective metal fractions in the wine, with the largest increase observed for the cationic form of iron. Bentonite fining of the protein-containing wines led to a significant reduction in the cationic fraction of copper and an increase in the cationic form of iron. Total copper correlated more closely with oxygen consumption in the wine compared to total iron, and the residual and cationic forms of copper provided the largest contribution to this impact. PMID:26948636

  5. Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.

    1981-09-20

    Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open ocean, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the ocean interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the ocean can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.

  6. Stress-related physiological effects in fish exposed to combinations of copper and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelgrom, S.M.G.J.; Lock, R.A.C.; Balm, P.H.M.; Bonga, S.E.W.

    1995-12-31

    During waterborne exposure, heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are not only taken up by fish gills, but also exert their primary toxic effect on this tissue. When the adaptive responses of the animals are inadequate, symptoms of stress have been observed. Tolerance for toxicants depends on specific physiological and biochemical accommodation of this tissue, partly regulated hormonally by products from the pituitary-interrenal axis. Cortisol not only modulates bronchial ion mechanisms but also regulates intermediate metabolism. The hormone is released in response to various stressful stimuli, such as heavy metals, and has been put forward as a stress index. Despite the increasing knowledge about the toxic mechanisms of sublethal concentrations of either Cu or Cd for fish, little is known about the effects of combined Cu/Cd exposure. The potential toxic effects of mixtures of heavy metals for fish is a subject of growing interest. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects on fish exposed during 6 days to sublethal waterborne Cu and Cd concentrations, singly and in combination. It is demonstrated that although Cu and Cd have metal-specific effects, the effects observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish were not simple additive or synergistic, as demonstrated by metal accumulation in organs, chloride cell numbers, active ion transport activities and plasma ion composition. For several of these parameters, more deleterious effects were observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish than could have been predicted from effects observed in single Cu or Cd exposed fish. Plasma cortisol levels were increased in Cu-exposed fish, but an increase was not observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish. It is argued that the absence of this cortisol response contributes to the inadequate reaction of the combined Cu/Cd exposed fish.

  7. The interactive toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to Ceriodaphnia dubia and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; Cohen, Adam S; Stubblefield, William A

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, aquatic toxicity studies examine the toxicity of a single chemical to an organism. Organisms in nature, however, may be exposed to multiple toxicants. Given this is a more realistic exposure scenario in situ, the authors sought to understand the interactive toxicity of multiple metals to aquatic organisms. The authors performed a series of studies using equitoxic mixtures of cadmium, copper, and zinc to 2 aquatic organisms, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Single metal toxicity tests were conducted to determine the acute median lethal concentration (LC50) values for O. mykiss and short-term, chronic median effective concentration (EC50) values for C. dubia. All 3 metals were then combined in equitoxic concentrations for subsequent mixture studies using a toxic unit (TU) approach (i.e., 1 TU = EC50 or LC50). For C. dubia, the mixture study showed greater-than-additive effects in hard water (TU-based EC50 = 0.74 TU), but less-than-additive effects in soft water (TU-based EC50 = 1.93 TU). The mixture effects for O. mykiss showed less-than-additive effects in both hard and soft waters, with TU-based LC50 values of 2.33 total TU and 2.22 total TU, respectively. These data are useful in helping understand metal mixture toxicity in aquatic systems and indicate that although in most situations the assumption of additivity of metal mixture toxicity is valid, under certain conditions it may not be sufficiently protective. PMID:25641563

  8. Investigating the distribution of dissolved copper, zinc, silver and cadmium in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, D. J.; Cullen, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    A stated goal of the GEOTRACES program is to better understand the large-scale distribution of trace metals in the marine environment. A characteristic feature of the soft Lewis acid metals like copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag) and cadmium (Cd) is their correlation with the major algal nutrients. These correlations imply that the proximate control on the distribution of these metals is microbial uptake at the ocean surface, sinking associated with particulate organic matter and subsequent remineralization in the ocean interior. Combined with sedimentary records of past metal concentrations such correlations can provide much needed information on water mass circulation and nutrient cycling in the paleo-ocean. Today, as trace nutrients and/or toxins these metals help shape microbial community composition and influence productivity. Here we present depth profiles through the low dissolved oxygen waters of the north Pacific which show decoupling of trace metal-macronutrient relationships driven by depletion anomalies of trace metal concentrations in the broad, low oxygen layer. Similar anomalies have been previously reported in permanently anoxic layers (e.g. fjords) or in waters in contact with suboxic sediments and attributed to sulfidic removal of soft trace metals. The observed trace metal behavior and trace metal-macronutrient relationships in the oxygen minimum layer in the northeastern Pacific is consistent with the possibility of sulfidic scavenging of soft metals and the formation of insoluble metal sulfides in the water column. Implications of this influence on the basin scale distribution of soft metals like Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd through scavenging in the spreading low oxygen layer in the northeastern Pacific are discussed.

  9. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings. PMID:26298186

  10. Toxicity and removal of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, and zinc) by Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Megateli, Smain; Semsari, Saida; Couderchet, Michel

    2009-09-01

    Effects of cadmium, copper, and zinc on the aquatic plant Lemna gibba were determined under controlled conditions; in parallel their removal from the growth medium was followed. The results showed that the three heavy metals affected growth, a physiological stress index defined as the ratio of Chlorophyll to phaeophytin (D665/D665a), and the contents of proline. After 4 days, 10(-3)-10(-1)mg/L Cd inhibited growth by 25-100%, reduced D665/D665a by 35-89%, and increased proline content by 44-567%. Under the same conditions, 10(-4)-10(-1) microg/L Cu inhibited growth by 36-75%, reduced D665/D665a by 19-81%, and increased proline content by 67-288%. Comparable concentrations of Zn had little effect. However, higher concentrations (4, 30, and 50mg/L) inhibited growth by 50-79%. Also, 0.1 and 30 mg/L induced a small reduction of D665/D665a (-3.8% and -22%) and an increase in proline contents (+144% and +177%). When it was observed, proline accumulation was always transient and the maximum was reached after 4 days. Monitoring metal concentration in the medium showed that L. gibba was able to remove metals from the medium. Zn and Cu removal was biphasic, it was rapid during the first 2 days (> 60% reduction) and slow (10-20%) during the following 8 days. For Cd, removal was linear and depended on the initial concentration. It reached approximately 90% after 6 or 8 days for initial concentrations of 10(-1) and 10(-3)mg/L, respectively. PMID:19505721

  11. Effects of glucose concentrations on cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc toxicity to a Klebsiella sp

    SciTech Connect

    Brynhildsen, L.; Lundgren, B.V.; Allard, B.; Rosswall, T.

    1988-07-01

    The influence of glucose concentration on Cd, CU, Hg, and Zn toxicity to a Klebsiella sp. was studied by following the degradation of /sup 14/C-labeled glucose at pH 6.0. Uptake of /sup 14/C into the cells was also determined. The carbon concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 40 mg liter/sup -1/, which are equivalent to soluble C concentrations in natural environments. The toxicity of Cu, Cd, and Zn to a Klebsiella sp. was affected considerably by the C concentration. Copper at 10/sup -5/ M was toxic when the carbon concentration was 10 or 40 mg liter/sup -1/, while at 0.01 to 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/ no toxicity was observed. Cadmium and zinc were toxic at 10/sup -2/ M in media containing 0.01 to 1.0 mg of C liter/sup -1/. At C concentrations greater than 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/, the inhibition of glucose degradation and carbon assimilation was observed at 10/sup -3/ M Cd and Zn. The toxicity of mercury seemed to be independent of the C concentration. Results of this study showed that the nutritional state of an organism may have a profound effect on its sensitivity to metals. Metals taken up by energy-driven transport system may be less toxic under conditions of C starvation. The C concentration should be taken into account when evaluating results from toxicity studies, especially as most microorganisms in nature live under energy-limited conditions.

  12. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity in Wilson's disease reflects local copper, but not iron accumulation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Uwe; Skowrońska, Marta; Litwin, Tomasz; Szpak, Grażyna Maria; Jabłonka-Salach, Katarzyna; Skoloudík, David; Bulska, Ewa; Członkowska, Anna

    2014-10-01

    In patients with Wilson's disease (WD) transcranial brain sonography typically reveals areas of increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity) of the lenticular nucleus (LN). Correlation with T2-hypointensity on magnetic resonance images suggested that LN hyperechogenicity in WD is caused by trace metal accumulation. Accumulation of both, copper and iron, in the brain of WD patients has been reported. The present study was designed to elucidate whether LN hyperechogenicity in WD reflects accumulation of copper or iron. Post-mortem brains of 15 WD patients and one non-WD subject were studied with ultrasonography in an investigator-blinded fashion. LN hyperechogenicity was measured planimetrically by manual tracing as well as using digitized image analysis. The putaminal copper content was determined in samples of 11 WD brains and the non-WD brains using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and iron content was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. LN was normal on ultrasonography only in the non-WD brain, but abnormal (hyperechogenic) in all WD brains. Digitized image analysis measures of LN hyperechogenicity and, by trend, manual measures correlated with putaminal copper content (Pearson test; digitized: r = 0.77, p = 0.04; manual: r = 0.57, p = 0.051) but not with iron content (each, p > 0.18). LN hyperechogenicity measures were unrelated to age at death of patients, age at onset of WD, WD duration, age of brain specimen, serum copper or serum ceruloplasmin (each, p > 0.1). We conclude that LN hyperechogenicity in WD reflects copper, but not iron accumulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the use of transcranial brain sonography for monitoring therapeutic effects of chelating agents in WD patients. PMID:24615184

  13. Dietary intake of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc by children from the German North Sea island Amrum.

    PubMed

    Schrey, P; Wittsiepe, J; Budde, U; Heinzow, B; Idel, H; Wilhelm, M

    2000-03-01

    The dietary intake of metals was studied in seven male and seven female children at the age of 1.5 to 5.3 years living in a remote area of Germany, the North Sea island Amrum. The dietary intake of lead and cadmium was measured by a seven-day-duplicate study using atomic absorption spectrometry. The dietary intake of copper and zinc were calculated from food diaries. The median lead and cadmium intakes were 2.1 micrograms/(kgbw x week) [range: 0.63-5.1 micrograms/(kgbw x week)] and 2.7 micrograms/(kgbw x week) [range: 1.7-4.4 micrograms/(kgbw x week)]. The median daily intake of copper and zinc were 1.1 mg/d (range: 0.54-2.5 mg/d) and 5.7 mg/d (range: 2.7-14 mg/d). Compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 micrograms/(kgbw x week) proposed by the WHO the dietary intake of lead was low. The median amounted to 8.5% and the maximum to 20% of the PTWI. The cadmium intake was comparatively high. The median amounted to 39% and the maximum to 63% of the PTWI [7 micrograms/(kgbw x week)]. The median intake of copper was in the range of the values recommended by the German Society of Nutrition (0.7-1.0 mg/d and 1.0-1.5 mg/d for children at the age of 1-< 4 years and 4-< 7 years). Twenty-three percent of the calculated intakes were below these values. The median intake of zinc however did not reach the recommended dietary intake of 7 and 10 mg/d for children at the age of 1-< 4 years and 4-< 7 years. PMID:10956583

  14. Serum iron and copper status and oxidative stress in severe and mild preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Serdar, Zehra; Gür, Esma; Develioğlu, Osman

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate parameters of iron and copper status and oxidative stress and antioxidant function in women with healthy pregnancy, mild and severe preeclampsia with a view to exploring the possible contribution of these parameters to the aetiology. Thirty healthy, 30 mild preeclamptic and 30 severe preeclamptic pregnant women were included. Serum and placental lipid peroxides, and serum vitamin E and total carotene levels were measured by colorimetric assay. Cholesterol, copper, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), ceruloplasmin and transferrin concentrations were measured by commercially available procedures. Data were analysed statistically using one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation test. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate odds ratios. Lipid peroxides in serum and placental tissue, and iron, copper and ceruloplasmin levels in serum were significantly increased, and transferrin, TIBC, vitamin E/total cholesterol and total carotene/total cholesterol ratios in serum were significantly decreased especially in women with severe preeclampsia. Significant correlations were detected between serum iron and lipid peroxides in serum and placental tissue and between serum iron and vitamin E/total cholesterol in severe preeclamptic pregnancy. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between serum malondialdehyde and ceruloplasmin and vitamin E/total cholesterol in women with severe preeclampsia, and changes in serum and placental lipid peroxides and serum iron concentrations were significantly associated with preeclampsia. In conclusion, ischaemic placental tissue may be a primary source of potentially toxic iron in preeclampsia and the released iron species may contribute to the aetiology and would exacerbate lipid peroxidation and endothelial cell injury, which may be abated by antioxidant supplementation. PMID:15898124

  15. Iron uptake system mediates nitrate-facilitated cadmium accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bing Fang; Du, Shao Ting; Lu, Kai Xing; Liu, Wen Jing; Lin, Xian Yong; Jin, Chong Wei

    2012-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) management is a promising agronomic strategy to minimize cadmium (Cd) contamination in crops. However, it is unclear how N affects Cd uptake by plants. Wild-type and iron uptake-inefficient tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant (T3238fer) plants were grown in pH-buffered hydroponic culture to investigate the direct effect of N-form on Cd uptake. Wild-type plants fed NO₃⁻ accumulated more Cd than plants fed NH₄⁺. Iron uptake and LeIRT1 expression in roots were also greater in plants fed NO₃⁻. However, in mutant T3238fer which loses FER function, LeIRT1 expression in roots was almost completely terminated, and the difference between NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ treatments vanished. As a result, the N-form had no effect on Cd uptake in this mutant. Furthermore, suppression of LeIRT1 expression by NO synthesis inhibition with either tungstate or L-NAME, also substantially inhibited Cd uptake in roots, and the difference between N-form treatments was diminished. Considering all of these findings, it was concluded that the up-regulation of the Fe uptake system was responsible for NO₃⁻-facilitated Cd accumulation in plants. PMID:22378950

  16. Gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper to nickel-chromium-iron. Welding procedure specification

    SciTech Connect

    Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

  17. Microelectrodes Based investigation of the Impacts of Water Chemistry on Copper and Iron Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of bulk drinking water quality on copper and iron pipe corrosion has been extensively studied. Despite past research, many have argued that bulk water quality does not necessarily reflect water quality near the water-metal interface and that such knowledge is necessary...

  18. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  19. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  20. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper. PMID:24862826

  1. MD description of damage production in displacement cascades in copper and α-iron.

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, David J; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E; Voskoboinikov, Roman E

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulation was applied for an extensive study of primary damage creation in displacement cascades in copper and {alpha}-iron. Primary knock-on atom energy, E{sub p}, of up to 25 keV in copper and 100 keV in iron was considered for irradiation temperatures in the range 100-900 K. Special attention was paid to comprehensive statistical treatment of the number and type of defects created in cascades by conducting multiple simulations for each value of energy and temperature. The total number of point defects per cascade is significantly lower than that predicted by the NRT model and rather similar in the two metals. The fraction of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies that agglomerate in clusters in the cascade process was analysed in detail. The clustered fraction of SIAs increases with temperature increase and is larger in copper than iron. SIA clusters have a variety of forms in both metals and, although most are glissile clusters of parallel crowdions, a significant fraction are sessile. The latter include Frank dislocation loops in copper. Tightly packed arrangements of vacancies do not form in iron, and so the fraction of clustered vacancies depends strongly on the range within which point defects are defined to be near-neighbours. Arrangements of vacancies in first-neighbour sites are common in copper. Most are irregular stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs). In 53 simulations of cascades with E{sub p} = 25 keV at 100 K, the largest cluster formed contained 89 vacancies. The size spectrum of SFT-like clusters is similar to that found experimentally in neutron-irradiated copper, suggesting that the SFTs observed in experiment are formed directly in the cascade process.

  2. Investigating the Role of Transferrin in the Distribution of Iron, Manganese, Copper and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carolina; Pettiglio, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The essential role of transferrin in mammalian iron metabolism is firmly established. Integral to our understanding of transferrin, studies in hpx mice, a model of inherited transferrin deficiency, have demonstrated that transferrin is essential for iron delivery for erythropoiesis and in the regulation of expression of hepcidin, a hormone that inhibits macrophage and enterocyte iron efflux. Here we investigate a potential role for transferrin in the distribution of three other physiologic metals, manganese, copper and zinc. We first assessed metal content in transferrin-rich fractions of wild-type mouse sera and demonstrate that while both iron and manganese cofractionate predominantly with transferrin, the absolute levels of manganese are several orders of magnitude lower than those of iron. We next measured metal content in multiple tissues in wild-type and hpx mice at various ages. Tissue metal imbalances were severe for iron and minimal to moderate for some metals in some tissues in hpx mice. Measurement of metal levels in a transferrin-replete yet hepcidin-deficient and iron-loaded mouse strain suggested that the observed imbalances in tissue copper, zinc and manganese levels were not all specific to hpx mice or caused directly by transferrin deficiency. Overall, our results suggest that transferrin does not have a primary role in the distribution of manganese, copper or zinc to tissues and that that the abnormalities observed in tissue manganese levels are not attributable to a direct role for transferrin in manganese metabolism but rather to an indirect effect of transferrin deficiency on hepcidin expression and/or iron metabolism. PMID:24567067

  3. Effects of iron, tin, and copper on zinc absorption in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1984-09-01

    Zinc absorption as measured by body retention of (65Zn)zinc chloride or a turkey test meal extrinsically labeled with 65Zn was determined in human subjects by whole body counting after 7 days. Average 65Zn absorption from zinc chloride in persons with a high iron-absorbing capacity was similar to persons with a low capacity to absorb iron. Inorganic iron, 920 mumol (51 mg), or HB iron, 480 mumol (26 mg), inhibited 65Zn absorption from 92 mumol (6 mg) of zinc chloride. When 610 mumol of iron (34 mg) was added to a turkey test meal containing 61 mumol of zinc (4 mg), 65Zn absorption was not inhibited. Tin, 306 mumol (36 mg), given with zinc chloride or turkey test meals (61 mumol, 4 mg, of Zn) significantly reduced 65Zn absorption. Copper, 79 mumol (5 mg), had no significant effect on the 65Zn absorption from 7.9 mumol (0.5 mg) of zinc chloride. In summary, the capacity to absorb iron did not influence 65Zn absorption, but both inorganic iron and heme-iron inhibited 65Zn absorption from zinc chloride. Inorganic iron had no effect, however, on 65Zn absorption from the turkey test meal. Tin in a large dose also inhibited 65Zn absorption from both zinc chloride and the turkey test meal.

  4. Zinc pyrithione inhibits yeast growth through copper influx and inactivation of iron-sulfur proteins.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Nancy L; Kaplan, Jerry; Xu, Jun; Youngquist, R Scott; Wallace, Jared; Hu, Ping; Juhlin, Kenton D; Schwartz, James R; Grant, Raymond A; Fieno, Angela; Nemeth, Suzanne; Reichling, Tim; Tiesman, Jay P; Mills, Tim; Steinke, Mark; Wang, Shuo L; Saunders, Charles W

    2011-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is an antimicrobial material with widespread use in antidandruff shampoos and antifouling paints. Despite decades of commercial use, there is little understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. We used a combination of genome-wide approaches (yeast deletion mutants and microarrays) and traditional methods (gene constructs and atomic emission) to characterize the activity of ZPT against a model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ZPT acts through an increase in cellular copper levels that leads to loss of activity of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. ZPT was also found to mediate growth inhibition through an increase in copper in the scalp fungus Malassezia globosa. A model is presented in which pyrithione acts as a copper ionophore, enabling copper to enter cells and distribute across intracellular membranes. This is the first report of a metal-ligand complex that inhibits fungal growth by increasing the cellular level of a different metal. PMID:21947398

  5. Factors that influence the accumulation of copper and cadmium by transplanted eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Patuxent River, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Abbe, G R; Riedel, G F; Sanders, J G

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the continued accumulation of copper and cadmium by oysters in the Patuxent River, MD, which have been at high levels since at least the mid 1960s, hatchery-raised Eastern oysters were transplanted into trays at four sites in the upper estuary. At each site two groups of oysters were used to determine growth and mortality, and another group was sampled for meat condition, metal concentration and body burden. Copper in oysters in the discharge of a coal-fired power plant was significantly greater than at all other sites, but maximum concentration of 310 micrograms g-1 was well below the maximum of 1880 micrograms g-1 detected in 1982. Cadmium levels were also significantly greater in the discharge than at the other sites, but probably because of higher discharge temperatures. Trace metal loadings, the local salinity gradient and the higher temperatures caused by power plant operation all appear to contribute to metal accumulation by oysters in the upper Patuxent estuary. PMID:11285737

  6. Bioabsorption of cadmium, copper and lead by the red macroalga Gelidium floridanum: physiological responses and ultrastructure features.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Schmidt, der C; de L Felix, Marthiellen R; Polo, Luz K; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals, such as lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel, are among the most common pollutants found in both industrial and urban effluents. High concentrations of these metals cause severe toxic effects, especially to organisms living in the aquatic ecosystem. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) are the heavy metals most frequently implicated as environmental contaminants, and they have been shown to affect development, growth, photosynthesis and respiration, and morphological cell organization in seaweeds. This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of 50?M and 100?M of Cd, Pb and Cu on growth rates, photosynthetic pigments, biochemical parameters and ultrastructure in Gelidium floridanum. To accomplish this, apical segments of G. floridanum were individually exposed to the respective heavy metals over a period of 7 days. Plants exposed to Cd, Cu and Pb showed discoloration of thallus pigmentation, chloroplast alteration, especially degeneration of thylakoids, and decrease in photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, in samples treated with Cd and Cu. Moreover, cell wall thickness and the volume of plastoglobuli increased. X-ray microanalysis detected Cd, Cu and Pb absorption in the cell wall. The results indicate that Cd, Pb and Cu negatively affect metabolic performance and cell ultrastructure in G. floridanum and that Cu was more toxic than either Pb or Cd. PMID:24793517

  7. Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

  8. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50-100% when compared with surface ones, independently on metal ion type. pH50-100% indicated that Cu was preferentially adsorbed. pH50 values for Cd, Ni and Zn increased as the ionic strength increased, but not for Cu. This behavior indicated the weak electrostatic bonding mechanisms involved in the formation of outer-sphere complex between these metal ions and the soil adsorbents

  9. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  10. Effects of dietary carbohydrate on iron metabolism and cytochrome oxidase activity in copper-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.A.; Henderson, J.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of dietary carbohydrate on the metabolism of iron and the activity of cytochrome oxidase were examined in Cu-deficient and Cu-adequate rats. Male rats (n = 36) were fed one of six diets which varied in copper level (Cu-: < 0.6 ppm or Cu+: 8.2 ppm) and carbohydrate type (cornstarch, sucrose or fructose). After 31 days, Cu- rats had 50% more iron in the liver and 38, 30 and 18% less iron in the tibia, spleen and kidneys, respectively, than Cu+ rats. The activity of cytochrome oxidase in the bone marrow, heart, and liver were 59%, 51%, and 43%, respectively, of the levels in Cu/sup +/ rats. The type of dietary carbohydrate significantly affected the development of anemia during copper deficiency. Cu-rats fed cornstarch, sucrose or fructose had hematocrit levels which were 92, 83 or 73%, respectively, of Cu+ rats. Similarly, the levels of iron in the tibias of Cu- rats fed cornstarch, sucrose or fructose were 69, 66 or 54%, respectively, of Cu+ rats. The hematocrit levels of Cu- rats were positively correlated to both tibia iron levels (r = 0.64, p < 0.005) and liver cytochrome oxidase activities (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). Thus, it appears that changes in the metabolism of iron may be involved with the development of anemia in Cu- rats fed fructose or sucrose.

  11. Regulation of copper and iron homeostasis by metal chelators: a possible chemotherapy for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Robert, Anne; Liu, Yan; Nguyen, Michel; Meunier, Bernard

    2015-05-19

    With the increase of life expectancy of humans in more than two-thirds of the countries in the World, aging diseases are becoming the frontline health problems. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is now one of the major challenges in drug discovery, since, with the exception of memantine in 2003, all clinical trials with drug candidates failed over the past decade. If we consider that the loss of neurons is due to a high level of oxidative stress produced by nonregulated redox active metal ions like copper linked to amyloids of different sizes, regulation of metal homeostasis is a key target. The difficulty for large copper-carrier proteins to directly extract copper ions from metalated amyloids might be considered as being at the origin of the rupture of the copper homeostasis regulation in AD brains. So, there is an urgent need for new specific metal chelators that should be able to regulate the homeostasis of metal ions, specially copper and iron, in AD brains. As a consequence of that concept, chelators promoting metal excretion from brain are not desired. One should favor ligands able to extract copper ions from sinks (amyloids being the major one) and to transfer these redox-active metal ions to copper-carrier proteins or copper-containing enzymes. Obviously, the affinity of these chelators for the metal ion should not be a sufficient criterion, but the metal specificity and the ability of the chelators to release the metal under specific biological conditions should be considered. Such an approach is still largely unexplored. The requirements for the chelators are very high (ability to cross the brain-blood barrier, lack of toxicity, etc.), few chemical series were proposed, and, among them, biochemical or biological data are scarce. As a matter of fact, the bioinorganic pharmacology of AD represents less than 1% of all articles dedicated to AD drug research. The major part of these articles deals with an old and rather toxic drug, clioquinol and related analogs, that do not efficiently extract copper from soluble amyloids. We have designed and developed new tetradendate ligands such as 21 and PA1637 based on bis(8-aminoquinolines) that are specific for copper chelation and are able to extract copper(II) from amyloids and then can release copper ion upon reduction with a biological reducing agent. These studies contribute to the understanding of the physicochemical properties of the tetradentate copper ligands compared with bidentate ligands like clioquinol. One of these copper ligands, PA1637, after selection with a nontransgenic mouse model that is able to efficiently monitor the loss of episodic memory, is currently under preclinical development. PMID:25946460

  12. Effect of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy on Brain Iron, Copper, and Zinc in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Matthew; Crofton, Andrew; Zabel, Matthew; Jiffry, Arshad; Kirsch, David; Dickson, April; Mao, Xiao Wen; Vinters, Harry V.; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Kirsch, Wolff

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a vascular lesion associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) present in up to 95% of AD patients and produces MRI-detectable microbleeds in many of these patients. It is possible that CAA-related microbleeding is a source of pathological iron in the AD brain. Because the homeostasis of copper, iron, and zinc are so intimately linked, we determined whether CAA contributes to changes in the brain levels of these metals. We obtained brain tissue from AD patients with severe CAA to compare to AD patients without evidence of vascular amyloid-β. Patients with severe CAA had significantly higher non-heme iron levels. Histologically, iron was deposited in the walls of large CAA-affected vessels. Zinc levels were significantly elevated in grey matter in both the CAA and non-CAA AD tissue, but no vascular staining was noted in CAA cases. Copper levels were decreased in both CAA and non-CAA AD tissues and copper was found to be prominently deposited on the vasculature in CAA. Together, these findings demonstrate that CAA is a significant variable affecting transition metals in AD. PMID:21187585

  13. Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Poston, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy at temperatures of 298 to 823 K. Analysis of copper oxides indicated that the satellite structure of the Cu22p region was absent in the Cu(I) state but was present in the Cu(II) state. Reduction of CuO at room temperature was observed when the ion gauge was placed close to the sample. The satellite structure was absent in all the copper oxides at 823 K in vacuum. Differentiation of the oxidation state of copper utilizing both Cu(L 3M 4,5M 4,5) X-ray-induced Auger lines and Cu2p satellite structure, indicated that the copper in zinc copper ferrite was in the + 1 oxidation state at 823 K. This + 1 state of copper was not significantly changed after exposure to H 2, CO, and H 2O. There was an increase in Cu/Zn ratio and a decrease in Fe/Zn ratio on the surface of zinc copper ferrite at 823 K compared to that at room temperature. These conditions of copper offered the best sulfidation equilibrium for the zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Analysis of iron oxides indicated that there was some reduction of both Fe 2O 3 and FeO at 823K. The iron in zinc copper ferrite was similar to that of Fe 2O 3 at room temperature but there was some reduction of this Fe(III) state to Fe(II) at 823 K. This reduction was more enhanced in the presence of H 2 and CO. Reduction to Fe(II) may not be desirable for the lifetime of the sorbent.

  14. Phormidium autumnale Growth and Anatoxin-a Production under Iron and Copper Stress

    PubMed Central

    Harland, Francine M. J.; Wood, Susanna A.; Moltchanova, Elena; Williamson, Wendy M.; Gaw, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Studies on planktonic cyanobacteria have shown variability in cyanotoxin production, in response to changes in growth phase and environmental factors. Few studies have investigated cyanotoxin regulation in benthic mat-forming species, despite increasing reports on poisoning events caused by ingestion of these organisms. In this study, a method was developed to investigate changes in cyanotoxin quota in liquid cultures of benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria. Iron and copper are important in cellular processes and are well known to affect growth and selected metabolite production in cyanobacteria and algae. The effect of iron (40–4000 μg L−1) and copper (2.5–250 μg L−1) on growth and anatoxin-a quota in Phormidium autumnale was investigated in batch culture. These concentrations were chosen to span those found in freshwater, as well as those previously reported to be toxic to cyanobacteria. Anatoxin-a concentrations varied throughout the growth curve, with a maximum quota of between 0.49 and 0.55 pg cell−1 measured within the first two weeks of growth. Growth rates were significantly affected by copper and iron concentrations (P < 0.0001); however, no statistically significant difference between anatoxin-a quota maxima was observed. When the iron concentrations were 800 and 4000 μg L−1, the P. autumnale cultures did not firmly attach to the substratum. At 250 μg L−1 copper or either 40 or 4000 μg L−1 iron, growth was suppressed. PMID:24351714

  15. Simultaneous determination of cadmium, iron and tin in canned foods using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leao, Danilo J; Junior, Mario M S; Brandao, Geovani C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2016-06-01

    A method was established to simultaneously determine cadmium, iron and tin in canned-food samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). The quantification step has been performed using the primary line (228.802nm) for cadmium and the adjacent secondary lines (228.725nm and 228.668nm) for iron and tin, respectively. The selected chemical modifier was an acid solution that contained a mixture of 0.1% (w/v) Pd and 0.05% (w/v) Mg. The absorbance signals were measured based on the peak area using 3 pixels for cadmium and 5 pixels for iron and tin. Under these conditions, cadmium, iron and tin have been determined in canned-food samples using the external calibration technique based on aqueous standards, where the limits of quantification were 2.10ngg(-1) for cadmium, 1.95mgkg(-1) for iron and 3.00mgkg(-1) for tin, and the characteristic masses were 1.0pg for cadmium, 0.9ng for iron and 1.1ng for tin. The precision was evaluated using two solutions of each metal ion, and the results, which were expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD%), were 3.4-6.8%. The method accuracy for cadmium and iron was confirmed by analyzing a certified reference material of apple leaves (NIST 1515), which was supplied by NIST. However, for tin, the accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results of the proposed method and another analytical technique (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). The proposed procedure was applied to determine cadmium, iron and tin in canned samples of peeled tomato and sardine. Eleven samples were analyzed, and the analyte concentrations were 3.57-62.9ngg(-1), 2.68-31.48mgkg(-1) and 4.06-122.0mgkg(-1) for cadmium, iron and tin, respectively. In all analyzed samples, the cadmium and tin contents were lower than the permissible maximum levels for these metals in canned foods in the Brazilian legislation. PMID:27130088

  16. Screening of Blood Levels of Mercury, Cadmium, and Copper in Pregnant Women in Dakahlia, Egypt: New Attention to an Old Problem.

    PubMed

    Motawei, Shimaa M; Gouda, Hossam E

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals toxicity is a prevalent health problem particularly in developing countries. Mercury and cadmium are toxic elements that have no physiologic functions in human body. They should not be present in the human body by any concentration. Copper, on the other hand, is one of the elements that are essential for normal cell functions and a deficiency as well as an excess of which can cause adverse health effects. To test blood levels of mercury, cadmium, and copper in pregnant women in Dakahlia, Egypt. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, blood levels of cadmium, mercury, and copper were measured in 150 pregnant women attending to the antenatal care in Mansoura University Hospital in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. The mean ± SD of blood mercury, cadmium, and copper levels were found to be far from their levels in the population surveys carried in developed countries like United States of America (USA) and Canada. Heavy metal intoxication and accumulation is a major health hazard. Developing countries, including Egypt, still lack many of the regulatory policies and legislations to control sources of pollution exposure. This should be dealt with in order to solve this problem and limit its health consequences. PMID:26521060

  17. Copper Deficiency Leads to Anemia, Duodenal Hypoxia, Upregulation of HIF-2α and Altered Expression of Iron Absorption Genes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R. R.; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A.; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2α upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter – Dmt1) and ferric reductase – Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2α-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2α as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency. PMID:23555700

  18. Oxidation resistant copper

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, A.S.; Kaatz, F.H.; Harris, V.G.

    1993-11-15

    Oxidation resistant particles composed of copper and at least one metal having a valence of +2 or +3 and having an intermediate lattice energy for the metal in its hydroxide form. The metal is selected from nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, cadmium, zinc, tin, magnesium, calcium and chromium. In one embodiment, the phases of copper and at least one metal in the particles are separate and the concentration of the metal is greater near the surface of the particles than inwardly thereof. Process for making the oxidation resistant copper particles includes the steps of dissolving a copper salt and a salt of at least one of the metals in a suitable solvent or diluent; forming primary particles of copper and at least one metal in basic form by mixing a base and the salt solution; separating, washing and drying the primary particles; reducing the primary particles to metallic form; and heat treating the particles in metallic form at an elevated temperature.

  19. Iron transport in the kidney: implications for physiology and cadmium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Thévenod, Frank; Wolff, Natascha A

    2016-01-20

    The kidney has recently emerged as an organ with a significant role in systemic iron (Fe) homeostasis. Substantial amounts of Fe are filtered by the kidney, which have to be reabsorbed to prevent Fe deficiency. Accordingly Fe transporters and receptors for protein-bound Fe are expressed in the nephron that may also function as entry pathways for toxic metals, such as cadmium (Cd), by way of "ionic and molecular mimicry". Similarities, but also differences in handling of Cd by these transport routes offer rationales for the propensity of the kidney to develop Cd toxicity. This critical review provides a comprehensive update on Fe transport by the kidney and its relevance for physiology and Cd nephrotoxicity. Based on quantitative considerations, we have also estimated the in vivo relevance of the described transport pathways for physiology and toxicology. Under physiological conditions all segments of the kidney tubules are likely to utilize Fe for cellular Fe requiring processes for metabolic purposes and also to contribute to reabsorption of free and bound forms of Fe into the circulation. But Cd entering tubule cells disrupts metabolic pathways and is unable to exit. Furthermore, our quantitative analyses contest established models linking chronic Cd nephrotoxicity to proximal tubular uptake of metallothionein-bound Cd. Hence, Fe transport by the kidney may be beneficial by preventing losses from the body. But increased uptake of Fe or Cd that cannot exit tubule cells may lead to kidney injury, and Fe deficiency may facilitate renal Cd uptake. PMID:26485516

  20. Nanostructures design by plasma afterglow-assisted oxidation of iron-copper thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imam, A.; Boileau, A.; Gries, T.; Ghanbaja, J.; Mangin, D.; Hussein, K.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Belmonte, T.

    2016-05-01

    Oxidizing thin films made of Fe-Cu alloy with an Ar-O2 micro-afterglow operated at atmospheric pressure shows remarkable growth processes. The presence of iron in copper up to about 50% leads to the synthesis of CuO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanotowers and nanowires). Nanotowers show the presence of an amorphous phase trapped between crystalline domains. Beyond 50%, Fe2O3 iron nanoblades are also found. CuO nanowires as small as 5 nm in diameter can be synthesized. Thanks to the presence of patterned domains induced by buckling, it was possible to show that the stress level decreases when the iron content in the alloy increases. Iron blades grow from the inner Fe2O3 layer through the overlying CuO if it is thin enough.

  1. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd{sup 2+} uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  2. Dietary intake of iron, zinc, copper, and risk of Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Yu, Jia; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhigang; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Although some studies have reported the associations between specific metal element intake and risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), the associations between specific metal element intake such as iron intake and PD are still conflicted. We aimed to determine whether intake of iron, zinc, and copper increases/decreases the risk of PD. PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were searched. We pooled the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios using random effects. Study quality was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Five studies including 126,507 individuals remained for inclusion, pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for moderate dietary iron intake was 1.08 (95 % CI 0.61-1.93, P = 0.787), and for high dietary iron intake was (1.03, 95 % CI 0.83-1.30, P = 0.766), respectively. The pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for the highest compared with the lowest dietary iron intake were 1.47 (95 % CI 1.17-1.85, P = 0.001) in western population and in males (RR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.01-2.01, P = 0.041). The pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for moderate or high intake of zinc, and copper were not statistically different (P > 0.05). PD increased by 18 % (RR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.02-1.37) for western population by every 10-mg/day increment in iron intake. Higher iron intake appears to be not associated with overall PD risk, but may be associated with risk of PD in western population. Sex may be a factor influencing PD risk for higher iron intake. However, further studies are still needed to confirm the sex-selective effects. PMID:26265293

  3. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  4. Effects of endogenous neurotoxin quinolinic acid on reactive oxygen species production by Fenton reaction catalyzed by iron or copper

    PubMed Central

    Kubicova, Lenka; Hadacek, Franz; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chobot, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The tryptophan metabolite, quinolinic (2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic) acid, is known as an endogenous neurotoxin. Quinolinic acid can form coordination complexes with iron or copper. The effects of quinolinic acid on reactive oxygen species production in the presence of iron or copper were explored by a combination of chemical assays, classical site-specific and ascorbic acid-free variants of the deoxyribose degradation assay, and mass spectrometry (ESI–MS). Quinolinic acid showed evident antioxidant activity in chemical assays, but the effect was more pronounced in the presence of copper as transition metal catalyst than in presence of iron. Nano-ESI–MS confirmed the ability of quinolinic acid to form coordination complexes with iron(II) or copper(II) and quinolinic acid stability against oxidative attack by hydroxyl radicals. The results illustrate a highly milieu-dependent quinolinic acid chemistry when it enters reactions as competitive ligand. PMID:25892824

  5. The influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on zinc, copper, and iron status in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Pawe?; Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2014-09-01

    Mineral homeostasis in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on mineral homeostasis in a rat model of hypertension. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with perindopril, metoprolol, indapamide, amlodipine, or no drug for 45 days. In another experiment, the SHRs were treated with indapamide or amlodipine in the presence of zinc and copper gluconate supplement. Lipids, glucose, and insulin levels along with superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were assayed in serum. Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in serum, erythrocytes, and tissues were determined using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood pressure was measured using a tail-cuff plethysmograph. Treatment with indapamide and amlodipine was found to significantly lower zinc levels in serum, erythrocytes, livers, and spleens of the SHRs, as well as copper levels in the kidneys, compared with the control no-drug group. A markedly higher concentration of glucose was found in the indapamide-treated rats. Supplementing the indapamide-treated SHRs with zinc and copper gluconate resulted in a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and also lowered serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) values. The results show that indapamide and amlodipine disturb zinc and copper homeostasis in SHRs. Supplementation with zinc and copper restores mineral homeostasis in SHRs treated with indapamide and amlodipine, and also corrects metabolic imbalances while improving the antihypertensive efficiency of indapamide. PMID:24927993

  6. Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead in a temperate seagrass ecosystem from Lake Macquarie Estuary, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Barwick, M; Maher, W

    2003-10-01

    In this study the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass ecosystem in Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia, to determine if biomagnification of these trace metals is occurring and if they reach concentrations that pose a threat to the resident organisms or human consumers. Selenium was found to biomagnify, exceeding maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption within carnivorous fish tissue, the highest trophic level examined. Selenium concentrations measured within carnivorous fish were also above those shown to elicit sub-lethal effects in freshwater fish. As comparisons are made to selenium concentrations known to effect freshwater fish, inferences must be made with caution. There was no evidence of copper, cadmium, zinc or lead biomagnification within the food web examined. Copper, cadmium, zinc and lead concentrations were below concentrations shown to elicit adverse responses in biota. Copper concentrations within crustaceans M. bennettae and P. palagicus were found to exceed maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. It is likely that copper concentrations within these species were accumulated due to the essential nature of this trace metal for many species of molluscs and crustaceans. Arsenic showed some evidence of biomagnification. Total arsenic concentrations are similar to those found in other uncontaminated marine ecosystems, thus arsenic concentrations are unlikely to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are below maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. PMID:12860434

  7. Content of total iron, copper and manganese in liver of animals during hypokinesia, muscle activity and process of recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapovich, G. M.; Taneyeva, G. V.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the content of total iron, copper and manganese in the liver of animals is altered depending on the intensity and duration of their swimming. Hypodynamia for 7 days does not alter the concentration of iron, but sufficiently increases the content of copper and manganese. The barometric factor effectively influences the maintenance of constancy in the content of microelements accumulated in the liver after intensive muscle activity.

  8. Generation of oxidant response to copper and iron nanoparticles and salts: Stimulation by ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Robert H.; Vidrio, Edgar A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Qin, Qin; Willits, Neil H.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes a two-stage approach to analyzing combustion-generated samples for their potential to produce oxidant stress. This approach is illustrated with the two commonly encountered transition metals, copper and iron. First, their abilities to generate hydroxyl radical were measured in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline solution containing ascorbate and/or citrate. Second, their abilities to induce heme oxygenase-1 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were assessed in cell culture. Combustion-generated copper oxide nanoparticles were active in both assays and were found to be soluble in culture medium. Depletion of glutathione in the cells or loading the cells with ascorbate greatly increased heme oxygenase-1 induction in the presence of copper. By contrast, iron oxide nanoparticles were active in the phosphate buffered saline but not in cell culture, and they aggregated in culture medium. Soluble salts of copper and iron exhibited the same contrast in activities as the respective combustion-generated particles. The results suggest that the capability of combustion-generated environmental samples to produce oxidant stress can be screened effectively in a two step process, first in phosphate buffered saline with ascorbate and subsequently in epithelial cell culture for those exhibiting activity initially. The results also point to an unanticipated interaction in cells of oxidant stress-generating metals with an anti-oxidant (ascorbate) that is usually missing in culture medium formulations. Thus, ascorbate supplementation of cultured human cells is likely to improve their ability to model the in vivo effects of particulate matter containing copper and other redox-active metals. PMID:19683516

  9. The ColRS signal transduction system responds to the excess of external zinc, iron, manganese, and cadmium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ColRS two-component system has been shown to contribute to the membrane functionality and stress tolerance of Pseudomonas putida as well as to the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and plant pathogenic Xanthomonas species. However, the conditions activating the ColRS pathway and the signal(s) sensed by ColS have remained unknown. Here we aimed to analyze the role of the ColRS system in metal tolerance of P. putida and to test whether ColS can respond to metal excess. Results We show that the ColRS system is necessary for P. putida to tolerate the excess of iron and zinc, and that it also contributes to manganese and cadmium tolerance. Excess of iron, zinc, manganese or cadmium activates ColRS signaling and as a result modifies the expression of ColR-regulated genes. Our data suggest that the genes in the ColR regulon are functionally redundant, as several loci have to be deleted to observe a significant decrease in metal tolerance. Site-directed mutagenesis of ColS revealed that excess of iron and, surprisingly, also zinc are sensed by a conserved ExxE motif in ColS’s periplasmic domain. While ColS is able to sense different metals, it still discriminates between the two oxidation states of iron, specifically responding to ferric and not ferrous iron. We propose a signal perception model involving a dimeric ColS, where each monomer donates one ExxE motif for metal binding. Conclusions Several transition metals are essential for living organisms in certain amounts, but toxic in excess. We show that ColRS is a sensor system which detects and responds to the excess of physiologically important metals such as zinc, iron and manganese. Thus, the ColRS system is an important factor for metal homeostasis and tolerance in P. putida. PMID:24946800

  10. Toxicological characterization of bio-active drugs on basis of Iron Fe, Co, and Copper Cu nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishuk, S.; Nazarova, A.; Stepanova, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents investigations of toxicological parameters (acute and chronic toxicity, cumulative coefficient) of iron, cobalt, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles with white rats in labs. We have estimated the optimal concentrations of the above mentioned substances with rabbits. We have also studied morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of the animals when adding the optimal doses to the diet for a long term.

  11. Presence of acute phase changes in zinc, iron, and copper metabolism in turkey embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Klasing, K.C.; Richards, M.P.; Darcey, S.E.; Laurin, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Acute phase changes in trace mineral metabolism were examined in turkey embryos. An endotoxin injection resulted in increased concentrations of serum copper and liver zinc and decreased concentrations of serum zinc in embryos incubated either in ovo or ex ovo. Changes in zinc and copper metabolism occurred when endotoxin either was injected intramuscularly, into the amnionic fluid, or administered onto the chorioallantoic membrane. Unlike poults, embryos did not respond to an inflammatory challenge with decreased serum iron concentrations. Acute phase changes in embryo serum zinc and copper as well as liver zinc concentrations were similar to those in poults. Increased liver zinc concentrations were associated with increased zinc in metallothionein (MT). An injection of a crude interleukin 1 preparation into embryos resulted in similar increases in hepatic zinc and MT concentrations as an endotoxin injection, suggesting a role for this cytokine in mediating the acute phase changes in embryonic zinc metabolism.

  12. Effects of Copper and Malleablizing Time on Mechanical Properties of Austempered Malleable Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsun; Lu, Jung-Kai; Chen, Fan-Shiong

    2007-10-01

    In this study, both the unalloyed and 1 wt pct copper alloyed white irons were successively treated with a duplex heating process consisting of malleablizing and austempering, and then the effects of copper and processing variables on microstructure and mechanical properties of the austempered malleable iron (AMI) were investigated. The results showed that AMI could effectively shorten malleablizing time to obtain the constituents of irregular graphite, acicular ferrite, and retained austenite in the microstructure. Moreover, 1 pct Cu-AMI had a higher retained austenite content than unalloyed AMI. This is because copper is an austenite stabilizer and acts to delay the start of the transformation into ausferrite. In the case of mechanical properties, AMI increased tensile strength (1083 to 1190 MPa) and impact toughness (16 to 22 J) by 2 to 3 times after 930 °C 20 hours malleablizing treatment as compared to as-cast (572 to 580 MPa and 5 to 6 J). In particular, 1 pct Cu-AMI had better performance than unalloyed AMI except for hardness. In comparison with conventional malleable irons, AMI was found to possess better tensile and impact properties.

  13. Effect of CaO Addition on Iron Recovery from Copper Smelting Slags by Solid Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Jung Ho; Kim, Byung-Su; Park, Joo Hyun

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of flux (lime) addition on the reduction behavior of iron oxide in copper slag by solid carbon at 1773 K (1500 °C). In particular, we quantified the recovery of iron by performing typical kinetic analysis and considering slag foaming, which is strongly affected by the thermophysical properties of slags. The iron oxide in the copper slag was consistently reduced by solid carbon over time. In the kinetic analysis, we determined mass transfer coefficients with and without considering slag foaming using a gas holdup factor. The mass transfer of FeO was not significantly changed by CaO addition when slag foaming was ignored, whereas the mass transfer of FeO when slag foaming was considered was at a minimum in the 20 mass pct CaO system. Iron recovery, defined as the ratio of the amount of iron clearly transferred to the base metal ingot to the initial amount of iron in the slag phase before reduction, was maximal (about 90 pct) in the 20 mass pct CaO system. Various types of solid compounds, including Mg2SiO4 and Ca2SiO4, were precipitated in slags during the FeO reduction process, and these compounds strongly affected the reduction kinetics of FeO as well as iron recovery. Iron recovery was the greatest in the 20 mass pct CaO system because no solid compounds formed in this system, resulting in a highly fluid slag. This fluid slag allowed iron droplets to fall rapidly with high terminal velocity to the bottom of the crucible. A linear relationship between the mass transfer coefficient of FeO considering slag foaming and foam stability was obtained, from which we concluded that the mass transfer of FeO in slag was effectively promoted not only by gas evolution due to reduction reactions but also by foamy slag containing solid compounds. However, the reduced iron droplets were finely dispersed in foamy and viscous slags, making actual iron recovery a challenge.

  14. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  15. Cadmium, copper, and lead in soils and garden produce near a metal smelter at Flin Flon, Manitoba

    SciTech Connect

    Pip, E. )

    1991-05-01

    Towns in the vicinity of base metal smelters are subject to contamination from atmospheric fallout containing heavy metals. Many smelters have been in operation for decades, and have resulted in substantial accumulation of metals in the surrounding soils. Metal contamination of edible vegetation near mines and smelters has been the source of health concerns in a number of countries. One smelter that has operated for more than half a century is located at Flin Flon, Manitoba. Many Flin Flon residents utilize home vegetable gardens year after year. However little is known regarding heavy metal contamination of locally grown garden produce. Since food can contribute as much as 90% of total body uptake of metals it is important to identify any sources which may account for the disproportionate share. The objective of the present study was to examine concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead in soils and garden produce in the vicinity of the Flin Flon smelter.

  16. Studies on the role of iron in the reversal of zinc, cadmium, vanadium, nickel, and cobalt toxicities in boiler pullets

    SciTech Connect

    Blalock, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    Excess dietary iron reduced the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) in chicks. In order to gain further insight into this phenomenon, the toxicity of these elements was examined under conditions of dietary iron deficiency, ca. 10 ppm, and excess, ca. 1010 ppm. Graded levels of Cd, Co, Ni, V and also of zinc (Zn) were added to achieve toxicities of these heavy metals. In every case the iron-supplemented chicks were less susceptible to the every case the iron-supplemented chicks were less susceptible to the toxicities of these elements than were those chicks receiving the iron-deficient diet. The results of these studies revealed that Fe alters the metabolism of Zn, Cd, V, Ni and Co in livers and kidneys of chicks. The data further show that Zn, Cd, and Co alter Fe metabolism in chick livers and kidneys. Additionally, hemoglobin concentration was altered by Zn, Cd, and V, as well as Fe, in chicks. The locus of these interactions was more clearly defined using the radioactive tracers /sup 109/Cd, /sup 60/Co, /sup 63/Ni, /sup 48/V, and /sup 65/Zn. Iron deficiency increased absorption of Co and Ni, reduced liver retention of Cd, and Zn without affecting absorption and increased blood and liver levels of V, possibly as a result of decreased bone uptake. The alteration of liver metabolism of Cd and Zn in iron deficiency was investigated using column chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Adequate dietary iron appears to act synergistically with Cd and Zn to induce metallothionein in the liver. Increased dietary Fe was observed to result in an increased liver influx of Zn and Cd. It is possible that iron acts in this manner to induce metallothionein synthesis.

  17. Blood concentration of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead in horses and its relation to hematological and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Halo, Marko; Formicki, Grzegorz; Lukac, Norbert; Cupka, Peter; Schwarcz, Pavol; Kovacik, Anton; Tusimova, Eva; Kovacik, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution results in serious health hazards to animals and blood analysis serves as a good alternative for health status assessment. The target of this study was to analyze the concentration of selected metals in equine blood, to analyze the blood parameters and to find possible correlations. Blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis of healthy adult horses. The highest concentration of all elements was found in whole blood (Cu 3.84 ± 0.90 mg L(-1); Cd = 0.81 ± 0.90 mg L(-1); Zn 26.67 ± 14.12 mg L(-1); Pb 9.33 ± 5.76 mg L(-1)). Higher concentrations of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead were detected in blood clots compared to blood sera (44.04%). A similar tendency was found for cadmium (50%), zinc (13.08%) and lead (46.02%), which showed generally higher concentrations in blood clots (cells). Correlation analysis proved some relations between analyzed elements. In blood clots there is a strong positive correlation between Cd - Pb (r = 0.93) and Zn - Pb (r = 0.71) was detected. For biochemical and hematological parameters mainly medium correlations were detected. Obtained results prove different correlations of analyzed elements in blood components as well as the effect on parameters of blood biochemical and hematological profiles. PMID:24766599

  18. Ultrastructural identification of iron and copper accumulation in the liver of a male patient with Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Y; Hayashi, H; Wakusawa, S; Yano, M

    2001-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence that ceruloplasmin, a copper-containing protein with ferroxidase activity, plays an important role in iron metabolism. Reduction of ferroxidase activity secondary to ceruloplasmin deficiency may induce iron accumulation in various organs as the result of impaired iron transport. A 37-year-old man presented with intention tremor of the right hand. Liver function tests were almost normal, but parameters of trace elements were abnormal: hypocupremia, hypoceruloplaminemia, and hyperferritinemia. Imaging of the abdomen showed a cirrhotic liver with increased density. A diagnosis of the neurological form of Wilson disease was confirmed by copper deposits in the liver obtained by a blind biopsy, and the patient was diagnosed as compound heterozygous for ATP7B mutations. He was treated with 2500 mg/day trientine hydrochloride per os. The second examination was performed after 20 months of treatment. The treatment further reduced serum ceruloplasmin level from 8.9 to less than 4.0 mg/dl. Serum ferroxidase activity was as low as 70 U/l during treatment. Posttreatment liver histology became negative for copper but remained positive for iron. Copper X-rays from hepatocyte lysosomes were no longer detected, but the iron X-ray was still very high post treatment. Thus, microanalysis confirmed compound overload of copper and iron in this male patient with Wilson disease. PMID:11479773

  19. Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Czatl, David G.; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions, xylem and phloem sap were obtained from Brassica napus to quantitatively analyze which thiol species are present in response to Cd exposure. High levels of PCs were identified in the phloem sap within 24 h of Cd exposure using combined mass spectrometry and fluorescence HPLC analyses. Unexpectedly, the concentration of Cd was more than four-fold higher in phloem sap compared to xylem sap. Cadmium exposure dramatically decreased iron levels in xylem and phloem sap whereas other essential heavy metals such as zinc and manganese remained unchanged. Data suggest that Cd inhibits vascular loading of iron but not nicotianamine. The high ratios [PCs]/[Cd] and [glutathione]/[Cd] in the phloem sap suggest that PCs and glutathione (GSH) can function as long-distance carriers of Cd. In contrast, only traces of PCs were detected in xylem sap. Our results suggest that, in addition to directional xylem Cd transport, the phloem is a major vascular system for long-distance source to sink transport of Cd as PCCd and glutathioneCd complexes. PMID:18208526

  20. Assessing of plasma levels of iron, zinc and copper in Iranian Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Nikyar, Hamidreza; Dehghani, Leila; Basiri, Keivan; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trace elements have long been suspected to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but their exact roles have been remained controversial. In this study, we assessed the levels of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in different stage of PD patients. Materials and Methods: Serum concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were measured in 109 patients with PD by colorimetric methods. Staging of the disease was evaluated according to Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) and Unified PD Rating Scale III (UPDRS). Results: Severity values of PD measured by UPRDSIII and HY stages with mean ± SD were 22.9 ± 1.81 and 1.8 ± 1.1, respectively. Mean ± SD values of iron, zinc and copper are 100.7 ± 289.2, 68.3 ± 5.32, and 196.8 ± 162.1 μg/dl, respectively. Serum iron level in most of the patients was normal (76.6%). Whereas zinc concentration in most participants was below the normal range (64.5%) and serum Cu in the majority of patients had a high normal concentration (42.7%) and did not significantly differ among various PD stages. Conclusion: The result of this study does not confirm strong correlation between PD stages and serum levels of tested trace elements. The actual correlations between these elements and PD and whether modulating of these agents levels could be an effective approach in the treatment of this disease remain to be elucidated. PMID:27099844

  1. Copper and cadmium in bottom sediments dredged from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland--contamination and bioaccumulation study.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Karwowska, Ewa; Chmielewska, Iwona; Bekenova, Kundyz; Wanot, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    This research covered an evaluation of the copper and cadmium concentrations in bottom sediments dredged from one of the ponds in Warsaw. The samples of sediments, soil, and plants were analyzed in terms of Cu and Cd content. The research concerned the heap of dredged bottom sediments from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland. Two boreholes were made to obtain sediment cores with depths of A 162.5 cm and B 190.0 cm. The cores were divided into 10 sub-samples with a thickness of about 15-20 cm. A control sample of soil was taken from the horse racecourse several hundred meters away from the heap. The vegetation was sampled directly from the heap. The predominating plants were tested: Urtica dioica, Glechoma hederacea, Euonymus verrucosus, and Drepanocladus aduncus. A control sample of U. dioica taken outside of the heap was also tested. The commercial PHYTOTOXKIT microbiotest was applied to evaluate the influence of heavy metal-contaminated sediments (used as soil) on germination and growth of the chosen test plants. The analyses of cadmium and copper concentrations revealed that the metal concentration in sediments was diverse at different depths of sampling, probably reflecting their concentration in stored layers of sediments. Moreover, the metal content in core A was four to five times lower than that in core B, which reveals heterogeneity of the sediments in the tested heap. In core A, the copper concentration ranged from 4.7 to 13.4 mg/kg d.w. (average 8.06 ± 0.71 mg/kg d.w.), while in core B, it ranged from 9.2 to 82.1 mg/kg d.w. (average 38.56 ± 2.6 mg/kg d.w.). One of the results of the heavy metal presence in soils is their bioaccumulation in plants. Comparing plant growth, more intensive growth of roots was observed in the case of plants growing on the control (reference) soil than those growing on sediments. The intensive development of both primary and lateral roots was noticed. During this early growth, metal accumulation in plants occurred. PMID:26555008

  2. Effects of copper and cadmium on lipogenic metabolism and metal element composition in the javelin goby (Synechogobius hasta) after single and combined exposure.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Feng; Luo, Zhi; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Liu, Xu; Huang, Chao; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2014-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effects of single and combined exposure of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on lipogenic metabolism and metal element composition of javelin goby Synechogobius hasta. Two hundred and forty uniform-sized S. hasta (initial mean weight 20.3 ± 0.3 g [mean ± SEM throughout]; initial body length 15.2 ± 0.2 cm) were randomly assigned to 12 fiberglass tanks (water volume 300 l) with 20 fish/tank. The fish were exposed to four treatments with different Cu and Cd concentration for 30 days, respectively: (1) control (without extra Cu and Cd addition), (2) Cu (nominal concentrations of 77 μg/l), (3) Cd (79 μg/l), and (4) Cu + Cd (Cu/Cd coexposure). Growth decreased, but hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, and lipid content increased after metal exposure. Staining with Oil Red O and haematoxylin and eosin showed extensive alterations in liver of metals-exposed fish. Metal exposure influenced the accumulation of metal elements (Cu, Cd, iron, zinc, and manganese) in several tissues (muscle, gill, intestine, liver, and spleen) and increased hepatic 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and fatty acid synthase activities. The results of the present study indicated that the changes in lipogenic metabolism and metal element compositions of fish under Cu and Cd coexposure could not be explained by synergism of the addition of the effects observed in singly Cu- or Cd-exposed fish. To our knowledge the present study, for the first time, investigated the effects of Cu and Cd coexposure on hepatic lipogenic metabolism and metal element compositions in a wide range of tissues and organs in fish, which provided new evidence for Cu and Cd interactions in fish. PMID:24595737

  3. Fetal and neonatal iron deficiency but not copper deficiency increases vascular complexity in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Thomas W; Santarriaga, Stephanie; Nguyen, Thu An; Prohaska, Joseph R; Georgieff, Michael K; Anderson, Grant W

    2015-11-01

    Objectives Anemia caused by nutritional deficiencies, such as iron and copper deficiencies, is a global health problem. Iron and copper deficiencies have their most profound effect on the developing fetus/infant, leading to brain development deficits and poor cognitive outcomes. Tissue iron depletion or chronic anemia can induce cellular hypoxic signaling. In mice, chronic hypoxia induces a compensatory increase in brain blood vessel outgrowth. We hypothesized that developmental anemia, due to iron or copper deficiencies, induces angiogenesis/vasculogenesis in the neonatal brain. Methods To test our hypothesis, three independent experiments were performed where pregnant rats were fed iron- or copper-deficient diets from gestational day 2 through mid-lactation. Effects on the neonatal brain vasculature were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess mRNA levels of angiogenesis/vasculogenesis-associated genes and GLUT1 immunohistochemistry to assess brain blood vessel density and complexity. Results Iron deficiency, but not copper deficiency, increased mRNA expression of brain endothelial cell- and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis-associated genes (i.e. Glut1, Vwf, Vegfa, Ang2, Cxcl12, and Flk1) in the neonatal brain, suggesting increased cerebrovascular density. Iron deficiency also increased hippocampal and cerebral cortical blood vessel branching by 62 and 78%, respectively. Discussion This study demonstrates increased blood vessel complexity in the neonatal iron-deficient brain, which is likely due to elevated angiogenic/vasculogenic signaling. At least initially, this is probably an adaptive response to maintain metabolic substrate homeostasis in the developing iron-deficient brain. However, this may also contribute to long-term neurodevelopmental deficits. PMID:26177275

  4. The copper-iron connection in biology: Structure of the metallo-oxidase Fet3p

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. B.; Stoj, C. S.; Ziegler, L.; Kosman, D. J.; Hart, P. J.

    2005-10-17

    Fet3p is a multicopper-containing glycoprotein localized to the yeast plasma membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). This ferrous iron oxidation is coupled to the reduction of O2 to H2O and is termed the ferroxidase reaction. Fet3p-produced Fe(III) is transferred to the permease Ftr1p for import into the cytosol. The posttranslational insertion of four copper ions into Fet3p is essential for its activity, thus linking copper and iron homeostasis. The mammalian ferroxidases ceruloplasmin and hephaestin are homologs of Fet3p. Loss of the Fe(II) oxidation catalyzed by these proteins results in a spectrum of pathological states, including death. Here, we present the structure of the Fet3p extracellular ferroxidase domain and compare it with that of human ceruloplasmin and other multicopper oxidases that are devoid of ferroxidase activity. The Fet3p structure delineates features that underlie the unique reactivity of this and homologous multicopper oxidases that support the essential trafficking of iron in diverse eukaryotic organisms. The findings are correlated with biochemical and physiological data to cross-validate the elements of Fet3p that define it as both a ferroxidase and cuprous oxidase.

  5. The copper-iron connection in biology: Structure of the metallo-oxidase Fet3p

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alexander B.; Stoj, Christopher S.; Ziegler, Lynn; Kosman, Daniel J.; Hart, P. John

    2005-01-01

    Fet3p is a multicopper-containing glycoprotein localized to the yeast plasma membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). This ferrous iron oxidation is coupled to the reduction of O2 to H2O and is termed the ferroxidase reaction. Fet3p-produced Fe(III) is transferred to the permease Ftr1p for import into the cytosol. The posttranslational insertion of four copper ions into Fet3p is essential for its activity, thus linking copper and iron homeostasis. The mammalian ferroxidases ceruloplasmin and hephaestin are homologs of Fet3p. Loss of the Fe(II) oxidation catalyzed by these proteins results in a spectrum of pathological states, including death. Here, we present the structure of the Fet3p extracellular ferroxidase domain and compare it with that of human ceruloplasmin and other multicopper oxidases that are devoid of ferroxidase activity. The Fet3p structure delineates features that underlie the unique reactivity of this and homologous multicopper oxidases that support the essential trafficking of iron in diverse eukaryotic organisms. The findings are correlated with biochemical and physiological data to cross-validate the elements of Fet3p that define it as both a ferroxidase and cuprous oxidase. PMID:16230618

  6. The copper-iron connection in biology: structure of the metallo-oxidase Fet3p.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alexander B; Stoj, Christopher S; Ziegler, Lynn; Kosman, Daniel J; Hart, P John

    2005-10-25

    Fet3p is a multicopper-containing glycoprotein localized to the yeast plasma membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). This ferrous iron oxidation is coupled to the reduction of O(2) to H(2)O and is termed the ferroxidase reaction. Fet3p-produced Fe(III) is transferred to the permease Ftr1p for import into the cytosol. The posttranslational insertion of four copper ions into Fet3p is essential for its activity, thus linking copper and iron homeostasis. The mammalian ferroxidases ceruloplasmin and hephaestin are homologs of Fet3p. Loss of the Fe(II) oxidation catalyzed by these proteins results in a spectrum of pathological states, including death. Here, we present the structure of the Fet3p extracellular ferroxidase domain and compare it with that of human ceruloplasmin and other multicopper oxidases that are devoid of ferroxidase activity. The Fet3p structure delineates features that underlie the unique reactivity of this and homologous multicopper oxidases that support the essential trafficking of iron in diverse eukaryotic organisms. The findings are correlated with biochemical and physiological data to cross-validate the elements of Fet3p that define it as both a ferroxidase and cuprous oxidase. PMID:16230618

  7. Zebrafish in the sea of mineral (iron, zinc, and copper) metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu; Xia, Zhidan; Wang, Fudi

    2014-01-01

    Iron, copper, zinc, and eight other minerals are classified as essential trace elements because they present in minute in vivo quantities and are essential for life. Because either excess or insufficient levels of trace elements can be detrimental to life (causing human diseases such as iron-deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease), the endogenous levels of trace minerals must be tightly regulated. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of systems that maintain trace element homeostasis, and these systems are highly conserved in multiple species ranging from yeast to mice. As a model for studying trace mineral metabolism, the zebrafish is indispensable to researchers. Several large-scale mutagenesis screens have been performed in zebrafish, and these screens led to the identification of a series of metal transporters and the generation of several mutagenesis lines, providing an in-depth functional analysis at the system level. Moreover, because of their developmental advantages, zebrafish have also been used in mineral metabolism-related chemical screens and toxicology studies. Here, we systematically review the major findings of trace element homeostasis studies using the zebrafish model, with a focus on iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and iodine. We also provide a homology analysis of trace mineral transporters in fish, mice and humans. Finally, we discuss the evidence that zebrafish is an ideal experimental tool for uncovering novel mechanisms of trace mineral metabolism and for improving approaches to treat mineral imbalance-related diseases. PMID:24639652

  8. Iron, cadmium, and chromium in seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) from a coastal nature reserve in karstic Yucatán.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Mayra; Bonilla-Heredia, Blanca; Merino-Ibarra, Martín; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Ramirez, Javier; Rosas, Humberto; Valdespino, Job; Carricart-Ganivet, Juan P; Martínez, Ana

    2013-09-01

    The management of protected areas in karstic regions is a challenge because flooded cave systems form there and provide underground hydrological conducts that may link different zones. As a consequence, affectations to the protected areas can possibly occur as a consequence of human activities in remote areas and may therefore pass undetected. Thus, the monitoring of possible contaminants in these regions is becoming imperative. In this work, we analyze the concentration of essential (iron) and non-essential metals (cadmium and chromium) in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum that grows in Yalahau Lagoon, located in a near-to-pristine protected area of the Yucatán Peninsula, close to the rapidly developing touristic belt of the Mexican Caribbean. Salinity and silicate patterns show that Yalahau is an evaporation lagoon, where groundwater discharge is important. High iron (> 400 μg/g), cadmium (>4 μg/g), and chromium (≈ 1 μg/g) concentrations were found in the area of highest groundwater input of the lagoon. High levels (5.1 μg/g) were also found near the town dump. In the rest of the sampling sites, metal concentrations remained near to background levels as estimated from other works. Temporal changes of concentrations in the seagrass tissues show also a local input and an input from the groundwater that could provoke an environmental problem in the Yalahau Lagoon in the near future. PMID:23404548

  9. Corrosion of iron, aluminum and copper-base alloys in glycols under simulated solar collector conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Diegle, R.B.

    1981-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of iron, aluminum and copperbase alloys was studied in uninhibited glycol solutions under conditions that simulate those found in non-concentrating solar collectors. It was found that only Type 444 stainless steel exhibited adequate corrosion resistance; there was no evidence of pitting, crevice corrosion, or galvanic attack, and general corrosion rates were low. The general corrosion rate of CDA 122 copper was high (greater than 200 ..mu..m/y) under some test conditions, but copper was resistant to pitting and crevice attack. General corrosion rates of the aluminum alloys (1100, 3003 and 6061) were low, but these alloys were susceptible to pitting and crevice attack. The propensity for pitting was greatest in the presence of chlorides but it also was severe in the absence of chlorides following long exposures. The onset of pitting of the aluminum alloys in chloride-free solutions was attributed to degradation of the glycols.

  10. Osmotically induced changes in copper and iron concentrations in three euryhaline crustacean species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaargaren, D. H.

    Marine crustaceans strongly accumulate copper and iron. Internal concentrations of both elements are usually found to be very variable; in whole animal homogenates of Palaemon serratus and Penaeus japonicus high levels were found at moderate salinities and high temperature; towards extreme salinities and at a lower temperatures the concentrations of Cu and Fe fall. Blood concentrations of Cu and Fe in Carcinus maenas show a reversed pattern. This suggest mobilization from tissue stores ( e.g. the hepatopancreas) but increased copper levels in the blood under salinity stress are accompanied by reduced blood Fe levels, suggesting increased uptake of Fe by the tissues ( e.g. by ceruloplasmin). The results show that Cu and Fe distribution is closely related to osmotic conditions.

  11. Determination of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements in lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlenko, L. I.; Simonova, L. V.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution regularities of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements were investigated in basaltoid rocks of lunar and terrestrial origin. Samples of various regolith zones taken in the area of the Sea of Fertility were analyzed, along with samples of basic and ultrabasic rocks of the East African Rift for their content of the trace admixtures listed. Data obtained on the abundance of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in Luna 16 lunar surface material were compared with the abundance of these elements in samples of lunar rocks returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, with the exception of scandium; its content in the latter samples was considerably higher.

  12. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic form and thereby activates hydrogen.

  13. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore » and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  14. Zinc, copper & iron contents in cooked foods & estimates of their daily intakes in young hostel residents.

    PubMed

    Chiplonkar, S A; Agte, V V; Gokhale, M K

    1993-12-01

    Dietary zinc, copper and iron intakes of 19 men and 11 women (aged 18-25 yr) were determined during three periods of five consecutive days each, using, weighment method and atomic absorption analysis of food samples. Daily zinc, copper and iron intakes of men ranged from 13.1 +/- 1.2 to 15.3 +/- 1.4 mg/d, 1.62 +/- 0.15 to 1.84 +/- 0.17 mg/d and 20.5 +/- 2.8 to 29.1 +/- 4.5 mg/d and of women 8.8 +/- 2.0 to 9.0 +/- 1.6, 1.42 +/- 0.23 to 1.69 +/- 0.62, and 10.0 +/- 2.4 to 14.7 +/- 2.6 mg/d respectively. Cereals provided 67.7 per cent of dietary zinc, 47.7 per cent copper and 62 per cent iron in men and 60 per cent of Zn, 44 per cent of Cu and 59 per cent of Fe in women, suggesting lower contribution of cereals to Cu intakes than Zn and Fe. Men had mineral intakes close to the recommended allowances for Indians, whereas the intakes of women were 30 to 60 per cent lower. When expressed as mg/1000 kcal, lower calorie intakes of women were responsible for their low mineral intakes. Intra-individual variation in mineral intakes was higher (18.39%) than that of energy intakes (14-17%) in both men and women. Phytate: Zn molar ratios were > 15 indicating risk of zinc deficiency in these students. PMID:8132231

  15. Iron and copper act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bird, Lina J; Coleman, Maureen L; Newman, Dianne K

    2013-06-01

    Transition metals are known to cause toxic effects through their interaction with oxygen, but toxicity under anoxic conditions is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on the anaerobic growth and gene expression of the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. We found that Fe(II) and Cu(II) act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth at environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Cu(I) and Cu(II) had similar effects both alone and in the presence of ascorbate, a Cu(II) reductant, indicating that reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Fe(II) is not sufficient to explain the growth inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) increased the toxicity of Co(II) and Ni(II); in contrast, Ni(II) toxicity was diminished in the presence of Fe(II). The synergistic anaerobic toxicity of Fe(II) and Cu(II) was also observed for Escherichia coli MG1655, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Gene expression analyses for R. palustris identified three regulatory genes that respond to Cu(II) and not to Fe(II): homologs of cueR and cusR, two known proteobacterial copper homeostasis regulators, and csoR, a copper regulator recently identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two P-type ATPase efflux pumps, along with an F(o)F(1) ATP synthase, were also upregulated by Cu(II) but not by Fe(II). An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in copA, cus, and cueO showed a smaller synergistic effect, indicating that iron might interfere with one or more of the copper homeostasis systems. Our results suggest that interactive effects of transition metals on microbial physiology may be widespread under anoxic conditions, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be more fully elucidated. PMID:23563938

  16. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60-160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11-21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L(-1) for cadmium, 2.39 μg L(-1) for zinc, and 0.11 μg L(-1) for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h(-1) for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. PMID:26388376

  17. Effects of different warming patterns on the translocations of cadmium and copper in a soil-rice seedling system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Liqiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dongmei

    2015-10-01

    Heavy-metal-polluted rice poses potential threats to food security and has received great attention in recent years, while how elevated temperature affects the translocation of heavy metals in soil-rice system is unclear. In this study, potting experiments were conducted in plant growth chambers for 24 days to evaluate the effects of different warming patterns on cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) migrations in soil-rice seedling system. Rice seedlings were cultivated under four different day/night temperature patterns: 25/18 °C (CK), 25/23 °C (N5), 30/18 °C (D5), and 30/23 °C (DN5), respectively. Non-contaminated soil (CS), Cd/Cu lightly polluted soil (LS), and highly polluted soil (HS) were chosen for experiments. The results showed that different warming patterns decreased soil pH and elevated available soil Cd/Cu concentrations. The shoot and root biomass were increased by 39.0-320 and 28.6-348 %, respectively. Warming induced significant (p < 0.05) increase of Cd/Cu uptake and translocation in rice seedlings, especially for the Cd concentration in shoot. The Cd concentrations of shoot increased by 5-12 times and up to 8 times for LS and HS, respectively. Meanwhile, the Cd concentration of shoot increased with warming while that of root kept unchanged, indicating that warming promoted cadmium translocation from root to shoot (about -four to nine times of CK), while warming changed the Cu concentration of shoot similarly to that of root and had no significant effects on Cu translocations in rice seedlings. Our study may provide improved understanding for Cd/Cu fates in soil-rice system by warming and imply that heavy metals had the higher environmental risk under the future global warming. PMID:26036584

  18. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H. N; Huang, N. M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5–120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection. PMID:27176635

  19. Relationship between Paratuberculosis and the microelements Copper, Zinc, Iron, Selenium and Molybdenum in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Paolicchi, F.; Perea, J.; Cseh, S.; Morsella, C.

    2013-01-01

    To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship between selenium deficiencies in animals with Map infection and ELISA positive results. PMID:24159298

  20. Arabidopsis Copper Transport Protein COPT2 Participates in the Cross Talk between Iron Deficiency Responses and Low-Phosphate Signaling1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A.; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-01-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops. PMID:23487432

  1. Copper and zinc recycling from copper alloys` spent pickling solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Moguel, G.J.; Plascencia, G.; Perez, J.

    1995-12-31

    The precipitation of copper and zinc as cements from a copper alloys` spent pickling solution has been studied at laboratory and pilot scale, with the objective of designing an economic process to recover both metals and render a solution to be either recycled to the pickling process or treated in a standard fashion and produce a non-hazardous sludge. The sulfuric acid spent pickling solution already containing copper and zinc was used first to dissolve another solid residue originated in the copper alloys foundry to neutralize part of the acidity. The resulting enriched solution was treated separately with two reductants: sodium borohydride and iron powder varying pH and excess of reductant under constant agitation. Under the best conditions, precipitation of over 95 percent of zinc and copper was achieved together with the reduction of lead and cadmium contents respectively. A process for the combined residues treatment is proposed.

  2. Effect of adsorbed chlorine and oxygen on shear strength of iron and copper junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Static friction experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature on copper, iron, and steel contacts selectively contaminated with oxygen and chlorine in submonolayer amounts. The concentration of the adsorbates was determined with Auger electron spectroscopy and was measured relative to the saturation concentration of oxygen on iron (concentration 1.0). The coefficient of static friction decreased with increasing adsorbate concentration. It was independent of the metal and the adsorbate. The results compared satisfactorily with an extension of the junction growth theory to heterogeneous interfaces. The reduction in interfacial shear strength was measured by the ratio sub a/sub m where sub a is the shear strength of the interface with an adsorbate concentration of 1.0, and sub m is the strength of the clean metal interface. This ratio was 0.835 + or - 0.012 for all the systems tested.

  3. Effect of adsorbed chlorine and oxygen on the shear strength of iron and copper junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Static-friction experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature on copper, iron, and steel contacts selectively contaminated with oxygen and chlorine in submonolayer amounts. The concentration of the adsorbates was determined with Auger electron spectroscopy and was measured relative to the saturation concentration of oxygen on iron (concentration, 1.0). The coefficient of static friction decreased with increasing adsorbate concentration; however, it was independent of the type of metal and the adsorbate species. The results compared satisfactorily with an extension of the junction growth theory to heterogeneous interfaces. The reduction in interfacial shear strength was measured by the ratio of the shear strength of the interface with an adsorbate concentration of 1.0 and the strength of the clean metal interface. This ratio was about 0.835 for all the systems tested.

  4. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, H.A.; Mast, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.134 references.

  5. Alterations in the metabolism of endogenous trace metals due to cadmium, manganese and nickel - effect of partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.C.; Ahmad, I.; Kaur, G.; Hasan, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of cadmium, manganese and nickel on the levels of copper, manganese, iron and zinc in liver was studied in sham operated and partially hepatectomized rats, 72 hrs after metal administration. Partial hepatectomy produced significant increase in the level of zinc and decrease in the levels of copper, iron and manganese. The metabolic disposition of these essential micronutrients were significantly altered as a result of cadmium administration in both the groups. Manganese and nickel had little effect and only induced the level of zinc.

  6. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  7. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Kyung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  8. The Proteome of Copper, Iron, Zinc, and Manganese Micronutrient Deficiency in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Scott I.; Castruita, Madeli; Malasarn, Davin; Urzica, Eugen; Erde, Jonathan; Page, M. Dudley; Yamasaki, Hiroaki; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Trace metals such as copper, iron, zinc, and manganese play important roles in several biochemical processes, including respiration and photosynthesis. Using a label-free, quantitative proteomics strategy (MSE), we examined the effect of deficiencies in these micronutrients on the soluble proteome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We quantified >103 proteins with abundances within a dynamic range of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude and demonstrated statistically significant changes in ∼200 proteins in each metal-deficient growth condition relative to nutrient-replete media. Through analysis of Pearson's coefficient, we also examined the correlation between protein abundance and transcript abundance (as determined via RNA-Seq analysis) and found moderate correlations under all nutritional states. Interestingly, in a subset of transcripts known to significantly change in abundance in metal-replete and metal-deficient conditions, the correlation to protein abundance is much stronger. Examples of new discoveries highlighted in this work include the accumulation of O2 labile, anaerobiosis-related enzymes (Hyd1, Pfr1, and Hcp2) in copper-deficient cells; co-variation of Cgl78/Ycf54 and coprogen oxidase; the loss of various stromal and lumenal photosynthesis-related proteins, including plastocyanin, in iron-limited cells; a large accumulation (from undetectable amounts to over 1,000 zmol/cell) of two COG0523 domain-containing proteins in zinc-deficient cells; and the preservation of photosynthesis proteins in manganese-deficient cells despite known losses in photosynthetic function in this condition. PMID:23065468

  9. Rapid Size- Controlled Synthesis of Dextran-Coated, Copper-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ray M.

    2011-12-01

    Development of dual modality probes enabled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has been on the rise in recent years due to the potential for these probes to facilitate combining the complementary high resolution of MRI and the high sensitivity of PET. The efficient synthesis of multimodal probes that include the radiolabels for PET can be hindered due to prolonged reaction times during radioisotope incorporation, and the resulting decay of the radiolabel. Along with a time-efficient synthesis, one also needs an optimal synthesis that yields products in a desirable size range (between 20-100 nm) to increase blood retention time. In this work, we describe a novel, rapid, microwave-based synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles doped with copper (DIO/Cu). Traditional methods for synthesizing dextran-coated iron oxide particles require refluxing for 2 hours and result in approximately 50 nm particles. We demonstrate that microwave synthesis can produce 50 nm nanoparticles in 5 minutes of heating. We discuss the various parameters used in the microwave synthesis protocol to vary the size distribution of DIO/Cu, and demonstrate the successful incorporation of copper into these particles with the aim of future use for rapid 64Cu incorporation.

  10. Determination of uranium, iron, copper, and nickel in rock and water samples by MEKC.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Arain, Rafee

    2008-09-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic (MEKC) procedure has been developed for the separation and determination of dioxouranium (VI), iron(III), copper(II), and nickel(II) using bis(salicylaldehyde)propylenediimine (H2SA2Pn) as chelating reagent with a total run time of <3 min. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as micellar medium at pH 8.1 with sodium tetraborate buffer (0.1 M). Uncoated fused silica capillary with effective length 38.8 cmx75 microm id was used with an applied voltage of 30 kV and photo-diode array detection at 228 nm. Linear calibrations were established within 0.045-1000 microg/mL of each element with detection limit within 15-122 ng/mL. The method was applied to the analysis of spring water and rock samples. The presence of uranium in rock and spring water samples was established within 1.58-1739.3 microg/g and 0.047-0.712 microg/mL with relative standard deviation within 0.9-2.1% and 1.3-2.6% respectively. Uranium ore and water samples were also assayed by the standard addition technique. Recovery of uranium was >98% with RSD up to 2.7%. Copper, nickel, and iron in their combined matrix were concurrently determined within RSD 0.6-3.6% (n=5) and the results obtained were compared with those of flame AAS. PMID:18785150

  11. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

  12. Friction and transfer of copper, silver, and gold to iron in the presence of various adsorbed surface films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with the noble metals copper, silver, and gold and two binary alloys of these metals contacting iron in the presence of various adsorbates including, oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride. A pin on disk specimen configuration was used with a load of 100 grams, sliding velocity of 60 mm/min; at 25 C with the surfaces saturated with the adsorbates. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor surface films. Results of the experiments indicate that friction and transfer characteristics are highly specific with respect to both the noble metal and surface film present. With all three metals and films transfer of the noble metal to iron occurred very rapidly. With all metals and films transfer of the noble metal to iron continuously increased with repeated passes except for silver and copper sliding on iron sulfide.

  13. Tissue concentrations as the dose metric to assess potential toxic effects of metals in field-collected fish: Copper and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Meador, James P

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the available literature linking whole-body tissue concentrations with toxic effects in fish species for copper and cadmium. The variability in effect concentration for both copper and cadmium among species occurred within an order of magnitude for all responses, whereas the range for lethal toxicity based on water exposure spanned approximately 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Fish tissue concentrations causing adverse effects were just above background concentrations, occurring between 1 μg/g and 10 μg/g for copper and 0.1 μg/g to 4 μg/g for cadmium. The results also show that salmonids are especially sensitive to cadmium, which appears to be a function of chemical potency. No studies were found that indicated adverse effects without increases in whole-body concentration of these metals. This narrow range for dose-response implies that a toxicological spillover point occurs when the detoxification capacity of various tissues within the animal are exceeded, and this likely occurs at a similar whole-body concentration for all naïvely exposed fish species. Elevated whole-body concentrations in fish from the field may be indicative of possible acclimation to metals that may or may not result in effects for target species. Acclimation concentrations may be useful in that they signal excessive metal concentrations in water, sediment, or prey species for a given site and indicate likely toxic effects for species unable to acclimate to excess metal exposure. Using tissue residues as the dose metric for these metals provides another line of evidence for assessing impaired ecosystems and greater confidence that hazard concentrations are protective for all fish species. PMID:25939475

  14. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, M.; Yasuda, M.; Kitagawa, M. )

    1991-03-01

    Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed.

  15. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti †

    PubMed Central

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

  16. Specific mechanisms of tolerance to copper and cadmium are compromised by a limited concentration of glutathione in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cáceres, María Laura; Hattab, Sabrine; Hattab, Sarra; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohammed; Hernández, Luis E

    2015-04-01

    The induction of oxidative stress is a characteristic symptom of metal phytotoxicity and is counteracted by antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) or homoglutathione (hGSH). The depletion of GSH│hGSH in fifteen-day-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants pre-incubated with 1mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) affected antioxidant responses in a metal-specific manner under exposure to copper (Cu; 0, 6, 30 and 100μM) or cadmium (Cd; 0, 6 and 30μM) for 7 days. The phytotoxic symptoms observed with excess Cu were accompanied by an inhibition of root glutathione reductase (GR) activity, a response that was augmented in Cd-treated plants but reverted when combined with BSO. The synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) was induced by Cd, whereas the biothiol concentration decreased in Cu-treated plants, which did not accumulate PCs. The depletion of GSH│hGSH by BSO also produced a strong induction of oxidative stress under excess Cu stress, primarily due to impaired GSH│hGSH-dependent redox homeostasis. In addition, the synthesis of PCs was required for Cd detoxification, apparently also determining the distribution of Cd in plants, as less metal was translocated to the shoots in BSO-incubated plants. Therefore, specific GSH│hGSH-associated mechanisms of tolerance were triggered by stress due to each metal. PMID:25711824

  17. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, H; Ye, Z H; Wong, M H

    2004-11-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed. PMID:15276271

  18. Evaluation of the toxic effects of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper using a battery of four bioassays.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Kong, In Chul

    2012-09-01

    The sensitivities of four different kinds of bioassays to the toxicities of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper were compared. The different bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., they responded to different levels of toxicity of each of the different metals. However, with the exception of the α-glucosidase enzyme activity, arsenite was the most toxic compound towards all the tested organisms, exhibiting the highest toxic effect on the seeds of Lactuca, with an EC(50) value of 0.63 mg/L. The sensitivities of Lactuca and Raphanus were greater than the sensitivities of two other kinds of seeds tested. Therefore, these were the seeds appropriate for use in a seed germination assay. A high revertant mutagenic ratio (5:1) of Salmonella typhimurium was observed with an arsenite concentration of 0.1 μg/plate, indicative of a high possibility of mutagenicity. These different results suggested that a battery of bioassays, rather than one bioassay alone, is needed as a more accurate and better tool for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. PMID:22170103

  19. Combined toxicity of cadmium and copper in Avicennia marina seedlings and the regulation of exogenous jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongzheng; Li, Xiuzhen; Chen, Jun; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2015-03-01

    Seedlings of Avicennia marina were exposed to single and combined metal treatments of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a factorial design, and the combined toxicity of Cu and Cd was tested. The effects of the exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on chlorophyll concentration, lipid peroxidation, Cd and Cu uptake, antioxidative capacity, endogenous JA concentration, and type-2 metallothionein gene (AmMT2) expression in seedlings of A. marina exposed to combined metal treatments were also investigated. A binary mixture of low-dose Cd (9 molL(-1)) and high-dose Cu (900 molL(-1)) showed toxicity to the seedlings, indicated by the significant augmentation in leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduction in leaf chlorophylls. The toxicity of the combined metals was significantly alleviated by the addition of exogenous JA at 1 molL(-1), and the chlorophyll and MDA contents were found to be restored to levels comparable to those of the control. Compare to treatment with Cd and Cu only, 1 and 10 molL(-1) JA significantly enhanced the ascorbate peroxidase activity, and 10 molL(-1) JA significantly decreased the uptake of Cd in A. marina leaves. The relative expression of leaf AmMT2 gene was also significantly enhanced by 1 and 10 molL(-1) JA, which helped reduce Cd toxicity in A. marina seedlings. PMID:25497768

  20. Effects of Single and Joint Subacute Exposure of Copper and Cadmium on Heat Shock Proteins in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuyang; Guan, Xueting; Yao, Linlin; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xian; Han, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are the most common heavy metals that are easily detected in aquatic environments on a global scale. In this paper, we investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of HSPs (HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) in the liver of the common carp exposed to Cu, Cd, and a combination of both metals by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that in each exposure group, the mRNA levels of HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 were increased significantly compared to the corresponding controls after 96h of exposure (P<0.05). A significant increase was observed in the HSP70 protein level in the high-dose Cu group and all of the Cd groups. Significant increases were also observed in the protein levels of HSP60 and HSP90 in the high combination group and the low combination group, respectively. These results indicated that the dynamics of HSP expression observed in the common carp support the role of HSPs as biochemical markers in response to environmental pollution and provided valuable insights into the adaptive mechanisms used by the common carp to adapt to the challenges of stressful environments. PMID:26105544

  1. The oxidative stress response of the filamentous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum R57 to copper, cadmium and chromium exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lazarova, Nevena; Krumova, Ekaterina; Stefanova, Tsvetanka; Georgieva, Nelly; Angelova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Despite the intensive research in the past decade on the microbial bioaccumulation of heavy metals, the significance of redox state for oxidative stress induction is not completely clarified. In the present study, we examined the effect of redox-active (copper and chromium) and redox-inactive (cadmium) metals on the changes in levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzyme defence in Trichosporon cutaneum R57 cells. This filamentous yeast strain showed significant tolerance and bioaccumulation capability of heavy metals. Our findings indicated that the treatment by both redox-active and redox-inactive heavy metal induced oxidative stress events. Enhanced concentrations of Cu2+, Cr6+ and Cd2+ caused acceleration in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase in the level of oxidatively damaged proteins and accumulation of reserve carbohydrates (glycogen and trehalose). Cell response against heavy metal exposure also includes elevation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, which are key enzymes for directly scavenging of ROS. Despite the mentioned changes in the stress biomarkers, T. cutaneum did not show a significant growth diminution. Probably, activated antioxidant defence contributes to the yeast survival under conditions of heavy metal stress. PMID:26019570

  2. IRON NUTRITION INFLUENCE ON CADMIUM ACCUMULATION BY ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA (L.) HEYNH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine whether Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, a putative Fe-efficient species, accumulated higher concentrations of Cd from a sparingly soluble Cd source (cadmium dihydrogen phosphate) when growing in Fe-deficient rather than in Fe-su...

  3. Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 μmol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 μmol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

  4. Comparative study of serum zinc, copper, manganese, and iron in preeclamptic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Md Shahid; Ahmed, Salma; Ullah, Mohd Shahid; Kabir, Humayun; Rahman, G K M Mustafizur; Hasnat, Abul; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul

    2013-07-01

    Preeclampsia complicates 2-8 % of all pregnancies and it is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and pre-term delivery in the world. Unfortunately, there is scarcity of document discussing the circulating level of several essential trace elements in preeclampsia patients in Bangladesh. The present study was designed to evaluate the serum concentration of four trace elements, namely zinc, copper, manganese, and iron, in preeclamptic pregnant women. The study was conducted as a case-control study with 50 preeclamptic pregnant women as cases and 58 normotensive pregnant women as controls. Obstetric, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected at routine obstetric visits. Serum trace elements were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Independent sample t test and Pearson's correlation test were done for the statistical analysis using the statistical software package SPSS, version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). We observed significant differences for gestational age, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between patient and control groups (p < 0.05). Analysis of serum trace elements explored significantly lower level of all the four elements in preeclampsia patients in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis explored that the correlation between serum level of different trace elements was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) except the correlation between zinc and iron in preeclampsia patients (p < 0.05). Establishment of inter-element relationship strongly supports that there was a disturbance in the element homeostasis in patient with preeclampsia. In conclusion, our study suggests that preeclampsia patients have considerably lower level of serum zinc, copper, manganese, and iron compared to the healthy pregnant women. PMID:23749478

  5. Copper, zinc, iron, and manganese accumulation in cattle from asturias (northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marta; Alonso, Marta López; Benedito, José Luis

    2006-02-01

    Monitoring levels of mineral concentrations in animal tissues is important for assessing the effect of contamination on animal health and safety of animal origin products in human nutrition. This study evaluated the levels of certain trace elements (copper, zinc, iron, and manganese) in cattle from an industrial and mining region in the north of Spain (Asturias). Samples of 312 animals aged 9-12 mo were collected from the whole region and analyzed after acid digestion using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The geometric mean concentrations obtained per wet weight for the liver, kidney, muscle, and blood were 34.3 mg/kg, 4.04 mg/kg, 1.65 mg/kg, and 0.651 mg/L for copper, respectively, and 38.5 mg/kg, 23.0 mg/kg, 47.0 mg/kg, and 2.44 mg/L for zinc, respectively. For iron, blood was not analyzed and results were 96.2 mg/kg, 105 mg/kg, and 56.0 mg/kg for the liver, kidney and muscle, respectively. For manganese, only the liver and kidney were analyzed, and the results were 3.11 mg/kg and 1.19 mg/kg, respectively. There was no evidence of an accumulation of toxic levels of trace metals in Asturian cattle. Females accumulated more iron in the liver (p<0.001, F1,310=18.4) and the kidney (p<0.001, F1,310=13.5) and more manganese in the liver (p<0.01, F1,310=9.55) than males. PMID:16444003

  6. Adsorption/desorption properties of copper ions on the surface of iron-coated sand using BET and EDAX analyses.

    PubMed

    Lai, C H; Lo, S L; Chiang, H L

    2000-10-01

    This study was conducted to develop a heating process for coating hydrated iron oxide on the sand surface to utilise the adsorbent properties of the coating and the filtration properties of the sand. BET and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were used to investigate the surface properties of the coated layer. An energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) technique of analysis was used for characterising metal adsorption sites on the iron-coated sand surface. The results indicated that the iron-coated sand had more micropores and higher specific surface area because of the attachment of iron oxide. Copper ions could penetrate into the micropores and mesopores of iron oxide on sand surface, and the regeneration of the iron-coated sand could be achieved by soaking with pH = 3.0 acid solution. Besides, the results of EDAX analysis showed that copper ions were chemisorbed on the surface of iron-coated sand. Results of the study developed an innovative technology for coating iron oxide on sand surface for the treatment of heavy metal in water. PMID:10901255

  7. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  8. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Mount, David R.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Greer, I. Eugene; May, Thomas W.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 μg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 μg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 μg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 μg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 μg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 μg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  9. Haemolysis and perturbations in the systemic iron metabolism of suckling, copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice - an animal model of Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Starzyński, Rafał R; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Grzmil, Paweł; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Ogórek, Mateusz; Pierzchała, Olga; Staroń, Robert; Gajowiak, Anna; Lipiński, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The biological interaction between copper and iron is best exemplified by the decreased activity of multicopper ferroxidases under conditions of copper deficiency that limits the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. However, little is known about how copper deficiency affects iron homeostasis through alteration of the activity of other copper-containing proteins, not directly connected with iron metabolism, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This antioxidant enzyme scavenges the superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species contributing to the toxicity of iron via the Fenton reaction. Here, we analyzed changes in the systemic iron metabolism using an animal model of Menkes disease: copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice with dysfunction of the ATP7A copper transporter. We found that the erythrocytes of these mutants are copper-deficient, display decreased SOD1 activity/expression and have cell membrane abnormalities. In consequence, the mosaic mice show evidence of haemolysis accompanied by haptoglobin-dependent elimination of haemoglobin (Hb) from the circulation, as well as the induction of haem oxygenase 1 (HO1) in the liver and kidney. Moreover, the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis is strongly affected in mosaic mice. These findings indicate that haemolysis is an additional pathogenic factor in a mouse model of Menkes diseases and provides evidence of a new indirect connection between copper deficiency and iron metabolism. PMID:25247420

  10. Haemolysis and Perturbations in the Systemic Iron Metabolism of Suckling, Copper-Deficient Mosaic Mutant Mice – An Animal Model of Menkes Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Starzyński, Rafał R.; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Grzmil, Paweł; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Ogórek, Mateusz; Pierzchała, Olga; Staroń, Robert; Gajowiak, Anna; Lipiński, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The biological interaction between copper and iron is best exemplified by the decreased activity of multicopper ferroxidases under conditions of copper deficiency that limits the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. However, little is known about how copper deficiency affects iron homeostasis through alteration of the activity of other copper-containing proteins, not directly connected with iron metabolism, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This antioxidant enzyme scavenges the superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species contributing to the toxicity of iron via the Fenton reaction. Here, we analyzed changes in the systemic iron metabolism using an animal model of Menkes disease: copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice with dysfunction of the ATP7A copper transporter. We found that the erythrocytes of these mutants are copper-deficient, display decreased SOD1 activity/expression and have cell membrane abnormalities. In consequence, the mosaic mice show evidence of haemolysis accompanied by haptoglobin-dependent elimination of haemoglobin (Hb) from the circulation, as well as the induction of haem oxygenase 1 (HO1) in the liver and kidney. Moreover, the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis is strongly affected in mosaic mice. These findings indicate that haemolysis is an additional pathogenic factor in a mouse model of Menkes diseases and provides evidence of a new indirect connection between copper deficiency and iron metabolism. PMID:25247420

  11. Status and Interrelationship of Zinc, Copper, Iron, Calcium and Selenium in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupendra Pal; Dwivedi, Shailendra; Dhakad, Urmila; Murthy, Ramesh Chandra; Choubey, Vimal Kumar; Goel, Apul; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan

    2016-03-01

    Deficiency or excess of certain trace elements has been considered as risk factor for prostate cancer. This study was aimed to detect differential changes and mutual correlations of selected trace elements in prostate cancer tissue versus benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue. Zinc, copper, iron, calcium and selenium were analysed in histologically proven 15 prostate cancer tissues and 15 benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Unpaired two tailed t test/Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to compare the level of trace elements, elemental ratios and their interrelations. As compared to benign prostatic tissue, malignant prostatic tissue had significantly lower selenium (p = 0.038) and zinc (p = 0.043) concentrations, a lower zinc/iron ratio (p = 0.04) and positive correlation of selenium with zinc (r = 0.71, p = 0.02) and iron (r = 0.76, p = 0.009). Considerably divergent interrelationship of elements and elemental ratios in prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia was noted. Understanding of differential elemental changes and their interdependence may be useful in defining the complex metabolic alterations in prostate carcinogenesis with potential for development of element based newer diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies. Further studies may be needed to elucidate this complex relationship between trace elements and prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:26855488

  12. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from this study were used to evaluate the sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon and rainbow trout relative to data published for other test organisms. Toxicity data generated from this study also were used to evaluate the level of protection of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency WQC or Washington State water-quality standards (WQS) for copper, zinc, cadmium, or lead to white sturgeon inhabiting the upper Columbia River. Chapter A of this report summarizes the results of acute toxicity tests performed for 4 d with white sturgeon and rainbow trout exposed to copper, cadmium, or zinc. Chapter B of this report summarizes the results of chronic toxicity tests performed for as many as 53 days with white sturgeon or rainbow trout exposed to copper, cadmium, zinc, or lead. Appendixes to the report are available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5204. Supporting documentation for chapter A toxicity testing is provided in appendix 1. Supporting documentation for chapter B toxicity testing is provided in Appendix 2. Supporting documentation on analysis of water chemistry for chapter A and chapter B is provided in appendix 3 and 4. The rationale for applying corrections to measured copper and zinc values in water samples from some of the toxicity tests performed in chapter A is provided in appendix 5. A summary of dissolved organic carbon measurement variability and implications for biotic ligand model normalization for toxicity data summarized in chapter A and chapter B are provided in appendix 6. An evaluation of an interlaboratory comparison of analyses for dissolved organic carbon in water from the U.S. Geological Survey Columbia Environmental Research Center and University of Saskatchewan is provided in appendix 7. Finally, appendix 8 provides a summary of retesting of white sturgeon in 2012 to determine if improved survival of sturgeon would affect copper effect concentrations in 24-d copper exposures started with newly hatched larvae, and to evaluate the effect of light intensity or temperature on the response of newly hatched larvae during a 25-d study.

  13. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  14. 77 FR 59158 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... approval for copper-clad iron shot in the Federal Register on June 20, 2012 (77 FR 36980), and one for the fluoropolymer shot coatings on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39983). Having completed our review of the application..., 1994, ``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951),...

  15. Influence of iron and copper nanoparticle powder on the production of lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vishal; Dobiásová, Petra; Baldrian, Petr; Nerud, Frantisek; Kumar, Amit; Seal, Sudipta

    2010-06-15

    White rot fungi are one of the key group of microorganisms that help to enrich the soil via degradation of wood. In the current communication, influence of iron and copper nanoparticles on the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Trametes versicolor have been investigated. The production of enzymes in the presence of the two nanoparticles was compared to that of ferrous and cupric ions respectively. Results show that both the tested nanoparticles alter the production profile of the lignocellulolytic enzymes when compared to the control set. The production of laccase was not influenced by iron nanoparticles but was effected by copper nanoparticles within 24h of incubation. Both the nanoparticles decreased the production of beta-glucosidase, beta-xylosidase and cellobiohydrolase significantly. However, the production profile of Mn-peroxidase and remained statistically similar to that of control when the organism was incubated with iron and copper nanoparticles. The production profiles were also different when one compares the ionic form of metals and the nanoparticles, suggesting different mechanism of action of the particles on the organism. The difference in the production profile was not growth related as no significant difference was recorded for either form of iron and copper on the growth of T. versicolor. PMID:20185234

  16. Assessment of zerovalent iron for stabilization of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soil.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Ore, Solvita; Renella, Giancarlo; Mench, Michel; Lagerkvist, Anders; Maurice, Christian

    2006-11-01

    Stabilization of soil contaminated with trace elements is a remediation practice that does not reduce the total content of contaminants, but lowers the amounts of mobile and bioavailable fractions. This study evaluated the efficiency of Fe(0) to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of Cr, Cu, As and Zn in a chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil using chemical, biochemical and biotoxicity tests. Contaminated soil was stabilized with 1% iron grit. This treatment decreased As and Cr concentrations in leachates (by 98% and 45%, respectively), in soil pore water (by 99% and 94%, respectively) and in plant shoots (by 84% and 95%, respectively). The stabilization technique also restored most of analyzed soil enzyme activities and reduced microbial toxicity, as evaluated by the BioTox test. After stabilization, exchangeable and bioaccessible fractions of Cu remained high, causing some residual toxicity in the treated soil. PMID:16517035

  17. Photometric and spectrochemical determination of gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates.

    PubMed

    Jordanov, N; Mareva, S; Krasnobaeva, N; Nedyalkova, N

    1968-09-01

    A photometric and a spectrochemical method have been developed for determining gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates. In both, the sample is dissolved and gold is extracted from 1M hydrochloric add solution with a mixture of ethyl methyl ketone and chloroform (1:1). Gold was determined photometrically with N,N'-tetramethyl-o-tolidine. Conditions have been found for satisfactorily sensitive and reproducible spectral determination of gold. For this purpose the effect of various collectors and buffers on the evaporation curves of gold has been studied, as well as excitation conditions, form of the electrodes, optimum slit-width, and photographic variables. The sensitivity and precision of both methods have been evaluated. PMID:18960389

  18. Iron, copper, and zinc absorption and turnover; the use of stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Aggett, P J

    1997-08-01

    This overview demonstrates the increasing use of low natural abundance stable isotopes in the investigation of mineral metabolism. There are many practical problems associated with their use and analysis and their expense has limited their application in some areas such as studies in adults. Undoubtedly we will have to assess our ideas and protocols as the practical problems and their metabolic implications become better appreciated but none the less, the use of such isotopes will certainly refine our understanding of the way the body uses elements such as zinc, copper, iron and selenium and other essential elements and will enable us to determine our dietary requirements for these nutrients and to find ways of detecting more efficiently early deficiency and toxicity states. PMID:9266212

  19. ESR of copper and iron complexes with antitumor and cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed Central

    Antholine, W E; Kalyanaraman, B; Petering, D H

    1985-01-01

    The relatively few iron and copper metal complexes which have been examined in cells and tissues for their redox properties, radical generation properties, and antitumor activity are discussed for studies which utilized electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). A common property of a number of metal complexes, which include bleomycin, adriamycin, and thiosemicarbazones described in this review, is that they are readily reduced by thiol compounds and oxidized by oxygen or reduced species of oxygen to produce radicals. Structural features of these reactions are identified by ESR spectroscopy in model systems and often in cells. Furthermore, ESR spectroscopy has been most useful to probe the environment of the complexes in cells and to measure the rate of reduction of their oxidized forms. As a result of these studies, it is anticipated that more attention will be given to the exploration of redox-active metal complexes as drugs. PMID:2420582

  20. ESR of copper and iron complexes with antitumor and cytotoxic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Antholine, W.E.; Kalyanaraman, B.; Petering, D.H.

    1985-12-01

    The relatively few iron and copper metal complexes which have been examined in cells and tissues for their redox properties, radical generation properties, and antitumor activity are discussed for studies which utilized electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). A common property of a number of metal complexes, which include bleomycin, adriamycin, and thiosemicarbazones described in this review, is that they are readily reduced by thiol compounds and oxidized by oxygen or reduced species of oxygen to produce radicals. Structural features of these reactions are identified by ESR spectroscopy in model systems and often in cells. Furthermore, ESR spectroscopy has been most useful to probe the environment of the complexes in cells and to measure the rate of reduction of their oxidized forms. As a result of these studies, it is anticipated that more attention will be given to the exploration of redox-active metal complexes as drugs. 95 references.

  1. Selective nucleation of iron phthalocyanine crystals on micro-structured copper iodide.

    PubMed

    Rochford, Luke A; Ramadan, Alexandra J; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim S

    2014-12-14

    Morphological and structural control of organic semiconductors through structural templating is an efficient route by which to tune their physical properties. The preparation and characterisation of iron phthalocyanine (FePc)-copper iodide (CuI) bilayers at elevated substrate temperatures is presented. Thin CuI(111) layers are prepared which are composed of isolated islands rather than continuous films previously employed in device structures. Nucleation in the early stages of FePc growth is observed at the edges of islands rather than on the top (111) faces with the use of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Structural measurements show two distinct polymorphs of FePc, with CuI islands edges nucleating high aspect ratio FePc crystallites with modified intermolecular spacing. By combining high substrate temperature growth and micro-structuring of the templating CuI(111) layer structural and morphological control of the organic film is demonstrated. PMID:25340949

  2. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  3. Electronic band structure and optical absorption of nanotubular zinc oxide doped with Iron, Cobalt, or Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, V. P.; Krasil'nikov, V. N.; Perelyaeva, L. A.; Baklanova, I. V.; Shein, I. R.

    2013-12-01

    The absorption spectra of the precursor-derived solid solutions Zn1 - x M x O ( M = Fe, Co, Cu) with a tubular morphology of aggregates have been investigated in the ultraviolet and visible regions. The maximum metal concentration x in the Zn1 - x M x O solid solutions is 0.075 for iron, 0.2 for cobalt, and 0.1 for copper. It has been found that the optical absorption and the band gap of the Zn1 - x M x O compounds depend on the type of dopant. The obtained experimental data have been interpreted using the results of the performed ab initio calculations of the electronic band structure and optical absorption.

  4. Variation of iron, copper, free fatty acid content and lipoxygenase activity in peanut kernels subjected to various pretreatments and roasting.

    PubMed

    Chen, M J; Chiou, R Y

    1995-05-01

    Peanut kernels subjected to pretreatment including rehydration, blanching and dehydration, and untreated kernels were roasted at 160 degrees C for times ranging from 0 to 90 min. For both peanuts, the iron content in oil and specific lipoxygenase activity in defatted peanut flour decreased, free fatty acid content increased and copper content changed insignificantly with roasting time. Changes of iron content, lipoxygenase activity and free fatty acid content were more significant in untreated peanuts than in pretreated peanuts. At each roasting time, iron, copper and free fatty acid contents in the oils and lipoxygenase activities in the defatted flours prepared from untreated peanuts were higher than in the oils and flours prepared from pretreated peanuts. PMID:7621086

  5. Vanadium(III) as an analytical reagent: The titrimetric determination of iron, copper, thallium, molybdenum, uranium, vanadium, chromium and manganese.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S K

    1979-02-01

    Vanadium(III) solutions can be used in direct titrations of iron(III), copper(II), thallium(III), molybdenum(VI), uranium(VI), vanadium(V), chromium(VI) and manganese(VII) in milligram amounts. The titrations are done at 70-80 degrees for iron(III), copper(II), thallium(III), molybdenum(VI) and at room temperature for vanadium(V), chromium(VI) and manganese(VII). Uranium(VI) is titrated at 70-80 degrees in presence of iron(II). The vanadium(III) solution is prepared by reduction of vanadium(V) to vanadium(IV) with sulphur dioxide, followed by addition of phosphoric acid and reduction with iodide, and is reasonably stable. PMID:18962393

  6. COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

  7. Enthalpies of formation of liquid binary (copper + iron, cobalt, and nickel) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaenko, I.V.; Turchanin, M.A.

    1997-12-01

    The enthalpies of formation of liquid binary (Cu + Fe, Co, Ni) alloys are studied by direct reaction calorimetry in the whole range of compositions at 1873, 1823, and 1753 K, respectively. The integral molar enthalpies of mixing are found to be positive in all three systems with the maximum values approaching 10.8 {+-} 0.7 kJ/mol{sup {minus}1} at x{sub Fe} = 0.43, 7.1 {+-} 0.9 kJ/mol{sup {minus}1} at x{sub Co} = 0.55, and 3.7 {+-} 0.5 kJ/mol{sup {minus}1} at x{sub Ni} = 0.53. Partial molar enthalpies at infinite dilution constitute 59.4 {+-} 3.3 kJ/mol{sup {minus}1} for iron, 44.3 {+-} 4.1 kJ/mol{sup {minus}1} for cobalt, and 14.9 {+-} 2.2 kJ/mol{sup {minus}1} for nickel in liquid copper. Similar values for copper in liquid iron, cobalt, and nickel are 36.6 {+-} 3.9, 45.3 {+-} 6.0, and 17.7 {+-} 4.4 kJ/mol{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The results are compared with the thermodynamic data available in literature and discussed in connection to the equilibrium-phase diagrams. In particular, decreasing from Cu-Fe to Cu-Ni liquid alloys positive values of the excess thermodynamic functions of mixing are fully in accord with the growing stability of phases in these systems. The excess entropies of mixing are estimated by combining the established enthalpies with carefully selected literature data for the excess Gibbs functions. Analysis of possible contributions to the enthalpies of mixing indicates that the experimentally established regularity in {Delta}H values along the 3d series is likely to arise from the difference in d-band width and d-electron binding energy of the alloy constituents.

  8. Predicting copper-, iron-, and zinc-binding proteins in pathogenic species of the Paracoccidioides genus

    PubMed Central

    Tristão, Gabriel B.; Assunção, Leandro do Prado; dos Santos, Luiz Paulo A.; Borges, Clayton L.; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Soares, Célia M. de Almeida; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Bailão, Alexandre M.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of all proteins have been estimated to contain at least one metal cofactor, and these proteins are referred to as metalloproteins. These represent one of the most diverse classes of proteins, containing metal ions that bind to specific sites to perform catalytic, regulatory and structural functions. Bioinformatic tools have been developed to predict metalloproteins encoded by an organism based only on its genome sequence. Its function and the type of metal binder can also be predicted via a bioinformatics approach. Paracoccidioides complex includes termodimorphic pathogenic fungi that are found as saprobic mycelia in the environment and as yeast, the parasitic form, in host tissues. They are the etiologic agents of Paracoccidioidomycosis, a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Many metalloproteins are important for the virulence of several pathogenic microorganisms. Accordingly, the present work aimed to predict the copper, iron and zinc proteins encoded by the genomes of three phylogenetic species of Paracoccidioides (Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18). The metalloproteins were identified using bioinformatics approaches based on structure, annotation and domains. Cu-, Fe-, and Zn-binding proteins represent 7% of the total proteins encoded by Paracoccidioides spp. genomes. Zinc proteins were the most abundant metalloproteins, representing 5.7% of the fungus proteome, whereas copper and iron proteins represent 0.3 and 1.2%, respectively. Functional classification revealed that metalloproteins are related to many cellular processes. Furthermore, it was observed that many of these metalloproteins serve as virulence factors in the biology of the fungus. Thus, it is concluded that the Cu, Fe, and Zn metalloproteomes of the Paracoccidioides spp. are of the utmost importance for the biology and virulence of these particular human pathogens. PMID:25620964

  9. Structural and functional modifications of the major light-harvesting complex II in cadmium- or copper-treated Secale cereale.

    PubMed

    Janik, Ewa; Maksymiec, Waldemar; Mazur, Radoslaw; Garstka, Maciej; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2010-08-01

    The effects of 50 microM cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) ions on the supramolecular conformation of the light-harvesting pigment-protein complex of PSII (LHCII) isolated from rye seedlings were studied. It was found that the action of these two metal ions on the LHCII structure and organization is dissimilar. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements indicated inhibition or stimulation of formation of parallel beta-structures and aggregates in the presence of Cd or Cu ions, respectively. The Chl a fluorescence excitation spectra of LHCII extracted from Cd-treated plants showed that the decreased aggregation of complexes was correlated with a decline in efficiency of quenching of excitation energy. From the results of mass spectrometry, changes in LHCII aggregation in the presence of Cd ions might be based on decreases in the molecular mass of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 proteins. An increase in the content of LHCII aggregates under Cu ion excess was associated with changes in the LHCII xanthophyll pigment pool. In the complexes isolated from Cu-treated plants, all-trans violaxanthin and 9'-cis neoxanthin content declined and the simultaneous appearance of the fraction of 9-cis violaxanthin was observed. 9-cis violaxanthin formation under Cu ion excess might facilitate LHCII inter-trimer interaction and, therefore, aggregation of complexes. RLS (resonance light scattering) spectra indicated that the excitonic interaction between Chl molecules and between Chls and xanthophylls was responsible for the effective dissipation of excitation energy in LHCII isolated from Cu-treated plants. Also, changes in singlet excitation energy transfer between carotenoids and Chls under the action of heavy metals were observed. PMID:20627948

  10. Effects of organic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of cadmium and copper in spiked formulated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the partitioning and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) spiked into formulated sediments containing two types of organic matter (OM), i.e., cellulose and humus. Amendments of cellulose up to 12.5% total organic carbon (TOC) did not affect partitioning of Cd or Cu between sediment and pore water and did not significantly affect the toxicity of spiked sediments in acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. In contrast, amendments of natural humus shifted the partitioning of both Cd and Cu toward greater concentrations in sediment and lesser concentrations in pore water and significantly reduced toxic effects of both metals. Thresholds for toxicity, based on measured metal concentrations in whole sediment, were greater for both Cd and Cu in sediments amended with a low level of humus (2.9% TOC) than in sediments without added OM. Amendments with a high level of humus (8.9% TOC) eliminated toxicity at the highest spike concentrations of both metals (sediment concentrations of 12.4 ??g Cd/g and 493 ??g Cu/g). Concentrations of Cd in pore water associated with acute toxicity were similar between sediments with and without humus amendments, suggesting that toxicity of Cd was reduced primarily by sorption to sediment OM. However, toxic effects of Cu in humus treatments were associated with greater pore-water concentrations than in controls, suggesting that toxicity of Cu was reduced both by sorption and by complexation with soluble ligands. Both sorption and complexation by OM tend to make proposed sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) based on total metal concentrations more protective for high-OM sediments. Our results suggest that the predictive ability of SQGs could be improved by models of metal interactions with natural OM in sediment and pore water.

  11. Liver and kidney concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to provide new knowledge on the storage of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the feline organism, we measured the concentrations of these elements in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the impact of age, sex or the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). The element concentrations in the tissues of 47 cats (22 male; 25 female; aged between 2 months and 18 years) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Cu, Zn and Mn were the highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The Cd concentrations were lower in the renal medulla compared to the renal cortex and the liver, and Sr was higher in the renal medulla compared to the liver. The Se concentrations in the cortex of the kidneys were higher than in the medulla of the kidneys and in the liver. Higher Cd concentrations were measured in the renal cortex of female cats, while no further gender-related differences were observed. Except for Cr, Sb and Se, age-dependencies were detected for the storage of all elements. The occurrence of a CKD also affected the storage of the elements, with lower concentrations of Ba (renal medulla), Zn (renal cortex; renal medulla) and Mn (liver; renal medulla), but higher Cd concentrations (liver; renal cortex) in diseased cats. Conclusions In conclusion, the present results provide new information on the accumulation of specific elements in the feline liver and kidneys, demonstrating a dependency on age and an impaired kidney function, but not on the sex of the animals. PMID:25030305

  12. Uptake of SigmaDDT, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and lead by lettuce and radish grown in contaminated horticultural soils.

    PubMed

    Gaw, S K; Kim, N D; Northcott, G L; Wilkins, A L; Robinson, G

    2008-08-13

    Horticultural soils can contain elevated concentrations of selected trace elements and organochlorine pesticides as a result of long-term use of agrichemicals and soil amendments. A glasshouse study was undertaken to assess the uptake of weathered SigmaDDT {sum of the p, p'- and o, p-isomers of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis( p-chlorophenyl)ethane], DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2- bis( p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] and DDD[1,1-dichloro-2,2- bis( p-chlorophenyl)ethane]}, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) residues by lettuce ( Lactuca sativa) and radish ( Raphanus sativus) from field-aged New Zealand horticultural soils. Concentrations of SigmaDDT, DDT, DDE, Cd, Cu, and Pb in lettuce increased with increasing soil concentrations. In radish, similar relationships were observed for SigmaDDT, DDE, and Cu. The bioaccumulation factors were less than 1 with the exception of Cd and decreased with increasing soil concentrations. Lettuce Cd concentrations for plants grown on four out of 10 assayed soils were equivalent to or exceeded the New Zealand food standard for leafy vegetables of 0.1 mg kg (-1) fresh weight. Concentrations of As, Pb, and SigmaDDT did not exceed available food standards. Overall, these results demonstrate that aged residues of SigmaDDT, As, Cd, Cu, and Pb in horticultural soils have remained phytoavailable. To be protective of human health, site-specific risk assessments and soil guideline derivations for residential settings with vegetable gardens need to consider the produce consumption pathway. PMID:18624413

  13. Effect of complexans (EDTA, NTA and DTPA) on the exposure to high concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead

    SciTech Connect

    Muramoto, S.

    1980-12-01

    The effects of complexans on the toxicity of short exposures to high chemical concentrations of heavy meals were examined. The heavy metals used were cadmium, zinc, lead and copper. Mortality every 24-h and the content of metal in each of three areas of fish - viscera, gills and other parts - were detemined both in the groups kept in water containing metal alone and in those whose aqueous environments contained complexan in mole concentrations three time that of the heavy metal. The carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) 8.0 + 0.5 cm were kept in groups of 8 to 10. There were altogether 49 such groups: 12 kept in three relatively high concentrations of each of the metals, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, alone; 36 groups in environments each containing only one of the three complexans, the tetrasodium salt of ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the trisodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and the pentasodium salt of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were used. Results indicate that the addition of the complexans resulted in the decrease of the tissue concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. It is considered that the heavy metals were not present merely as metal ions but formed complexes with the complexans, since the complexans were added at three times mole of the metal and therefore complex formation occurred in preference to the binding of the metals with the tissue proteins of the fish. It is furthermore assumed that the heavy metals can pass through the fish as metal-complexes, and so are not retained.

  14. Subcellular interactions of dietary cadmium, copper and zinc in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kamunde, Collins; MacPhail, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    Interactions of Cu, Cd and Zn were studied at the subcellular level in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing (μg/g) 500 Cu, 1000 Zn and 500 Cd singly and as a ternary mixture for 28 days. Livers were harvested and submitted to differential centrifugation to isolate components of metabolically active metal pool (MAP: heat-denaturable proteins (HDP), organelles, nuclei) and metabolically detoxified metal pool (MDP: heat stable proteins (HSP), NaOH-resistant granules). Results indicated that Cd accumulation was enhanced in all the subcellular compartments, albeit at different time points, in fish exposed to the metals mixture relative to those exposed to Cd alone, whereas Cu alone exposure increased Cd partitioning. Exposure to the metals mixture reduced (HDP) and enhanced (HSP, nuclei and granules) Cu accumulation while exposure to Zn alone enhanced Cu concentration in all the fractions analyzed without altering proportional distribution in MAP and MDP. Although subcellular Zn accumulation was less pronounced than that of either Cu or Cd, concentrations of Zn were enhanced in HDP, nuclei and granules from fish exposed to the metals mixture relative to those exposed to Zn alone. Cadmium alone exposure mobilized Zn and Cu from the nuclei and increased Zn accumulation in organelles and Cu in granules, while Cu alone exposure stimulated Zn accumulation in HSP, HDP and organelles. Interestingly, Cd alone exposure increased the partitioning of the three metals in MDP indicative of enhanced detoxification. Generally the accumulated metals were predominantly metabolically active: Cd, 67-83%; Cu, 68-79% and Zn, 60-76%. Taken together these results show both competitive and cooperative interactions dependent on the subcellular fraction, metal, exposure duration and relative metal exposure concentrations. Competitive interactions likely result from ionic mimicry with the metals displacing each other from common binding sites, whereas cooperative interactions suggest increased abundance of metal binding sites and/or existence of metal-specific non-interacting binding sites in some of the fractions. Moreover, the changes in subcellular distribution of the biometals Cu and Zn due to Cd exposure together with the shifts of the metals between MAP and MDP observed may have toxicological consequences. PMID:21907009

  15. Zinc Pyrithione Inhibits Yeast Growth through Copper Influx and Inactivation of Iron-Sulfur Proteins▿†

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Nancy L.; Kaplan, Jerry; Xu, Jun; Youngquist, R. Scott; Wallace, Jared; Hu, Ping; Juhlin, Kenton D.; Schwartz, James R.; Grant, Raymond A.; Fieno, Angela; Nemeth, Suzanne; Reichling, Tim; Tiesman, Jay P.; Mills, Tim; Steinke, Mark; Wang, Shuo L.; Saunders, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is an antimicrobial material with widespread use in antidandruff shampoos and antifouling paints. Despite decades of commercial use, there is little understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. We used a combination of genome-wide approaches (yeast deletion mutants and microarrays) and traditional methods (gene constructs and atomic emission) to characterize the activity of ZPT against a model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ZPT acts through an increase in cellular copper levels that leads to loss of activity of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. ZPT was also found to mediate growth inhibition through an increase in copper in the scalp fungus Malassezia globosa. A model is presented in which pyrithione acts as a copper ionophore, enabling copper to enter cells and distribute across intracellular membranes. This is the first report of a metal-ligand complex that inhibits fungal growth by increasing the cellular level of a different metal. PMID:21947398

  16. Effect of short term oral cadmium exposure in rats fed low zinc and low copper diets

    SciTech Connect

    Panemangalore, M.; Lee, C.J.; Wilson, K.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of 0, 0.15 and 5.0 ppm Cd in drinking water was determined in 10 week old F-344 rats fed either control - C (30 ppm Zn + 5 ppm Cu), low Zn - LZn (5 ppm Zn), low copper - LCu (0.5 ppm Cu) and low Zn + low Cu - LZn + LCu (5 ppm Zn + 0.5 ppm Cu) diets for 8 weeks. All groups gained about 9 g/wk and neither the decrease in dietary Zn and Cu levels or Cd exposure altered wt gain or food intake (14 g/day). Liver Zn levels averaged about 19 mg/g in all groups and were unaffected by either diet or Cd exposure; but metallothionein (MT) concentration increased from 19..mu..g/g to 40 ..mu..g/g in groups exposed to 5.0 ppm Cd and was lower in rats given LZn and LZn + LCu diet (pless than or equal to0.05). In contrast, kidney Zn levels declined in groups fed LZn + LCu diets, but exposure to Cd maintained Zn levels. Kidney MT concentration fell in response to LZn, LCu and LZn + LCu diets, while exposure to 5.0 ppm Cd elevated MT concentration almost 3 fold, however, LZn and LCu diets decreased the extent of MT induction (pless than or equal to0.05). Kidney Zn levels appear to be more susceptible to modulation by dietary Zn and Cu levels, and oral Cd exposure.

  17. Assessment of cadmium and iron adsorption in sediment, employing a flow injection analysis system with on line filtration and detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fagner Moreira; Marchioni, Camila; Barros, Juan A V de A; do Lago, Ayla Campos; Wisniewski, Clio; Luccas, Pedro Orival

    2014-01-27

    This work presents an evaluation of iron and cadmium adsorption in sediment of the Furnas Hydroelectric Plant Reservatory located in Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil). The metal determination was done employing a flow injection analysis (FIA) with an on-line filtering system. As detection techniques, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for iron and thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) for cadmium determinations were used. The developed methodology presented good limits of detection, being 190 ?g L(-1) for iron and 1.36 ?g L(-1) for cadmium, and high sampling frequency for both metals 144 and 60 readings h(-1) for iron and cadmium, respectively. Both metals obey the Langmuir model, with maximum adsorptive capacity of 0?169 mg g(-1) for iron and 7?991 mg g(-1) for cadmium. For iron, a pseudo-first-order kinetic model was obtained with a theoretical Q(e)=9?8355 mg g(-1) (experimental Q(e)=9?5432 mg g(-1)), while for cadmium, a pseudo-second-order kinetic model was obtained, with a theoretical Q(e)=0.3123 mg g(-1) (experimental Q(e)=0?3052 mg g(-1)). PMID:24418136

  18. Short-term exogenous glucocorticosteroidal effect on iron and copper status in canine leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Prednisolone was administered as an anti-inflammatory for 7 consecutive days in 11 dogs with leishmaniasis (CL group) and 5 clinically normal dogs (control group). After a 15-day wash-out phase, the same medication was given as an immunosuppressive for another 7-day period. In both animal groups and experimental periods an overall significant increase of serum iron and transferrin saturation was noted. Serum copper showed a significant increase during the anti-inflammatory period in the control group and a significant decrease during the immunosuppressive period in the CL group. No differences or changes of any kind regarding bone marrow hemosiderin were found between the 2 groups either before or after the end of both experimental periods. The only change noticed in the hematocrit values was a significant decrease in the control group after the end of the anti-inflammatory period. Based on these findings the use of prednisolone cannot be recommended and, if contemplated, should be carefully monitored, especially at an immunosuppressive dosage, because it may promote parasite replication through the induction of increased serum iron levels and hypocupremia. PMID:16479727

  19. The Menkes/Wilson disease gene homologue in yeast provides copper to a ceruloplasmin-like oxidase required for iron uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, D S; Stearman, R; Dancis, A; Dunn, T; Beeler, T; Klausner, R D

    1995-01-01

    The CCC2 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is homologous to the human genes defective in Wilson disease and Menkes disease. A biochemical hallmark of these diseases is a deficiency of copper in ceruloplasmin and other copper proteins found in extracytosolic compartments. Here we demonstrate that disruption of the yeast CCC2 gene results in defects in respiration and iron uptake. These defects could be reversed by supplementing cells with copper, suggesting that CCC2 mutant cells were copper deficient. However, cytosolic copper levels and copper uptake were normal. Instead, CCC2 mutant cells lacked a copper-dependent oxidase activity associated with the extracytosolic domain of the FET3-encoded protein, a ceruloplasmin homologue previously shown to be necessary for high-affinity iron uptake in yeast. Copper restored oxidase activity both in vitro and in vivo, paralleling the ability of copper to restore respiration and iron uptake. These results suggest that the CCC2-encoded protein is required for the export of copper from the cytosol into an extracytosolic compartment, supporting the proposal that intracellular copper transport is impaired in Wilson disease and Menkes disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7708696

  20. Copper(I)- and copper(0)-promoted homocoupling and homocoupling-hydrodehalogenation reactions of dihalogenoclathrochelate precursors for C-C conjugated iron(II) bis-cage complexes.

    PubMed

    Varzatskii, Oleg A; Shul'ga, Sergey V; Belov, Alexander S; Novikov, Valentin V; Dolganov, Alexander V; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Voloshin, Yan Z

    2014-12-28

    Iron(II) dibromo- and diiodoclathrochelates undergo copper(I)-promoted reductive homocoupling in HMPA at 70-80 °C leading to C-C conjugated dibromo- and diiodo-bis-clathrochelates in high yields. Under the same conditions, their dichloroclathrochelate analog does not undergo the same homocoupling reaction, so the target dichloro-bis-cage product was obtained in high yield via dimerization of its heterodihalogenide iodochloromonomacrobicyclic precursor. The use of NMP as a solvent at 120-140 °C gave the mixture of bis-clathrochelates resulting from a tandem homocoupling-hydrodehalogenation reaction: the initial acetonitrile copper(I) solvato-complex at a high temperature underwent re-solvatation and disproportionation leading to Cu(II) ions and nano-copper, which promoted the hydrodehalogenation process even at room temperature. The most probable pathway of this reaction in situ includes hydrodehalogenation of the already formed dihalogeno-bis-clathrochelate via the formation of reduced anion radical intermediates. As a result, chemical transformations of the iron(II) dihalogenoclathrochelates in the presence of an acetonitrile copper(I) solvato-complex were found to depend both on the nature of halogen atoms in their ribbed chelate fragments and on reaction conditions (i.e. solvent and temperature). The C-C conjugated iron(II) dihalogeno-bis-clathrochelates easily undergo nucleophilic substitution with various N,S-nucleophiles giving ribbed-functionalized bis-cage species. These iron(II) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, IR, UV-Vis, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and by X-ray diffraction; their electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The isomeric shift values in (57)Fe Mössbauer spectra of such cage compounds allowed identifying them as low-spin iron(II) complexes, while those of the quadrupole splitting are the evidence for a significant TP distortion of their FeN6-coordination polyhedra. As follows from CV data, the C-C conjugated iron(II) bis-clathrochelates undergo stepwise electrochemical reduction and oxidation giving mixed-valence Fe(II)Fe(I) and Fe(II)Fe(III) bis-cage intermediates. PMID:25056255

  1. Serum Iron, Zinc, and Copper Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Replication Study and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Xuan; Tan, Lan; Wang, Hui-Fu; Ma, Jing; Liu, Jinyuan; Tan, Meng-Shan; Sun, Jia-Hao; Zhu, Xi-Chen; Jiang, Teng; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether iron, zinc, and copper levels in serum are disarranged in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we performed meta-analyses of all studies on the topic published from 1984 to 2014 and contextually carried out a replication study in serum as well. Our meta-analysis results showed that serum zinc was significantly lower in AD patients. Our replication and meta-analysis results showed that serum copper was significantly higher in AD patients than in healthy controls, so our findings were consistent with the conclusions of four previously published copper meta-analyses. Even if a possible role of iron in the pathophysiology of the disease could not be ruled out, the results of our meta-analysis showed no change of serum iron levels in AD patients, but this conclusion was not robust and requires further investigation. The meta-regression analyses revealed that in some studies, differences in serum iron levels could be due to the different mean ages, while differences in zinc levels appeared to be due to the different sex ratios. However, the effect of sex ratio on serum zinc levels in our meta-analysis is subtle and needs further confirmation. Also, diverse demographic terms and methodological approaches appeared not to explain the high heterogeneity of our copper meta-analysis. Therefore, when investigating trace elements, covariants such as age and sex have to be taken into account in the analyses. In the light of these findings, we suggest that the possible alteration of serum zinc and copper levels are involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:26401693

  2. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds. PMID:25845355

  3. Perturbations in ROS-related processes of the fish Gambusia holbrooki after acute and chronic exposures to the metals copper and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno; Caldeira, Carina; Pereira, Joana Luísa; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

    2015-03-01

    Metallic contamination is a widespread phenomena, particularly in areas impacted by human activities, and has become a relevant environmental concern. However, the toxicity of metals on fish requires full characterization in terms of short- and long-term effects. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute and chronic oxidative stress response in liver and gills of Gambusia holbrooki exposed to copper and cadmium. To assess the effects of these two metals, we adopted a strategy of analyzing the pollution effects caused by salts of the two metallic elements, and we quantified the oxidative stress biomarkers catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferases, and lipid peroxidation after exposure (4 and 28 days) to ecologically relevant concentrations, thus simulating actual conditions of exposure in the wild. Our results showed that copper elicited strong effects in all tested biomarkers for both acute and chronic challenges. Cadmium caused a similar response and was shown to cause significant changes particularly in catalase and glutathione-S-transferases activities. These findings evidence that ecologically relevant concentrations of common anthropogenic contaminants are causative agents of serious imbalances (namely oxidative stress) that are likely to trigger life-threatening events. PMID:25263413

  4. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog-dependent.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R; Glaholt, Stephen P; Colbourne, John K; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2013-10-15

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1-mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  5. L-Ornithine Schiff base-copper and -cadmium complexes as new proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyu; Bi, Caifeng; Fan, Yuhua; Zhang, Nan; Deshmukh, Rahul; Yan, Xingchen; Lv, Xiuwen; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Xia; Dou, Q Ping

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in many cellular processes such as cell cycle, proliferation and apoptosis. Aberrant activation of UPS may result in cellular transformation or other altered pathological conditions. Previous studies have shown that metal-based complexes could inhibit proteasome activity and induce apoptosis in certain human cancer cells. In the current study, we report that the cadmium and copper complexes with heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base are potent inhibitors of proteasomal chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) activity, leading to induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Two novel copper-containing complexes and two novel cadmium-containing complexes with different heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base structures as ligands were synthesized and characterized. We found that complexes Cu1, Cd1 and Cd2 show proteasome-inhibitory activities in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and human prostate cancer LNCaP cells, resulting in the accumulation of p27, a natural proteasome substrate and other ubiquitinated proteins, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Our results suggest that metal complexes with heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base have proteasome-inhibitory capabilities and have the potential to be developed into novel anticancer drugs. PMID:25467055

  6. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog- dependent

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC.

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  7. Migration of iron, lead, cadmium and tin from tinplate-coated cans into chickpeas.

    PubMed

    Kassouf, A; Chebib, H; Lebbos, N; Ouaini, R

    2013-01-01

    Migration studies of trace metals were carried out on coated chickpea cans marketed in Lebanon. Four elements--(Fe), tin (Sn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)--were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion. Over 3 months, three different storage temperatures (5°C, room temperature and 40°C) were tested. In all cases, the migration of Fe reached a plateau after around 50 days of storage, while the migration of Pb was slow till 50 days, then it increased rapidly. Cd and Sn levels did not increase. Moreover, no effect of temperature was observed in the case of Fe, whereas Pb levels showed slower migration in cans stored at 5°C. Comparing cans from different chickpea brands (Lebanese and foreign) showed that the characteristics of the container have an effect on metal release. PMID:24059695

  8. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function in relation to biomarkers of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in men.

    PubMed Central

    Telisman, S; Cvitković, P; Jurasović, J; Pizent, A; Gavella, M; Rocić, B

    2000-01-01

    Blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum zinc (SZn), seminal fluid zinc (SfZn), serum copper (SCu), and parameters of semen quality and of reproductive endocrine function were measured in 149 healthy male industrial workers 20-43 years of age. The group contained 98 subjects with slight to moderate occupational exposure to Pb and 51 reference subjects. All of the subjects lived in Zagreb, Croatia. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of BPb, ALAD, and/or EP with reproductive parameters indicated a Pb-related decrease in sperm density, in counts of total, motile, and viable sperm, in the percentage and count of progressively motile sperm, in parameters of prostate secretory function (SfZn, acid phosphatase, and citric acid in seminal fluid), and an increase in abnormal sperm head morphology, serum testosterone, and estradiol. These associations were confirmed by results of multiple regression, which also showed significant (p < 0. 05) influence of BCd, SZn, SCu, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, or age on certain reproductive parameters. These effects were mainly of lower rank and intensity as compared to Pb-related reproductive effects, whereas BCd contributed to a decrease in sperm motility and an increase in abnormal sperm morphology and serum testosterone. No significant Pb- or Cd-related influence was found on levels of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C(4) and fructose in seminal fluid or on follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in serum. The seminal fluid concentrations of Pb (SfPb) and Cd (SfCd) were measured in 118 of the 149 subjects, and a highly significant (p < 0.0001) correlation was found between BPb and SfPb levels (r = 0.571) and between BCd and SfCd levels (r = 0.490). The overall study results indicate that even moderate exposures to Pb (BPb < 400 microg/L) and Cd (BCd < 10 microg/L) can significantly reduce human semen quality without conclusive evidence of impairment of male reproductive endocrine function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10620523

  9. Diffusion bonding of iron aluminide Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} using a copper interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Torun, O.; Celikyuerek, I.; Guerler, R.

    2008-07-15

    An Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} alloy was diffusion-bonded using a copper interlayer under vacuum at 1075 deg. C for 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h durations at 3.2 MPa applied pressure. The bond microstructure was found to be composed of the copper rich interlayer, copper rich precipitates and the base metal. SEM-EDS studies indicated major diffusion of aluminium and iron atoms from Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} into the copper interlayer and copper atoms from the copper interlayer into the Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} matrix. SEM observations of fractured surfaces of the diffusion-bonded samples showed some plastic deformation and signs of good bonding. Cu{sub 3}Al and B{sub 2}-FeAl-based phases were identified by SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction studies at the bond and on the fracture surfaces of all samples investigated. Good bonding was achieved with a maximum shear strength of 298 MPa which is 65% of the parent material shear strength for a sample diffusion-bonded for 6 h.

  10. The role of manganese and copper in the eutectoid transformation of spheroidal graphite cast iron

    SciTech Connect

    Lacaze, J.; Boudot, A.; Gerval, V.; Oquab, D.; Santos, H.

    1997-10-01

    The decomposition of austenite to ferrite plus graphite or to pearlite in spheroidal graphite (SG) cast iron is known to depend on a number of factors among which are the nodule count, the cooling rate, and the alloying additions (Si, Mn, Cu, etc.). This study was undertaken in order to deepen the understanding of the effect of alloying with Mn and/or Cu on the eutectoid reaction. For this purpose, differential thermal analyses (DTAs) were carried out in which samples were subjected to a short homogenization treatment designed to smooth out the microsegregations originating from the solidification step. The effect of various additions of copper and manganese and of the cooling rate on the temperature of the onset of the stable and metastable eutectoid reactions was investigated. The experimental results can be explained if the appropriate reference temperature is used. The cooling rate affects the temperature of the onset of the ferrite plus graphite growth in the same way as for the eutectic reaction, with a measured undercooling that can be extrapolated to a zero value when the cooling rate is zero. The growth undercooling of pearlite had values that were in agreement with similar data obtained on silicon steels. The detrimental effect of Mn on the growth kinetics of ferrite during the decomposition of austenite in the stable system is explained in terms of the driving force for diffusion of carbon through the ferrite ring around the graphite nodules. Finally, it is found that copper can have a pearlite promoter role only when combined with a low addition of manganese.

  11. [The favorable effect of humic acid based complex micro-element preparations in cadmium exposure].

    PubMed

    Hudák, A; Náray, M; Nagy, I; Molnár, M; Gömöry, I; Ungváry, G

    1997-06-01

    The authors have studied the effect of consumption of a humic acid based complex microelement preparation (potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, vanadium, cobalt, molibden, selenium bound to humic acids) for six weeks (10 ml daily) on the biological exposure indices (blood and urine cadmium levels) and clinical laboratory parameters (liver and kidney tests, blood picture) of men (n = 18; 39.7 +/- 10.4 years of age;) working in cadmium exposure for 8.3 +/- 5.0 years. The initial mean blood and urine cadmium levels of the non-smoking subjects was twice higher than that of the non-smoking male controls living in the same urban area (n = 35), and significantly correlated with the length of exposure. Their mean serum alanin-aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase, creatinine, uric acid and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase levels were significantly higher than that of the controls. After the six-week treatment blood cadmium level, activity of serum alanin-aminotransferase, serum uric acid and urinary protein concentrations decreased significantly, the abnormal serum iron levels normalized. According to this results, the absorption of cadmium decreased on the effect of the complex microelement supplementation and the adverse laboratory changes attributable partly to cadmium exposure improved. Therefore humic acid based complex microelement supplementation is recommended as an effective tool for prevention and health protection in occupational cadmium exposure as well as for smokers known to be considerably burdened by cadmium. PMID:9254361

  12. Tribological behaviour and statistical experimental design of sintered iron-copper based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Ileana Nicoleta; Ghiţă, Constantin; Bratu, Vasile; Palacios Navarro, Guillermo

    2013-11-01

    The sintered iron-copper based composites for automotive brake pads have a complex composite composition and should have good physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this paper, we obtained frictional composites by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) technique and we have characterized them by microstructural and tribological point of view. The morphology of raw powders was determined by SEM and the surfaces of obtained sintered friction materials were analyzed by ESEM, EDS elemental and compo-images analyses. One lot of samples were tested on a "pin-on-disc" type wear machine under dry sliding conditions, at applied load between 3.5 and 11.5 × 10-1 MPa and 12.5 and 16.9 m/s relative speed in braking point at constant temperature. The other lot of samples were tested on an inertial test stand according to a methodology simulating the real conditions of dry friction, at a contact pressure of 2.5-3 MPa, at 300-1200 rpm. The most important characteristics required for sintered friction materials are high and stable friction coefficient during breaking and also, for high durability in service, must have: low wear, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability at elevated temperature. Because of the tribological characteristics importance (wear rate and friction coefficient) of sintered iron-copper based composites, we predicted the tribological behaviour through statistical analysis. For the first lot of samples, the response variables Yi (represented by the wear rate and friction coefficient) have been correlated with x1 and x2 (the code value of applied load and relative speed in braking points, respectively) using a linear factorial design approach. We obtained brake friction materials with improved wear resistance characteristics and high and stable friction coefficients. It has been shown, through experimental data and obtained linear regression equations, that the sintered composites wear rate increases with increasing applied load and relative speed, but in the same conditions, the frictional coefficients slowly decrease.

  13. Expression profiling reveals functionally redundant multiple-copy genes related to zinc, iron and cadmium responses in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Li, Jimeng; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Aarts, Mark G M; Wu, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Genes underlying environmental adaptability tend to be over-retained in polyploid plant species. Zinc deficiency (ZnD) and iron deficiency (FeD), excess Zn (ZnE) and cadmium exposure (CdE) are major environmental problems for crop cultivation, but little is known about the differential expression of duplicated genes upon these stress conditions. Applying Tag-Seq technology to leaves of Brassica rapa grown under FeD, ZnD, ZnE or CdE conditions, with normal conditions as a control, we examined global gene expression changes and compared the expression patterns of multiple paralogs. We identified 812, 543, 331 and 447 differentially expressed genes under FeD, ZnD, ZnE and CdE conditions, respectively, in B. rapa leaves. Genes involved in regulatory networks centered on the transcription factors bHLH038 or bHLH100 were differentially expressed under (ZnE-induced) FeD. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with Zn, Fe and Cd responses tended to be over-retained in the B. rapa genome. Most of these multiple-copy genes showed the same direction of expression change under stress conditions. We conclude that the duplicated genes involved in trace element responses in B. rapa are functionally redundant, making the regulatory network more complex in B. rapa than in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24738937

  14. Comparison of hepatic lesions in veal calves with concentrations of copper, iron and zinc in liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Robinson, F R; Sullivan, J M; Brelage, D R; Sommers, R L; Everson, R J

    1999-06-01

    Veal calf producers in Indiana have reported condemnation of carcasses due to icterus as well as condemnation of livers because of yellow discoloration, hepatomegaly and fibrosis. This study assessed the degree of hepatic injury in affected veal calves and correlated it with copper, iron and zinc concentrations in the liver and kidney. Tissues examined histopathologically were from slaughtered and necropsied veal calves. Hepatic lesions were divided into histopathologic categories of severity (minimal, moderate, marked or severe) based upon the degree of fibrosis, biliary epithelial hyperplasia, and inflammation. Hepatic copper levels decreased as the severity of lesions increased. The clinical observations and morphologic changes suggested initial hepatic damage before 9 w-of-age. The affected calves either died of acute copper toxicosis or survived to develop hepatomegaly, hepatic discoloration and/or fibrosis at the time of slaughter. PMID:10349710

  15. Assessing the effects of model Maillard compound intake on iron, copper and zinc retention and tissue delivery in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Pastoriza, Silvia; Navarro, M Pilar; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of dietary Maillard reaction compounds (MRP) as metal chelating polymers can alter mineral absorption and/or retention. Our aim in this study was to analyse the long-term effects of the consumption of model MRP from glucose-lysine heated for 90 min at 150 °C (GL) on iron, copper and zinc whole-body retention and tissue delivery. For 88 days, weaning rats were fed a Control diet or one containing 3% GL, until reaching the adult stage. During the experimental period a mineral balance was conducted to investigate the mineral retention. At day 88, the animals were sacrificed, blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination and some organs were removed. Copper and zinc balances were unaffected (Cu: 450 vs. 375 μg; Zn: 6.7 vs. 6.2 mg for Control and GL groups, respectively) and no change was observed in whole-body delivery. Iron retention, too, was unaltered (11.2 mg for Control and GL groups) but due to the tendency toward decreased body weight in the GL group (248 vs. 233 g for the Control and GL groups), whole-body iron concentration was 13% higher in the GL group than in the Control group. Absorbed iron accumulated particularly in the liver (144 vs. 190 μg g(-1) for the Control and GL groups), thus reducing haemoglobin levels. The long-term intake of MRP induced iron accumulation in the body but this did not result in enhanced iron functionality, since the haemoglobin concentration declined. Taking into account the findings of our research group's studies of young and adult rats, we now corroborate the hypothesis that the negative effect of GL MRP consumption on iron functionality takes place regardless of the animals' stage of life. PMID:26593232

  16. The Variations of Glycolysis and TCA Cycle Intermediate Levels Grown in Iron and Copper Mediums of Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Tavsan, Zehra; Ayar Kayali, Hulya

    2015-05-01

    The efficiency of optimal metabolic function by microorganism depends on various parameters, especially essential metal supplementation. In the present study, the effects of iron and copper metals on metabolism were investigated by determination of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites' levels with respect to the metal concentrations and incubation period in Trichoderma harzianum. The pyruvate and citrate levels of T. harzianum increased up to 15 mg/L of copper via redirection of carbon flux though glycolysis by suppression of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). However, the α-ketoglutarate levels decreased at concentration higher than 5 mg/L of copper to overcome damage of oxidative stress. The fumarate levels correlated with the α-ketoglutarate levels because of substrate limitation. Besides, in T. harzianum cells grown in various concentrations of iron-containing medium, the intracellular pyruvate, citrate, and α-ketoglutarate levels showed positive correlation with iron concentration due to modifying of expression of glycolysis and TCA cycle enzymes via a mechanism involving cofactor or allosteric regulation. However, as a result of consuming of prior substrates required for fumarate production, its levels rose up to 10 mg/L. PMID:25805013

  17. The effect of occupational lead exposure on blood levels of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and related proteins.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Prokopowicz, Adam; Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2012-12-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc-lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed. PMID:22923205

  18. Novel erm(T)-Carrying Multiresistance Plasmids from Porcine and Human Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 That Also Harbor Cadmium and Copper Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T.; Zarazaga, Myriam; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. The plasmids, designated pUR1902, pUR2940, and pUR2941, were obtained from porcine and human methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal lineage ST398. In addition to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance gene erm(T), all three plasmids also carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Furthermore, plasmid pUR2940 harbors the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the MLSB resistance gene erm(C), while plasmids pUR1902 and pUR2941 possess the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD. Sequence analysis of approximately 18.1 kb of the erm(T)-flanking region from pUR1902, 20.0 kb from pUR2940, and 20.8 kb from pUR2941 revealed the presence of several copies of the recently described insertion sequence ISSau10, which is probably involved in the evolution of the respective plasmids. All plasmids carried a functional cadmium resistance operon with the genes cadD and cadX, in addition to the multicopper oxidase gene mco and the ATPase copper transport gene copA, which are involved in copper resistance. The comparative analysis of S. aureus RN4220 and the three S. aureus RN4220 transformants carrying plasmid pUR1902, pUR2940, or pUR2941 revealed an 8-fold increase in CdSO4 and a 2-fold increase in CuSO4 MICs. The emergence of multidrug resistance plasmids that also carry heavy metal resistance genes is alarming and requires further surveillance. The colocalization of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes that confer resistance to heavy metals may facilitate their persistence, coselection, and dissemination. PMID:23629701

  19. Assessing Plasma Levels of Selenium, Copper, Iron and Zinc in Patients of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression. PMID:24340079

  20. Regional distribution of manganese, iron, copper, and zinc in the rat brain during development.

    PubMed

    Tarohda, Tohru; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Amamo, Ryohei

    2004-09-01

    Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined in the brain regions of normal 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 14-, 21-, 42-, 77-, and 147-day-old Wistar rats using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and their maps were illustrated in color to visually compare the distribution of the elements at various stages of the growth process. Sagittal slices (1-mm thickness) sectioned at the level of the substantia nigra were divided into 18 regions, and the small slice samples were digested in microwave-assisted closed vessels for ICP-MS measurement. Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations increased region-specifically with age, and their distributional maps showed some characteristics. These findings are discussed in terms of needs for these trace elements in the normal brain. Among new findings about their brain distribution, it is especially noteworthy that higher concentrations of Mn, Fe, and Zn were observed in the substantia nigra compared with those in neighboring regions. The mapping method in this work is expected to open up possibilities for screening of the in vivo element-element interrelationships among these essential elements. PMID:15322797

  1. Phase diagram, thermal stability, and high temperature oxidation of the ternary copper-nickel-iron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallino, Isabella

    Due to the aluminum industry demands, a large effort has recently been devoted to the development of special alloys to be used as inert anodes for a newly designed aluminum reduction cell. The implementation of this new technology aims at the replacement of the graphite anodes that have been used for over 100 years in aluminum smelting, which would reduce fossil carbon consumption, and eliminate the emission of carbon dioxide and of perfluorocarbons. Ternary alloys containing copper, nickel, and iron have been the subject of the research activities. The present research focused on the stability of the Cu-Ni-Fe alloys at high temperatures in oxidizing and fluoridating environments. The experimental methods included thermodynamic calculations of the phase diagram (Thermocalc), optical microscopy and microprobe microstructural and chemical investigations (EMPA), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and air-oxidation studies. The results have led to the optimization of the Cu-Ni-Fe ternary phase diagram and to an extensive study of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the spinodal decomposition and discontinuous reactions occurring during ageing as a function of alloy composition. The oxidizing reactions occurring in air at high temperatures at the surface of the alloys have been also discussed in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic laws. The phase formation in a fluorine containing environment as encountered in an aluminum electrolytic cell is predicted using principles of physical chemistry.

  2. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2259–2272. © 2014. The Authors. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID:25043712

  3. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. PMID:25043712

  4. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  5. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  6. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Trophic relationships and transference of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in a subtropical coastal lagoon food web from SE Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Jara-Marini, M E; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Páez-Osuna, F

    2009-11-01

    Trophic relationships and heavy metal transference in a coastal subtropical lagoon marine food web were investigated through the use of stable isotopes in food sources and biota. A selective extraction scheme was applied to the surface sediments as an indirect way to evaluate the potential of toxicity of metals. Results showed that cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations were within sediment quality guidelines criteria. Concentrations of these metals in organisms varied widely among functional groups and within the same and closely related taxa. delta(13)C values varied significantly among organisms from different functional groups, while the delta(15)N values varied according with their feeding habits. Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were not positively transferred (biomagnification factor <1) through entire food web. However, a partial positive transference was observed for Cu and Zn involving three trophic levels (from the phytoplankton to crab as secondary consumer). PMID:19818990

  8. Insoluble detoxification of trace metals in a marine copepod Tigriopus brevicornis (Müller) exposed to copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, silver and mercury.

    PubMed

    Barka, Sabria

    2007-10-01

    The marine harpacticoid copepods Tigriopus brevicornis were collected along the French Atlantic Coast (Loire Atlantique) and subsequently exposed to different lethal and sublethal concentrations of various metals (copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, silver and mercury) for varying lengths of time. Ultrastructural investigations of control and experimentally exposed copepods were performed to investigate the intracellular localization of metals using transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Copepod digestive epithelium cells as well as the cuticular integument were found to be the major metal storage tissues. Different types of metal-containing granules were found in both metal-exposed copepods and the controls: (1) within lysosomes, (2) in intracellular calcospherites and (3) in extracellular tiny granules. The elemental composition of the granules was determined on ultrathin sections by means of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results were interpreted by considering previous data in order to understand how Tigriopus brevicornis copes with the presence of metals in its environment. PMID:17629789

  9. Adsorption of copper, cadmium and zinc on suspended sediments in a stream contaminated by acid mine drainage: The effect of seasonal changes in dissolved organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Macalady, D.L.; Ranville, J.F.; Smith, K.S.; Daniel, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The release of metal-rich, acidic waters from abandoned mining operations is a major problem in Colorado and throughout the Western United States. In Colorado, over 600 km of stream reach are estimated to be affected by such releases (Wentz, 1974). The metals released adversely affect stream biota, including fish. It is therefore important to understand the chemical processes which influence metal transport in these waters. The report details studies of the role of suspended sediments with respect to the transport of several important trace metals in a stream impacted by acid mine drainage. The role of streambed sediments was studied in the same system as part of an earlier project (Acid Mine Drainage: streambed sorption of copper, cadmium and zinc, PB--93-118263).

  10. Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC., biomonitor of metal pollution and water quality. Sorption/accumulation capacities and photosynthetic pigments composition changes after copper and cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Ngayila, Nadine; Basly, Jean-Philippe; Lejeune, Anne-Hélène; Botineau, Michel; Baudu, Michel

    2007-02-15

    Watermilfoil genus Myriophyllum could be used in ecological surveys as in-situ biomonitors of metal pollution and water quality due to its ability to accumulate chemicals. The copper and cadmium sorption characteristics of Myriophyllum alterniflorum have been investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to model the metal sorption isotherms and the monolayer sorption capacities, as obtained by the Langmuir isotherm, were determined to be 13.9 mg/g and 11.1 mg/g for Cu2+ and Cd2+ respectively. Results have been compared with previous works on watermilfoils and are in accordance with those obtained on Myriophyllum spicatum. The sorption of the two metals was time-dependent and the kinetics fitted the pseudo-second-order equation well. The data were discussed in terms of ionic radii and HSAB concept. The phytotoxic effects assessed by classical (i.e. changes in biomass, node length) and photosynthetic pigments content endpoints have been investigated using chemometric techniques leading to an effect of cadmium onto photosynthetic pigments. PMID:17217998

  11. Expression of a Vacuole-Localized BURP-Domain Protein from Soybean (SALI3-2) Enhances Tolerance to Cadmium and Copper Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yulin; Cao, Yan; Qiu, Jianbin; Gao, Zhan; Ou, Zhonghua; Wang, Yajing; Zheng, Yizhi

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific BURP family proteins play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses, but the function mechanism of these proteins is still poorly understood. Proteins in this family are characterized by a highly conserved BURP domain with four conserved Cys-His repeats and two other Cys, indicating that these proteins potentially interacts with metal ions. In this paper, an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) assay showed that the soybean BURP protein SALI3-2 could bind soft transition metal ions (Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+) but not hard metal ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the SALI3-2-GFP fusion protein was localized to the vacuoles. Physiological indexes assay showed that Sali3-2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were more tolerant to Cu2+ or Cd2+ stresses than the wild type. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis illustrated that, compared to the wild type seedlings the Sali3-2-transgenic seedlings accumulated more cadmium or copper in the roots but less in the upper ground tissues when the seedlings were exposed to excessive CuCl2 or CdCl2 stress. Therefore, our findings suggest that the SALI3-2 protein may confer cadmium (Cd2+) and copper (Cu2+) tolerance to plants by helping plants to sequester Cd2+ or Cu2+ in the root and reduce the amount of heavy metals transported to the shoots. PMID:24901737

  12. Effects of cadmium, copper, and zinc and beta APP processing and turnover in COS-7 and PC12 cells. Relationship to Alzheimer disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Smedman, M; Potempska, A; Rubenstein, R; Ju, W; Ramakrishna, N; Denman, R B

    1997-05-01

    The effects of cadmium, copper, and zinc on beta APP metabolism were investigated in COS-7 and PC12 cells. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) increased beta APP steady-state protein levels and decreased beta APP posttranslational processing. These changes were not accompanied by alterations in beta APP mRNA levels or splicing. In addition, cytosolic alpha-actin and G3PDH levels were not affected. Further, neither zinc (ZnCl2) nor copper (CuSO4) altered beta APP levels or affected its normal processing. Pulse-chase studies revealed that the rate of beta APP maturation decreased twofold in the presence of 25 microM CdCl2 compared to untreated controls. beta APP secretion from the cell also dramatically slowed. These two factors result in the accumulation of partially processed beta APP inside cells. The presence of CdCl2 also decreased the amount of an 8-kDa beta APP C-terminal fragment, indicating that the cellular compartment in which beta APP accumulates is not accessible to alpha-secretase. Studies using Brefeldin A suggest that this compartment may be the cis or medial Golgi. However, A beta production was proportionately increased. These data show that CdCl2 can modulate the beta APP cleavage to favor A beta. Finally, beta APP mis- metabolism was shown to be unrelated to the hsp70 induction elicited by CdCl2; both heat shock and CuSO4 induced hsp70 but had no effect on steady-state levels of beta APP, although heat shock did slow beta APP maturation. These data indicate that hsp70 alone cannot chaperone beta APP through an alternate processing pathway leading to A beta production. PMID:9271002

  13. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; James F. Ranville; Emily K. Lesher; Daniel J. Diedrich; Diane M. McKnight; Ruth M. Sofield

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on ,i>Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  14. Comparative Study of Serum Copper, Iron, Magnesium, and Zinc in Type 2 Diabetes-Associated Proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al Jameil, Noura; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Tabassum, Hajera; Alenzi, Naif; Hijazy, Sereen; Alenzi, Samyah; Subaie, Sahar; Fatima, Sabiha

    2015-12-01

    Trace element (TE) disturbances are well noted in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated complications. In present study, the effect of proteinuria on serum copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) in T2DM patients with and without proteinuria was seen. Total subjects were aged between 30 and 90 years; 73 had proteinuria, 76 had T2DM with proteinuria, 76 had T2DM, and 75 were controls. Serum Cu(II), Fe(III), Mg(II), and Zn(II) were assayed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Urinary albumin estimation was performed by turbidimetric method. Other biochemical parameters were analyzed by ROCHE Module COBAS 6000 analyzer. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P<0.0001 followed by t test. Pearson correlation was applied to estimate the effect of proteinuria on TE. Serum Cu(II) level was increased in T2DM patients with proteinuria while Fe(III) was found elevated in T2DM (P<0.0001) compared to control groups. Zn(II) and Mg(II) were significantly low in proteinuria, T2DM with proteinuria, and T2DM (P<0.0001) compare to controls. Serum Cu(II) showed strong positive association with albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) in T2DM with proteinuria group and T2DM group (P<0.01). Fe(III) was positively and Zn(II) was negatively associated with ACR at P<0.10, in T2DM with proteinuria group. Mg(II) was negatively linked with ACR P<0.01 in proteinuria, T2DM with proteinuria, and T2DM group. TE were observed more disturbed in T2DM with proteinuria group, thus considered to be the part of T2DM routine checkup and restricts the disease towards its progression. PMID:26024734

  15. Factors influencing the DNA nuclease activity of iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper chelates.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Jeff C; Reichfield, Jared; Cowan, J A

    2011-10-01

    A library of complexes that included iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper chelates of cyclam, cyclen, DOTA, DTPA, EDTA, tripeptide GGH, tetrapeptide KGHK, NTA, and TACN was evaluated for DNA nuclease activity, ascorbate consumption, superoxide and hydroxyl radical generation, and reduction potential under physiologically relevant conditions. Plasmid DNA cleavage rates demonstrated by combinations of each complex and biological co-reactants were quantified by gel electrophoresis, yielding second-order rate constants for DNA(supercoiled) to DNA(nicked) conversion up to 2.5 × 10(6) M(-1) min(-1), and for DNA(nicked) to DNA(linear) up to 7 × 10(5) M(-1) min(-1). Relative rates of radical generation and characterization of radical species were determined by reaction with the fluorescent radical probes TEMPO-9-AC and rhodamine B. Ascorbate turnover rate constants ranging from 3 × 10(-4) to 0.13 min(-1) were determined, although many complexes demonstrated no measurable activity. Inhibition and Freifelder-Trumbo analysis of DNA cleavage supported concerted cleavage of dsDNA by a metal-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the case of Cu(2+)(aq), Cu-KGHK, Co-KGHK, and Cu-NTA and stepwise cleavage for Fe(2+)(aq), Cu-cyclam, Cu-cyclen, Co-cyclen, Cu-EDTA, Ni-EDTA, Co-EDTA, Cu-GGH, and Co-NTA. Reduction potentials varied over the range from -362 to +1111 mV versus NHE, and complexes demonstrated optimal catalytic activity in the range of the physiological redox co-reactants ascorbate and peroxide (-66 to +380 mV). PMID:21815680

  16. Influence of iron and copper oxides on polychlorinated diphenyl ether formation in heterogeneous reactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxia; Shen, Lianfeng; Zhang, Fawen; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Xitian

    2013-08-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ether (PCDE) has attracted great attention recently as an important type of environmental pollutant. The influence of iron and copper oxides on formation of PCDEs was investigated using laboratory-scale flow reactors under air and under nitrogen at 350 °C, a temperature corresponding to the post-combustion zone of a municipal solid waste incinerator. The results show that the 2,2',3,4,4',5,5',6-otachlorodiphenyl ether (OCDE) formed from the condensation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (Cl4Bz) is the predominant congener formed on the SiO2/Fe2O3 surface with and without oxygen. This indicated that HCl elimination between PCP and 1,2,4,5-Cl4Bz molecules formed 2,2',3,4,4',5,5',6-OCDE in the presence of Fe2O3. On the other hand, decachlorodiphenyl ether, nonachlorodiphenyl ether, and OCDE were the dominant products on the SiO2/CuO surface without oxygen, although the 2,2',3,4,4',5,5',6-OCDE was the dominant product on the SiO2/CuO surface with oxygen. Therefore, the presence of Fe2O3 and CuO influences the formation and homologue distribution of PCDEs, which shifted towards the lower chlorinated species. Fe2O3 can promote both the condensation and dechlorination reaction without oxygen. On the contrary, with oxygen, Fe2O3 suppresses the condensation of chlorobenzene and chlorophenol to form PCDEs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). CuO can increase the formation of lower chlorinated PCDEs and PCDDs without oxygen. In conclusion, the different fly ash components have a major influence on PCDE emissions. PMID:23440438

  17. Atomistic study on mixed-mode fracture mechanisms of ferrite iron interacting with coherent copper and nickel nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Motasem, Ahmed Tamer; Mai, Nghia Trong; Choi, Seung Tae; Posselt, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The effect of copper and/or nickel nanoclusters, generally formed by neutron irradiation, on fracture mechanisms of ferrite iron was investigated by using molecular statics simulation. The equilibrium configuration of nanoclusters was obtained by using a combination of an on-lattice annealing based on Metropolis Monte Carlo method and an off-lattice relaxation by molecular dynamics simulation. Residual stress distributions near the nanoclusters were also calculated, since compressive or tensile residual stresses may retard or accelerate, respectively, the propagation of a crack running into a nanocluster. One of the nanoclusters was located in front of a straight crack in ferrite iron with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. Two crystallographic directions, of which the crack plane and crack front direction are (010)[001] and (111) [ 1 bar 10 ] , were considered, representing cleavage and non-cleavage orientations in ferrite iron, respectively. Displacements corresponding to pure opening-mode and mixed-mode loadings were imposed on the boundary region and the energy minimization was performed. It was observed that the fracture mechanisms of ferrite iron under the pure opening-mode loading are strongly influenced by the presence of nanoclusters, while under the mixed-mode loading the nanoclusters have no significant effect on the crack propagation behavior of ferrite iron.

  18. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  19. Determination of copper, iron and zinc in spirituous beverages by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capote, T.; Marcó, L. M.; Alvarado, J.; Greaves, E. D.

    1999-10-01

    The concentration of copper in traditional homemade alcoholic distillates produced in Venezuela (Cocuy de Penca) were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) using vanadium as internal standard. The results were compared to those obtained by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Three preparative methods of addition of vanadium were compared: classical internal standard addition, 'layer on layer' internal standard addition and in situ addition of internal standard. The TXRF procedures were accurate and the precision was comparable to that obtained by the FAAS technique. Copper levels were above the maximum allowed limits for similar beverages. Zinc and iron in commercial and homemade distilled beverages were also analyzed by TXRF with in situ addition of internal standard demonstrating the usefulness of this technique for trace metal determination in distillates.

  20. Observed transitions in n = 2 ground configurations of copper, nickel, iron, chromium and germanium in tokamak discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Hinnov, E.; Suckewer, S.; Cohen, S.; Sato, K.

    1981-11-01

    A number of spectrum lines of highly ionized copper, nickel, iron, chromium, and germanium have been observed and the corresponding transitions identified. The element under study is introduced into the discharge of the PLT Tokamak by means of rapid ablation by a laser pulse. The ionization state is generally distinguishable from the time behavior of the emitted light. New identifications of transitions are based on predicted wavelengths (from isoelectronic extrapolation and other data) and on approximate expected intensities. All the transitions pertain to the ground configurations of the respective ions, which are the only states strongly populated at tokamak plasma conditions. These lines are expected to be useful for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics in the 1-3 keV temperature range, and they provide direct measurement of intersystem energy separations from chromium through copper in the oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon isoelectronic sequences.

  1. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome. PMID:25640397

  2. In vitro toxicological assessment of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rakhshinda; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood; Mobeen, Ameena; Hashmat, Amer Jamal

    2015-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have a variety of applications in different industries including pharmaceutical industry where these NPs are used mainly for image analysis and drug delivery. The increasing interest in nanotechnology is largely associated with undefined risks to the human health and to the environment. Therefore, in the present study cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles were evaluated using most commonly used assays i.e. Ames assay, in vitro cytotoxicity assay, micronucleus assay and comet assay. Cytotoxicity to bacterial cells was assessed in terms of colony forming units by using Escherichia coli (gram negative) and Bacillus subtilis (gram positive). Ames assay was carried out using two bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Genotoxicity of these NPs was evaluated following exposure to monkey kidney cell line, CHS-20. No cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were observed for iron oxide, and aluminium oxide NPs. Copper NPs were found mutagenic in TA98 and in TA100 and also found cytotoxic in dose dependent manner. Copper NPs induced significant (p < 0.01) increase in number of binucleated cells with micronuclei (96.6 ± 5.40) at the highest concentration (25 µg/mL). Copper NPs also induced DNA strand breaks at 10 µg/mL and oxidative DNA damage at 5 and 10 µg/mL. We consider these findings very useful in evaluating the genotoxic potential of NPs especially because of their increasing applications in human health and environment with limited knowledge of their toxicity and genotoxicity. PMID:24896217

  3. Laboratory bioassays on the impact of cadmium, copper and lead on the development and survival of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae and foragers.

    PubMed

    Di, Ning; Hladun, Kristen R; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-06-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) have been widely distributed around the world to serve as pollinators for agriculture. They can encounter metal pollutants through various routes of exposure, including foraging on contaminated plant resources. Chronic and acute toxicity tests were conducted on larvae using artificial diets and on foragers using solutions of 50% sucrose, which contained cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). We found that mortality increased in both larvae and foragers in a dose-dependent manner. Control larvae had higher relative growth indices (RGI) from day 6 to day 10 compared to all metal treatments, demonstrating substantial negative effects of metals on development. Copper was the least toxic to larvae with an LC50 of 6.97 mg L(-1). For foragers, Pb had the highest LC50, which was 345 mg L(-1). Foragers and larvae accumulated substantial quantities of all metals, and subsequent sucrose consumption decreased after dosing. Overall, honeybee larvae and foragers suffered detrimental effects when they were exposed to ecologically-relevant concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb. PMID:27011322

  4. Effects of sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron applications on sunflower yield and plant nutrient concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, B.R.; Zubriski, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron application did not affect the seed yield or oil percentage of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on both dryland and irrigated soils in North Dakota in 1981. Field averages indicated significant Zn, Mn, and B uptake by sunflower at the 12-leaf stage as a result of fertilization with these elements. Increased Zn uptake was also observed in the uppermost mature leaf at anthesis from zinc fertilization. Although sunflower yield from boron fertilization was not significantly different from the check, a trend was observed in which boron fertilization seemed to decrease sunflower yield. Sunflower yields from the boron treatment were the lowest out of seven treatments in three out of four fields. Also, sunflower yield from the boron treatment was significantly lower than both iron and sulfur treatments when all fields were combined.

  5. Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 atomic percent indium, copper-2 atomic percent tin, and iron-6.55 atomic percent silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 at. % indium, copper-2 at. % tin and iron-6.55 at. % silicon. The copper-tin and copper-indium alloys were single crystals oriented with the /111/ direction normal to the surface. An iron-6.5 at. % silicon alloy was studied (a single crystal oriented in the /100/ direction for study of a (100) surface). It was found that surface segregation occurred following sputtering in all cases. Only the iron-silicon single crystal alloy exhibited equilibrium segregation (i.e., reversibility of surface concentration with temperature) for which at present we have no explanation. McLean's analysis for equilibrium segregation at grain boundaries did not apply to the present results, despite the successful application to dilute copper-aluminum alloys. The relation of solute atomic size and solubility to surface segregation is discussed. Estimates of the depth of segregation in the copper-tin alloy indicate that it is of the order of a monolayer surface film.

  6. The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: 1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; 2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These ev...

  7. Friedreich's ataxia causes redistribution of iron, copper, and zinc in the dentate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Koeppen, Arnulf H; Ramirez, R Liane; Yu, Devin; Collins, Sarah E; Qian, Jiang; Parsons, Patrick J; Yang, Karl X; Chen, Zewu; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E; Feustel, Paul J

    2012-12-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) causes selective atrophy of the large neurons of the dentate nucleus (DN). High iron (Fe) concentration and failure to clear the metal from the affected brain tissue are potential risk factors in the progression of the lesion. The DN also contains relatively high amounts of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), but the importance of these metals in FRDA has not been established. This report describes nondestructive quantitative X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and "mapping" of Fe, Cu, and Zn in polyethylene glycol-dimethylsulfoxide (PEG/DMSO)-embedded DN of 10 FRDA patients and 13 controls. Fe fluorescence arose predominantly from the hilar white matter, whereas Cu and Zn were present at peak levels in DN gray matter. Despite collapse of the DN in FRDA, the location of the peak Fe signal did not change. In contrast, the Cu and Zn regions broadened and overlapped extensively with the Fe-rich region. Maximal metal concentrations did not differ from normal (in micrograms per milliliter of solid PEG/DMSO as means ± S.D.): Fe normal, 364 ± 117, FRDA, 344 ± 159; Cu normal, 33 ± 13, FRDA, 33 ± 18; and Zn normal, 32 ± 16, FRDA, 33 ± 19. Tissues were recovered from PEG/DMSO and transferred into paraffin for matching with immunohistochemistry of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and ferritin. NSE and GAD reaction products confirmed neuronal atrophy and grumose degeneration that coincided with abnormally diffuse Cu and Zn zones. Ferritin immunohistochemistry matched Fe XRF maps, revealing the most abundant reaction product in oligodendroglia of the DN hilus. In FRDA, these cells were smaller and more numerous than normal. In the atrophic DN gray matter of FRDA, anti-ferritin labeled mostly hypertrophic microglia. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence of the Cu-responsive proteins Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and Cu(++)-transporting ATPase α-peptide did not detect specific responses to Cu redistribution in FRDA. In contrast, metallothionein (MT)-positive processes were more abundant than normal and contributed to the gliosis of the DN. The isoforms of MT, MT-1/2, and brain-specific MT-3 displayed only limited co-localization with glial fibrillary acidic protein. The results suggest that MT can provide effective protection against endogenous Cu and Zn toxicity in FRDA, similar to the neuroprotective sequestration of Fe in holoferritin. PMID:22562713

  8. Bosonics in the copper and iron based high transition temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niestemski, Francis Charles

    It has been long established that the phenomenon of superconductivity is administered by lattice deformations (phonons) which act to pair electrons into spinless bosons free to condense into a coherent ground state. This superconducting phase is protected up to a critical temperature above which thermal fluctuations are potent enough to destroy the resistance free phase. The strength of this phonon mediation has been calculated by strong coupling theory and found to be capable of accommodating pairing up to near 40 K. So with the advent of copper-oxide (cuprate) superconductors boasting transitions temperatures exceeding 90 K it was clear that these material represented a new breed of superconducting physics. More than twenty years after the initial discovery of these high-transition temperatures the most basic questions are yet to be answered, the most fundamental of which is by what mechanism does pairing occur? The field splits between those who feel that a boson mediator is still necessary to act as the virtual glue which binds electrons into cooper pairs while others insist that really the Coulomb force alone is enough to induce pairing physics. Even within the boson-seeker community there is no consensus on what particular type of boson is contained in this system whether it be a lattice excitation or spin excitation. This answer has been clouded by previous experimental results on the hole-doped cuprates which have made strong cases for every scenario rendering them largely inconclusive. For this answer though it is possible to explore materials that have not yet been clouded by conflicting results by performing the first high resolution ultra-high-vacuum low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of an electron-doped cuprate. A distinct and unambiguous bosonic mode is found at energy near 10.5 meV. Through comparison with other experimental data it is found that this mode does not fit the characteristics of a phonon. It is found, through comparison with neutron scattering experiments on the same sample, that this mode is consistent with a spin collective mode. Further more it is found that this mode is linked with the strength of superconductivity nominating it as the possible electron pairing mechanism. Doping and temperature dependence studies are performed to investigate this possibility. Finally the same procedures developed can be applied to the newly discovered iron based superconductors which may represent yet another type of new superconductor physics. Initial results on the first bosonic mode STM study of SrFe 2-xCoxAs 2 and BaFe2-xCo xAs2 are presented.

  9. New Measurements of the Densities of Copper, Nickel, and Iron Sulfide Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioduszewski, L.; Kress, V. C.

    2005-12-01

    Density measurements of sulfide liquids in the Fe-Ni-Cu-S-O system were performed from 1150°C-1250°C under controlled oxygen and sulfur fugacities. Measurements were made using the modified single bob (MSB) Archimedean method using zirconia ceramic bobs and crucibles. A 0.005mm resolution micrometer was attached to an elevator, which raised the crucible and melt relative to the free-hanging, stationary bob. A 0.001 g resolution analytical balance connected to a laptop computer continuously recorded the buoyancy as a function of crucible elevation. Densities were calculated by converting elevation to immersed volume and regressing the slope of buoyancy versus volume immersed. log(fO2) in the experiments ranged from -7.8 to -12.6 and log(fS2) ranged from -0.9 to -3.3. 38 successful sulfide liquid density measurements were performed, with values ranging from 3.8 g/cc to 6.6 g/cc. Regression of the resulting data suggests that a simple linear volume mixing model is adequate to represent the compositional dependence of density in copper- and nickel-sulfide liquids. A moderate positive excess mixing volume appears to be justified in iron-sulfide liquids. This result, along with high derived partial molar volumes for oxygen and sulfur components, are qualitatively consistent with the suggestion that increasing pressure will partition oxygen and sulfur out of the sulfide liquid during planetary accretion. The MSB density measurement also provides information on the relative magnitude of gas-zirconia and sulfide-zirconia surface energies. Assuming most of the observed variation results from sulfide chemistry it appears that oxidizing conditions significantly decrease sulfide-zirconia surface energies (increase wetting). If we can extrapolate this result to silicate minerals, this would suggest that oxidizing conditions will decrease wetting angle and thus increase the potential for sulfide segregation during planetary formation. We hope to test this hypothesis soon. Our experience suggests that trivial modifications to the apparatus used in this study may provide an effective and reliable method for measuring liquid-solid surface energies in both sulfide and silicate systems. Such data would prove useful in both melt percolation and bubble nucleation and growth calculations.

  10. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future. PMID:24440489

  11. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres in a simulated avian gizzard, and an assessment of their potential toxicity to birds.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vernon G; McGill, Ian R

    2008-05-15

    The rates of dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres (51.1%W, 44.4%Cu, 3.9%Sn, 0.6%Fe, by mass) were measured in an in vitro simulated avian gizzard at pH 2.0, and 42C. Most of the spheres had disintegrated completely to a fine powder by day 14. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from the spheres was linear over time; all r>0.974; all P<0.001. The mean rate of release of copper, tin, and iron was 30.4 mg, 2.74 mg, and 0.38 mg per g tungsten-bronze per day, respectively. These rates of metal release were compared to those in published studies to determine whether the simultaneous ingestion of eight spheres of 3.48 mm diameter would pose a toxic risk to birds. The potential absorption rates of iron and tin (0.54 mg Fe/day, and 3.89 mg Sn/day) from eight tungsten-bronze spheres of total mass 1.42 g would not prove toxic, based on empirical studies of tin and iron ingestion in waterfowl. The release of 43.17 mg copper/day from eight tungsten-bronze spheres, while exceeding the daily copper requirements of domesticated birds, is far below the levels of copper known to cause copper toxicosis in birds. We conclude that sintered tungsten-bronze material made into gunshot, fishing weights, or wheel balance weights, would not pose a toxic risk to wild birds when ingested. PMID:18313729

  12. Trace mineral profile in blood and hair from cattle environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium around different industrial units.

    PubMed

    Patra, R C; Swarup, D; Sharma, M C; Naresh, R

    2006-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the trace mineral profile in blood and hair from cows environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium and to examine if these toxic heavy metals in blood and hair could affect blood copper, cobalt, zinc and iron concentrations and their accumulation in hair. Respective blood and tail hair samples were collected from adult cows above 3 years, reared in different industrial localities. Samples were also collected from urban areas with small industrial units (n = 55) and areas supposed to be free from pollution. The concomitant exposure of animals to both the heavy metal pollutants was not recorded in either of the industrial or urban locality. Blood lead was significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with blood copper (r = -0.339), cobalt (r = -0.224) and iron (r = -0.497). The increasing blood lead concentrations, irrespective of area of collection of samples, was associated with declining blood copper and iron, and cows with blood lead level above 0.60 mug/ml had significantly (P < 0.05) lower blood copper and iron. The higher blood lead but not cadmium significantly influenced the accumulation of lead (r = 0.323, P < 0.01) and cadmium (r = 0.204, P < 0.01) in hair possibly leading to significantly (P < 0.05) higher accumulation of both lead and cadmium in hair from cattle around lead-zinc smelters and closed lead-cum-operational zinc smelter, where blood cadmium level was comparable with that from unpolluted area. Concentration of zinc (r = 0.237, P < 0.01) and iron (r = 0.183, P < 0.01) but not copper and cobalt in tail hair was significantly influenced by their respective blood concentration. Both the hair lead and cadmium had a significant (P < 0.01) positive correlation with hair copper (r = 0.234, 0.294), zinc (r = 0.489, 0.775), and iron (r = 0.385, 0.643) concentrations. Thus, it is concluded from the present study that the higher blood lead concentrations in cattle irrespective of locality/industrial operations areas affected trace elements profile in blood and hair. PMID:17105572

  13. Amidino-containing Schiff base copper(II) and iron(III) chelates as a thrombin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Eiko; Sekizaki, Haruo; Takahashi, Yu-u; Itoh, Kunihiko; Tanizawa, Kazutaka

    2005-01-01

    Four series of Schiff base copper(II) and iron(III) chelates were synthesized from 4-formyl-3-hydroxybenzamidine or 3-formyl-4-hydroxybenzamidine and various L- or D-amino acids. Their inhibitory activities for bovine alpha-thrombin (abbreviated as thrombin) were determined. The most potent thrombin inhibitor in this series is copper(II) chelate (1g') derived from 4-formyl-3-hydroxybenzamidine and D-Trp. Its Ki value, 2.7x10(-8) M, is comparable to that of Argatroban (MD-805), which is a clinically used compound. The iron(III) chelates derived from 4-formyl-3-hydroxybenzamidine and hydrophobic L-amino acids (Val, Ile, Leu, Phe, Trp, Met) also exhibited higher inhibitory potency. It appears that coordination geometry composed of metal ion, amidino group, amino acid side chain is well accommodated to the thrombin active site. From the Ki values of Schiff base metal chelates for thrombin, the structure-activity relationships between the chelates and active site of thrombin were discussed. PMID:15635223

  14. [Treating Cr(VI)-containing wastewater by a consortium of sulfate reducing bacteria and copper-iron bimetallic particles].

    PubMed

    He, Qi-Zhi; Chen, Hui; Wang, Dan; Li, Hua; Ding, Xing-Hu; Deng, Le

    2011-07-01

    Copper-iron bimetallic particles were prepared by chemical precipitation technique. Under the help of the particles Cr(VI)-containing wastewater was well treated by a consortium of sulfate reducing bacteria, which were enriched from industrial wastewater and acclimatized to tolerant to high concentrations of Cr(VI). SRB-Cu/Fe system, traditional SRB system and Cu/Fe system were experimented in the batch bioreactor, respectively. It is demonstrated that SRB-Cu/Fe bimetallic system perform much better than traditional SRB system or copper-iron bimetallic. The acclimation period of SRB was significantly reduced and the inhibiting concentration of Cr(VI) of SRB was also greatly increased by approximately 200% (from 100 mg x L(-1) to 300 mg x L(-1)). Under the conditions of Cr(VI) 300 mg x L(-1), Q(Cu)/Fe 7.5%, pH 5.0-8.0, the concentration of total chromium was less than 0.512 mg/L, Cr(VI) less than 0.071 mg, Cu next to zero after 48 h treatment. Having biological, chemical advantages and high efficiency, the novel SRB-Cu/Fe system should have the broad application prospects in industrial wastewater. PMID:21922821

  15. Changes in selenium, copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the southern basin of Lake Macquarie, Australia, in response to alteration of coal-fired power station fly ash handling procedures.

    PubMed

    Kirby, J; Maher, W; Harasti, D

    2001-08-01

    Selenium, copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations were measured in mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the southern basin of Lake Macquarie, Australia, in 1997 to determine if improved ash-handling practices at an adjacent coal fired power station, implemented in 1995, had significantly lowered trace metal concentrations in mullet tissues. Mean muscle tissue concentrations of selenium (5.9 +/- 0.7 microg/g dry mass), copper (3.6 +/- 0.1 microg/g dry mass), and zinc (14 +/- 1 microg/g dry mass) are lower than previously reported for mullet analyzed in 1993 (10 +/- 2, 21 +/- 3, 27 +/- 3 microg/g dry mass, respectively). Cadmium concentrations in liver tissues increased from 2.3 +/- 0.3 to 6 +/- 2 microg/g dry mass. Significant intra-tissue correlations between metal concentrations were found for all tissues except muscle. Strong correlations of selenium, copper, and zinc concentrations were found in liver tissues, indicating a common primary source may exist for these metals, such as fly ash. All trace metals were found to have significant inter-tissue correlations, with strong correlations occurring for selenium between all tissues and for cadmium between all tissues except muscle. Regulation of copper, cadmium, and zinc appears to be occurring in muscle tissue. Selenium concentrations in mullet are still above levels considered to be of concern to human consumers. Trace metal concentrations are below that known to effect the health of fish. Mullet are directly exposed to trace metal concentrations as a result of feeding and the ingestion of contaminated sediment and detritus. Lower metal concentrations found in mullet tissues are attributed to the burial of highly contaminated sediment with material containing lower trace metal concentrations. Little of the variations in trace metal concentrations between mullet was explained by mass, gender, or age. PMID:11462141

  16. Separation of copper ions from iron ions using PVA-g-(acrylic acid/N-vinyl imidazole) membranes prepared by radiation-induced grafting.

    PubMed

    Ajji, Zaki; Ali, Ali M

    2010-01-15

    Acrylic acid (AAc), N-vinyl imidazole (Azol) and their binary mixtures were graft copolymerized onto poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes using gamma irradiation. The ability of the grafted membranes to separate Cu ions from Fe ions was investigated with respect to the grafting yield and the pH of the feed solution. The data showed that the diffusion of copper ions from the feed compartment to the receiver compartment depends on the grafting yield of the membranes and the pH of the feed solution. To the contrary, iron ions did not diffuse through the membranes of all grafting yields. However, a limited amount of iron ions diffused in strong acidic medium. This study shows that the prepared membranes could be considered for the separation of copper ions from iron ions. The temperature of thermal decomposition of pure PVA-g-AAc/Azol membrane, PVA-g-AAc/Azol membrane containing copper ions, and PVA-g-AAc/Azol membrane containing iron ions were determined using TGA analyzer. It was shown that the presence of Cu and Fe ions increases the decomposition temperature, and the membranes bonded with iron ions are more stable than those containing copper ions. PMID:19836882

  17. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  18. Cadmium(II) and Copper(II) coordination polymers based on 5-(Pyrazinyl) tetrazolate ligand: Structure, photoluminescence, theoretical calculations and magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui-Fen; Yang, Wen-Bin; Lin, Lang; Guo, Xiang-Guang; Dui, Xue-jing; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Lu, Can-Zhong; Zhang, Cui-Juan

    2013-05-01

    Two μ₂-tetrazolyl bridged metal complexes, ([CdI(PTZ)(H₂O)]·H₂O)ₙ1 and ([Cu(PTZ)₂]·H₂O)ₙ2 (HPTZ=5-(pyrazinyl) tetrazolate), were hydrothermally synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray crystallography, elemental analyses and spectrum techniques. In 1, cadmium ions are bridged by tridentate μ₂-κ²N2,N5:κ¹N1 chelating PTZ⁻ ligand and halide linkers into an infinite 1D chain, while in 2 copper ions are connected by tridentate μ₂-κ²N7,N12:κ¹N8 and bidentate μ₂-κ¹N1:κ¹N2 chelating-bridging PTZ⁻ ligands to form a 1D castellated chain structure. Compound 1 displays phosphorescence with a lifetime of ~7.74 ms in the visible region, and the origin of the luminescent emission is primary assigned to the combination of ligand-centered emission, metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer, which has been probed by the density of states (DOS) calculations. Magnetic measurement reveals that compound 2 displays an anti-ferromagnetic ordering. - Graphical abstract: Two new complexes based on 5-(pyrazinyl) tertrazolate, namely ([CdI(PTZ)(H2O)]·H2O)n and ([Cu(PTZ)2]·H2O)n have been synthesized and characterized. Compound 1 exhibits interesting green luminescence. Compound 2 displays an anti-ferromagnetic ordering. Highlights: • We report two novel 1D μ₂-tetrazolyl bridged Cd(II) and Cu(II) compounds. • The cadmium(II) compound exhibits a green luminescence. • Theoretical calculations were conducted to elucidate the green luminescence. • The Cu(II) compound exhibits an anti-ferromagnetic ordering.

  19. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.H.; Adkins, J.S.; Harrison, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 ..mu..g and 19.6 +/- 1.6 ..mu..g, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 ..mu..g to 10.5 +/- 4.8 ..mu..g) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 ..mu..g vs 1661 +/- 471 ..mu..g, respectively, when compared to the control group.

  20. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Devilee, R.A.; Sandwijk, A. van; Reuter, M.A.

    1999-08-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studies include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to reduce the iron concentration in zinc-chloride melts to 20 ppm with a small excess of zinc. The preparation of the melt proved to be very important. Insufficient purification of the melt with respect to oxides, hydroxides, and water resulted in a low reaction rate and high residual iron concentration.

  1. Copper and iron isotope fractionation during weathering and pedogenesis: Insights from saprolite profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng-Ao; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shuguang; Wei, Gang-Jian; Ma, Jing-Long; Li, Dandan

    2014-12-01

    Iron and copper isotopes are useful tools to track redox transformation and biogeochemical cycling in natural environment. To study the relationships of stable Fe and Cu isotopic variations with redox regime and biological processes during weathering and pedogenesis, we carried out Fe and Cu isotope analyses for two sets of basalt weathering profiles (South Carolina, USA and Hainan Island, China), which formed under different climatic conditions (subtropical vs. tropical). Unaltered parent rocks from both profiles have uniform δ56Fe and δ65Cu values close to the average of global basalts. In the South Carolina profile, δ56Fe values of saprolites vary from -0.01‰ to 0.92‰ in the lower (reduced) part and positively correlate with Fe3+/ΣFe (R2 = 0.90), whereas δ65Cu values are almost constant. By contrast, δ56Fe values are less variable and negatively correlate with Fe3+/ΣFe (R2 = 0.88) in the upper (oxidized) part, where large (4.85‰) δ65Cu variation is observed with most samples enriched in heavy isotopes. In the Hainan profile formed by extreme weathering under oxidized condition, δ56Fe values vary little (0.05-0.14‰), whereas δ65Cu values successively decrease from 0.32‰ to -0.12‰ with depth below 3 m and increase from -0.17‰ to 0.02‰ with depth above 3 m. Throughout the whole profile, δ65Cu positively correlate with Cu concentration and negatively correlate with the content of total organic carbon (TOC). Overall, the contrasting Fe isotopic patterns under different redox conditions suggest redox states play the key controls on Fe mobility and isotope fractionation. The negative correlation between δ56Fe and Fe3+/ΣFe in the oxidized part of the South Carolina profile may reflect addition of isotopically light Fe. This is demonstrated by leaching experiments, which show that Fe mineral pools extracted by 0.5 N HCl, representing poorly-crystalline Fe (hydr)-oxides, are enriched in light Fe isotopes. The systematic Cu isotopic variation in the Hainan profile reflects desorption and downward transport of isotopically heavy Cu, leaving the organically-bound Cu enriched in light isotope as supported by the negative correlation of δ65Cu with TOC (R2 = 0.88). The contrasting (mostly positive vs. negative) Cu isotopic signatures in the upper parts of these two profiles can be attributed to the different climatic conditions, e.g., high rainfall at a tropical climate in Hainan favors desorption and the development of organism, whereas relatively dry climate in South Carolina favors Cu re-precipitation from soil solutions and adsorption onto Fe (hydr)-oxides. Our results highlight the potential applications of Fe and Cu isotopes as great tracers of redox condition, ancient climate and biological cycling during chemical weathering and pedogenic translocation.

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Iron Mountain Mine, Redding, California, October 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-03

    Iron Mountain Mine (IMM) was periodically mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite. Rainfall, infiltrating into the underground mine workings mixes with ground water and the ore zone to produce sulfuric acid and high concentrations of zinc, cadmium, and copper. The resulting heavy metal-laden acidic waters, referred to as acid mine drainage (AMD), was eventually discharged through mine adits or ground water seepage into the Spring Creek watershed streams, Spring Creek Reservoir, and the Sacramento River. The primary contaminants of concern include: AMD, copper, cadmium, and zinc. The desired remedial action for this site was not selected due to excessive cost. Alternatives were proposed and are detailed in the report.

  3. Photochemical aerobic detoxification of aqueous phenol and chlorophenol solutions promoted by iron salts and iron, vanadium, and copper oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Nizova, G.V.; Bochkova, M.M.; Kozlova, N.B.; Shul`pin, G.B.

    1995-09-10

    Phenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in air in the presence of soluble iron salts or insoluble V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO decompose in aqueous solution when irradiated by a luminescent lamp. The degree and the rate of decomposition are strongly influenced by the nature of the substrate and metal-containing promoter. As a result of decomposition, toxicity of solutions containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol with respect to two types of living organisms - Protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) and bacteria (Beneckea harveyi) - decreases significantly.

  4. Reduced cadmium body burden in cadmium-exposed calves fed supplemental zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Lamphere, D.N.; Dorn, C.R.; Reddy, C.S.; Meyer, A.W.

    1984-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of practical supplemental dietary zinc to modify the cadmium content in edible bovine tissues and to identify copper interactions with cadmium and zinc. The effect of supplemental zinc (200 or 600 ..mu..g/g) on the concentrations of cadmium, zinc, and copper in liver, kidney cortex, muscle, and blood of calves fed 50 ..mu..g/g cadmium for 60 days was evaluated. Blood samples were collected before and eight times after starting to feed cadmium or cadmium plus zinc. Liver, kidney, and muscle samples were collected when calves were slaughtered (baseline, at beginning of experimental feeding; cadmium-fed, at end of 60 days feeding). The cadmium concentrations of all sample types collected were markedly increased by the feeding of cadmium. Feeding 600 ..mu..g/g supplemental zinc significantly increased the zinc concentrations of liver, kidney cortex, and blood and decreased the cadmium accumulation in these organs as well as muscle. The copper concentrations of muscle or blood were not altered by feeding cadmium with or without zinc but those of liver and kidney cortex were significantly increased by higher dietary levels of zinc and cadmium. The potential use of dietary zinc salts in reducing cadmium body burden in food animals suspected or known to have high cadmium intakes is suggested.

  5. Preconcentration and determination of iron and copper in spice samples by cloud point extraction and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ci?dem Arpa; Tokgz, Ilknur; Bekta?, Sema

    2010-09-15

    A flow injection (FI) cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the determination of iron and copper by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) has been improved. The analytes were complexed with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine (Neutral Red, NR) and octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114)wasadded as a surfactant. The micellar solutionwasheated above 50 degrees C and loaded through a column packed with cotton for phase separation. Then the surfactant-rich phase was eluted using 0.05 mol L(-1) H2SO4 and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables influencing the instrumental and extraction conditions were optimized. Under optimized conditions for 25 mL of preconcentrated solution, the enrichment factors were 98 and 69, the limits of detection (3s) were 0.7 and 0.3 ng mL(-1), the limits of quantification (10s) were 2.2 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) for iron and copper, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for ten replicate measurements of 10 ng mL(-1) iron and copper were 2.1% and 1.8%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of iron and copper in spice samples. PMID:20627408

  6. Geology of the Fishtie deposit, Central Province, Zambia: iron oxide and copper mineralization in Nguba Group metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Michael D.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Wood, David; Humphrey, John D.; Wendlandt, Richard F.

    2015-08-01

    The Fishtie copper deposit, located in the Central Province of Zambia, contains approximately 55 Mt of 1.04 % Cu at a 0.5 % Cu cut-off in oxide, sulfide, and mixed oxide-sulfide ores. The deposit is hosted in Neoproterozoic diamictites and siltstones of the Grand Conglomérat Formation and overlying Kakontwe Limestone Formation of the lower Nguba Group. The Grand Conglomérat Formation at Fishtie directly overlies basement schists and quartzites. Mineralized zones are located adjacent to high-angle normal faults that appear to control thickness variations in the Grand Conglomérat Formation suggesting synsedimentary fault movement. Iron-rich rocks consisting of nearly monomineralic bands of magnetite and ankerite occur within the Grand Conglomérat Formation. The absence of magnetite-rich clasts in overlying diamictites and the presence of disseminated magnetite, ankerite, and apatite in adjacent diamictites suggest this iron-rich rock formed by replacement of siltstone beds. These magnetite-rich rocks thicken towards normal faults suggesting the faults formed conduits for oxidized hydrothermal solutions. The magnetite-ankerite-quartz rock was overprinted by later hydrothermal alteration and sulfide mineralization. Copper sulfide precipitation was associated with growth of both muscovite and chlorite, together with weak silicification. Sulfides are zoned relative to normal faults with bornite more common in proximity to faults and ore stage pyrite most common in an outer zone with chalcopyrite. Copper sulfides display generally heavy sulfur isotopic values, suggesting sulfide derivation from thermochemical reduction of Neoproterozoic seawater sulfate. Copper mineralized zones in the Grand Conglomérat at Fishtie are megascopically similar to those observed in the newly discovered Kamoa deposit in the southern Democratic Republic of Congo. Alteration and mineralization at Fishtie display lateral zoning relative to normal faults unlike the broad vertical zonation observed at the giant Kamoa deposit. The small size of the known mineralized zones at the Fishtie deposit relative to Kamoa is probably due to the absence of a thick siliciclastic palaeoaquifer beneath the Grand Conglomérat Formation as is present at Kamoa.

  7. Solidification of Aluminum-Copper B206 Alloys with Iron and Silicon Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamguo Kamga, H.; Larouche, D.; Bournane, M.; Rahem, A.

    2010-11-01

    Solidification of B206 aluminum alloys with additions of iron and silicon was studied to investigate their combined effect on the formation and precipitation of intermetallics, particularly Fe-rich phases. Iron is precipitated mainly by either β(CuFe) or α(MnFe) phases, or both depending of the iron and silicon content, as well as the cooling rate. It was found that in alloys having up to 0.3 wt pct Fe, the precipitation of β(CuFe) phase can be largely suppressed if the ratio Si/Fe is close to 1 and the cooling rate is moderately high. The low mobility of the large facets of the β(CuFe) platelets is likely the cause limiting the amount of this phase, especially when the iron atoms have the possibility to be captured by another phase, in this case, the α(MnFe) phase.

  8. Copper(II) and cadmium(II) sorption onto ferrihydrite in the presence of phthalic acid: some properties of the ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Song, Yantao; Swedlund, Peter J; Singhal, Naresh

    2008-06-01

    Copper, cadmium, and phthalic acid (H2Lp) adsorption by ferrihydrite was examined for binary and ternary systems. In binary systems adsorption was well reproduced using the diffuse layer model (DLM), and H2Lp adsorption was analogous to that of inorganic diprotic acids in terms of the relationship between the adsorption constants and acidity constants. In ternary systems H2Lp caused both the enhancement (due to ternary complexformation) and inhibition (due to solution complex formation) of Cu2+ and Cd2+ sorption depending on the conditions. The DLM could only describe the effect of H2Lp on metal ion sorption by including ternary complexes of the form [triple bond]FeOHMLp (0), where [triple bond]FeOH is a surface site and M is Cu or Cd. The relationship between binary metal adsorption constants and the ternary complex adsorption constants from this and previous studies suggest several properties of ternary complexes. First, ternary complex structures on both ferrihydrite and goethite are either the same or similar. Second, those cations having large adsorption constants also have large equilibrium constants for ternary complex formation. Third, ligands forming stronger solution complexes with cations will also form stronger surface ternary complexes though, because of the strong solution complex, they will not necessarily enhance cation adsorption. PMID:18589959

  9. Preconcentration and separation of copper(II), cadmium(II) and chromium(III) in a syringe filled with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane supported on silica gel.

    PubMed

    Tokman, Nilgun; Akman, Suleyman; Ozcan, Mustafa; Koklu, Unel

    2002-11-01

    In this study, a syringe was filled with silica gel loaded with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, for the separation and preconcentration of copper, cadmium and chromium prior to their determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) in seawater. For this purpose, a syringe was filled with 0.5 g of modified silica gel and the sample solution was drawn into the syringe and ejected back again. The analyte elements were quantitatively retained at pH 5. Then, the elements sorbed by the silica gel were eluted with 2.0 M of HCl and determined by GFAAS. At optimum conditions, the recovery of Cu, Cd and Cr were 96-98%. Detection limits (3delta) were 6.6, 7.5 and 6.0 micro g L(-1) for Cu, Cd and Cr, respectively. The elements could be concentrated by drawing and discharging several portions of sample successively but eluting only once. Cu, Cd and Cr added to a seawater sample were quantitatively recovered (>95%) in the range of the 95% confidence level. The method proposed in this paper was compared with a column technique. Optimum experimental conditions, reproducibility, precision and recoveries of both techniques are the same, but the syringe technique is much faster, easier and more practical than the column technique. It is a portable system and allows one to make the sorption process in the source of sample. In addition, the risk of contamination is less than in the column technique. PMID:12434258

  10. Season changes of cadmium and copper levels in stem-boring larvae of Agapanthia villosoviridescens (coleoptera) on salt marshes of the Westerschelde estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminga, M.A.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Poley-Vos, C.H.; van Soelen, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Analyses of heavy metals in insects, including their developmental stages, have been widely used to monitor the penetration of these pollutants in various ecosystems. There are few reports dealing with seasonal changes in heavy metal content of insects. The seasonal pattern found in one herbivorous insect closely followed seasonal trends in metal contamination levels in the local vegetation. No data are available on season changes in insect larvae. To obtain more detailed information on seasonal changes of heavy metal levels in insects and their relation with the seasonally changing conditions in the habitat, the authors studied the time course of cadmium and copper concentrations in larvae of the longhorn beetle Agapanthia villosoviridescens. These live as stem-borers in the salt marsh halophyte Aster tripolium. The authors collected larvae from three salt marshes along the Westerschelde estuary. This estuary is severely polluted by heavy metals originating mainly from upstream sources; a large fraction of these metals is retained within the estuary. The fringing salt marsh soils, which are a sink for trace metals, show a gradient in pollution, with levels of heavy metals generally increasing in upstream direction. Salt marsh halophytes growing on these marshes show uptake of metals from the soil. Further transfers of heavy metals through the natural food chains on these salt marshes have not been investigated sofar.

  11. Metallothioneins and energy budget indices in cadmium and copper exposed spiders Agelena labyrinthica in relation to their developmental stage, gender and origin.

    PubMed

    Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Szulińska, Elżbieta; Witas, Ilona

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our studies was to explain the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in the neutralization of excessive amounts of metals (essential: copper (Cu) and toxic: cadmium (Cd)) and to describe the energy status in metal-exposed spiders Agelena labyrinthica in relation to its developmental stage, gender and origin. Juvenile, female and male spiders were collected from three variously polluted habitats, transferred to the laboratory and exposed to the metals in their diet. Cu and Cd accumulation in the body and exuviae, bioaccumulation factor, percentage of metallothionein positive cells, MT concentration, percentage of cells with depolarized mitochondria, ATP concentration and ADP/ATP ratio were measured and calculated. Cu appeared to be regulated and its excess is eliminated via, among others, the molting process, while Cd was rather accumulated by the spiders. The level of MTs increased significantly mainly in females exposed to both metals, irrespectively of the pollution degree of their site of origin, indicating a defensive role of the proteins. In general, even if both the MT level and the energy status indices were positively correlated with Cd and Cu concentrations in the spider body, the energy status of A. labyrinthica did not seem disturbed. PMID:21620997

  12. Cadmium, copper and zinc toxicity effects on growth, proline content and genetic stability of Solanum nigrum L., a crop wild relative for tomato; comparative study.

    PubMed

    Al Khateeb, Wesam; Al-Qwasemeh, Hajer

    2014-01-01

    Plants like other organisms are affected by environmental factors. Cadmium, copper and zinc are considered the most important types of pollutants in the environment. In this study, a comparison of growth and biochemical parameters between the crop wild relative (CWR) Solanum nigrum versus its cultivated relative Solanum lycopersicum to different levels of Cu, Zn and Cd stress were investigated. The presence of ZnSO4 and CuSO4 in Murashige and Skoog medium affected severely many growth parameters (shoot length, number of roots and leaves, and fresh weight) of both S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum at high levels. On the other hand, CdCl2 significantly reduced most of the studied growth parameters for both species. S. nigrum exhibited higher tolerance than S. lycopersicum for all types of stress. In addition, results show that as stress level increased in the growing medium, proline content of both S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum increased. A significant difference was observed between the two species in proline accumulation as a result of stress. In addition, a higher accumulation rate was observed in the crop wild relative (S. nigrum) than in cultivated S. lycopersicum. Changes in Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) pattern of CuSO4 treated S. nigrum and S. lycopersicum plants were also observed. In conclusion, based on growth and biochemical analysis, S. nigrum showed higher level of metals tolerance than S. lycopersicum which indicates the possibility of using it as a crop wild relative for S. lycopersicum. PMID:24554836

  13. Neutron production in collisions between carbon nuclei of energy 2 GeV per nucleon and carbon, aluminum, copper, cadmium, and lead nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Yurevich, V. I.; Yakovlev, R. M.; Lyapin, V. G.

    2012-02-15

    Double-differential cross sections for neutron production were measured by the time-of-flight method for the interactions between carbon nuclei of energy 2 GeV per nucleon and carbon, aluminum, copper, cadmium, and lead nuclei. These measurements were performed for angles of 30 Degree-Sign , 53 Degree-Sign , and 90 Degree-Sign in the neutron-energy range fromseveral hundred keVunits to 300MeV. The phenomenologicalmodel of four moving sources was used as a basis in analyzing experimental results and in estimating the contribution to neutron emission from various reaction stages. The temperature parameters determined from the slope of the neutron energy spectra proved to be 22 {+-} 2 MeV for a hot source (fireball) and 4.5 {+-} 0.3 MeV for the stage of thermal fragmentation of highly excited heavy nuclear residues. The relative contribution of these two sources to the total neutron yield is independent of the type of the target nucleus and is about 42%, on average.

  14. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat.

    PubMed

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10(th) LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  15. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  16. Evaluation of the risk of motor neuron disease in horses fed a diet low in vitamin E and high in copper and iron.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Divers TJ; Cummings JE; de Lahunta A; Hintz HF; Mohammed HO

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether equine motor neuron disease (EMND) could be induced in adult horses fed a diet low in vitamin E and high in copper and iron.ANIMALS: 59 healthy adult horses.PROCEDURE: Horses in the experimental group (n = 8) were confined to a dirt lot and fed a concentrate low in vitamin E and high in iron and copper in addition to free-choice grass hay that had been stored for 1 year. Control horses (n = 51) were fed a concentrate containing National Research Council-recommended amounts of copper, iron, and vitamin E. The hay fed to control horses was the same as that fed to experimental horses, but it had not been subjected to prolonged storage. Control horses had seasonal access to pasture, whereas experimental horses had no access to pasture. Horses that developed clinical signs of EMND were euthanatized along with an age-matched control horse to determine differences in hepatic concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin A, copper, iron, and selenium.RESULTS: 4 experimental horses developed clinical signs of EMND. Plasma concentrations of vitamin E decreased in all 8 experimental horses. There were no significant changes in plasma concentrations of vitamin A, selenium, and copper or serum concentrations of ferritin. There were no significant differences in those analytes between experimental horses with EMND and experimental horses that did not develop EMND. No control horses developed EMND.CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that lack of access to pasture, dietary deficiency of vitamin E, or excessive dietary copper are likely risk factors for EMND.

  17. Insight into Bio-metal Interface Formation in vacuo: Interplay of S-layer Protein with Copper and Iron

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Anna A.; Grachova, Elena V.; Neudachina, Vera S.; Yashina, Lada V.; Blüher, Anja; Molodtsov, Serguei L.; Mertig, Michael; Ehrlich, Hermann; Adamchuk, Vera K.; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of interaction between inorganic matter and biomolecules, as well as properties of resulting hybrids, are receiving growing interest due to the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. The majority of potential applications for metal-biohybrid structures require stability of these systems under vacuum conditions, where their chemistry is elusive, and may differ dramatically from the interaction between biomolecules and metal ions in vivo. Here we report for the first time a photoemission and X-ray absorption study of the formation of a hybrid metal-protein system, tracing step-by-step the chemical interactions between the protein and metals (Cu and Fe) in vacuo. Our experiments reveal stabilization of the enol form of peptide bonds as the result of protein-metal interactions for both metals. The resulting complex with copper appears to be rather stable. In contrast, the system with iron decomposes to form inorganic species like oxide, carbide, nitride, and cyanide. PMID:25736576

  18. Calculation of binodals and spinodals in multicomponent alloys by different statistical methods with application to iron-copper-manganese alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Vaks, V. G. Zhuravlev, I. A.; Khromov, K. Yu.

    2010-11-15

    A generalization of the pair-cluster (PC) approximation in the theory of disordered systems to multicomponent alloys is proposed. It is shown that phase equilibrium boundaries (binodals) calculated in the mean-field (MF) approximation, which is used in standard calculations of phase diagrams by the CALPHAD method, coincide with the results of rigorous calculations for dilute alloys; however, the application of these methods to calculating the boundaries of the stability region with respect to the decomposition of an alloy (spinodals) leads to large errors. At the same time, in the PC approximation, the description of all statistical properties, including binodals and spinodals, turns out to be exact for dilute alloys. The methods developed are illustrated by an example of iron-copper-manganese ternary alloys.

  19. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-09-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  20. Albedo factors of 123, 320, 511, 662 and 1115 keV gamma photons in carbon, aluminium, iron and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, K. U.; Ravindraswami, K.; Eshwarappa, K. M.; Somashekarappa, H. M.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental measurements to study the variation of albedo factors in carbon, aluminium, iron and copper are carried out using gamma photons obtained from 57Co, 133Ba, 22Na, 137Cs and 65Zn. The back-scattered photons from the samples are detected by a 3^''× 3^'' NaI(Tl) scintillation detector placed at a backscattering angle of 180°. The variation of number albedo ( AN), energy albedo ( AE) and dose albedo ( AD) as a function of source energy and atomic number ( Z) is studied. The experimentally obtained, response corrected variation of multiple scattered photons as a function of target thickness is compared with the Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP code and are in good agreement.

  1. Extractive separation of molybdenum as Mo(V) xanthate from Iron, vanadium, Tungsten, copper, uranium and other elements.

    PubMed

    Yatirajam, V; Ram, J

    1974-06-01

    A simple and selective extraction of molybdenum is described. Tungsten is masked with tartaric acid and molybdenum(VI) is reduced in 2M hydrochloric acid by boiling with hydrazine sulphate. Iron, copper and vanadium are then masked with ascorbic acid, thiourea and potassium hydrogen fluoride respectively. The molybdenum(V) is extracted as its xanthate complex into chloroform, from 1M hydrochloric acid that is 0.4M potassium ethyl xanthate. The complex is decomposed by excess of liquid bromine, and the molybdenum is stripped into alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution. The molybdenum is then determined by standard methods. Large amounts of Cu(II), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ti(IV), Zr, Ce(IV), V(V), Nb, Cr(VI), W(VI), U(VI), Re(VII) and Os(VIII) do not interfere. Several synthetic samples and ferromolybdenum have been rapidly and satisfactorily analysed by the method. PMID:18961480

  2. Removal of copper and iron by polyurethane foam column in FIA system for the determination of nickel in pierced ring.

    PubMed

    Vongboot, Monnapat; Suesoonthon, Monrudee

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) mini-column was used to eliminate copper and iron for the determination of nickel in pierced rings. The PUF mini-column was connected to FIA system for on-line sorption of copper and iron in complexes form of CuSCN(+) and FeSCN(2+). For this season, the acid solution containing a mixture of Ni(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) and SCN(-) ions was firstly flew into the PUF column. Then, the percolated solution which Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions is separated from analysis was injected into FIA system to react with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) reagent in basic condition which this method is called pH gradient technique. The Ni-PAR complexes obtained were measured theirs absorbance at 500 nm by UV visible spectrophotometer. In this study, it was found that Cu(II) and Fe(III) were completely to form complexes with 400 mmol/L KSCN and entirely to eliminate in acidic condition at pH 3.0. In the optimum condition of these experiments, the method provided the linear relationship between absorbance and the concentration of Ni(II) in the range from 5.00 to 30.00 mg/L. Linear equation is y=0.0134x+0.0033 (R(2)=0.9948). Precision, assessed in the term of the relative standard deviation, RSD, and accuracy for multiple determinations obtained in values of 0.77-1.73% and 97.4%, respectively. The level of an average amount of Ni(II) in six piercing rings was evaluated to be 14.78 mg/g. PMID:25281109

  3. Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies SPL7-Regulated Copper Acquisition Genes FRO4/FRO5 and the Copper Dependence of Iron Homeostasis in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, María; Casero, David; Singh, Vasantika; Wilson, Grandon T.; Grande, Arne; Yang, Huijun; Dodani, Sheel C.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Huijser, Peter; Connolly, Erin L.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Krämer, Ute

    2012-01-01

    The transition metal copper (Cu) is essential for all living organisms but is toxic when present in excess. To identify Cu deficiency responses comprehensively, we conducted genome-wide sequencing-based transcript profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type plants and of a mutant defective in the gene encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE7 (SPL7), which acts as a transcriptional regulator of Cu deficiency responses. In response to Cu deficiency, FERRIC REDUCTASE OXIDASE5 (FRO5) and FRO4 transcript levels increased strongly, in an SPL7-dependent manner. Biochemical assays and confocal imaging of a Cu-specific fluorophore showed that high-affinity root Cu uptake requires prior FRO5/FRO4-dependent Cu(II)-specific reduction to Cu(I) and SPL7 function. Plant iron (Fe) deficiency markers were activated in Cu-deficient media, in which reduced growth of the spl7 mutant was partially rescued by Fe supplementation. Cultivation in Cu-deficient media caused a defect in root-to-shoot Fe translocation, which was exacerbated in spl7 and associated with a lack of ferroxidase activity. This is consistent with a possible role for a multicopper oxidase in Arabidopsis Fe homeostasis, as previously described in yeast, humans, and green algae. These insights into root Cu uptake and the interaction between Cu and Fe homeostasis will advance plant nutrition, crop breeding, and biogeochemical research. PMID:22374396

  4. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... plant foods as well as heme iron in animal foods. Life Stage Recommended Amount Birth to 6 ... with how your body absorbs, uses, or breaks down nutrients. Iron and healthful eating People should get ...

  5. Metallothionein gene expression in embryos of the terrestrial snail (Cantareus aspersus) exposed to cadmium and copper in the Bordeaux mixture.

    PubMed

    Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Dallinger, Reinhard; Capelli, Nicolas; de Vaufleury, Annette

    2016-02-01

    The response specificity of three metallothionein (MT) genes (CdMT, CuMT and Cd/CuMT) was assessed after long-term exposure (20 days) of Cantareus aspersus eggs to cadmium (Cd) (2 to 6 mg/L) or to the fungicide Bordeaux mixture (BM) (2.5 and 7.5 g/L). MT gene expression measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that in the unexposed embryos, the transcript levels of the three MT genes decreased significantly through embryonic development. However, the CdMT gene was strongly upregulated with increasing Cd exposure concentration, whereas the transcript levels of the other two genes increased less pronouncedly, but significantly above an exposure concentration of 4 mg Cd/L. Upon exposure to BM, all three MT genes were significantly upregulated above a BM concentration of 2.5 g/L. It is concluded that long-term Cd exposure in hatched snails induced patterns of MT gene expression that differed from those obtained after short-term exposure (24 h). PMID:26514570

  6. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  7. IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

  8. Recovering iron, manganese, copper, cobalt, and high-purity nickel from sea nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohga, Tetsuyoshi; Imamura, Masaki; Takahashi, Junichi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Nishizawa, Tokuo

    1995-12-01

    Many studies have investigated methods of recovering valuable metals from sea nodules. Recently, a research group in Japan developed a smelting and chlorine process after investigating a variety of existing processes and comparing their respective efficiencies with the same nodules. The best results were obtained by combining pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical treatments, which enabled the efficient recovery of manganese, nickel, copper, and cobalt. High-purity nickel can be also produced through further solvent extraction.

  9. Laser-initiated combustion studies of selected aluminum, copper, iron, and nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bransford, J. W.; Clark, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of combustion studies at atmospheric pressure on ten metal alloys are presented. The alloys studied were aluminum alloys 1100, 2219, 6061, and tensile-50; 304, 347 and 21-6-9 stainless steel; inconel 600; beryllium copper and a bronze. It was found that once ignition was achieved all alloys would generally burn to completion. The overall combustion process appears to obey a first order rate process. Preliminary conclusions are presented along with recommendations for future work.

  10. Effects of coffee consumption on iron, zinc and copper status in nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Aldrian, P S; Keen, C L; Lönnerdal, B; Dewey, K G

    1997-05-01

    To investigate the influence of coffee consumption on iron, zinc and copper status, 64 Sprague-Dawley female rats were assigned to four treatment groups: nonpregnant-given coffee, nonpregnant-given water, pregnant-given coffee and pregnant-given water. The coffee groups received a freeze-dried coffee solution (1.1% w/v) as the sole source of liquids during the 18-day study period; all groups were provided a purified diet marginal in iron ad libitum. On day 18 (of gestation in the pregnant rats), rats were intubated with 0.033 MBq59Fe after an 8 h fast and killed 4, 8, 12 or 24 h post-gavage. Fluid intake was significantly lower in the coffee groups. Coffee did not affect food consumption, weight gain, hemoglobin or hematocrit in either pregnant or nonpregnant rats. In nonpregnant rats, the percentage of 59Fe was lower in plasma and higher in the spleen and erythrocytes in the coffee group than in controls; in pregnant rats the coffee group had a higher percentage of 59Fe in the stomach (at 4 h only), blood, spleen and bone than controls. There were no significant effects of coffee on tissue concentrations of Fe, Zn or Cu in the nonpregnant group, but pregnant rats given coffee had high concentrations of Fe in the liver, bone and placenta, and low placenta Zn concentrations compared to controls. In fetuses, there were trends towards lower weight, length and percentage 59Fe, but higher liver Fe, in the coffee group than in the controls. The results suggest that coffee intake leads to (a) increased attempts at erythropoeisis, an indication of iron deficiency, in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats, and (b) impaired placental Fe transport. PMID:9205593

  11. Effect of cadmium intoxication on collagen and elastin content in tissues of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharz, E.J.

    1988-02-01

    Cadmium produces a variety of pathological effects in various organs in experimental animals or in accidentally intoxicated humans. The mechanism of these phenomena has been the subject of numerous investigations. Many of the observed toxic effects are thought to be the results of secondary deficiencies in such essential trace elements as zinc, copper and iron. Metabolism of the fibrous components of connective tissue, i.e. collagen and elastin, requires the presence of so me trace elements. It is also believed that elastin biosynthesis depends on the presence of some trace metals. Copper deficiency produces significant decrease in elastic tissue resistance, caused by diminished cross-link formation. Experimental studies showed that cadmium treatment of rats produced an increase in the urinary excretion of collagen catabolites. It was also shown that cadmium intoxication influenced bone structure and fetal growth. These two effects on connective tissue were probably accompanied by disturbances in collagen metabolism. Moreover, it is known that fungal collagenase activity was affected by cadmium. In the present paper a decrease in collagen and elastin content, and impaired extracellular maturation of the collagen fibers in some tissues of rats intoxicated with cadmium were described.

  12. Iron, zinc and copper in the Alzheimer’s disease brain: a quantitative meta-analysis. Some insight on the influence of citation bias on scientific opinion

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Matthew; Mueller, Claudius; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Kirsch, Wolff M.

    2011-01-01

    Dysfunctional homeostasis of transition metals is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although questioned by some, brain copper, zinc, and particularly iron overload are widely accepted features of AD which have led to the hypothesis that oxidative stress generated from aberrant homeostasis of these transition metals might be a pathogenic mechanism behind AD. This meta-analysis compiled and critically assessed available quantitative data on brain iron, zinc and copper levels in AD patients compared to aged controls. The results were very heterogeneous. A series of heavily cited articles from one laboratory reported a large increase in iron in AD neocortex compared to age-matched controls (p<0.0001) while seven laboratories failed to reproduce these findings reporting no significant difference between the groups (p=0.76). A more than three-fold citation bias was found to favor outlier studies reporting increases in iron and this bias was particularly prominent among narrative review articles. Additionally, while zinc was not significantly changed in the neocortex (p=0.29), copper was significantly depleted in AD (p=0.0003). In light of these findings, it will be important to re-evaluate the hypothesis that transition metal overload accounts for oxidative injury noted in AD. PMID:21600264

  13. Oral intake of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel, manganese and zinc in the university student's diet.

    PubMed

    Barberá, R; Farré, R; Mesado, D

    1993-01-01

    A duplicate diet meal study was carried out with a group of university students living in a hostel, in order to estimate the intake of Zn, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb. Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Cd, Co and Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after a nitric acid wet digestion procedure. The estimated intake values from the contents of breakfast, lunch, dinner and drinks were compared with the values of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) in the case of Cd and Pb, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of Co, Fe and Zn and Estimated Safe and Adequate Dietetic Daily Intake (ESADDI) of Cu and Mn. Neither excessive intake of Pb and Cd nor deficiencies in Zn, Co, Fe, Mn or Ni were observed, but Cu intake was lower than the ESADDI. PMID:8361527

  14. Development of a water-effect ratio for copper, cadmium, and lead for the Great Works River in Maine using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Salvelinus fontinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Jop, K.M.; Askew, A.M.; Foster, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The control of chemicals discharged to suface waters of the United States is an important objective of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) as specified by the Clean Water Act. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends a combination of chemical-specific and whole-effluent toxicity limits in NPDES permits to accomplish this objective. The requirements for toxicity testing and whole effluent toxicity limitations in NPDES permits are based on the narrative toxicity water quality standards, and, in some cases, numerical toxicity standards present in EPA regulations. Because national water quality criteria were developed to protect the biological integrity of all surface waters in the US, they may require modification for site-specific applications. As an alternative to national criteria, site-specific criteria can be tailored specifically to the local ecosystem. Site-specific factors like chemical quality of receiving water, flow, temperature and species composition play a major role in developing alternative discharge limits. The hazard posed by a chemical when released to wastewater and consequently to a receiving system is a function of concentration, bioavailability and influence of site conditions. The site-specific evaluation of toxicity of a chemical combines a knowledge of the properties which influence the behavior of a chemical such as partitioning, chelation, speciation, adsorption to solids, and interaction with other chemicals present in the matrix and an understanding of the toxicity of the chemical and its potential for bioaccumulation. The primary objective of this study was to develop water effect-ratios for cadmium, copper and lead which can be used to derive site-specific water quality criteria for process water discharged from a metal finishing plant. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Bioaccumulation and Tissue Distribution of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Crassostrea virginica Grown at Two Different Depths in Jamaica Bay, New York

    PubMed Central

    Rodney, Eric; Herrera, Pedro; Luxama, Juan; Boykin, Mark; Crawford, Alisa; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, Jamaica Bay was a site of extensive oyster beds and shellfish culture leases that supported a significant oyster fishery in the New York area. The industrial and urban expansion of the early 1900’s led to over-harvesting and a deterioration in water and bay sediment quality that coincided with shellfish decline and the ultimate disappearance of oysters from the bay. Over the past 50 years, efforts to arrest and reverse the pollution problems of Jamaica Bay have been undertaken but the area still contains metals and other pollutants at levels higher than NYS Water Quality Standards. Previous we showed that Crassostrea virginica seed transplanted to the bay had excellent growth and survival despite the bay’s pollution problems. In this study we measured the one-year bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of four metals in C. virginica seed that were transplanted to the bay at two different depths: one foot from the surface and one foot above the sediment. Tissues of C. virginica were dissected, dried and digested in nitric acid. Arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc levels were measured using electrothermal vaporization with deuterium lamp background correction in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer fitted with a THGA graphite furnace. Metals were distributed in the various tissues in μg/g dry weight amounts, which correlate well with published values for whole oysters grown in other polluted areas. Metal distributions were not homogeneous throughout the animals and in most of the tissues tested, oysters grown near the surface accumulated more metal than those positioned near bay sediment. PMID:21841973

  16. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. PMID:24632122

  17. Effects of salinity on metal uptake and metallothionein mRNA levels in the organs of tilapia exposed to cadmium, copper, and zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Shek, Alex C S; Chan, King Ming

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of salinity on metal uptake and metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels in tilapia exposed to three metal ions. Male Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus juveniles (hereafter, "tilapia") were exposed to various concentrations (100, 500, and 1 ppm) of metal ions (Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+)) in freshwater and water with two levels of salinity (10 and 20 ppt) for 7 days. Tests were then performed to investigate the effects of salinity on metal concentrations and MT mRNA induction in the test subjects' organs. Saline decreased cadmium (Cd) uptake and MT mRNA fold induction in various internal organs, but it did not enhance MT mRNA induction in the gills. Exposure to Cu(2+) caused greater copper (Cu) levels in the brains, intestines and livers, but Cu uptake in the intestines and kidneys occurred only at 10 ppm. MT mRNA induction caused by Cu(2+) was observed in various internal organs, but it occurred in the gills only at greater levels of salinity. Exposure at greater salinities also decreased zinc (Zn) uptake and MT mRNA induction in all organs except the gills. Although greater salinity decreased Cd and Zn uptake, the metal content in the water correlated with the MT mRNA levels in most of the organs, except for the intestines. In conclusion, metal accumulations in the livers and kidneys of tilapia correlated with MT mRNA levels. The levels of MT mRNA in the livers and kidneys of tilapia might therefore be used as biomarkers of exposure to Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in water of various salinities. PMID:25575748

  18. Interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper and cadmium exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Driessnack, Melissa K; Matthews, Amber L; Raine, Jason C; Niyogi, Som

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Trios (1 male: 2 female; n=5) of fish were exposed for 21days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Cd), (ii) waterborne Cu (75?g/L), (iii) waterborne Cd (5?g/L), and (iv) Cu and Cd mixture (75 and 5?g/L, respectively). Reproductive output (cumulative egg production) was significantly reduced by Cu but not by Cd. Interestingly however, no spawning occurred in fish exposed to the mixture of waterborne Cu and Cd. In general, both Cu and Cd accumulation in target tissues (gill, liver, gonad and carcass) increased significantly in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, and no interaction between Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in any tissues, except in the liver where Cu accumulation was significantly reduced by Cd. The expression of female hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-? and ER-?) was most significantly elevated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, whereas vitellogenin gene expression was reduced maximally in the same exposure. Similarly, the hepatic expression of the metallothionein gene was most significantly upregulated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture. Moreover, the circulating estradiol level in females was significantly decreased only during the co-exposure of waterborne Cu and Cd. Overall, the present study indicates that the interaction of chronic waterborne Cu and Cd exposure may elicit greater than additive effect on reproductive output in fish. PMID:26498072

  19. Biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Huso huso) to a sub-lethal level of copper and cadmium in freshwater and brackish water environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In Caspian Sea basin, sturgeons spend the larval and juvenile stages in freshwaters of rivers and then, they migrate to brackish waters of the sea where they grow and mature. With regard to the elevation of the metal concentrations in coastal waters and sediments of the Caspian Sea and its adjacent rivers, it is likely that juvenile sturgeon are exposed to sub-lethal levels of metals during seawater entry process. We compared the biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Beluga, Huso huso) exposed to a sub-lethal level of copper (Cu, 20 μg/L) and cadmium (Cd, 300 μg/L) in freshwater (FW, 0 ppt) and brackish water (BW, 11 ppt) for seven days. The results showed that the levels of plasma glucose increased significantly in BW and in all metal exposed groups. Also, plasma cortisol concentrations showed significant increases when juveniles were exposed to BW, Cu(FW/BW) and Cd(BW). The activity of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased significantly in BW compared with FW. Moreover, Cu and Cd exposure enhanced the activity of SOD in BW, while SOD did not show any changes in FW. The levels of tissue and plasma proteins as well as plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and liver Catalase (CAT) activity remained constant when animals were exposed to Cu/Cd in both FW and BW environments. Our data indicate that exposure of juvenile beluga to BW stimulated the general biochemical responses of stress such as cortisol and glucose, while sub-lethal exposure to Cu and Cd caused oxidative stress in BW environment but not in FW. PMID:24499513

  20. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  1. Syntheses and structures of discrete copper(II) and cadmium(II) supramolecular complexes based on 1,4-diacylthiosemicarbazone ligands.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chen; Zhang, Si Si; Li, Zuo Yin; Liu, Jian Jun; Lin, Mei Jin; Huang, Chang Cang

    2016-02-01

    Thiosemicarbazides and their metal complexes have attracted considerable interest because of their biological activities and their flexibility, which allows the ligands to bend and rotate freely to accommodate the coordination geometries of various metal centres. Discrete copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes have been prepared by crystallization of N-[2-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)hydrazinecarbonothioyl]propanamide (H3L) with Cu(CH3COO)2 or Cd(NO3)2 in a dimethylformamide/methanol mixed-solvent system at room temperature, affording the complexes di-μ-acetato-bis{μ4-1-[(2-oxidophenyl)carbonyl]-2-(propanamidomethanethioyl)hydrazine-1,2-diido}tetracopper(II) dimethylformamide disolvate, [Cu4(C11H10N3O3S)2(C2H3O2)2]·2C3H7NO, (I), and bis{μ2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)formamido](propanamidomethanethioyl)azanido}bis[(4,4'-bipyridine)nitratocadmium(II)] dihydrate, [Cd2(C11H12N3O3S)2(NO3)2(C10H8N2)2]·2H2O, (II). Complex (I) consists of four Cu(II) cations, two μ4-bridging trianionic ligands and two μ2-bridging acetate ligands, while complex (II) is composed of two Cd(II) cations, two μ2-bridging monoanionic ligands, two nitrate ligands and two 4,4'-bipyridine ligands. These discrete complexes are connected by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions to form a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. Compared with (I), the phenolic hydroxy group and hydrazide N atom of the thiosemicarbazide ligand of (II) are not involved in coordination and lead to a binuclear Cd(II) complex. This different coordination mode may be attributed to the larger ionic radius of the Cd(II) ion compared with the Cu(II) ion. PMID:26846495

  2. Effects of copper and cadmium on ion transport and gill metal binding in the Amazonian teleost tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in extremely soft water.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Aline Y O; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2005-09-30

    Metal toxicity in fish is expected to be most severe in soft waters because of the low availability of cations (particularly Ca(2+)) to out-compete the metal forms for binding sites on the gills. Natural waters in the Amazon basin are typically soft due to regional geochemistry, but few studies have focused on metal toxicity in fish native to the basin. We assessed the ionoregulatory effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in extremely soft water (10 micromoll(-1) Ca(2+)). Tambaqui had a very high tolerance to Cu (50-400 microgl(-1)), as indicated by a complete lack of inhibition of Na(+) uptake and an ability to gradually recover over 6h from elevated diffusive Na(+) losses caused by Cu. The insensitivity of active Na(+) influx to Cu further supports the notion that Amazonian fish may have a unique Na(+) transport system. Addition of 5-10 mgCl(-1) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) did not prevent initial (0-3h) negative Na(+) balance in tambaqui exposed to Cu. Exposure to 40 mgCl(-1) DOM prevented Na(+) losses in tambaqui even at 400 microgl(-1) Cu, probably because most Cu was complexed to DOM. Tambaqui exposed to waterborne Cd (10-80 microgl(-1)) experienced an average of 42% inhibition in whole body Ca(2+) uptake relative to controls within 3h of exposure to the metal. Inhibition of Ca(2+) uptake increased over time and, at 24h, Ca(2+) uptake was suppressed by 51% and 91% in fish exposed to 10 and 80 microgl(-1) Cd, respectively. Previous acclimation of fish to either elevated [Ca(2+)] or elevated [DOM] proved to be very effective in protecting against acute short-term metal accumulation at the gills of tambaqui in soft water (in the absence of the protective agent during metal exposure), suggesting a conditioning effect on gill metal binding physiology. PMID:16051381

  3. Silencing the Menkes copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) gene in rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells increases iron flux via transcriptional induction of ferroportin 1 (Fpn1).

    PubMed

    Gulec, Sukru; Collins, James F

    2014-01-01

    The Menkes copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) gene is induced in rat duodenum during iron deficiency, consistent with copper accumulation in the intestinal mucosa and liver. To test the hypothesis that ATP7A influences intestinal iron metabolism, the Atp7a gene was silenced in rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology. Perturbations in intracellular copper homeostasis were noted in knockdown cells, consistent with the dual roles of ATP7A in pumping copper into the trans-Golgi (for cuproenzyme synthesis) and exporting copper from cells. Intracellular iron concentrations were unaffected by Atp7a knockdown. Unexpectedly, however, vectorial iron ((59)Fe) transport increased (∼33%) in knockdown cells grown in bicameral inserts and increased further (∼70%) by iron deprivation (compared with negative control shRNA-transfected cells). Additional experiments were designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of increased transepithelial iron flux. Enhanced iron uptake by knockdown cells was associated with increased expression of a ferrireductase (duodenal cytochrome b) and activity of a cell-surface ferrireductase. Increased iron efflux from knockdown cells was likely mediated via transcriptional activation of the ferroportin 1 gene (by an unknown mechanism). Moreover, Atp7a knockdown significantly attenuated expression of an iron oxidase [hephaestin (HEPH); by ∼80%] and membrane ferroxidase activity (by ∼50%). Cytosolic ferroxidase activity, however, was retained in knockdown cells (75% of control cells), perhaps compensating for diminished HEPH activity. This investigation has thus documented alterations in iron homeostasis associated with Atp7a knockdown in enterocyte-like cells. Alterations in copper transport, trafficking, or distribution may underlie the increase in transepithelial iron flux noted when ATP7A activity is diminished. PMID:24174620

  4. Silencing the Menkes Copper-Transporting ATPase (Atp7a) Gene in Rat Intestinal Epithelial (IEC-6) Cells Increases Iron Flux via Transcriptional Induction of Ferroportin 1 (Fpn1)123

    PubMed Central

    Gulec, Sukru; Collins, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The Menkes copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) gene is induced in rat duodenum during iron deficiency, consistent with copper accumulation in the intestinal mucosa and liver. To test the hypothesis that ATP7A influences intestinal iron metabolism, the Atp7a gene was silenced in rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology. Perturbations in intracellular copper homeostasis were noted in knockdown cells, consistent with the dual roles of ATP7A in pumping copper into the trans-Golgi (for cuproenzyme synthesis) and exporting copper from cells. Intracellular iron concentrations were unaffected by Atp7a knockdown. Unexpectedly, however, vectorial iron (59Fe) transport increased (∼33%) in knockdown cells grown in bicameral inserts and increased further (∼70%) by iron deprivation (compared with negative control shRNA-transfected cells). Additional experiments were designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of increased transepithelial iron flux. Enhanced iron uptake by knockdown cells was associated with increased expression of a ferrireductase (duodenal cytochrome b) and activity of a cell-surface ferrireductase. Increased iron efflux from knockdown cells was likely mediated via transcriptional activation of the ferroportin 1 gene (by an unknown mechanism). Moreover, Atp7a knockdown significantly attenuated expression of an iron oxidase [hephaestin (HEPH); by ∼80%] and membrane ferroxidase activity (by ∼50%). Cytosolic ferroxidase activity, however, was retained in knockdown cells (75% of control cells), perhaps compensating for diminished HEPH activity. This investigation has thus documented alterations in iron homeostasis associated with Atp7a knockdown in enterocyte-like cells. Alterations in copper transport, trafficking, or distribution may underlie the increase in transepithelial iron flux noted when ATP7A activity is diminished. PMID:24174620

  5. Distribution of Precious Metals (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Rh) Between Copper Matte and Iron Silicate Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avarmaa, Katri; Johto, Hannu; Taskinen, Pekka

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of precious metals (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Rh) between copper matte and silica-saturated iron silicate slag were determined at 1523 K to 1623 K (1250 °C to 1350 °C), in controlled CO-CO2-SO2-Ar gas mixtures. The experiments were done in silica crucibles and a fixed partial pressure of sulfur dioxide for matte grades of 55, 65, and 75 wt pct Cu. High-temperature equilibration/quenching/electron probe X-ray microanalysis technique was used to obtain compositions of the equilibrated matte and slag. The technique was applied for the first time to the distributions of precious metals in simulated flash smelting conditions. The resolution of electron probe microanalysis became critical as the detection limits were insufficient to measure reliably the precious metals concentrations (except silver) in the slag. The distribution coefficient of silver, L m/s[Ag] = [wt pctAg in matte]/(wt pctAg in slag), was found to be between 200 and 300, which agrees well with the latest studies in the literature. For other precious metals, the minimum values of distribution coefficients were determined according to the detection limits in the slag. The values obtained were for gold and platinum >250, for palladium >1000, and for rhodium >900. The distribution coefficients of palladium, although locating above distribution coefficient of the detection limit, formed a clear dependency with a good repeatability as a function of the matte grade. It increased along with matte grade and was approximately 1000 at 50 pct Cu and 2000 to 3000 at 70 pct Cu. The precious metals replace metal in the matte structure and they are present as sulfides in the copper matte.

  6. Zinc, cadmium, and copper mobility and accumulation in reeds (Phragmites australis) in urban sediments from two stormwater infiltration basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedell, J.-P.; Saulais, S.; Delolme, C.

    2012-04-01

    Infiltration basins are stormwater management techniques that are widely used to reduce stormwater volume. The settling of stormwater particles leads to a contaminated sediment layer at the basin surface. Phragmites australis used in constructed wetlands are widely present in infiltration basins. Such plant can play a role on the fate of heavy metals either directly by their uptake or indirectly by modification of physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment. The aim of this study is to assess Zn, Cd and Cu potential mobility and their bioaccumulation by reeds during plant's growth in urban sediments offering two different geochemical contexts. Methodology is based on the monitoring (in june, august and december) of physico-chemical characteristics of sediment deposit in two basins. These basins, "Minerve" and "Grézieu", located on both sides of Lyon city are characteristic of two different geochemical context. "Minerve" is in the east and "Grézieu" in the west part. The geology of the eastern part of Lyon is characterized by carbonated fluvio-glacial deposits. In the western part, the subsoil is mainly composed of gneiss and granit. Moreover, 20 cm of gravel and a sand layer were initially added at the surface of the "Grézieu" basin. In "Minerve", a clay material was initially added and a filter trench was built along the basin to allow water infiltration. We characterized the sediment deposit by the identification of their geochemical characteristics (Zn, Cu, Cd, total content, pH, CEC, C/N, carbonates and major elements contents …). Then we studied the potential mobility of the three metals by single chemical extraction (CaCl2 for the exchangeable phase, acetate buffer for the acido-soluble phase and diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) for the fraction associated to the organic matter). The accumulation of Zn, Cd and Cu in aerial parts and roots of the reeds was also measured. The results show clearly that "Grézieu" sediment is more enriched in organic matter and metals than "Minerve". For example, Zn contents are equal to 400 mg/kgDW in "Grézieu" whereas it is equal to 80 mg/kgDW in "Minerve". In the most contaminated basin "Grézieu", metals mobility is mainly controlled by their association with carbonates and organic matter. Thus, copper associated with organic matter may represent almost 70% of the total copper content. In the "Minerve" sediment, the metals are distributed on the different sediment components, with very stable associations on the different mineral phases. The reed accumulates more metal in the context of the most contaminated basin (Grézieu), but without any differences in bioconcentration factors. The high metal contents in "Grézieu" sediments limited also the growth of reed. Moreover, for "Grézieu" sediment, characteristics evolve with the seasons. Thus, texture decreases from June to December in parallel with an increase in organic matter and metals in the sediment deposit.

  7. Estimating historical respirable crystalline silica exposures for Chinese pottery workers and iron/copper, tin, and tungsten miners.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Z; Hearl, F J; Odencrantz, J; Chen, W; Chen, B T; Chen, J Q; McCawley, M A; Gao, P; Soderholm, S C

    2001-11-01

    Collaborative studies of Chinese workers, using over four decades of dust monitoring data, are being conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Tongji Medical University in China. The goal of these projects is to establish exposure-response relationships for the development of diseases such as silicosis or lung cancer in cohorts of pottery and mine workers. It is necessary to convert Chinese dust measurements to respirable silica measurements in order to make results from the Chinese data comparable to other results in the literature. This article describes the development of conversion factors and estimates of historical respirable crystalline silica exposure for Chinese workers. Ambient total dust concentrations (n>17000) and crystalline silica concentrations (n=347) in bulk dust were first gathered from historical industrial hygiene records. Analysis of the silica content in historical bulk samples revealed no trend from 1950 up to the present. During 1988-1989, side-by-side airborne dust samples (n=143 pairs) were collected using nylon cyclones and traditional Chinese samplers in 20 metal mines and nine pottery factories in China. These data were used to establish conversion factors between respirable crystalline silica concentrations and Chinese total dust concentrations. Based on the analysis of the available evidence, conversion factors derived from the 1988-1989 sampling campaign are assumed to apply to other time periods in this paper. The conversion factors were estimated to be 0.0143 for iron/copper, 0.0355 for pottery factories, 0.0429 for tin mines, and 0.0861 for tungsten mines. Conversion factors for individual facilities within each industry were also calculated. Analysis of variance revealed that mean conversion factors are significantly different among facilities within the iron/copper industry and within the pottery industry. The relative merits of using facility-specific conversion factors, industry-wide conversion factors, or a weighted average of the two are discussed. The exposure matrix of the historical Chinese total dust concentrations was multiplied by these conversion factors to obtain an exposure matrix of historical respirable crystalline silica concentrations. PMID:11718659

  8. Effect of pressure on the behavior of copper-, iron-, and nickel-based oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Juan Adanez; Luis F. de Diego; Pilar Gayan; Alberto Abad

    2006-02-01

    This work analyzes the main characteristics related to the chemical looping combustion (CLC) process necessary to use the syngas obtained in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. The kinetics of reduction with H{sub 2} and CO and oxidation with O{sub 2} of three high-reactivity oxygen carriers used in the CLC system have been determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer at atmospheric pressure. The iron- and nickel-based oxygen carriers were prepared by freeze-granulation, and the copper-based oxygen carrier was prepared by impregnation. The changing grain size model (CGSM) was used for the kinetic determination, assuming spherical grains for the freeze-granulated particles containing iron and nickel and a platelike geometry for the reacting surface of the copper-based impregnated particles. The dependence of the reaction rates on temperature was low, with the activation energy values varying from 14 to 33 kJ mol{sup -1} for the reduction and 7 to 15 kJ mol{sup -1} for the oxidation. The reaction order depended on the reacting gas and oxygen carrier, with values ranging from 0.25 to 1. However, an increase in the operating pressure for the IGCC + CLC system increases the thermal efficiency of the process, and the CO{sub 2} is recovered as a high pressure gas, decreasing the energy demand for further compression. The effect of pressure on the behavior of the oxygen carriers has been analyzed in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer at 1073 K and pressures up to 30 atm. It has been found that an increase in total pressure has a negative effect on the reaction rates of all the oxygen carriers. Moreover, the use of the CGSM with the kinetic parameters obtained at atmospheric pressure predicted higher reaction rates than those experimentally obtained at higher pressures, and therefore, the kinetic parameters necessary to design pressurized CLC plants must be determined at the operating pressure. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Nickel-cobalt-iron-copper sulfides and arsenides in solution-collapse breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J. ); Hlava, P.F. )

    1993-04-01

    An extensive suite of Ni-Co-Fe-Cu sulfides and arsenides lies within the matrix of solution-collapse breccias buried deep within the plateaus of the Grand Canyon region. Ceilings over large caverns in the Redwall collapsed, brecciating the overlying sandstone and forming cylindrical breccia pipes up to 300 ft in diameter that extend vertically as much as 3,000 ft. These highly permeable breccias served as a host for the precipitation of a suite of over 100 minerals, including uraninite, sphalerite, galena and various copper phases, in addition to the Ni-Co-bearing-phase discussed here. Intricately zoned crystals of small (<1 mm), euhedral Ni-Co-Fe-As-S minerals were the first to form during the second major episode of mineralization in these pipes. Several of these phases replace minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, from the first episode. Extensive microprobe work has been done on samples from two breccia pipe mines, the Hack 2 and Orphan, which are about 50 miles apart. Mineral compositions are similar except that no copper is found in the Ni-Co-Fe phases from the Hack 2 mine, while pyrites containing 1 wt % Cu are common from the Orphan, which was mined for copper. In some of these pyrites', Cu is dominant and the mineral is actually villamaninite. Pyrites from both mines characteristically contain 0.5 to 3 wt % As. Metal contents in zones pyrite-bravoite-vaesite (M[sub 1]S[sub 2]) crystals at the Hack 2 mine range from Fe[sub 1] to Fe[sub .12], Ni[sub 0] to Ni[sub .86], and Co[sub 0] to Co[sub .10]. The metal content for polydymite-siegenite-violarite averages about (Ni[sub 2.33]Co[sub .39]Fe[sub .23])(S[sub 3.9]As[sub .1]). Orphan mine pyrite-bravoite-vaesite-villamaninite ranges in composition from pure FeS[sub 2] to (Ni[sub .6]Fe[sub .21]Co[sub .17])S[sub 2], and (Cu[sub .46]Ni[sub .27]Fe[sub .21]Co[sub .13])S[sub 2]. Of all the sulfides or arsenides found in these breccia pipes, only nickeline consistently occurs as the pure end member.

  10. Welding procedure specification: gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper to nickel-chromium-iron. Supplement 1. Records of procedure qualification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness range of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

  11. Structural features and the reaction mechanism of cytochrome oxidase: iron and copper X-ray absorption fine structure.

    PubMed Central

    Powers, L; Chance, B; Ching, Y; Angiolillo, P

    1981-01-01

    X-ray edge absorption of copper and extended fine structure studies of both copper and iron centers have been made of cytochrome oxidase from beef heart, Paracoccus dentrificans, and HB-8 thermophilic bacteria (1-2.5 mM in heme). The desired redox state (fully oxidized, reduced CO, mixed valence formate and CO) in the x-ray beam was controlled by low temperature (-140 degrees C) and was continuously monitored by simultaneous optical spectroscopy and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) monitoring every 30 min of x-ray exposure. The structure of the active site, a cytochrome a3-copper pair in fully oxidized and in mixed valence formate states where they are spin coupled, contains a sulphur bridge with three ligands 2.60 +/- 0.03 A from Fea3 and 2.18 +/- 0.03 A from Cua3. The distance between Fea3 and Cua3 is 3.75 +/- 0.05 A, making the sulphur bond angle 103 degrees reasonable for sp3 sulphur bonding. The Fea3 first shell has four typical heme nitrogens (2.01 +/- 0.03 A) with a proximal nitrogen at 2.14 +/- 0.03 A. The sixth ligand is the bridging sulphur. The Cua3 first shell is identical to oxidized stellacyanin containing two nitrogens and a bridging sulphur. Upon reduction with CO, the active site is identical to reduced stellacyanin for the Cua3 first shell and contains the sulphur that forms the bridge in fully oxidized and mixed valence formate states. The Fea3 first shell is identical to oxyhemoglobin but has CO instead of O2. The other redox centers, Fea and the other "EPR detectable" Cu are not observed in higher shells of Fea3. Fea has six equidistant nitrogens and Cua has one (or two) nitrogens and three (or two) sulphurs with typical distances; these ligands change only slight on reduction. These structures afford the basis for an oxygen reduction mechanism involving oxy- and peroxy intermediates. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:6264990

  12. Reaction Mechanisms of Metals with Hydrogen Sulfide and Thiols in Model Wine. Part 2: Iron- and Copper-Catalyzed Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, Gal Y; Danilewicz, John C; Jeffery, David W; Elias, Ryan J

    2016-05-25

    Sulfidic off-odors arising during wine production are frequently removed by Cu(II) fining. In part 1 of this study ( 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00641 ), the reaction of H2S and thiols with Cu(II) was examined; however, the interaction of iron and copper is also known to play an important synergistic role in mediating non-enzymatic wine oxidation. The interaction of these two metals in the oxidation of H2S and thiols (cysteine, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 6-sulfanylhexan-1-ol) was therefore examined under wine-like conditions. H2S and thiols (300 μM) were reacted with Fe(III) (100 or 200 μM) alone and in combination with Cu(II) (25 or 50 μM), and concentrations of H2S and thiols, oxygen, and acetaldehyde were monitored over time. H2S and thiols were shown to be slowly oxidized in the presence of Fe(III) alone and were not bound to Fe(III) under model wine conditions. However, Cu(II) added to model wine containing Fe(III) was quickly reduced by H2S and thiols to form Cu(I) complexes, which then rapidly reduced Fe(III) to Fe(II). Oxidation of Fe(II) in the presence of oxygen regenerated Fe(III) and completed the iron redox cycle. In addition, sulfur-derived oxidation products were observed, and the formation of organic polysulfanes was demonstrated. PMID:27133088

  13. Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probes for Dual Recognition of Copper(II) and Iron(III) Ions and Their Application in Bio-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Cassels, Bruce K.; Pérez, Claudio; Mena, Natalia; Núñez, Marco T.; Martínez, Natalia P.; Pavez, Paulina; Aliaga, Margarita E.

    2014-01-01

    Two new coumarin-based “turn-off” fluorescent probes, (E)-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1) and (E)-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2), were synthesized and their detection of copper(II) and iron(III) ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective for Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions over other metal ions. However, BS2 is detected directly, while detection of BS1 involves a hydrolysis reaction to regenerate 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin (3) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, of which 3 is able to react with copper(II) or iron(III) ions. The interaction between the tested compounds and copper or iron ions is associated with a large fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of ca. 10−5 M. Preliminary studies employing epifluorescence microscopy demonstrate that Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions can be imaged in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the tested probes. PMID:24419164

  14. Concentrations of cadmium and selected essential elements in malignant large intestine tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dziki, Adam; Kilanowicz, Anna; Sapota, Andrzej; Duda-Szymańska, Joanna; Daragó, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Incidence rates of large intestine cancer indicate a role of environmental and occupational factors. The role of essential elements and their interaction with toxic metals can contribute to the explanation of a complex mechanism by which large intestine cancer develops. Bearing this in mind, determining the levels of essential and toxic elements in tissues (organs), as well as in body fluids, seems to shed light on their role in the mode of action in malignant disease. Aim Determination of the levels of cadmium, zinc, copper, selenium, calcium, magnesium, and iron in large intestine malignant tissue. Material and methods Two intraoperative intestine sections were investigated: one from the malignant tissue and the other one from the normal tissue, collected from each person with diagnosed large intestine cancer. Cadmium, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, and iron levels were determined with atomic absorption spectrometry, and selenium levels by spectrofluorimetric method. Results The levels of copper, selenium, and magnesium were higher in the malignant than in normal tissues. In addition, the zinc/copper and calcium/magnesium relationship was altered in malignant tissue, where correlations were lower compared to non-malignant tissue. Conclusions The results seems to demonstrate disturbed homeostasis of some essential elements. However, it is hard to confirm their involvement in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. PMID:27110307

  15. Grain zinc, iron, and copper concentrations of wheat grown in central iran and their relationships with soil and climate variables.

    PubMed

    Karami, Mahin; Afyuni, Majid; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossin; Papritz, Andreas; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-11-25

    We performed a survey in central Iran to assess the variability in grain zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) concentrations of winter wheat and their relationships with soil and climate variables under field conditions. The goal was to identify factors that should be studied further to improve wheat cultivation in the study area with respect to the nutritional quality of this main Iranian staple crop. Soil and grain samples were collected from 137 randomly selected wheat fields in the provinces of Qom, Isfahan, and Fars. In general, soils were characterized by a high pH. Grain micronutrient concentrations ranged from 11.7 to 64.0 mg kg(-1) (mean, 31.6 mg kg(-1)) for Zn, from 21.1 to 96.6 mg kg(-1) (mean, 42.7 mg kg(-1)) for Fe, and from 2.4 to 9.3 mg kg(-1) (mean, 5.5 mg kg(-1)) for Cu. The grain concentrations of these three metals were positively correlated to each other. DTPA-extractable and total soil micronutrient concentrations alone were very poor predictors of grain micronutrient concentrations. Predictions were slightly improved when other soil and climate variables were taken into account (Zn, R2=0.26; Fe, R2=0.08; and Cu, R2=0.13). PMID:19883069

  16. Interference of nickel with copper and iron homeostasis contributes to metal toxicity symptoms in the nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum inflatum.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Rasoul; Ghaderian, S Majid; Krämer, Ute

    2009-11-01

    The divalent cations of several transition metal elements have similar chemical properties and, when present in excess, one metal can interfere with the homeostasis of another. To better understand the role of interactions between transition metals in the development of metal toxicity symptoms in plants, the effects of exposure to excess nickel (Ni) on copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) homeostasis in the Ni hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum inflatum were examined. Alyssum inflatum was hypertolerant to Ni, but not to Cu. Exposure to elevated subtoxic Ni concentrations increased Cu sensitivity, associated with enhanced Cu accumulation and enhanced root surface Cu(II)-specific reductase activity. Exposure to elevated Ni concentrations resulted in an inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Fe and concentration-dependent progressive Fe accumulation in root pericycle, endodermis and cortex cells of the differentiation zone. Shoot Fe concentrations, chlorophyll concentrations and Fe-dependent antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased in Ni-exposed plants when compared with unexposed controls. Foliar Fe spraying or increased Fe supply to roots ameliorated the chlorosis observed under exposure to high Ni concentrations. These results suggest that Ni interferes with Cu regulation and that the disruption of root-to-shoot Fe translocation is a major cause of nickel toxicity symptoms in A. inflatum. PMID:19691676

  17. Redox-activity and self-organization of iron-porphyrin monolayers at a copper/electrolyte interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Thanh Hai; Wandelt, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical behaviour and molecular structure of a layer of water-soluble 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin-Fe(III) pentatosylate, abbreviated as FeTMPyP, on a chloride modified Cu(100) electrode surface were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in-situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy. Voltammetric results of HOPG in an electrolyte containing FeTMPyP molecules indicate three distinguishable redox steps involving both the central iron metal and the π-conjugated ring system. However, only the first two reduction steps are observable within the narrow potential window of CVs of Cu(100) measured in the same electrolyte. In the potential range below the first reduction peak, at which the [FeIIITMPyP]5+ molecules are reduced to the corresponding [FeIITMPyP]4+ species, in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images revealed, for the first time, a highly ordered adlayer of this reduced porphyrin species on the chloride terminated Cu(100) surface. The ordered adlayer exhibits a (quasi)square unit cell with the lattice vectors |a → 2| = |b → 2| = 1 . 53 ± 0 . 1 nm and an angle of 93° ± 2° between them. A model is proposed based on the STM observation illustrating the arrangement of the [FeIITMPyP]4+ molecules at the electrolyte/copper interface.

  18. Evaluation of trace trace elements iron, zinc, copper and lead in the diet of female university students.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Z; Abdhamid, R

    1995-03-01

    Food consumption of 50 female students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia was recorded for 7 days. Foods and drinks most frequently consumed were selected for analysis of iron, zinc, copper and lead content. The mean daily intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat among the students are 6.5±1.4 MJ (1550±335 kcal), 59.8±18.5g, 227.1±54.6 g and 46.0±11.5 g respectively. This diet contributed 19.6-6.4 mg Fe, 7.0-2.0 mg Zn and 1.6-0.6 mg Cu per day which were lower than the Malaysian RDA for Fe and US RDA for Zn, while Cu is within the recommended range. The main sources of these minerals in the student's diet were rice, rice products, meat and animal products. Lead concentration in the diet (134±77 ug/day) is below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value suggested by Codex Alimentarius Commission (1984). This study indicated concern regarding the low intake of the essential trace elements on long term basis among the students. PMID:22692012

  19. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe(2+) to Fe(0) by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe(0) crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe(0) grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe(0) content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water. PMID:27095387

  20. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A.; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe2+ to Fe0 by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe0 crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe0 grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe0 content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water.

  1. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A.; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe2+ to Fe0 by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe0 crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe0 grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe0 content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water. PMID:27095387

  2. Simultaneous removal of cadmium and nitrate in aqueous media by nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) and Au doped nZVI particles.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Huang, Yuxiong; Sun, Xiaoya; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Keller, Arturo A

    2014-10-15

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has demonstrated high efficacy for treating nitrate or cadmium (Cd) contamination, but its efficiency for simultaneous removal of nitrate and Cd has not been investigated. This study evaluated the reactivity of nZVI to the co-contaminants and by-product formation, employed different catalysts to reduce nitrite yield from nitrate, and examined the transformation of nZVI after reaction. Nitrate reduction resulted in high solution pH, negatively charged surface of nZVI, formation of Fe3O4 (a stable transformation of nZVI), and no release of ionic iron. Increased pH and negative charge contributed to significant increase in Cd(II) removal capacity (from 40 mg/g to 188 mg/g) with nitrate present. In addition, nitrate reduction by nZVI could be catalyzed by Cd(II): while 30% of nitrate was reduced by nZVI within 2 h in the absence of Cd(II), complete nitrate reduction was observed in the presence of 40 mg-Cd/L due to the formation of Cd islands (Cd(0) and CdO) on the nZVI particles. While nitrate was reduced mostly to ammonium when Cd(II) was not present or at Cd(II) concentrations ≥ 40 mg/L, up to 20% of the initial nitrate was reduced to nitrite at Cd(II) concentrations < 40 mg/L. Among nZVI particles doped with 1 wt. % Cu, Ag, or Au, nZVI deposited with 1 wt. % Au reduced nitrite yield to less than 3% of the initial nitrate, while maintaining a high Cd(II) removal capacity. PMID:24999115

  3. Simultaneous preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples by cloud point extraction using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol and their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Roldan, Paulo dos Santos; Gin, Maria Fernanda

    2009-11-15

    A procedure for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples, based on cloud point extraction (CPE) as a prior step to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), has been developed. The analytes reacted with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) at pH 5 to form hydrophobic chelates, which were separated and preconcentrated in a surfactant-rich phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, buffer amount, surfactant concentration, temperature, kinetics of complexation reaction, and incubation time were optimized and their respective values were 5, 0.6 mmol L(-1), 0.3 mL, 0.15% (w/v), 50 degrees C, 40 min, and 10 min for 15 mL of preconcentrated solution. The method presented precision (R.S.D.) between 1.3% and 2.6% (n=9). The concentration factors with and without dilution of the surfactant-rich phase for the analytes ranged from 9.4 to 10.1 and from 94.0 to 100.1, respectively. The limits of detection (L.O.D.) obtained for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, and 6.3 microg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated through recovery experiments on aqueous samples. PMID:19646812

  4. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Fusion Welds in an Iron-Copper-Based Multicomponent Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farren, Jeffrey D.; Hunter, Allen H.; Dupont, John N.; Seidman, David N.; Robino, Charles V.; Kozeschnik, Ernst

    2012-11-01

    NUCu-140 is a copper-precipitation-strengthened steel that exhibits excellent mechanical properties with a relatively simple chemical composition and processing schedule. As a result, NUCu-140 is a candidate material for use in many naval and structural applications. Before NUCu-140 can be implemented as a replacement for currently used materials, the weldability of this material must be determined under a wide range of welding conditions. This research represents an initial step toward understanding the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs during fusion welding of NUCu-140. Microhardness traverses and tensile testing using digital image correlation show local softening in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural characterization using light optical microscopy (LOM) revealed very few differences in the softened regions compared with the base metal. Local-electrode atom-probe (LEAP) tomography demonstrates that local softening occurs as a result of dissolution of the Cu-rich precipitates. MatCalc kinetic simulations (Vienna, Austria) were combined with welding heat-flow calculations to model the precipitate evolution within the HAZ. Reasonably good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated precipitate radii, number density, and volume fraction of the Cu-rich precipitates in the weld. These results were used with a precipitate-strengthening model to understand strength variations within the HAZ.

  5. Possible Relationship between Chronic Telogen Effluvium and Changes in Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, and Iron Total Blood Levels in Females: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Aziz, Abeer M; Sh Hamed, Sameera; Gaballah, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hair loss is a common and distressing problem that can affect both males and females of all ages. Chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) is idiopathic diffuse scalp hair shedding of at least 6 months duration. Hair loss can be one of the symptoms of metal toxicity. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are highly toxic metals that can cause acute and chronic health problems in human. The aim of the present study is to determine if there is a relationship between these metals and CTE in women and if CTE is also associated with changes in zinc (Zn) or iron (Fe) blood levels. Materials and Methods: Pb, Cd, Fe and Zn total blood levels were determined in 40 female patients fulfilling the criteria of CTH and compared with total blood levels of same elements in 30 well-matched healthy women. Results: Quantitative analysis of total blood Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd revealed that there were no significant differences between patients and controls regarding Fe, Zn, and Pb. Yet, Cd level was significantly higher in patients than controls. In addition, Cd level showed significant positive correlation with the patient's body weight. Conclusion: Estimation of blood Pb and Cd levels can be important in cases of CTE as Cd toxicity can be the underlying hidden cause of such idiopathic condition. PMID:26622152

  6. A simple method based on ICP-MS for estimation of background levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and selenium in blood of the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Juliana A; Batista, Bruno L; Rodrigues, Jairo L; Caldas, Naise M; Neto, Jose A G; Barbosa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, biomonitoring has become the standard for assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements as well as for responding to serious environmental public health problems. However, extensive biomonitoring surveys require rapid and simple analytical methods. Thus, a simple and high-throughput method is proposed for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in blood samples by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, 200 microl of blood samples was mixed with 500 microl of 10% v/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution, incubated for 10 min, and subsequently diluted to 10 ml with a solution containing 0.05% w/v ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) + 0.005% v/v Triton X-100. After that, samples were directly analyzed by ICP-MS (ELAN DRC II). Rhodium was selected as an internal standard with matrix-matching calibration. Method detection limits were 0.08, 0.04, 0.5, 0.09, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.1 microg//L for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se, respectively. Validation data are provided based on the analysis of blood samples from the trace elements inter-\\comparison program operated by the Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Canada. Additional validation was provided by the analysis of human blood samples by the proposed method and by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method was subsequently applied for the estimation of background metal blood values in the Brazilian population. In general, the mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se in blood were 1.1, 0.4, 890, 9.6, 2.1, 65.4, and 89.3 microg/L, respectively, and are in agreement with other global populations. Influences of age, gender, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and geographical variation on the values were also considered. Smoking habits influenced the levels of Cd in blood. The levels of Cu, Mn, and Pb were significantly correlated with gender, whereas Cu and Pb were significantly correlated with age. There were also interesting differences in Mn and Se levels in the population living in the north of Brazil compared to the south. PMID:20563921

  7. Solid state 31phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-, manganese-, and copper-containing synthetic hydroxyapatites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Taylor, R. E.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    The incorporation of micronutrients into synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) is proposed for slow release of these nutrients to crops in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for Lunar or Martian outposts. Solid state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was utilized to examine the paramagnetic effects of Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ to determine if they were incorporated into the SHA structure. Separate Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ containing SHA materials along with a transition metal free SHA (pure-SHA) were synthesized using a precipitation method. The proximity (<1 nm) of the transition metals to the 31P nuclei of SHA were apparent when comparing the integrated 31P signal intensities of the pure-SHA (87 arbitrary units g-1) with the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials (37-71 arbitrary units g-1). The lower integrated 31P signal intensities of the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials relative to the pure-SHA suggested that Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ were incorporated in the SHA structure. Further support for Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ incorporation was demonstrated by the reduced spin-lattice relaxation constants of the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials (T'=0.075-0.434s) relative to pure-SHA (T1=58.4s). Inversion recovery spectra indicated that Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ were not homogeneously distributed about the 31P nuclei in the SHA structure. Extraction with diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that between 50 and 80% of the total starting metal concentrations were incorporated in the SHA structure. Iron-, Mn-, and Cu-containing SHA are potential slow release sources of Fe, Mn, and Cu in the ALS cropping system.

  8. Effect of ultrasonic agitation on the release of copper, iron, manganese and zinc from soil and sediment using the BCR three-stage sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C M; Delevoye, G

    2001-08-01

    An ultrasonic bath and an ultrasonic probe have been used to develop rapid versions of the three-stage Community Bureau of Reference (BCR, now the Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme) sequential extraction procedure. The effect of the ultrasonic treatments on the extraction of copper, iron, manganese and zinc from a sewage sludge-amended soil has been assessed. Recoveries similar to those of conventional shaking (i.e., conventional value, +/- 30%) could generally be obtained for copper, manganese and zinc, but not for the important matrix element iron. With the use of compromise sonication conditions, steps 1, 2 and 3 of the sequential extraction (excluding the hydrogen peroxide digestion in step 3, which was not performed with sonication) could be completed in 3, 5 and 1 min, respectively, using the ultrasonic probe, and in 3, 1 and 1 h, respectively, using the bath. The extraction procedures developed using the soil performed well when applied to lake sediment BCR CRM 601. Analyte partitioning was generally similar to that obtained with mechanical shaking, and overall metal recoveries were 84-98% of those obtained with the conventional BCR protocol, except for copper extracted with the probe (74%). Poorer performance (analyte recoveries, 58-104%) was obtained when the methods were applied to an intertidal sediment. This highlights the difficulty of developing a version of the BCR extraction, with ultrasonic assistance, which gives a performance equivalent to conventional shaking when applied to different substrates. PMID:11523440

  9. Dynamic Aeolian Deposition of Glacial Iron to the Open Ocean: 2 Years of Time-Series Observations from Middleton Island and the Copper River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, A. W.; Crusius, J.; Campbell, R. W.; Gasso, S.; Moy, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    ron (Fe) is thought to be a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton in much of the north Pacific and the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) in particular. In the subarctic GoA, we have a limited knowledge of the role of glaciers in driving the supply of iron to marine ecosystem, and in particular, the role that dust derived from glacial flour plays in delivering bioavailable iron to the offshore ecosystems. In order to better understand glacial dust deposition in the GoA and its potential role in marine productivity, we combine time-series satellite, meteorological, and aerosol geochemical data from over 2 years of monitoring at Middleton Island and the Copper River Valley. Middleton Island is located on the edge of the continental shelf and is ideally positioned to monitor the flux of aerosol iron into adjacent Fe-limited waters, while the Copper River Delta and Valley are thought to be the source of much of the glacial dust that reaches Middleton. In fact, widespread dust events have been frequently observed (MODIS imagery) emanating from exposed floodplains within the heavily glacierized Copper River Valley. These events are most common in the fall, when high pressure in the AK interior and low pressure in the central GoA establish a pressure gradient that drives anomalously strong northerly winds capable of entraining the abundant glacial flour that is exposed under low water conditions in the Copper River floodplain. Here we present Fe geochemical data from continuous automated aerosol sampling on Middleton Island from 2011-2013. These time-series geochemical data, when coupled with MODIS and meteorological observations, present a remarkable opportunity to examine the drivers of these dust events and how inter-annual meteorological variability between dust seasons influences the annual flux of soluble Fe associated with these phenomena. The dust season of 2011-12, characterized by early and heavy snows and onshore winds, generated very little dust with minimal and infrequent iron deposition observed on Middleton Island and estimated via MODIS. This was in stark contrast to the dust season of 2012-2013, when sustained high offshore winds and dry conditions during the fall generated close to continuous strong dust activity for over a month and delivered a high flux of soluble glacial Fe offshore. As a whole, these time-series data reveal the dramatic inter-annual variability of the influence of glaciers on eolian iron deposition in offshore GoA waters, and clearly demonstrate that the potential role of glacial dust in marine nutrient cycles is highly dynamic and sensitive to regional and local climatological and hydrologic conditions.

  10. Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper Uptake Requirement in Response to Nitrogen Supply and the Increased Grain Yield of Summer Maize

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yanfang; Yue, Shanchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Cui, Zhenling; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Youliang; Zou, Chunqin

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain). Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N) levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1and 5.3 g, respectively) were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60%) and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease) and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg−1) rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively). The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield. PMID:24705926

  11. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides--influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathleen S; Ranville, James F; Lesher, Emily K; Diedrich, Daniel J; McKnight, Diane M; Sofield, Ruth M

    2014-10-21

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity. PMID:25289694

  12. Effects of copper, iron and fluoride co-crystallized with sugar on caries development and acid formation in deslivated rats.

    PubMed

    Rosalen, P L; Pearson, S K; Bowen, W H

    1996-11-01

    The purpose was to explore the effects of combinations of copper, iron and fluoride (Cu, Fe and F) incorporated in sucrose by co-crystallization on caries development in the deslivated rat model and to examine acid formation by bacteria in the rat mouth. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and desalivated when aged 26 days. Eight groups were placed in a König-Höfer programmed feeder and received 17 meals daily at hourly intervals, and essential nutrition (NCP No. 2) by gavage twice daily for 21 days. The groups received (1) plain sucrose, (2) F (8 parts/10(6)) co-crystallized with sucrose, (3) Fe (88 parts/10(6)) sucrose, (4) Cu (75 parts/10(6)) sucrose, (5) Cu + F sucrose, (6) Cu + L Fe sucrose, (7) F + Fe sucrose, and (8) Cu + Fe + F sucrose. At death the jaws were removed and sonicated in 0.9% saline solution for microbial assessment. In addition, organic acid assays were performed for each animal. Keyes smooth-surface and sulcal caries scores were lowest in the Cu + Fe + F sucrose group, but not statistically significantly different from those of the other Cu groups. The numbers of Strep. sobrinus found in the groups that received Cu, Cu + Fe, Cu + F, F + Fe and Cu + Fe + F sugar were lower than in the control group. Lactic acid was found in lower concentrations in Fe, Cu, Cu + F, Cu + Fe and F + Fe groups than in the other groups. It appears that combinations of Cu; Fe and F co-crystallized with sugar may have an additive effect in reducing the cariogenic potential of sugar by affecting lactic acid formation and reducing bacterial colonization. PMID:9068864

  13. Effects of chloride, sulfate and natural organic matter (NOM) on the accumulation and release of trace-level inorganic contaminants from corroding iron.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ching-Yu; Ferguson, John F; Korshin, Gregory V

    2013-09-15

    This study examined effects of varying levels of anions (chloride and sulfate) and natural organic matter (NOM) on iron release from and accumulation of inorganic contaminants in corrosion scales formed on iron coupons exposed to drinking water. Changes of concentrations of sulfate and chloride were observed to affect iron release and, in lesser extent, the retention of representative inorganic contaminants (vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium); but, effects of NOM were more pronounced. DOC concentration of 1 mg/L caused iron release to increase, with average soluble and total iron concentrations being four and two times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of NOM. In the presence of NOM, the retention of inorganic contaminants by corrosion scales was reduced. This was especially prominent for lead, vanadium, chromium and copper whose retention by the scales decreased from >80% in the absence of NOM to <30% in its presence. Some of the contaminants, notably copper, chromium, zinc and nickel retained on the surface of iron coupons in the presence of DOC largely retained their mobility and were released readily when ambient water chemistry changed. Vanadium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium retained by the scales were largely unsusceptible to changes of NOM and chloride levels. Modeling indicated that the observed effects were associated with the formation of metal-NOM complexes and effects of NOM on the sorption of the inorganic contaminants on solid phases that are typical for iron corrosion in drinking water. PMID:23863395

  14. Milk trace elements in lactating cows environmentally exposed to higher level of lead and cadmium around different industrial units.

    PubMed

    Patra, R C; Swarup, D; Kumar, P; Nandi, D; Naresh, R; Ali, S L

    2008-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the trace mineral profile of milk from lactating cows reared around different industrial units and to examine the effect of blood and milk concentration of lead and cadmium on copper, cobalt, zinc and iron levels in milk. Respective blood and milk samples were collected from a total of 201 apparently healthy lactating cows above 3 years of age including 52 cows reared in areas supposed to be free from pollution. The highest milk lead (0.85+/-0.11 microg/ml) and cadmium (0.23+/-0.02 microg/ml) levels were recorded in lactating cows reared around lead-zinc smelter and steel manufacturing plant, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher concentration of milk copper, cobalt, zinc and iron compared to control animals was recorded in cows around closed lead cum operational zinc smelter. Analysis of correlation between lead and other trace elements in milk from lactating cows with the blood lead level>0.20 microg/ml (n=79) revealed a significant negative correlations between milk iron and milk lead (r=-0.273, P=0.015). However, such trend was not recorded with blood lead level<0.20 microg/ml (n=122). The milk cobalt concentration was significantly correlated (r=0.365, P<0.001) with cadmium level in milk and the highest milk cadmium (>0.10 to 0.39 microg/ml) group had significantly (P<0.05) increased milk cobalt. It is concluded that increased blood and milk lead or cadmium level as a result of natural exposure of lactating cows to these environmental toxicants significantly influences trace minerals composition of milk and such alterations affect the milk quality and nutritional values. PMID:18657303

  15. Quantitative separation of zinc traces from cadmium matrices by solid-phase extraction with polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Santiago de Jesus, D; Souza de Carvalho, M; Spínola Costa, A C; Costa Ferreira, S L

    1998-08-01

    A system for separation of zinc traces from large amounts of cadmium is proposed in this paper. It is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc in the form of thiocyanate complexes by the polyurethane foam. The following parameters were studied: effect of pH and of the thiocyanate concentration on the zinc extraction, shaking time required for quantitative extraction, amount of PU foam necessary for complete extraction, conditions for the separation of zinc from cadmium, influence of other cations and anions on the zinc sorption by PU foam, and required conditions for back extraction of zinc from the PU foam. The results show that zinc traces can be separated from large amounts of cadmium at pH 3.0+/-0.50, with the range of thiocyanate concentration from 0.15 to 0.20 mol l(-1), and the shaking time of 5 min. The back extraction of zinc can be done by shaking it with water for 10 min. Calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium, aluminum, nickel and iron(II) are efficiently separated. Iron(III), copper(II) and cobalt(II) are extracted simultaneously with zinc, but the iron reduction with ascorbic acid and the use of citrate to mask copper(II) and cobalt(II) increase the selectivity of the zinc extraction. The anions nitrate, chloride, sulfate, acetate, thiosulphate, tartarate, oxalate, fluoride, citrate, and carbonate do not affect the zinc extraction. Phosphate and EDTA must be absent. The method proposed was applied to determine zinc in cadmium salts using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) as a spectrophotometric reagent. The result achieved did not show significant difference in the accuracy and precision (95% confidence level) with those obtained by ICP-AES analysis. PMID:18967283

  16. Effects of silicon, copper and iron on static and dynamic properties of alloy 206 (aluminum-copper) in semi-solids produced by the SEED process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Alain

    The advantages of producing metal parts by rheocasting are generally recognised for common foundry alloys of Al-Si. However, other more performing alloys in terms of mechanical properties could have a great interest in specialized applications in the automotive industry, while remaining competitive in the forming. Indeed, the growing demand for more competitive products requires the development of new alloys better suited to semi-solid processes. Among others, Al-Cu alloys of the 2XX series are known for their superior mechanical strength. However, in the past, 2XX alloys were never candidates for pressure die casting. The main reason is their propensity to hot tearing. Semi-solid processes provide better conditions for molding with the rheological behavior of dough and molding temperatures lower reducing this type of defect. In the initial phase, this research has studied factors that reduce hot tearing susceptibility of castings produced by semi-solid SEED of alloy 206. Subsequently, a comparative study on the tensile properties and fatigue was performed on four variants of the alloy 206. The results of tensile strength and fatigue were compared with the specifications for applications in the automotive industry and also to other competing processes and alloys. During this study, several metallurgical aspects were analyzed. The following main points have been validated: i) the main effects of compositional variations of silicon, iron and copper alloy Al-Cu (206) on the mechanical properties, and ii) certain relationships between the mechanism of hot cracking and the solidification rate in semi-solid. Parts produced from the semi-solid paste coming from the SEED process combined with modified 206 alloys have been successfully molded and achieved superior mechanical properties than the requirements of the automotive industry. The fatigue properties of the two best modified 206 alloys were higher than those of A357 alloy castings and are close to those of the wrought alloy AA6061. At present, there is simply no known application for pressure die-cast alloy with 206 (Liquid Die-casting). This is mainly due to the high propensity to hot cracking and limitations facing the part geometry and the subsequent assembly. This study demonstrated that in addition to pieces produced by semi-solid die-casting using large variations in chemical composition, the SEED process allows obtaining spare sound (sound part) and more complex geometry. Moreover, as the semi-solid parts have less porosity, they can also be machined and welded for some applications. The conclusions of this study demonstrate significant progress in identifying the main issues related to the feasibility of die-casting good parts with high performance using the modified 206 alloy combined with SEED process. This work is therefore a baseline work in the development of new Al-Cu alloys for industries of semi-solid and, at the same time, for the expansion of aluminum for high performance applications in the industry. N.B. This thesis is part of a research project developed by the NSERC / Rio Tinto Akan Industrial Research Chair in Metallurgy of Innovative Aluminum Transformation (CIMTAL).

  17. Investigation of the effects of cadmium by micro analytical methods on Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. roots.

    PubMed

    Colak, G; Baykul, M C; Gürler, R; Catak, E; Caner, N

    2014-09-01

    The interactions between cadmium stress and plant nutritional elements have been investigated on complete plant or at the level of organs. This study was undertaken to contribute to the exploration of the physiological basis of cadmium phytotoxicity. We examined the changes in the nutritional element compositions of the root epidermal cells of the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. at the initial growth stages that is known as the most sensitive stage to the stress. Effects of cadmium stress on the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were examined by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis) assay performed with using low vacuum (∼ 24 Pascal) Scanning Electron Microscopy. In the analysis performed at the level of root epidermal cells, some of the macro- and micronutrient contents of the cells (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, copper, and zinc levels) were found to change when the applying toxic concentrations of cadmium. There was no change in the manganese and sodium content of the epidermal cells. It was concluded that the changes in nutritional element composition of the cells can be considered as an effective parameter in explaining the physiological mechanisms of cadmium-induced growth inhibition. PMID:25194735

  18. Activation of Methanogenesis by Cadmium in the Marine Archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans

    PubMed Central

    Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Hernández-Juárez, Viridiana; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans was cultured in the presence of CdCl2 to determine the metal effect on cell growth and biogas production. With methanol as substrate, cell growth and methane synthesis were not altered by cadmium, whereas with acetate, cadmium slightly increased both, growth and methane rate synthesis. In cultures metabolically active, incubations for short-term (minutes) with 10 µM total cadmium increased the methanogenesis rate by 6 and 9 folds in methanol- and acetate-grown cells, respectively. Cobalt and zinc but not copper or iron also activated the methane production rate. Methanogenic carbonic anhydrase and acetate kinase were directly activated by cadmium. Indeed, cells cultured in 100 µM total cadmium removed 41–69% of the heavy metal from the culture and accumulated 231–539 nmol Cd/mg cell protein. This is the first report showing that (i) Cd2+ has an activating effect on methanogenesis, a biotechnological relevant process in the bio-fuels field; and (ii) a methanogenic archaea is able to remove a heavy metal from aquatic environments. PMID:23152802

  19. Cadmium availability in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The effects of soil properties highlighting iron fractions and pH value.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Liu, Chuanping; Zhu, Jishu; Li, Fangbai; Deng, Dong-Mei; Wang, Qi; Liu, Chengshuai

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) availability can be significantly affected by soil properties. The effect of pH value on Cd availability has been confirmed. Paddy soils in South China generally contain high contents of iron (Fe). Thus, it is hypothesized that Fe fractions, in addition to pH value, may play an important role in the Cd bioavailability in paddy soil and this requires further investigation. In this study, 73 paired soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields those were contaminated by acid mine drainage containing Cd. The contents of Fe in the amorphous and DCB-extractable Fe oxides were significantly and negatively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw (excluding DCB-extractable Fe vs Cd in straw). In addition, the concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II) derived from Fe(III) reduction was positively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw. These results suggest that soil Fe redox could affect the availability of Cd in rice plant. Contribution assessment of soil properties to Cd accumulation in rice grain based on random forest (RF) and stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) showed that pH value should be the most important factor and the content of Fe in the amorphous Fe oxides should be the second most important factor in affecting Cd content in rice grain. Overall, compared with the studies from temperate regions, such as Europe and northern China, Fe oxide exhibited its unique role in the bioavailability of Cd in the reddish paddy soil from our study area. The exploration of practical remediation strategies for Cd from the perspective of Fe oxide may be promising. PMID:26629644

  20. Characterization and identification of the sources of chromium, zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, manganese and iron in PM10 particulates at the two sites of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A K; Kumar, Animesh; Biswas, Arun Kanti

    2006-09-01

    Monitoring of ambient PM10 (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter) has been done at residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003 to November 2004. These sites were selected depending on the dominant anthropogenic activities. Metal constituents of atmospheric PM10 deposited on glass fibre filter paper were estimated using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the seven toxic trace metals quantified from the measured PM10 concentrations. The 24 h average concentrations of Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn and Fe from ninety PM10 particulate samples of Kolkata were found to be 6.9, 506.1, 79.1, 3.3, 7.4, 2.4 and 103.6 ng/m3, respectively. The 24 h average PM10 concentration exceeded national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) as specified by central pollution control board, India at both residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) areas with mean concentration of 140.1 and 196.6 microg/m3, respectively. A simultaneous meteorology study was performed to assess the influence of air masses by wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, relative humidity and temperature. The measured toxic trace metals generally showed inverse relationship with wind speed, relative humidity and temperature. Factor analysis, a receptor modeling technique has been used for identification of the possible sources contributing to the PM10. Varimax rotated factor analysis identified four possible sources of measured trace metals comprising solid waste dumping, vehicular traffic with the influence of road dust, road dust and soil dust at residential site (Kasba), while vehicular traffic with the influence of soil dust, road dust, galvanizing and electroplating industry, and tanning industry at industrial site (Cossipore). PMID:16741802

  1. Silver(I), Mercury(II), Cadmium(II), and Zinc(II) Target Exposed Enzymic Iron-Sulfur Clusters when They Toxify Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang Fang

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of soft metals is of broad interest to microbiologists, both because such metals influence the community structures in natural environments and because several metals are used as antimicrobial agents. Their potency roughly parallels their thiophilicity, suggesting that their primary biological targets are likely to be enzymes that contain key sulfhydryl moieties. A recent study determined that copper poisons Escherichia coli in part by attacking the exposed [4Fe-4S] clusters of dehydratases. The present investigation sought to test whether other soft metals also target these enzymes. In vitro experiments revealed that low-micromolar concentrations of Ag(I) and Hg(II) directly inactivated purified fumarase A, a member of the dehydratase family. The enzyme was also poisoned by higher levels of Cd(II) and Zn(II), but it was unaffected by even millimolar concentrations of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II). Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis and measurements of released iron confirmed that damage was associated with destruction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster, and indeed, the reconstruction of the cluster fully restored activity. Growth studies were then performed to test whether dehydratase damage might underlie toxicity in vivo. Barely toxic doses of Ag(I), Hg(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) inactivated all tested members of the [4Fe-4S] dehydratase family. Again, activity was recovered when the clusters were rebuilt. The metals did not diminish the activities of other sampled enzymes, including NADH dehydrogenase I, an iron-sulfur protein whose clusters are shielded by polypeptide. Thus, the data indicate that dehydratases are damaged by the concentrations of metals that initiate bacteriostasis. PMID:22344668

  2. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  3. Chelatometric determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, limestone, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and divers materials.

    PubMed

    Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

    1980-03-01

    Chelatometric methods for the determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and various other materials are described. Potential interfering elements are masked with triethanolamine and potassium cyanide. In one aliquot calcium is titrated at pH > 12, with calcein and thymolphthalein mixed indicator and in another aliquot calcium and magnesium are titrated in ammonia buffer, with o-cresolphthalein complexone screened with Naphthol Green B as indicator. The results compare favourably with certified values for reference materials of diverse nature. PMID:18962661

  4. Electron transfer characterization of iron and cobalt porphyrins and copper complexes, and of their metal-carbon and metal-oxygen bond energies

    SciTech Connect

    Qui, Aimin

    1992-12-31

    The electron-transfer and oxidation-reduction chemistry for the alkyl-iron and alkyl-cobalt porphyrins [(Por)M-R] and copper complexes has been investigated on the basis of cyclic voltammetric and controlled-potential-electrolysis measurements. Half-wave potentials for the oxidation and the reduction of (Por)M-R are directly influenced by the nature of the electron-donating or electron-withdrawing groups on the porphyrin ring and the structure of the alkyl groups. The redox potentials for a series of copper complexes are affected by the electron donating ability and the chelate effect of the ligands. Hydrolysis of the copper(II) cations (Cu{sup II}L{sub n}{sup 2+}) occurs in water. The reactivity of copper(I) complexes with dioxygen is directly related to the oxidation potential of the complexes in the solvent. The combination of Cu{sup I}(bpy)2{sup +} and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide induces O{sub 2} activation to oxygenate methylenic carbon to ketones. Mechanistic schemes have been developed on the basis of electrochemical and spectrophotometric characteristics and reaction-product profiles for copper(II)-bis(bipyridine) [Cu{sup II}(bpy)2{sup 2+}]/base-induced activation of O{sub 2} to dehydrogenate primary alcohols to aldehydes. The free energies of bond formation (-{Delta}G{sub BF}) for the (Por)M-R and copper-ligand (oxygen or nitrogen) bonds have been determined from the redox potentials of the corresponding electrode reactions. The values of -{Delta}G{sub BF} are 14-35 kcal mol{sup {minus}1} for iron porphyrins and 20-38 kcal mol{sup {minus}1} for cobalt porphyrins which depend on the structures of the porphyrins and the alkyl groups. Apparent bond energies are 18-51 kcal mol{sup {minus}1} for the Cu{sup II}-L bonds are 46-78 kcal mol{sup {minus}1} for the Cu{sup I}-L bonds. The free energies of bond formation for the L{sub n}Cu{sup I}-OO bonds are 7-16 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}.

  5. Direct functionalization processes: a journey from palladium to copper to iron to nickel to metal-free coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, James J; Charette, Andr B

    2013-02-19

    The possibility of finding novel disconnections for the efficient synthesis of organic molecules has driven the interest in developing technologies to directly functionalize C-H bonds. The ubiquity of these bonds makes such transformations attractive, while also posing several challenges. The first, and perhaps most important, is the selective functionalization of one C-H bond over another. Another key problem is inducing reactivity at sites that have been historically unreactive and difficult to access without prior inefficient prefunctionalization. Although remarkable advances have been made over the past decade toward solving these and other problems, several difficult tasks remain as researchers attempt to bring C-H functionalization reactions into common use. The functionalization of sp(3) centers continues to be challenging relative to their sp and sp(2) counterparts. Directing groups are often needed to increase the effective concentration of the catalyst at the targeted reaction site, forming thermodynamically stable coordination complexes. As such, the development of removable or convertible directing groups is desirable. Finally, the replacement of expensive rare earth reagents with less expensive and more sustainable catalysts or abandoning the use of catalysts entirely is essential for future practicality. This Account describes our efforts toward solving some of these quandaries. We began our work in this area with the direct arylation of N-iminopyridinium ylides as a universal means to derivatize the germane six-membered heterocycle. We found that the Lewis basic benzoyl group of the pyridinium ylide could direct a palladium catalyst toward insertion at the 2-position of the pyridinium ring, forming a thermodynamically stable six-membered metallocycle. Subsequently we discovered the arylation of the benzylic site of 2-picolonium ylides. The same N-benzoyl group could direct a number of inexpensive copper salts to the 2-position of the pyridinium ylide, which led to the first description of a direct copper-catalyzed alkenylation onto an electron-deficient arene. This particular directing group offers two advantages: (1) it can be easily appended and removed to reveal the desired pyridine target, and (2) it can be incorporated in a cascade process in the preparation of pharmacologically relevant 2-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridines. This work has solved some of the challenges in the direct arylation of nonheterocyclic arenes, including reversing the reactivity often observed with such transformations. Readily convertible directing groups were applied to facilitate the transformation. We also demonstrated that iron can promote intermolecular arylations effectively and that the omission of any metal still permits intramolecular arylation reactions. Lastly, we recently discovered a nickel-catalyzed intramolecular arylation of sp(3) C-H bonds. Our mechanistic investigations of these processes have elucidated radical pathways, opening new avenues in future direct C-H functionalization reactions. PMID:23098328

  6. Synthesis, structure and antifungal activity of thiophene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) and nickel(II), copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes: unsymmetrical coordination mode of nickel complex.

    PubMed

    Alomar, Kusaï; Landreau, Anne; Allain, Magali; Bouet, Gilles; Larcher, Gérald

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of nickel(II), copper(II) chlorides and cadmium(II) chloride and bromide with thiophene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) (2,3BTSTCH2) leads to a series of new complexes: [Ni(2,3BTSTCH)]Cl, [Cu(2,3BTSTC)], [CdCl2(2,3BTSTCH2)] and [CdBr2(2,3BTSTCH2)]. The crystal structures of the ligand and of [Ni(2,3BTSTCH)]Cl complex have been determined. In this case, we remark an unusual non-symmetrical coordination mode for the two functional groups: one acting as a thione and the second as a deprotonated thiolate. All compounds have been tested for their antifungal activity against human pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus, the cadmium complexes exhibit the highest antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using two biological methods: human MRC5 cultured cells and brine shrimp Artemia salina bioassay. PMID:23792913

  7. Synthesis and structural characterisation of iron(II) and copper(II) diphosphates containing flattened metal oxotetrahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Keates, Adam C.; Wang, Qianlong; Weller, Mark T.

    2014-02-15

    Single crystal and bulk polycrystalline forms of K{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M=Fe(II), Cu(II)) have been synthesised and their structures determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the tetragonal system, space group P-42{sub 1}m. Their structures are formed from infinite sheets of linked oxopolyhedra of the stoichiometry [MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 2−} with potassium cations situated between the layers. The MO{sub 4} tetrahedra share oxygen atoms with [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 4−} diphosphate groups and the potassium ions have KO{sub 8} square prismatic geometry. In both compounds the M(II) centre has an unusual strongly flattened, tetrahedral coordination to oxygen, as a result of the Jahn–Teller (JT) effect for the high spin d{sup 6} Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing or a second order JT effect for d{sup 9} Cu(II) centres in four fold coordination. The uncommon transition metal ion environments found in these materials are reflected in their optical absorption spectra and magnetism data. - Graphical abstract: The structures of the tetragonal polymorphs of K{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, M=Cu(II), Fe(II), consist of infinite sheets of stoichiometry [MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 2−}, formed from linked pyrophosphate groups and MO{sub 4} tetrahedra, separated by potassium ions. In both compounds the unusual tetrahedral coordination of the M(II) centre is strongly flattened as a result of Jahn–Teller (JT) effects for high spin, d{sup 6} Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing and second-order JT effects for d{sup 9} Cu(II). Display Omitted - Highlights: • Tetrahedral copper and iron(II) coordinated by oxygen. • New layered phosphate structure. • Jahn–Teller and d{sup 10} distorted coordinations.

  8. Iron sulfide attenuates the methanogenic toxicity of elemental copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles and their soluble metal ion analogs.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Gallagher, Sara; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-04-01

    Elemental copper (Cu(0)) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) toxicity to methanogens has been attributed to the release of soluble metal ions. Iron sulfide (FeS) partially controls the soluble concentration of heavy metals and their toxicity in aquatic environments. Heavy metals displace the Fe from FeS forming poorly soluble metal sulfides in the FeS matrix. Therefore, FeS may be expected to attenuate the NP toxicity. This work assessed FeS as an attenuator of the methanogenic toxicity of Cu(0) and ZnO NPs and their soluble salt analogs. The toxicity attenuation capacity of fine (25-75μm) and coarse (500 to 1200μm) preparations of FeS (FeS-f and FeS-c respectively) was tested in the presence of highly inhibitory concentrations of CuCl2, ZnCl2 Cu(0) and ZnO NPs. FeS-f attenuated methanogenic toxicity better than FeS-c. The results revealed that 2.5× less FeS-f than FeS-c was required to recover the methanogenic activity to 50% (activity normalized to uninhibited controls). The results also indicated that a molar FeS-f/Cu(0) NP, FeS-f/ZnO NP, FeS-f/ZnCl2, and FeS-f/CuCl2 ratio of 2.14, 2.14, 4.28, and 8.56 respectively, was necessary to recover the methanogenic activity to >75%. Displacement experiments demonstrated that CuCl2 and ZnCl2 partially displaced Fe from FeS. As a whole, the results indicate that not all the sulfide in FeS was readily available to react with the soluble Cu and Zn ions which may explain the need for a large stoichiometric excess of FeS to highly attenuate Cu and Zn toxicity. Overall, this study provides evidence that FeS attenuates the toxicity caused by Cu(0) and ZnO NPs and their soluble ion analogs to methanogens. PMID:26803736

  9. The antitumor mechanism of di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone and its copper complex in ROS generation and topoisomerase inhibition, and hydrazone involvement in oxygen-catalytic iron mobilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfei; Li, Cuiping; Sun, Xingzhi; Zhu, Zhenfu; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2015-11-01

    Iron depletion and stimulation of iron-dependent free radical damage is a rapidly developing field for chelation therapy, but the iron mobilization from ferritin by chelators has received less attention. In this study, the di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (DPPCAH) and its copper complex was prepared and characterized by NMR and MS spectra. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that both DPPCAH and its copper complex exhibited selectively proliferation inhibition for HepG2 (IC50, 4.6 ± 0.2 µM for DPPACH and 1.3 ± 0.2 µM for its copper complex), but less inhibition for HCT-116 cell line (IC50, >100 µM for DPPACH and 7.8 ± 0.4 µM for its copper complex). The mechanistic studies revealed that DPPACH could remove iron from ferritin in a oxygen-catalytic manner, and contributed to redox activity of labile iron pool (LIP), that is less reported for the chelators that possess significant biological activity. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA cleavage assay in vitro and in vivo showed that both DPPACH-Fe(II) and DPPACH-Cu were redox-active species, indicating that ROS may mediate their antitumor activity. Further study revealed that both DPPACH and its copper complex displayed certain degree of inhibition of type II topoisomerase (Top) which contributed to their antitumor activity. Thus, the mechanism that iron mobilization by DPPACH from ferritin contributed to LIP was proposed, and both DPPACH and its copper complex were involved in ROS generation and Top II inhibition for their antitumor activities. PMID:26398524

  10. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (Anacardium occidentale L.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Ana Cristina Silva; Soares, Denise Josino; da Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; de Abreu Menezes, Eveline

    2014-10-15

    Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. As a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fraction were 15% and 11.5% and for zinc this level was 3.7%. Regarding the cashew apple fibre, the bioaccessible fraction for these minerals was lower than 5%. The ascorbic acid, total extractable polyphenols and total antioxidant activity bioaccessible fraction for whole cashew apple juice showed bioaccessibility percentages of 26.2%, 39% and 27%, respectively, while for the cashew apple fibre, low bioaccessibles levels were found. The bioacessible percentage of zinc, ascorbic acid and total extractable polyphenols were higher in cashew apple juice than cashew apple fibre. PMID:24837932

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Iron, Copper and Cobalt in Food Samples by CCD-diode Array Detection-Flow Injection Analysis with Partial Least Squares Calibration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Jiaping; Li, Yuanqian; Zhou, Xiaoli; Zheng, Bo; Zhou, Ying

    2006-01-01

    A flow injection-CCD diode array detection spectrophotometry with partial least squares (PLS) program for simultaneous determination of iron, copper and cobalt in food samples has been established. The method was based on the chromogenic reaction of the three metal ions and 2- (5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, 5-Br-PADAP in acetic acid - sodium acetate buffer solution (pH5) with Triton X-100 and ascorbic acid. The overlapped spectra of the colored complexes were collected by charge-coupled device (CCD) - diode array detector and the multi-wavelength absorbance data was processed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Optimum reaction conditions and parameters of flow injection analysis were investigated. The samples of tea, sesame, laver, millet, cornmeal, mung bean and soybean powder were determined by the proposed method. The average recoveries of spiked samples were 91.80%~100.9% for Iron, 92.50%~108.0% for Copper, 93.00%~110.5% for Cobalt, respectively with relative standard deviation (R.S.D) of 1.1%~12.1%. The sampling rate is 45 samples h-1. The determination results of the food samples were in good agreement between the proposed method and ICP-AES.

  12. Determination of uranium, iron, copper, and nickel from ore samples by MEKC using N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylaldimine) as complexing reagent.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Muhammed Aslam; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Arain, Rafee

    2008-02-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the separation of dioxouranium(VI), iron(III), copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), cobalt(III), palladium(II), and thorium(IV) by MEKC using N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylaldimine) (H(2)SA(2)en) as a complexing reagent with total runtime <4.5 min. SDS was used as micellar medium at pH 8 with sodium tetraborate buffer (0.1 M). An uncoated fused-silica capillary with an effective length of 50 cm x 75 microm id was used with an applied voltage of 30 kV with photodiode array detection at 231 nm. Linear calibrations were obtained within 0.111-1000 microg/mL of each element with LODs within 37-325 ng/mL. The developed method was tested for analysis of uranium ore samples indicating its presence within 103-1789 microg/g with RSD within 0.79-1.87%. Likewise copper, nickel, and iron in their combined matrix were also simultaneously determined with RSD 0.4-1.6% (n = 6). PMID:18186535

  13. Long-distance transport, vacuolar sequestration and transcriptional responses induced by cadmium and arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Hauser, Felix; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Iron, zinc, copper and manganese are essential metals for cellular enzyme functions while cadmium, mercury and the metalloid arsenic lack any biological function. Both, essential and non-essential metals and metalloids are extremely reactive and toxic. Therefore, plants have acquired specialized mechanisms to sense, transport and maintain essential metals within physiological concentrations and to detoxify non-essential metals and metalloids. This review focuses on the recent identification of transporters that sequester cadmium and arsenic in vacuoles and the mechanisms mediating the partitioning of these metal(loid)s between roots and shoots. We further discuss recent models of phloem-mediated long-distance transport, seed accumulation of Cd and As and recent data demonstrating that plants posses a defined transcriptional response that allow plants to preserve metal homeostasis. This research is instrumental for future engineering of reduced toxic metal(loid) accumulation in edible crop tissues as well as for improved phytoremediation technologies. PMID:21820943

  14. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Fusion Welds and Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in an Iron-Copper Based Multi-Component Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farren, Jeffrey David

    NUCu-140 is a copper-precipitation strengthened steel that exhibits excellent mechanical properties with a relatively simple chemical composition and processing schedule. As a result, NUCu-140 is a candidate material for use in many naval and structural applications. Before NUCu-140 can be implemented as a replacement for currently utilized materials, a comprehensive welding strategy must be developed under a wide range of welding conditions. This research represents an initial step toward understanding the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs during fusion welding of NUCu-140. The following dissertation is presented as a series of four chapters. Chapter one is a review of the relevant literature on the iron-copper system including the precipitation of copper in steel, the development of the NUCu family of alloys, and the formation of acicular ferrite in steel weldments. Chapter two is a detailed study of the precipitate, microstructural, and mechanical property evolution of NUCu-140 fusion welds. Microhardness testing, tensile testing, local-electrode atom probe (LEAP) tomography, MatCalc kinetic simulations, and Russell-Brown strengthening results for gas-tungsten and gas-metal arc welds are presented. Chapter three is a thorough study of the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs in the four critical regions of the HAZ. Simulated HAZ specimens were produced and evaluated using microhardness, tensile testing, and charpy impact testing. MatCalc simulations and R-B strengthening calculations were also performed in an effort to model the experimentally observed mechanical property trends. Chapter 4 is a brief investigation into the capabilities of MatCalc and the R-B model to determine if the two techniques could be used as predictive tools for a series of binary iron-copper alloys without the aid of experimentally measured precipitate data. The mechanical property results show that local softening occurs in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) as a result of either full or partial dissolution of the copper-rich precipitates responsible for strengthening. Re-precipitation of the copper-rich precipitates was observed during the cooling portion of the weld thermal cycle but the resultant precipitate phase fractions were too low to fully recover the lost strength. The coarse-grained HAZ and fusion zone exhibited an acicular type microstructure which led to improved tensile properties when compared to the other regions of the HAZ. MatCalc simulations displayed excellent agreement with the precipitate parameters measured experimentally using the LEAP. The R-B model was shown to provide reasonable agreement under select conditions, but in general was determined to be overly sensitive to small variations in precipitate parameters. As a result in should be considered a qualitative tool only for precipitate radii less than ˜2 nm. Finally, it was determined that the current generation of MatCalc software was unable to accurately capture the precipitate evolution of various binary iron-copper alloys when experimental data sets were not available for calibration of the model parameters.

  15. Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the metabolism of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in an animal model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bogden, J.D.; Al-Rabiai, S.; Gilani, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (AC) is one of the diseases caused by alcohol abuse, and there has been considerable debate about the possibility that nutritional factors may be important in the etiology of AC. In addition, there is evidence that ethanol may affect the metabolism of trace elements. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if chronic ethanol administration produces changes in the metabolism of the essential metals copper, iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium using an animal model of AC. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; an ad libitum control group (AL), a pair-fed control group (PF), and an ethanol-dosed group (ETOH). The latter group received gradually increasing concentrations (5-25%) of ethanol in the drinking water for 15 wk. Food intake was monitored and urine and feces collected for a 4-d period during the study to determine ethanol effects on trace-element balance. Growth of both the PF and ETOH animals was inhibited. Ethanol produced substantial increases in liver manganese and decreases in liver copper and zinc. Metal concentrations in heart and concentrations in other tissues studied (spleen, testes, brain, bone, kidney, and muscle) did not differ significantly among the groups, except for testes selenium and kidney zinc. Reduced food intake and ethanol ingestion were associated with a reduced percentage of ingested selenium excreted in the urine. Deficiencies of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in myocardial tissue are not likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of AC in the rat. 38 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  16. Iron, manganese and copper emitted by cargo and passenger trains in Zürich (Switzerland): Size-segregated mass concentrations in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Gehrig, Robert; Hill, Matthias; Lienemann, Peter; Zwicky, Christoph N.; Buchmann, Brigitte; Weingartner, Ernest; Baltensperger, Urs

    Particle emissions caused by railway traffic have hardly been investigated in the past, due to their obviously minor influence on air quality compared to automotive traffic. In this study, emissions related to particle abrasion from wheels and tracks were investigated next to a busy railway line in Zürich (Switzerland), where trains run nearly exclusively with electrical locomotives. Hourly size-segregated aerosol samples (0.1-1, 1-2.5 and 2.5-10 μm) were collected with a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequently analyzed by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). In this way, hourly elemental mass concentrations were obtained for chromium, manganese, iron and copper, which are the elements most relevant for railway abrasion. Additionally, daily aerosol filters were collected at the same site as well as at a background site for subsequent analysis by gravimetry and wavelength dispersive XRF (WD-XRF). Railway related ambient air concentrations of iron and manganese were calculated for the coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (<2.5 μm) particle fraction by means of a Mn/Fe ratio investigation. The comparison to train type and frequency data showed that 75% and 60% of the iron and manganese mass concentrations related to cargo and passenger trains, respectively, were found in the coarse mode. The railway related iron mass concentration normalized by the train frequency ranges between 10 and 100 ng m -3 h iron in 10 m distance to the tracks, depending on train type. It is estimated that the personal exposure next to a busy railway line above ground is more than a magnitude lower than inside a subway station.

  17. Determination of adsorptive and catalytic properties of copper, silver and iron contain titanium-pillared bentonite for the removal bisphenol A from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomul, Fatma; Turgut Basoglu, Funda; Canbay, Hale

    2016-01-01

    Ti-pillared bentonite, Cu, Ag and Fe modified Ti-pillared bentonite and Cu/Ti- and Fe/Ti-mixed pillared bentonite were synthesized using different titanium sources by direct synthesis or by modification after synthesis. The effects of synthesis conditions on the surface characteristics, pore structure and acidity of the pillared bentonites were investigated by SEM-EDS, XPS, XRD, N2-adsorption/desorption and FTIR analyses before and after ammonia adsorption. The results of EDS, XPS and XRD analysis confirmed that titanium, copper, silver and iron were incorporated into the bentonite structure. In the XRD patterns, the formation of delaminated structure reflecting the non-parallel distribution of the bentonite layers by pillaring with Ti, Cu/Ti and Fe/Ti-pillars was observed. XPS spectra indicated the presence of TiO2, CuO, Ag and Ag2O and Fe2O3 species depending on the source of active metals in the synthesized samples. In the FTIR spectra, an increase in the Bronsted/Lewis peak intensity was observed with the loading of copper and iron, whereas a decrease in Lewis and Bronsted acidities was observed with incorporation of silver. Adsorption studies indicated that the adsorption capacity of the sample synthesized using titanium (IV) propoxide and incorporating iron to the structure by ion exchange (Fe-PTi-PILC) were higher than those in other samples. The adsorption of BPA (bisphenol A) by all tested samples was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm. In the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) over PTi-PILC (prepared by titanium (IV) propoxide), Fe-PTi-PILC and Cu-PTi-PILC (prepared by copper impregnated Ti-pillared bentonite) samples, BPA values close to complete conversion were achieved within 30 min at 25 °C, pH 4 and 5 g/L mcat. CWPO results showed that increasement of pH causes a decrease the rate of oxidation. On the other hand, by the time catalyst and BPA concentration is increased, the rate of oxidation is increased as well.

  18. US Food and Drug Administration survey of cadmium, lead and other elements in clams and oysters.

    PubMed

    Capar, S G; Yess, N J

    1996-07-01

    In Fiscal Years 1985/1986, the US Food and Drug Administration conducted a survey of cadmium, lead and other elements in fresh clams and oysters collected from US coastal areas in use for shellfish production. Shellfish were analysed for cadmium and lead by using a dry ash-anodic stripping voltammetric method. Other elements (aluminium, arsenic, beryllium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, strontium, vanadium and zinc) were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, direct current plasma-atomic emission spectrometry or hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 75 hardshell clam, 59 softshell clam, 104 Eastern oyster and 40 Pacific oyster samples were analysed for cadmium and lead. Average levels found were 0.09, 0.05, 0.51 and 1.1 mg/kg wet weight for cadmium and 0.24, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.06 mg/kg wet weight for lead in hardshell clams, softshell clams, Eastern oysters and Pacific oysters, respectively. The other 19 elements were determined in 10-104 samples of the four types of shellfish. These data provide baseline values for elements in clams and oysters harvested from US coastal waters. PMID:8799717

  19. Iron oxide copper-gold deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 79): Chapter M in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernette, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Mauritania hosts one significant copper-gold deposit, Guelb Moghrein and several occurrences, which have been categorized as iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits but which are atypical in some important respects. Nonetheless, Guelb Moghrein is an economically significant mineral deposit and an attractive exploration target. The deposit is of Archean age and is hosted by a distinctive metacarbonate rock which is part of a greenstone-banded iron formation (BIF) package within a thrust stack in the northern part of the Mauritanide Belt. The surrounding area hosts a number of similar copper-gold occurrences. Based on the characteristics of the Guelb Moghrein deposit and its geologic environment, five tracts which are considered permissive for IOCG type mineralization similar to Guelb Moghrein have been delineated.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted one-pot synthesis of anti-CML nucleosides featuring 1,2,3-triazole nucleobase under iron-copper catalysis.

    PubMed

    Driowya, Mohsine; Puissant, Alexandre; Robert, Guillaume; Auberger, Patrick; Benhida, Rachid; Bougrin, Khalid

    2012-11-01

    A simple and efficient synthesis of modified 1,2,3-triazole nucleosides was developed. The strategy involved sequential one-pot acetylation-azidation-cycloaddition procedure and was found to be highly effective under a cooperative effect of ultrasound activation and iron/copper catalysis. The reactions were carried out under both conventional and ultrasonic irradiation conditions. In general, improvement in rates and yields were observed when reactions were carried out under sonication compared with conventional conditions. This one-pot procedure provides several advantages such as operational simplicity, high yield, safety and environment friendly protocol. The resulting substituted nucleosides were evaluated for their anticancer activity against K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line. PMID:22595539

  1. Electrodeposition of copper and iron oxides on to activated carbon fibre cloths: application to H2S and NH3 removal from air.

    PubMed

    Subrenat, A; Le Leuch, L M; Le Cloirec, P

    2008-09-01

    The present study concerns metal electrodeposition onto activated carbon fibre cloths (ACFC) for the treatment of odorous molecules such as hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Characterizations of virgin, chemical impregnated and electroimpregnated carbon fibre cloths allowed the determination of the physical and chemical properties of such materials. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms in a batch reactor were carried out with non-impregnated and copper- or iron-impregnated ACFC. It was observed that differences in the metal deposit directly influenced the porous structure and elimination kinetics and capacities towards both odorous molecules. Compared to non-impregnated material, the adsorption velocities decrease in the case of chemically impregnated materials whereas they were similar when electrodeposition was used. Moreover, the maximal adsorption capacities were highest when metal was electrochemically deposited. PMID:18844126

  2. Table of interplanar spacings for crystal-structure determinations by X-ray diffraction with molybdenum, copper, cobalt, iron, and chromium radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, J Howard

    1945-01-01

    For a simple diffraction pattern, the time required to calculate interplanar distances from measurements of the pattern is not excessive. If more than a few lines are present, however, or if several patterns are to be studied, it is very advantageous to have available a table giving interplanar spacings directly in terms of the linear measurements made on the film of the lines appearing on the diffraction pattern. The preparation of the table given here was undertaken when the expansion of research activities involving X-ray diffraction techniques indicated that such a table would greatly decrease the time required to analyze diffraction patterns. The table was prepared for use with K alpha(sub 1) radiation from the following target materials: molybdenum, copper, cobalt, iron, and chromium.

  3. Evaluating In-Situ Reactions of Chlorine and Chloramines at the Surface of Copper and Iron using Microelectrodes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion of drinking water plumbing materials is a significant cause of deterioration of treated drinking water quality and a failure to supply safe water to the public. As a result of the Lead and Copper Rule, many water utilities in the US have developed and evaluated corrosio...

  4. Studies of concentration and temperature dependences of precipitation kinetics in iron-copper alloys using kinetic Monte Carlo and stochastic statistical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Khromov, K. Yu.; Vaks, V. G. Zhuravlev, I. A.

    2013-02-15

    The previously developed ab initio model and the kinetic Monte Carlo method (KMCM) are used to simulate precipitation in a number of iron-copper alloys with different copper concentrations x and temperatures T. The same simulations are also made using an improved version of the previously suggested stochastic statistical method (SSM). The results obtained enable us to make a number of general conclusions about the dependences of the decomposition kinetics in Fe-Cu alloys on x and T. We also show that the SSM usually describes the precipitation kinetics in good agreement with the KMCM, and using the SSM in conjunction with the KMCM allows extending the KMC simulations to the longer evolution times. The results of simulations seem to agree with available experimental data for Fe-Cu alloys within statistical errors of simulations and the scatter of experimental results. Comparison of simulation results with experiments for some multicomponent Fe-Cu-based alloys allows making certain conclusions about the influence of alloying elements in these alloys on the precipitation kinetics at different stages of evolution.

  5. Temporal trends in the concentration of arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, vanadium and zinc in mosses across Europe between 1990 and 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmens, Harry; Norris, David A.; Koerber, Georgia R.; Buse, Alan; Steinnes, Eiliv; Rühling, Åke

    The European heavy metals in mosses biomonitoring network provides data on the concentration of 10 heavy metals in naturally growing mosses and is currently coordinated by the UNECE ICP Vegetation (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe International Co-operative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops). The technique of moss analysis provides a surrogate, time-integrated measure of metal deposition from the atmosphere to terrestrial systems. It is easier and cheaper, less prone to contamination and allows a much higher sampling density than conventional precipitation analysis. Moss surveys have been repeated at five-yearly intervals and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, vanadium and zinc between 1990 and 2000. Maps were produced of the metal concentration in mosses for 1990, 1995 and 2000, showing the mean concentration per metal per 50km×50km EMEP grid square. Metal- and country-specific temporal trends were observed. Although the metal concentration in mosses generally decreased with time for all metals, only the decreases for arsenic, copper, vanadium and zinc were statistically significant. The observed temporal trends were compared with emission trends for Europe reported by EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutant in Europe).

  6. Effects of polyphenol-rich plant products from grape or hop as feed supplements on iron, zinc and copper status in piglets.

    PubMed

    Fiesel, Anja; Ehrmann, Melanie; Geßner, Denise K; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich plant products as feed supplements have been shown to exert beneficial effects on feed efficiency in piglets. However, tannins as components of polyphenol-rich plant products are able to reduce the absorption of various trace elements. The present study investigated the effect of two polyphenol-rich dietary supplements, grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GME) and spent hops (SH), on iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) status in piglets supplied adequately with those trace elements. A trial with three groups of piglets which received a Control diet or the same diet supplemented with either 1% GME or 1% SH over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cu in plasma, total iron binding capacity and saturation of transferrin in plasma did not differ between the three groups. Piglets fed the diet supplemented with SH showed no differences in the concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cu in the liver in comparison to the Control group. Piglets fed the diets supplemented with GME showed slightly lower concentrations of Zn and Cu in the liver than Control piglets (p < 0.05); however, concentrations of both elements remained in the physiological range. Overall, this study shows that the polyphenol-rich plant products GME and SH had marginal effect on the status of Fe, Zn and Cu in piglets. PMID:26097996

  7. Studies of Zn, Mg, Cu, Ca and Fe in cadmium poisoned toads before and after treatment with EDTA.

    PubMed

    Hilmy, A M; el-Domiaty, N A; Daabees, A Y; Abou-Taleb, E M

    1986-01-01

    Zn, Mg, Cu, Ca and Fe were determined spectrophotometrically in liver, kidneys, muscle, spleen and blood of Bufo regularis after a single i.m. injection of 6.2 mg Cd/kg (which represents the 96 hr LD50) alone or in combination with 40 mg EDTA/kg (the minimal EDTA concentration causing 100% survival over that period). Cadmium administration caused recognizable effects on the essential metals levels in different tissues and organs. In the majority of the tissues and organs studied, zinc and copper concentrations returned to their normal ranges in animals that received both cadmium and EDTA. In contrast, magnesium, calcium and iron contents not only returned back to their control values but also exceeded them. PMID:2877783

  8. The interaction of antitumor-active anthraquinones with biologically important redox couples: I. Spectrophotometric investigation of the interaction of carminic acid and mitoxantrone with the iron (II, III) and copper (I, II) redox couples.

    PubMed

    Tütem, E; Apak, R; Sözgen, K

    1996-02-01

    Studying the interaction of antitumor-active anthraquinones with biologically important redox couples is important in understanding the possible reductive or oxidative mode of metabolism of these antineoplastic agents coupled with the formation of free radicals. The interactions of such anthraquinones, i.e., carminic acid (CA) and mitoxantrone (Mx) with iron(II, III) and copper(I, II) redox couples in oxygenated and deaerated solutions, were investigated by UV-Visible and IR-spectroscopy. The superoxide radical reagent, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), was added to the metal and anthraquinone solutions and their binary mixtures at varying pH. Formazan, the reduction product of NBT, was produced mainly as a result of Fe(II)-NBT and Fe(II)-Mx-NBT interactions. The ternary mixtures of the lower valencies of iron and copper with CA and NBT exhibited intensive charge-transfer bands in the visible region, while metal-Mx-NBT combinations did not produce such bands, possibly due to the blockage of the redox-active aminoethanolamine side-chains of Mx through coordination with the metals. Copper-Mx combinations showed an oxygen sensitivity as spectral evidence was obtained for the oxidative transformation of Mx to the cyclic primary metabolite. The results were evaluated in regard to the possible oxidative activation of the studied anthracenediones with iron and copper systems. PMID:8576709

  9. SOURCES OF COPPER AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to update estimates of atmospheric emissions of copper and copper compounds in the U.S. Source categories evaluated included: metallic minerals, primary copper smelters, iron and steel making, combustion, municipal incineration, secondary coppe...

  10. The effect of heat flux on the rate of iron and copper corrosion product deposition in boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, T. I.; Kashinskii, V. I.; Semenov, V. N.; Makrushin, V. V.; Verkhovskii, A. E.; Nikolaev, P. A.; Duli, R. B.

    2008-07-01

    This publication is concerned with experimental data on the effect of heat flowrate (50 300 kW/m2) and iron concentration (10 40 g/dm3) i