These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Effects of zinc, iron and copper deficiencies on cadmium in tissues of Japanese quail. [Coturnix coturnix japonica  

SciTech Connect

Experiments with young Japanese quail were conducted to determine whether combined moderate deficiencies of zinc, iron and copper would cause greater uptake and tissue retention of cadmium than the single deficiencies. Birds were fed the experimental diets containing 62 ppb cadmium from hatching to 16 days of age. On day 9 each bird received a dose of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ in its diet. On day 10, the duodenal and jejunal-ileal tissues contained large amounts of cadmium, and there were many significant effects of treatment on cadmium-109 retention in the livers and kidneys. At day 16, zinc deficiency caused increased cadmium in the liver, whereas iron and copper deficiencies each caused increased cadmium in the kidneys. Combined deficiencies had little or no greater effect than single deficiencies and in some cases the combined effect was less than that of a single deficiency. 13 references, 11 tables.

Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Stone, C.L.; Fry, B.E. Jr.

1984-03-01

2

Interaction between anemia and blood levels of iron, zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Anemia is a widespread problem among infants and children in many parts of the world, and it is often associated with some\\u000a trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and heavy metals (cadmium and lead). Aim of this study was to investigate the relationship\\u000a between anemia and these elements.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This research was performed on 256 children (mean age 6.8 ± 0.2) living

Sebahat Turgut; Aziz Polat; Murat Inan; Günfer Turgut; Gülten Emmungil; Mevlüt Bican; Tugrul Yasin Karakus; Osman Genç

2007-01-01

3

Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish  

SciTech Connect

The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.

Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.

1986-04-01

4

Influence of organic matter on the uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and iron by sorghum plants.  

PubMed

This article describes an experiment, carried out under controlled environment conditions, to investigate the effects of a fulvic acid fraction of soil organic matter on growth, cadmium (Cd) uptake and redistribution by sorghum. In addition the uptake of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) was also determined. Sorghum was grown in nutrient solutions with 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd dm(-3), in the absence and presence of organic matter (32 mg C dm(-3)), for various periods up to 20 days. A decrease in sorghum biomass due to Cd toxicity was observed at 10 mg Cd dm(-3), but for concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg Cd dm(-3) the biomass was increased compared with control, without visual toxicity symptoms. The presence of organic matter (OM) further increased biomass production. Cadmium was mainly retained in sorghum roots, as usually found in tolerant plants, but Cd accumulation in sorghum was greater than in other Gramineae, or even more tolerant plants such as lettuce. The presence of OM decreased the bioavailability of Cd that was partially retained in solution by the OM ligands. However, OM promoted the translocation of Cd to shoots, an effect that may pose a risk to public health because plant-animal transfer of Cd could be enhanced. The presence of OM decreased the uptake of Cu, Zn and Fe. The presence (vs. absence) of 0.1 mg Cd dm(-3) enhanced the uptake of Fe, both in the absence and presence of OM. PMID:15142779

Pinto, A P; Mota, A M; de Varennes, A; Pinto, F C

2004-06-29

5

Inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric method is described for the determination of six elements in a variety of geological materials. Sixteen reference materials are analysed by this technique to demonstrate its use in geochemical exploration. Samples are decomposed with nitric, hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids, and the residue dissolved in hydrochloric acid and diluted to volume. The elements are determined in two groups based on compatibility of instrument operating conditions and consideration of crustal abundance levels. Cadmium, Cu, Pb and Zn are determined as a group in the 50-ml sample solution under one set of instrument conditions with the use of scatter correction. Limitations of the scatter correction technique used with the fluorescence instrument are discussed. Iron and Mn are determined together using another set of instrumental conditions on a 1-50 dilution of the sample solution without the use of scatter correction. The ranges of concentration (??g g-1) of these elements in the sample that can be determined are: Cd, 0.3-500; Cu, 0.4-500; Fe, 85-250 000; Mn, 45-100 000; Pb, 5-10 000; and Zn, 0.4-300. The precision of the method is usually less than 5% relative standard deviation (RSD) over a wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy is shown by the agreement between values obtained and those recommended for the reference materials.

Sanzolone, R.F.

1986-01-01

6

Simultaneous coprecipitation of lead, cobalt, copper, cadmium, iron and nickel in food samples with zirconium(IV) hydroxide prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination.  

PubMed

A simple and new coprecipitation procedure is developed for the determination of trace quantities of heavy metals (lead, cobalt, copper, cadmium, iron and nickel) in natural water and food samples. Analyte ions were coprecipitated by using zirconium(IV) hydroxide. The determination of metal levels was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The influences of analytical parameters including pH, amount of zirconium(IV), sample volume, etc. were investigated on the recoveries of analyte ions. The effects of possible matrix ions were also examined. The recoveries of the analyte ions were in the range of 95-100%. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The detection limits for the analyte ions based on 3 sigma (n=21) were in the range of 0.27-2.50 microgL(-1). Relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 8%. The validation of the presented coprecipitation procedure was performed by the analysis certified reference materials (GBW 07605 Tea and LGC 6010 Hard drinking water). The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and food samples like coffee, fish, tobacco, black and green tea. PMID:19539005

Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

2009-09-01

7

High copper concentrations in squid livers in association with elevated levels of silver, cadmium, and zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livers from 43 Loligo opalescens, 14 Ommastrephes bartrami, and 7 Symplectoteuthis oualaniensis were analyzed for their silver, cadmium, copper, zinc and iron contents. Copper concentrations of up to 15,000 µg\\/g dry weight were found in L. opalescens in conjunction with significant correlations between this element and Ag, Cd and Zn. The latter elements are known to affect Cu metabolism in

J. H. Martin; A. R. Flegal

1975-01-01

8

Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus  

SciTech Connect

Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothioneinlike protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected.

Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.

1986-03-01

9

Monitoring Trace Metal Levels in Yozgat-Turkey: Copper, Iron, Nickel, Cobalt, Lead, Cadmium, Manganese and Chromium Levels in Stream Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presented study, the concentrations of some heavy metal ions in bottom sediment samples col- lected from streams around Yozgat-Turkey in December 1998 and October 1999 were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after leaching with aqua regia. Copper, iron, nickel, cobalt, lead, manganese and chromium levels in the sediment samples were found in the range of 10.4-16.7

M. Soylak; U. Divrikli; S. Saracoglu; L. Elci

10

Molecular Mediators Governing Iron-Copper Interactions  

PubMed Central

Given their similar physiochemical properties, it is a logical postulate that iron and copper metabolism are intertwined. Indeed, iron-copper interactions were first documented over a century ago, but the homeostatic effects of one on the other has not been elucidated at a molecular level to date. Recent experimental work has, however, begun to provide mechanistic insight into how copper influences iron metabolism. During iron deficiency, elevated copper levels are observed in the intestinal mucosa, liver, and blood. Copper accumulation and/or redistribution within enterocytes may influence iron transport, and high hepatic copper may enhance biosynthesis of a circulating ferroxidase, which potentiates iron release from stores. Moreover, emerging evidence has documented direct effects of copper on the expression and activity of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. This review summarizes current experimental work in this field, with a focus on molecular aspects of iron-copper interplay and how these interactions relate to various disease states. PMID:24995690

Gulec, Sukru; Collins, James F.

2015-01-01

11

ACUTE LETHALITY OF COPPER, CADMIUM, AND ZINC TO NORTHERN SQUAWFISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 micrograms/liter for copper, 1,104 micrograms/liter for cadmium, and 3,693 micrograms/liter...

12

Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and  

E-print Network

Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass and crustaceans. Arsenic showed some evidence of biomagnifica- tion. Total arsenic concentrations are similar

Canberra, University of

13

Acute lethality of copper, cadmium, and zinc to northern squawfish  

SciTech Connect

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 ..mu..g/liter for copper, 1104 ..mu..g/liter for cadmium, and 3693 ..mu..g/liter for zinc in 12/sup 0/C water. These values, when compared to those for chinook salmon and steelhead parr tested under similar conditions, show that the northern squawfish are more tolerant than the two salmonids to zinc and cadmium but equally sensitive to copper.

Andros, J.D.; Garton, R.R.

1980-03-01

14

Mortality of copper cadmium alloy workers with special reference to lung cancer and non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system, 1946-92  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To identify and quantify any relations between occupational exposure to cadmium oxide fume and mortalities from lung cancer and from chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system. METHODS--The mortality experience of 347 copper cadmium alloy workers, 624 workers employed in the vicinity of copper cadmium alloy work (vicinity workers), and 521 iron and brass foundry workers (all men) was investigated

T Sorahan; A Lister; M S Gilthorpe; J M Harrington

1995-01-01

15

Electrolytic Corrosion of Iron and Copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is generally accepted that if cast iron and copper are coupled together in a brine solution, the iron, being the less noble member, is likely to suffer corrosion. The copper, on the other hand, will be made `more negative' by contact with the iron and will be prevented in greater or less degree from corroding. The classical work on

W. F. Higgins

1954-01-01

16

Retention of cadmium in cadmium-naive normal and iron-deficient rats as well as in cadmium-induced iron-deficient animals.  

PubMed

The retention of cadmium was investigated in cadmium-naive normal and iron-deficient rats in comparison to rats with cadmium-induced iron deficiency. Rats subchronically (4 weeks) exposed to dietary cadmium (28, 56, 112 ppm Cd and 28 ppm Fe) received a radioactively labeled dose of 2 mumol Cd/kg body wt; acutely (no cadmium exposure with diet) treated rats received doses between 1 and 8 mumol Cd/kg body wt. Two animals of each group received iron (1 mumol/kg as 59FeSO4 in order to monitor iron absorption in parallel. After a period of 4 weeks of feeding a cadmium-fortified diet, the test dose was administered and after a 2-weeks period 109Cd and of 59Fe retention was determined. The results showed in part an unexpected pattern of cadmium retention: subchronic feeding of cadmium induced iron deficiency. This implies an immediate interaction between the two metals with regard to intestinal transfer of iron. The retention of iron was increased in the Cd-induced anemia to the same extent as that in iron deficiency induced by iron restriction. Cadmium retention in iron deficiency induced by iron withdrawal also showed a marked increase, which implies that iron deficiency stimulates the intestinal transfer system for both metals in a similar way. Contrary to this effect, the cadmium retention in cadmium-induced iron deficiency was reduced to about 30% of control values. A self-induced aggravation of the body cadmium burden, as a consequence of the iron deficiency which is known to result from subchronic exposure to feeding of dietary cadmium, was thus excluded. PMID:2226245

Schäfer, S G; Schwegler, U; Schümann, K

1990-08-01

17

Acute Lethality of Copper, Cadmium, and Zinc to Northern Squawfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 ?g\\/liter for copper, 1,104 ?g\\/liter for cadmium, and 3,693 ?g\\/liter for zinc in 12 C water. These values, when compared to those for chinook salmon and steelhead parr tested under similar conditions, show that the northern

James D. Andros; Ronald R. Garton

1980-01-01

18

Acute lethality of copper, cadmium, and zinc to northern squawfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 ..mu..g\\/liter for copper, 1104 ..mu..g\\/liter for cadmium, and 3693 ..mu..g\\/liter for zinc in 12°C water. These values, when compared to those for chinook salmon and steelhead parr tested under similar conditions, show that the northern squawfish

JAMES D. ANDROS; RONALD R. GARTON

1980-01-01

19

Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg\\/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs

Khalid H. Zaghloul; Maha F. Ali; Manal G. Abd El-Bary; Mohamed Abd El-Harith

2010-01-01

20

Release of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc in a coal leachate, and their removal from solution undergoing neutralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole coal contains significant amounts of iron pyrite which is oxidized ultimately to ferric acid sulfate. As a result, trace elements are released from the coal and other minerals in potentially hazardous concentrations. The purpose of this research was to: (1) study the release and mobility of selected trace elements during the weathering of coal; (2) seek to understand factors

Tatum

1992-01-01

21

Cadmium  

Cancer.gov

Cadmium is a natural element found in tiny amounts in air, water, soil, and food. All soils and rocks, including coal and mineral fertilizers, contain some cadmium. Most cadmium used in the United States is extracted during the production of other metals such as zinc, lead, and copper. Cadmium does not corrode easily and has been used to manufacture batteries, pigments, metal coatings, and plastics.

22

Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

2010-04-01

23

Defective Copper Transport in the copt5 Mutant Affects Cadmium Tolerance.  

PubMed

Cadmium toxicity interferes with essential metal homeostasis, which is a problem for both plant nutrition and the consumption of healthy food by humans. Copper uptake is performed by the members of the Arabidopsis high affinity copper transporter (COPT) family. One of the members, COPT5, is involved in copper recycling from the vacuole toward the cytosolic compartment. We show herein that copt5 mutants are more sensitive to cadmium stress than wild-type plants, as indicated by reduced growth. Exacerbated cadmium toxicity in copt5 mutants is due specifically to altered copper traffic through the COPT5 transporter. Three different processes which have been shown to affect cadmium tolerance are altered in copt5 mutants. First, ethylene biosynthesis diminishes under copper deficiency and, in the presence of cadmium, ethylene production diminishes further. Copper deficiency responses are also attenuated under cadmium treatment. Remarkably, while copt5 roots present higher oxidative stress toxicity symptoms than controls, aerial copt5 parts display lower oxidative stress, as seen by reduced cadmium delivery to shoots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that copper transport plays a key role in cadmium resistance, and suggest that oxidative stress triggers an NADPH oxidase-mediated signaling pathway, which contributes to cadmium translocation and basal plant resistance. The slightly lower cadmium levels that reach aerial parts in the copt5 mutants, irrespective of the copper content in the media, suggest a new biotechnological approach to minimize toxic cadmium entry into food chains. PMID:25432970

Carrió-Seguí, Angela; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Sanz, Amparo; Peñarrubia, Lola

2015-03-01

24

HAFNIUM AS ALLOYING ELEMENT IN COPPER, IRON, AND NICKEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical resistance, the thermal EMF, the coefficient of thermal ; expansion, and the hardness of copper, iron, and nickel with different additions ; of hafnium were measured and the solubility of hsfnium in copper, iron and nickel ; was determined. The influence of the addition of hafnium on the ; recrystallization of copper, iron and nickel was investigated, too.

Reinbach

1960-01-01

25

Effects of cadmium and copper biosorption on Chlorella vulgaris.  

PubMed

Changes in protein levels and lipid compositions in algal cells indicate the severity of stress related to toxic concentrations of heavy metals. In this study, the effects of exposure to cadmium and copper on Chlorella vulgaris and its capacity to remove metals were evaluated. The data revealed ion removal activity by microalgae under all treatments and different levels of protein expression after 48 h of exposure. Furthermore, we analyzed lipids contents to characterize them. PMID:25151280

de Abreu, Fabiano C P; da Costa, Péricles N M; Brondi, Ariadne M; Pilau, Eduardo J; Gozzo, Fábio C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Trevisan, Marcello G; Garcia, Jerusa S

2014-10-01

26

The mechanism of cadmium surface complexation on iron oxyhydroxide minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many sediment and soil systems have become significantly contaminated with cadmium, and earth scientists are now required to make increasingly accurate predictions of the risks that this contamination poses. This necessitates an improved understanding of the processes that control the mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in the environment. With this in mind, we have studied the composition and structure of aqueous cadmium sorption complexes on the iron oxyhydroxide minerals goethite (?-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH), akaganeite (?-FeOOH), and schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)6SO4) using extended X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy. The results show that adsorption to all of the studied minerals occurs via inner sphere adsorption over a wide range of pH and cadmium concentrations. The bonding mechanism varies between minerals and appears to be governed by the availability of different types of adsorption site at the mineral surface. The geometry and relative stability of cadmium adsorption complexes on the goethite surface was predicted with ab initio quantum mechanical modelling. The modelling results, used in combination with the extended X-ray adsorption fine structure data, allow an unambiguous determination of the mechanism by which cadmium bonds to goethite. Cadmium adsorbs to goethite by the formation of bidentate surface complexes at corner sharing sites on the predominant (110) crystallographic surface. There is no evidence for significant cadmium adsorption to goethite at the supposedly more reactive edge sharing sites. This is probably because the edge sharing sites are only available on the (021) crystallographic surface, which comprises just ?2% of the total mineral surface area. Conversely, cadmium adsorption on lepidocrocite occurs predominately by the formation of surface complexes at bi- and/or tridentate edge sharing sites. We explain the difference in extended X-ray adsorption fine structure results for cadmium adsorption on goethite and lepidocrocite by the greater availability of reactive edge sharing sites on lepidocrocite than on goethite. The structures of cadmium adsorption complexes on goethite and lepidocrocite appear to be unaffected by changes in pH and surface loading. There is no support for cadmium sorption to any of the studied minerals via the formation of an ordered precipitate, even at high pH and high cadmium concentration. Cadmium adsorption on akaganeite and schwertmannite also occurs via inner sphere bonding, but the mechanism(s) by which this occurs remains ambiguous.

Randall, S. R.; Sherman, D. M.; Ragnarsdottir, K. V.; Collins, Clare R.

1999-10-01

27

Contamination of soil and vegetation near a zinc smelter by zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal oxide fumes escaping from two zinc smelters in Palmerton, Pa., have highly contaminated soil and vegetation with zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead. Within 1 km of the smelters, 135,000 parts per million (ppm) zinc, 1750 ppm cadmium, 2000 ppm copper, and 2000 ppm lead have been measured in the Oâ horizon. Approximately 90% of metals deposited on the soil

Marilyn J. Buchauer

1973-01-01

28

Cadmium, copper and zinc in octopuses from Kerguelen Islands, Southern Indian Ocean  

E-print Network

Cadmium, copper and zinc in octopuses from Kerguelen Islands, Southern Indian Ocean P. Bustamante1-en-Bois, France ABSTRACT: Concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc were measured in 34 octopuses over a large showed that the high levels of Cd in Kerguelen octopuses resulted from very high levels of the metal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

29

Physiological responses of Lemna trisulca L. (duckweed) to cadmium and copper bioaccumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic plants are known to accumulate and bioconcentrate heavy metals. In this study, several physiological responses of aquatic vascular plant Lemna trisulca L. to elevated concentrations of cadmium (up to 10 mM) and copper (up to 50 ?M) were investigated. It was found that Lemna fronds were able to accumulate both cadmium and copper, but Cu-treated material showed pronounced toxic

M. N. V Prasad; P Malec; A Waloszek; M Bojko; K Strza?ka

2001-01-01

30

The effect of copper excess on iron metabolism in sheep.  

PubMed

Sheep were treated with large amounts of copper (20 mg of CuSO4,5H2O/kg body wt. per day) for 9 weeks to examine the effect of copper excess on iron metabolism. In addition to confirming that massive haemolysis and accumulation of copper occurs in the liver, kidney and plasma after 7 weeks of exposure to excess copper, it was observed that excess copper produced an increased plasma iron concentration and transferrin saturation within 1 week. Further, iron preferentially accumulated in the spleen between 4 and 6 weeks of copper treatment, producing 3-fold increases in the iron content of both the ferritin and non-ferritin fractions. A 3-4 fold increase was also observed in the amount of ferritin that could be isolated from the spleen. The copper treatment had little or no effect on the concentration of iron in the liver and bone marrow. The following properties of erythrocytes were also unaffected by copper treatment: size, haemoglobin content and pyruvate kinase activity, although the erythrocyte concentration of copper increased after 6 weeks. Copper accumulated in the spleen between 6 and 9 weeks, probably owing to the phagocytosis of erythrocytes containing high concentrations of copper. The data suggest that copper excess influences iron metabolism, initially by causing a compensated haemolytic anaemia, and later by interfering with re-utilization of iron from ferritin in the reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen. PMID:629772

Theil, E C; Calvert, K T

1978-01-15

31

The effect of copper excess on iron metabolism in sheep.  

PubMed Central

Sheep were treated with large amounts of copper (20 mg of CuSO4,5H2O/kg body wt. per day) for 9 weeks to examine the effect of copper excess on iron metabolism. In addition to confirming that massive haemolysis and accumulation of copper occurs in the liver, kidney and plasma after 7 weeks of exposure to excess copper, it was observed that excess copper produced an increased plasma iron concentration and transferrin saturation within 1 week. Further, iron preferentially accumulated in the spleen between 4 and 6 weeks of copper treatment, producing 3-fold increases in the iron content of both the ferritin and non-ferritin fractions. A 3-4 fold increase was also observed in the amount of ferritin that could be isolated from the spleen. The copper treatment had little or no effect on the concentration of iron in the liver and bone marrow. The following properties of erythrocytes were also unaffected by copper treatment: size, haemoglobin content and pyruvate kinase activity, although the erythrocyte concentration of copper increased after 6 weeks. Copper accumulated in the spleen between 6 and 9 weeks, probably owing to the phagocytosis of erythrocytes containing high concentrations of copper. The data suggest that copper excess influences iron metabolism, initially by causing a compensated haemolytic anaemia, and later by interfering with re-utilization of iron from ferritin in the reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen. PMID:629772

Theil, E C; Calvert, K T

1978-01-01

32

Influence of humic acids on the accumulation of copper and cadmium in Vallisneria spiralis L. from sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological responses and metal accumulation in Vallisneria spiralis L. exposed to copper and cadmium contaminated sediment were examined at different metal concentrations and the influence\\u000a of humic acids on copper and cadmium accumulation was also studied. The plants of V. spiralis accumulated high amount of copper and cadmium. The maximum accumulation of 396 and 114 mg kg?1 DW copper were found in

Qian Wang; Zhu Li; Shuiping Cheng; Zhenbin Wu

2010-01-01

33

Copper and nickel partitioning in iron meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace element analyses using proton induced X-ray emission and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence have been made on metal and troilite from nine iron meteorites representing five geochemical groups. Nickel and copper distribution coefficients D (troilite/metal) vary by factors of 600 and 20, respectively, correlate positively with kamacite bandwidth and correlate negatively with bulk nickel content. Meteorites with bulk Ni of less than 10 percent have Cu-enriched troilite while those with Ni greater than 10 percent have Cu-depleted troilite. Since magmatic evolution and partial melting will produce Cu-enriched troilite only, the observation of Cu-depleted troilite in Ni-rich meteorites is evidence for subsolidus reequilibration, a process which reduces D(Cu) by transfer of Cu to exsolving metal. Elemental redistribution may have played an important role in establishing the present chemical trends in iron meteorites.

Sutton, S. R.; Delaney, J. S.; Prinz, M.; Smith, J. V.

1987-01-01

34

Iron versus Copper II. Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the differences between iron and copper. Describes various aspects of the behaviors of these two elements, including those of biological and environmental significance. Addresses the evolution of the atmosphere and sedimentary ore formation, the phylogeny of iron and copper, and some anthropological notes regarding the use of the metals.…

Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

1986-01-01

35

Effects of Small Additions of Copper and Copper + Nickel on the Oxidation Behavior of Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of small amounts of copper and copper + nickel additions on the oxidation\\u000a rate and oxide\\/metal interface microstructure of iron. Three iron-based alloys were compared: 0.3 wt pct copper, 0.3 wt pct\\u000a copper-0.1 wt pct nickel, and 0.3 wt pct copper-0.05 wt pct nickel. Alloy samples were oxidized in air at 1150 °C for 60,\\u000a 300, and 600 seconds. Pure iron

Bryan Webler; Lan Yin; Seetharaman Sridhar

2008-01-01

36

TOXICOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF NATURAL AND CULTURED POPULATIONS OF ARACTIA TONSA TO CADMIUM, COPPER, AND MERCURY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cultured Acartia tonsa manifested a reproducible toxicological response through six generations. There were no statistically significant differences in the responses of F1 and F6 generations to cadmium, copper, and mercury. Cultured and field populations (parental) exposed to cad...

37

Baseline toxicity data for freshwater bryozoa exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc  

SciTech Connect

Four heavy metals - copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc - were used to determine baseline toxicity data for three species of phylactolaemate bryozoa. Techniques used in germinating test organisms are described, and baseline toxicity data are presented. Minimal interspecific variation in toxicity was noted for each heavy metal. In general, copper was most toxic, followed by cadmium, chromium, and zinc. Available data indicate that bryozoans are more sensitive to these metals than many other invertebrates and fish.

Pardue, W.J. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL); Wood, T.S.

1980-01-01

38

A comparative study of cadmium and copper in ruffed grouse ( Bonasa umbellus) in regions with and without historic mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining activities can increase the bioavailability of metals in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Following over 100 years of copper mining in portions of Michigan's Upper Peninsula (UP) terrestrial ecosystems retain vast quantities of waste rock with traces of cadmium and large concentrations of copper. We compared liver cadmium and copper concentrations in ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), a popular game bird

Marian Snively; David J. Flaspohler

2006-01-01

39

Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process.  

PubMed

Biochar produced from switchgrass via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was used as a sorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution. The cold activation process using KOH at room temperature was developed to enhance the porous structure and sorption properties of the HTC biochar. The sorption efficiency of HTC biochar and alkali activated HTC biochar (HTCB) for removing copper and cadmium from aqueous solution were compared with commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The present batch adsorption study describes the effects of solution pH, biochar dose, and contact time on copper and cadmium removal efficiency from single metal ion aqueous solutions. The activated HTCB exhibited a higher adsorption potential for copper and cadmium than HTC biochar and PAC. Experiments conducted with an initial metal concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 5.0 and contact time of 24 h resulted in close to 100% copper and cadmium removal by activated HTCB at 2 g/L, far greater than what was observed for HTC biochar (16% and 5.6%) and PAC (4% and 7.7%). The adsorption capacities of activated HTCB for cadmium removal were 34 mg/g (0.313 mmol/g) and copper removal was 31 mg/g (0.503 mmol/g). PMID:22687632

Regmi, Pusker; Garcia Moscoso, Jose Luis; Kumar, Sandeep; Cao, Xiaoyan; Mao, Jingdong; Schafran, Gary

2012-10-30

40

Cadmium and copper toxicity in three marine macroalgae: evaluation of the biochemical responses and DNA damage.  

PubMed

Marine macroalgae have evolved a different mechanism to maintain physiological concentrations of essential metal ions and non-essential metals. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the antioxidant response and DNA damage of copper and cadmium ions in three halophytes, namely, Acanthophora spicifera, Chaetomorpha antennina, and Ulva reticulata. Accumulation of copper was significantly higher (P?cadmium. Biochemical responses showed that copper was considerably more toxic than cadmium (P?copper and cadmium in seaweeds. The present study also showed that copper and cadmium increased oxidative stress and induced antioxidant defense systems against reactive oxygen species. The order of toxicity for metals in the studied seaweeds was U. reticulata > A. spicifera > C. antennina. DNA damage index analysis supported that copper was significantly (P?cadmium. Bioaccumulation, biochemical responses, and DNA damage observed in the here analyzed marine macroalgae after exposure to selected metals indicate that these marine organisms represent useful bioindicators of marine pollution. PMID:24859697

Babu, M Yokesh; Palanikumar, L; Nagarani, N; Devi, V Janaki; Kumar, S Ramesh; Ramakritinan, C M; Kumaraguru, A K

2014-08-01

41

Iron Deficiency is Not Associated with Increased Blood Cadmium in Infants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether blood cadmium concentration is elevated in iron-deficient infants. Methods Blood cadmium and serum ferritin concentrations, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity (Fe/TIBC) and complete blood counts were measured in 31 iron deficient and 36 control infants, aged 6–24 months. All 31 iron-deficient infants received iron supplementation for 1–6 months. Results Blood cadmium concentrations were measured again in 19 of the iron deficient infants after their ferritin levels returned to the normal range. The mean blood cadmium concentration did not differ significantly in iron deficient and control infants. The mean blood cadmium concentration in the 19 iron-deficient infants was not significantly altered by ferric hydroxide treatment, while their hemoglobin, ferritin, and Fe/TIBC (%) concentrations were significantly higher after than before treatment. Conclusion These findings indicate that iron deficiency does not increase blood cadmium concentrations in infants, in contrast with the effects of iron deficiency on manganese and lead concentrations. PMID:24513153

2014-01-01

42

Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels.  

PubMed

Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87ppm, 35.59±17.72ppb and 1.25±0.87ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. PMID:25483413

Kayaalt?, Zeliha; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezo?lu, Tülin

2015-02-01

43

Cadmium-induced aggregation of iron regulatory protein-1.  

PubMed

Iron regulatory protein-1 (IRP-1) is central to regulation of iron homeostasis, and has been shown to be sensitive to Cd(2+) in vitro. Although Cd(2+) induces disulfide-bond formation in many proteins, the critical cysteine residues for iron binding in IRP-1 were shown not to be involved in Cd-induced IRP-1 aggregation in vitro. Here we show that Cd(2+) causes polymerization and aggregation of IRP-1 in vitro and in vivo, and decreases in a dose-dependent manner both its RNA-binding and aconitase enzymatic activities, as well as its cytosolic expression. We have used two-dimensional electrophoresis to demonstrate thiol-dependent self-association of purified recombinant IRP-1 treated with Cd(2+), as well as self-association in Cd(2+)-exposed mesangial cells. Circular dichroism spectra confirm significant conformational changes in the purified protein upon Cd(2+) exposure. Following Cd(2+) treatment, there is increased translocation of inactive IRP-1 to the actin cytoskeletal fraction, and this translocation is diminished by both antioxidant (BHA) treatment and inhibition of CaMK-II. These changes differ from those elicited by manipulation of iron levels. Cadmium-induced translocation of proteins to cellular compartments, and particularly to the cytoskeleton, is becoming a recognized event in Cd(2+) toxicity. Polymer-dependent translocation of IRP-1 in Cd(2+)-exposed cells may underlie effects of Cd(2+) on iron homeostasis. PMID:25106854

Liu, Ying; Xiao, Weiqun; Templeton, Douglas M

2014-10-01

44

Bioconcentration and depuration of copper, cadmium, and zinc mixtures by the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake and elimination of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) by the amphipod Hyalella azteca during exposure to the metals singly and in various combinations was examined in controlled laboratory experiments. In single metal exposures the accumulation of all metals was rapid and increased with exposure time. Copper elimination was slower compared to that for zinc and for

M. Shuhaimi-Othman; D. Pascoe

2007-01-01

45

Copper's influence on iron metabolism in K562 cells  

SciTech Connect

Copper deficiency is associated with a cellular defect in iron metabolism that results in poor hemoglobin synthesis. In order to determine this mechanisms, K562 cells, a human erythroleukemic cell line, were incubated with 1 mM bethocuproine disulfonic acid (BCS) to produce a copper deficiency or were supplemented with 8 {mu}M copper. Hemoglobin was simultaneously induced in some cells by the addition of 25 {mu}M hemin to the culture medium. Incubation with BCS resulted in a 30 to 40% reduction in intracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity while supplementation resulted in a 20 to 50% increase in activity. The authors then examined the effect of these copper manipulations on {sup 59}Fe uptake from transferrin, on ferritin levels and on hemoglobin levels. Hemoglobin was only slightly affected by the copper treatments. In both noninduced cells and induced cells, copper supplementation resulted in a greater level of intracellular iron, a greater level of immunoreactive ferritin, and an enhanced uptake of {sup 59}Fe from transferrin. In BCS-incubated cells, intracellular iron, ferritin and {sup 59}Fe uptake from transferrin were reduced by at least 50%. Because the ferritin levels were reduced, intracellular iron mobilization did not appear to be impaired in copper deficiency. The results suggest that copper deficiency impairs the transport of iron by transferrin into the cell.

Percival, S.S.; Armstrong, E. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, (United States))

1991-03-15

46

Serum iron, total iron binding capacity, plasma copper and hemoglobin types in anemic and poikilocytic calves.  

PubMed Central

Ninety-eight calves were studied to determine if anemia and poikilocytosis were related to iron or copper status or hemoglobin type. No significant differences were found in serum iron, total iron binding capacity, marrow iron, plasma copper or hemoglobin type between affected and normal calves. Poikilocytes were strongly inversely correlated (-0.9177) with age. Calves less than six weeks of age had more poikilocytes, lower serum iron, higher total iron binding capacity, less adult hemoglobin and more neonatal and fetal hemoglobin than calves greater than six weeks of age. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2412677

McGillivray, S R; Searcy, G P; Hirsch, V M

1985-01-01

47

Ascorbate autoxidation in the presence of iron and copper chelates.  

PubMed

Chelates can inhibit the iron- and copper-catalyzed autoxidation of ascorbate at pH 7.0. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA or DETAPAC) and Desferal (deferoximane mesylate) slow the iron-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate as effectively as reducing the trace levels of contaminating iron in buffers with Chelex resin. DETAPAC, EDTA and HEDTA (N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid) are effective at slowing the copper-catalyzed autoxidation of ascorbate while Desferal is ineffective. The ability to inhibit ascorbate autoxidation appears to parallel the rate of the reaction of superoxide with the iron chelate. PMID:2851502

Buettner, G R

1986-01-01

48

Old iron, young copper: from Mars to Venus.  

PubMed

Iron and copper are metals which play an important role in the living world. From a brief consideration of their chemistry and biochemistry we conclude that the early chemistry of life used water soluble ferrous iron while copper was in the water-insoluble Cu(I) state as highly insoluble sulphides. The advent of oxygen was a catastrophic event for most living organisms, and can be considered to be the first general irreversible pollution of the earth. In contrast to the oxidation of iron and its loss of bioavailability as insoluble Fe(III), the oxidation of insoluble Cu(I) led to soluble Cu(II). A new iron biochemistry became possible after the advent of oxygen, with the development of chelators of Fe(III), which rendered iron once again accessible, and with the control of the potential toxicity of iron by its storage in a water soluble, non-toxic, bio-available storage protein (ferritin). Biology also discovered that whereas enzymes involved in anaerobic metabolism were designed to operate in the lower portion of the redox spectrum, the arrival of dioxygen created the need for a new redox active metal which could attain higher redox potentials. Copper, now bioavailable, was ideally suited to exploit the oxidizing power of dioxygen. The arrival of copper also coincided with the development of multicellular organisms which had extracellular cross-linked matrices capable of resisting attack by oxygen free radicals. After the initial 'iron age' subsequent evolution moved, not towards a 'copper age', but rather to an 'iron-copper' age. In the second part of the review, this symbiosis of iron and copper is examined in yeast. We then briefly consider iron and copper metabolism in mammals, before looking at iron-copper interactions in mammals, particularly man, and conclude with the reflection that, as in Greek and Roman mythology, a better understanding of the potentially positive interactions between Mars (iron) and Venus (copper) can only be to the advantage of our species. PMID:11508852

Crichton, R R; Pierre, J L

2001-06-01

49

Changes of blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. lipid composition under cadmium and copper toxic effect.  

PubMed

The lipid and fatty acid composition of the blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. gills and digestive glands was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) exposure. Mussels were exposed to different cadmium (10, 100, and 500 ?g/L) and copper (5, 50, and 250 ?g/L) concentrations. Similar stress response of predominant membrane phospholipids level as well as polyenoic and non-methylene interrupted (NMI) fatty acids content was observed in mussel gills under both cadmium and copper effects. Increased NMI fatty acids level after 24 h, the metal ions treatment suggests that these acids contribute to the protective response to the membrane oxidative stress caused by accumulation of the metals. The content of cholesterol, some minor membrane phospholipids, and storage lipids (triacylglycerols, TAG) in the mussels' organs alter significantly under the cadmium and copper effect. A two-step response at the digestive glands TAG level depends on the duration of the cadmium and copper treatments (24 and 72 h) on the mussels. The results demonstrate that Cd and Cu impact has adverse effects on gills and digestive glands lipid and fatty acids composition. The type of observed effects varies with the nature and concentration of the metal ions and depends on the role of the metals in the mussels' life activity. PMID:23793920

Fokina, Natalia N; Ruokolainen, Tatiana R; Nemova, Nina N; Bakhmet, Igor N

2013-08-01

50

Effect of copper and graphite addition on sinterability of iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ferrous powder metallurgy, copper and graphite are used as common alloying elements. Copper melts at low temperature compared\\u000a to iron and forms liquid which promote interparticle bond formation. However, it also results in compact swelling. To negate\\u000a this, graphite is used as an additive. This study examines the influence of copper and graphite addition on the densification,\\u000a dimensional changes,

Felege Nekatibeb; A. Raja Annamalai; Anish Upadhyaya

2011-01-01

51

Iron, Zinc and Copper in Selected Tissues of Rabbits under Increasing Exposure to Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. Maciejewska-Paszek, E. Grochowska-Niedworok, M. Wardas, M. Skiba:Iron, Zinc and Copper in Selected Tissues of Rabbits under Increasing Exposure to Iron. Acta Vet. Brno 2005, 74: 551-555. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the disturbance of zinc\\/copper balance in tissues as the possible accelerating factor of liver damage after short- and long-term exposure to high doses of iron

I. MACIEJEWSKA-PASZEK; E. GROCHOWSKA-NIEDWOROK; M. WARDAS; M. SKIBA

52

Role of iron in jejunal uptake of cadmium in the newborn rat  

SciTech Connect

There is evidence that suckling animals and children have a greater capacity for intestinal transport of both essential and nonessential metals than do adults of the species. It has also been observed in experiments using adult animals that the intestinal transport of iron and the nonessential metal cadmium interact with one another. In the study reported here, the influence of tissue iron status on jejunal uptake of cadmium was investigated in suckling, adolescent, and young adult rats using an in situ incubation technique. In the presence of 0.4 mM FeSO/sub 4/, intestinal uptake of cadmium was significantly decreased in 14-d-old pups. Access to an iron-deficient diet reduced tissue iron levels in 28- and 42-d-old but not in 14-d-old rats. Intestinal uptake of cadmium was significantly greater in 28- and 42-d-old rats placed on the iron-deficient diet but did not change in 14-d-old rats compared to controls. In suckling rats injected with iron dextran over a six-d period, a significant decrease in intestinal uptake of both cadmium and iron was observed compared to controls. The results of the present study suggest that intestinal cadmium transport in the suckling, as well as the adolescent and young adult rat, interacts with, at least in part, the pathway responsible for iron transport.

Leon, L.; Johnson, D.R.

1985-01-01

53

Effects of copper and cadmium on electrophoretically detected enzymes in fish  

SciTech Connect

The in vitro effects of copper and cadmium on the activity of electrophoretically detected enzymes in 16 fish species from 7 locations were determined by adding the metals to the biochemical stains used to resolve the enzyme systems on a starch gel. This assay technique was used successfully to demonstrate the direct effects of copper on the activity of phosphoglucomutase-2 (PGM-2), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI-2), and isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (ICD-2) in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and to show that differences exist in the copper sensitivity of intraspecific PGM-2 allozymes and interspecific PGM-2 enzymes in a number of fish species tested. It was possible to detect copper sensitive and copper tolerant isoalleles at the PGM-2 locus in mosquitofish. Cadmium did not have any in vitro effects on the activity of the enzyme systems tested.

Chagnon, N.L.

1987-01-01

54

Acute and chronic exposure of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa to copper and cadmium: Effects on ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural changes of Dunaliella salina and Chlamydomonas bullosa taking place after short term exposure to established copper and\\/or cadmium EC(50) or exposure to low levels of these cations for 8 months were examined. Cadmium had a greater impact on the ultrastructure of these species than copper. Metal stress affected a variety of cellular parameters including total cell volume, pyrenoid,

I. Visviki; J. W. Rachlin

1994-01-01

55

Spatial Distribution of Total Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in the Zebra Mussel ( Dreissena polymorpha) Along the Upper St. Lawrence River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) was utilized to assess the spatial distribution of three trace metals, cadmium, copper, and zinc, in the upper St. Lawrence River and to test the hypothesis that outflow from Lake Ontario influenced levels of these metals in near-shore biota. Zebra mussels, collected from twelve sites along the southern shore, were analyzed for total cadmium, copper,

Carolyn Johns

2001-01-01

56

The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis  

SciTech Connect

Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

Ding, Yan-Fei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhu, Cheng, E-mail: pzhch@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

2009-08-14

57

Canadian soil quality criteria for lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium and mercury  

SciTech Connect

National soil quality criteria for the protection of ecological receptors, including livestock and wildlife, are currently under development in Canada. Based on an evaluation of direct soil contact and soil and food ingestion pathways for sensitive species, soil quality criteria for lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium and mercury for three land use categories have been derived. The draft values, in mg/kg soil, for agricultural, residential/parkland, commercial/industrial land uses are: mercury, 4, 4, 30; copper, 62, 62, 100; cadmium, 10, 10, 27; lead, 70, 250, 400; arsenic, 17, 17, 26. Critical data requirements in developing soil quality criteria are also reviewed.

Gaudet, C.; Milne, D.; Teed, S.; Lin, J.; Raju, G.S.; Ouellet, S. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

58

Effect of Zero-Valent Iron Application on Cadmium Uptake in Rice Plants Grown in Cadmium-Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) contamination in soils is a serious problem for crop production in the world. Zero-valent iron [Fe (0)] is a reactive material with reducing power capable of stabilizing toxic elements in a solution. In the present study, we examined the effect of zero-valent iron [Fe (0)] application on Cd accumulation in rice plants growing in Cd-contaminated paddy soils. The

Toshihiro Watanabe; Yasutoshi Murata; Takashi Nakamura; Yuki Sakai; Mitsuru Osaki

2009-01-01

59

Kinetics of iron–copper sulphides oxidation in relation to protohistoric copper smelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with one specific step of the copper extractive metallurgy process: the roasting of iron–copper sulphides.\\u000a It aims at shedding light on an archaeological issue: the reconstruction of the copper extractive metallurgy processes during\\u000a protohistory (IVe–IIe millennium BC). Experimental simulations are performed at laboratory scale by modelizing the conditions of protohistoric\\u000a furnaces. Kinetic of roasting is studied by

Emilien BurgerDavid Bourgarit; David Bourgarit; Vincent Frotté; Fabien Pilon

2011-01-01

60

The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.  

PubMed

The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

2014-07-01

61

Mortality of copper cadmium alloy workers with special reference to lung cancer and non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system, 1946-92.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To identify and quantify any relations between occupational exposure to cadmium oxide fume and mortalities from lung cancer and from chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system. METHODS--The mortality experience of 347 copper cadmium alloy workers, 624 workers employed in the vicinity of copper cadmium alloy work (vicinity workers), and 521 iron and brass foundry workers (all men) was investigated for the period 1946-92. All subjects were first employed in these types of work in the period 1922-78 and for a minimum period of one year at one of two participating factories. Two analytical approaches were used, indirect standardisation and Poisson regression. RESULTS--Compared with the general population of England and Wales, mortality from lung cancer among copper cadmium alloy workers was close to expectation (observed deaths 18, expected deaths 17.8, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 101, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 60 to 159). A significant excess was shown for lung cancer among vicinity workers but not among iron and brass foundry workers (vicinity workers: observed 55, expected 34.3, SMR 160, 95% CI 121 to 209, P < 0.01; iron and brass foundry workers: observed 19, expected 17.8, SMR 107, 95% CI 64 to 167). Increased SMRs for non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system were shown for each of the three groups (alloy workers: observed 54, expected 23.5, SMR 230, 95% CI 172 to 300, P < 0.001; vicinity workers: observed 71, expected 43.0, SMR 165, 95% CI 129 to 208, P < 0.001; iron and brass foundry workers: observed 34, expected 17.1, SMR 199, 95% CI 137 to 278, P < 0.01). Work histories of the copper cadmium alloy workers were combined with independent assessments of cadmium exposures over time to develop individual estimates of cumulative exposure to cadmium; this being a time dependent variable. Poisson regression was used to investigate risks of lung cancer and risks of chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system in relation to three levels of cumulative cadmium exposure (< 1600, 1600-4799, > or = 4800 micrograms.m-3.y). After adjustment for age, year of starting alloy work, factory, and time from starting alloy work, there was a significant positive trend (P < 0.01) between cumulative exposure to cadmium and risks of mortality from chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system. Relative to a risk of unity for the lowest exposure category, risks were 4.54 (95% CI 1.96 to 10.51) for the middle exposure category and 4.74 (95% CI 1.81 to 12.43) for the highest exposure category. There was a non-significant negative trend between cumulative cadmium exposure and risks of mortality from lung cancer. Relative to a risk of unity for the lowest exposure category, risks were 0.85 (95% CI 0.27 to 2.68) for the middle exposure category and 0.81 (95% CI 0.18 to 3.73) for the highest exposure category. Similar findings were obtained when adjustment was made for age only. CONCLUSIONS--The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium oxide fume increases risks of mortality from chronic non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system. The findings do not support the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium oxide fume increases risks of mortality for lung cancer. PMID:8563843

Sorahan, T; Lister, A; Gilthorpe, M S; Harrington, J M

1995-01-01

62

Cadmium depletes cellular iron availability through enhancing ferroportin translation via iron responsive element.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that has detrimental effects on various organs. The widespread contamination of Cd in the environment, crops and food sources poses a severe threat to human health. Acute toxicities of Cd have been extensively investigated; however, the health impact of chronic low?dose exposure to Cd, particularly exposure under non?toxic concentrations, has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the toxic threshold of Cd is currently unknown. Ferroportin is the only known iron exporter in vertebrate cells, and it has an essential role in controlling iron egress from cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to verify the regulation of ferroportin by Cd. Treatment with low?dose Cd (i.e. at sublethal concentrations, without undermining cell viability) increased the protein expression of ferroportin in macrophages, and this was associated with depleted cellular iron levels. Mechanistic investigations revealed that Cd modulated the ferroportin concentration at the translational level, via the iron responsive element located at the 5'?untranslated region of ferroportin. In conclusion, these data provide evidence for the molecular basis by which Cd alters cellular iron availability through elevating concentrations of ferroportin. PMID:25435269

Sun, Li; Wang, Lixin; Wang, Zhe; He, Wei; Zhang, Shuping; Guo, Wenli; Qian, Yi; Ji, Hong; Rong, Haiqin; Liu, Sijin

2015-04-01

63

Effect of oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride on friction behavior of copper-iron contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sliding friction experiments were conducted with an iron rider on a copper disk and a copper rider on an iron disk. The sputter cleaned iron and copper disk surfaces were saturated with oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride at atmospheric pressure. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the surfaces. Lower friction was obtained in all experiments with the copper rider sliding on the iron disk than when the couple was reversed. For both iron and copper disks, methyl mercaptan gave the best surface coverage and was most effective in reducing friction. For both iron and copper disks, methyl chloride was the least effective in reducing friction. With sliding, copper transferred to iron and iron to copper.

Buckley, D. H.

1978-01-01

64

Loading estimates of lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc in urban runoff from specific sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban stormwater runoff is being recognized as a substantial source of pollutants to receiving waters. A number of investigators have found significant levels of metals in runoff from urban areas, especially in highway runoff. As an initiatory study, this work estimates lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc loadings from various sources in a developed area utilizing information available in the literature,

Allen P Davis; Mohammad Shokouhian; Shubei Ni

2001-01-01

65

Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

66

Cadmium and copper release kinetics in relation to afforestation of cultivated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Afforestation of cultivated soils causes soil acidification and elevated concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOC) in the soil solution, and hence, aggravate the risk of heavy metal leaching. The kinetics of cadmium and copper release from an unpolluted arable soil applied with forest floor soil solution was investigated in the laboratory, and the release rates correlated to pH and DOC

Bjarne W Strobel; Hans Christian Bruun Hansen; Ole K Borggaard; Martin K Andersen; Karsten Raulund-Rasmussen

2001-01-01

67

Effects of pH on toxicity of cadmium, cobalt and copper to Scenedesmus bijuga  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of pH on the toxicity of cadmium, cobalt and copper to the green alga Scenedesmus bijuga. The results revealed that the growth of Scenedesmus bijuga increased with increasing pH. However, the accumulation, the accumulation factor and the amount of free ionic forms of each metal decreased. Generally, it appears that the

Adel A. Fathi; Mohammed A. AlOmair

2006-01-01

68

Effect of copper and cadmium on three Malaysian tropical estuarine invertebrate larvae.  

PubMed

Three species of tropical estuarine invertebrates were exposed to copper sulfate and cadmium chloride to investigate their potential as test specimens for sediment toxicity assays in the South-east Asian regions. The larvae of the reef sea urchin (Diadema setosum), the oyster (Crassostrea iradalei), and the mud crab (Scylla seratta Forskall) were used in the 48-hr assays with copper and cadmium as reference toxicants. In addition the sea urchin were tested for end point measurements at different stages of the larval development and a 60-min sperm bioassay. The study revealed that the sea urchin first cleavage, which is an assay end point and which takes place about 1 hr after fertilization, was the most sensitive stage for both toxicants, with copper being more toxic than cadmium. Sensitivity comparisons between the three invertebrate larvae revealed the mud crab zoea larvae to be most sensitive for cadmium with an LC50 value of 0.078 microgram/ml, while the sea urchin was more sensitive for copper, with EC50 values of 0.01 microgram/ml at the first cleavage stage and 0.04 microgram/ml at the pluteus larva stage. All the invertebrates tested gave responses that made them suitable test organisms for metal bioassays in the tropical estuarine environment. PMID:9126437

Ramachandran, S; Patel, T R; Colbo, M H

1997-03-01

69

Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables, Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils in which they were grown, from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, Nigeria, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained for these three heavy metals from the industrial areas were higher than those of the residential areas as a result of pollution. Industrial area results for vegetables ranged between 1.13 and 1.67 microg/g for cadmium; 25.08 and 56.84 microg/g for copper and 1.33 and 2.06 microg/g for nickel. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) between the levels of copper and nickel in all the vegetables studied from industrial and residential areas, while there was no statistically significant difference for cadmium. The results also show that Corchorus olitorus (bush okra) has the ability to accumulate more copper and nickel than the other vegetable studied but has the least ability to accumulate cadmium. PMID:12504169

Yusuf, A A; Arowolo, T A; Bamgbose, O

2003-03-01

70

Effects of Copper, Cadmium, and Zinc on the Hatching Success of Brine Shrimp (Artemia franciscana)  

E-print Network

Effects of Copper, Cadmium, and Zinc on the Hatching Success of Brine Shrimp (Artemia franciscana to be successfully reproducing in GSL, we hypothesized that these toxicity values were either biased low as a result at the normal background concentrations that occur in GSL (

Grosell, Martin

71

Copper and cadmium adsorption on pellets made from fired coal fly ash.  

PubMed

Studies on the utilization of low cost adsorbents for removal of heavy metals from wastewaters are gaining attention. Fired coal fly ash, a solid by-product that is produced in power plants worldwide in million of tonnes, has attracted researchers' interest. In this work, fly ash was shaped into pellets that have diameter in-between 3-8mm, high relative porosity and very good mechanical strength. The pellets were used in adsorption experiments for the removal of copper and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of agitation rate, equilibration time, pH of solution and initial metal concentration were studied. The adsorption of both cations follows pseudo-second order kinetics reaching equilibrium after an equilibration time of 72 h. The experimental results for copper and cadmium adsorption fit well to a Langmuirian type isotherm. The calculated adsorption capacities of pellets for copper and cadmium were 20.92 and 18.98 mg/g, respectively. Desorption experiments were performed in several extraction media. The results showed that both metals were desorbed substantially from pellets under acidic solutions. For this reason, metal saturated pellets were encapsulated in concrete blocks synthesized from cement and raw pulverized fly ash in order to avoid metal desorption. The heavy metals immobilization after encapsulation in concrete blocks was tested through desorption tests in several aqueous media. The results showed that after 2 months in acidic media with pH 2.88 and 4.98 neither copper nor cadmium were desorbed thus indicating excellent stabilization of heavy metals in the concrete matrix. As a conclusion, the results showed that fly ash shaped into pellets could be considered as a potential adsorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from wastewaters. Moreover, the paper proposes an efficient and simple stabilization process of the utilized adsorbents thus guarantying their safe disposal in industrial landfills and eliminating the risk of pollution for groundwater and other natural water receivers. PMID:17416461

Papandreou, A; Stournaras, C J; Panias, D

2007-09-30

72

Dysregulation of iron and copper homeostasis in nonalcoholic fatty liver.  

PubMed

Elevated iron stores as indicated by hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation and mostly mild hepatic iron deposition are a characteristic finding in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Excess iron is observed in approximately one third of NAFLD patients and is commonly referred to as the "dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome". Clinical evidence suggests that elevated body iron stores aggravate the clinical course of NAFLD with regard to liver-related and extrahepatic disease complications which relates to the fact that excess iron catalyses the formation of toxic hydroxyl-radicals subsequently resulting in cellular damage. Iron removal improves insulin sensitivity, delays the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, improves pathologic liver function tests and likewise ameliorates NAFLD histology. Several mechanisms contribute to pathologic iron accumulation in NAFLD. These include impaired iron export from hepatocytes and mesenchymal Kupffer cells as a consequence of imbalances in the concentrations of iron regulatory factors, such as hepcidin, cytokines, copper or other dietary factors. This review summarizes the knowledge about iron homeostasis in NAFLD and the rationale for its therapeutic implications. PMID:25729473

Aigner, Elmar; Weiss, Günter; Datz, Christian

2015-02-27

73

Dysregulation of iron and copper homeostasis in nonalcoholic fatty liver  

PubMed Central

Elevated iron stores as indicated by hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation and mostly mild hepatic iron deposition are a characteristic finding in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Excess iron is observed in approximately one third of NAFLD patients and is commonly referred to as the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome”. Clinical evidence suggests that elevated body iron stores aggravate the clinical course of NAFLD with regard to liver-related and extrahepatic disease complications which relates to the fact that excess iron catalyses the formation of toxic hydroxyl-radicals subsequently resulting in cellular damage. Iron removal improves insulin sensitivity, delays the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, improves pathologic liver function tests and likewise ameliorates NAFLD histology. Several mechanisms contribute to pathologic iron accumulation in NAFLD. These include impaired iron export from hepatocytes and mesenchymal Kupffer cells as a consequence of imbalances in the concentrations of iron regulatory factors, such as hepcidin, cytokines, copper or other dietary factors. This review summarizes the knowledge about iron homeostasis in NAFLD and the rationale for its therapeutic implications. PMID:25729473

Aigner, Elmar; Weiss, Günter; Datz, Christian

2015-01-01

74

Copper, cadmium, and nickel accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada  

SciTech Connect

The Sudbury basin, an elliptical 646 square mile depression containing a number of freshwater reservoirs, has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. The purpose of the present study was to compare tissue concentration of copper, cadmium and nickel in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish from the sites were also examined to determine if particular body tissues were specific sites for metal accumulation.

Bagatto, G.; Aikhan, M.A.

1987-03-01

75

Cadmium exposure affects iron acquisition in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings.  

PubMed

This study addresses the question of the interference between iron (Fe) nutrition and cadmium (Cd) toxicity at the level of growth performance, phytosiderophores (PS) release, micronutrient accumulation and expression of genes involved in Fe homeostasis in barley seedlings, a plant with strategy II-based response to Fe shortage. Cd exposure induced responses similar to those of genuine Fe deficiency also in Fe-sufficient plants. Most genes involved in PS biosynthesis and secretion (HvNAS3, HvNAS4, HvNAS6, HvNAS7, HvNAAT-A, HvDMAS1 and HvTOM1) induced by Fe deprivation were also significantly upregulated in the presence of Cd under Fe sufficient conditions. Accordingly, the enhanced expression of these genes in roots under Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of PS release. However, induced expression of HvIRO2 and the downregulation of HvIDEF1 and HvIRT1, after Cd exposure, suggested the presence of a pathway that induces HvIRO2-mediated PS biosynthesis under Cd stress, which probably is not simply caused by Fe deficiency. The downregulation of HvIRT1 and HvNramp5 may represent a protective mechanism at transcriptional level against further Cd uptake by these transporters. These results likely indicate that Cd itself may be able to activate Fe acquisition mechanism in an Fe-independent manner. PMID:24724721

Astolfi, Stefania; Ortolani, Maria R; Catarcione, Giulio; Paolacci, Anna R; Cesco, Stefano; Pinton, Roberto; Ciaffi, Mario

2014-12-01

76

Iron deficiency increases blood cadmium levels in adolescents surveyed in KNHANES 2010-2011.  

PubMed

Discrepancies have been reported in the relationships between iron and cadmium concentrations. The distribution of blood cadmium concentrations was assessed in a representative sample of Korean adolescents participating in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2011, and the association between blood cadmium and iron concentrations was determined. This study was based on data from KNHANES, in which a rolling sampling design was used to perform a complex, stratified, multistage probability cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Serum ferritin was categorized as low (<15.0 ?g/L), low normal (15.0-<30.0 ?g/L for girls, 15.0-<50.0 ?g/L for boys), or normal (?30.0 ?g/L for girls, ?50.0 ?g/L for boys), and the association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium concentrations was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. The geometric mean (GM) of blood cadmium was significantly higher among both boys and girls in the low than in the normal ferritin group. After controlling for covariates, multiple regression analysis showed that blood cadmium concentration was inversely correlated with serum ferritin concentration in both boys and girls. In conclusion, iron deficiency is associated with increased blood cadmium concentrations in a representative sample of Korean adolescents, as evaluated in KNHANES. PMID:24797808

Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Suk Hwan; Kim, Nam-Soo; Ham, Jung-O; Kim, Yangho

2014-06-01

77

A comparative study of cadmium and copper in ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) in regions with and without historic mining.  

PubMed

Mining activities can increase the bioavailability of metals in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Following over 100 years of copper mining in portions of Michigan's Upper Peninsula (UP) terrestrial ecosystems retain vast quantities of waste rock with traces of cadmium and large concentrations of copper. We compared liver cadmium and copper concentrations in ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), a popular game bird from landscapes with and without historic mining. We also used chickens (Gallus domesticus) to determine whether mine waste was a direct source of liver cadmium. Cadmium and copper levels did not differ between mining areas in Michigan and non-mining areas in Wisconsin. We found nearly significant difference between sexes in cadmium levels. Cadmium levels for all chickens were below the method detection limit of the lab (0.03 mg/kg) and copper levels did not differ in the experimental chickens. These results suggest that the historic mining in the western UP is not leading to higher cadmium or copper uptake in grouse. PMID:16750853

Snively, Marian; Flaspohler, David J

2006-10-01

78

Iron may play a role in pancreatic atrophy in copper deficiency  

SciTech Connect

The present study was undertaken to determine if pancreatic atrophy in copper deficient rats fed fructose is associated with excessive iron deposition. Weanling male and female rats were fed a copper deficient or copper adequate diet containing 62% carbohydrate as either fructose or starch. Another group of weanling rats consumed a copper deficient diet containing fructose that was low in iron. After consuming their respective diets for five weeks, the highest pancreatic iron concentration was seen in male rats consuming the copper deficient diet containing fructose. These animals also exhibited pancreatic atrophy. In contrast, neither copper deficient female rats fed fructose nor males fed starch exhibited pancreatic atrophy and their pancreata did not contain high levels of iron. In addition, reducing the availability of dietary iron in copper deficient rats fed fructose decreased pancreatic iron concentration and ameliorated the pathology. The data suggest that pancreatic atrophy in copper deficiency may be related to iron deposition in that tissue.

Fields, M.; Lewis, C.G.; Lure, M.D. (Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States) Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1991-03-15

79

The uptake of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper by the pulmonate mollusc, Helix aspersa muller, and its relevance to the monitoring of heavy metal contamination of the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper in individuals of Helix aspersa from two sites of varying degrees of contamination was studied. Zinc, cadmium, and copper were shown to increase in a linear fashion with animal weight. The rate of uptake for zinc and cadmium in particular was significantly greater at the more contaminated site. Statistical analysis of the

P. J. Coughtrey; M. H. Martin

1977-01-01

80

OPT3 is a phloem-specific iron transporter that is essential for systemic iron signaling and redistribution of iron and cadmium in arabidopsis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Cadmium, on the other hand, is a non-essential and highly toxic element that competes with iron for uptake and partitioning in plant tissues, posing a threat to crop productivity and human health. Knowledge of signaling mechanis...

81

Cadmium, zinc, lead, and copper in livers and kidneys of cattle in the neighbourhood of zinc refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle in the Kempen area (in the province North-Brabant, the Netherlands) were investigated for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper in livers and kidneys. The animals originated from farms located within a 20 km radius around several zinc refinery plants. The local soil is polluted with zinc and cadmium because of a thermal refining process used in the past.

Th. J. Spierenburg; G. J. Graaf; A. J. Baars; D. H. J. Brus; M. J. M. Tielen; B. J. Arts

1988-01-01

82

Iron Acquisition by Phytosiderophores Contributes to Cadmium Tolerance1[OA  

PubMed Central

Based on the ability of phytosiderophores to chelate other heavy metals besides iron (Fe), phytosiderophores were suggested to prevent graminaceous plants from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. To assess interactions between Cd and phytosiderophore-mediated Fe acquisition, maize (Zea mays) plants were grown hydroponically under limiting Fe supply. Exposure to Cd decreased uptake rates of 59Fe(III)-phytosiderophores and enhanced the expression of the Fe-phytosiderophore transporter gene ZmYS1 in roots as well as the release of the phytosiderophore 2?-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) from roots under Fe deficiency. However, DMA hardly mobilized Cd from soil or from a Cd-loaded resin in comparison to the synthetic chelators diaminetriaminepentaacetic acid and HEDTA. While nano-electrospray-high resolution mass spectrometry revealed the formation of an intact Cd(II)-DMA complex in aqueous solutions, competition studies with Fe(III) and zinc(II) showed that the formed Cd(II)-DMA complex was weak. Unlike HEDTA, DMA did not protect yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells from Cd toxicity but improved yeast growth in the presence of Cd when yeast cells expressed ZmYS1. When supplied with Fe-DMA as a Fe source, transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-ZmYS1 gene construct showed less growth depression than wild-type plants in response to Cd. These results indicate that inhibition of ZmYS1-mediated Fe-DMA transport by Cd is not related to Cd-DMA complex formation and that Cd-induced phytosiderophore release cannot protect maize plants from Cd toxicity. Instead, phytosiderophore-mediated Fe acquisition can improve Fe uptake in the presence of Cd and thereby provides an advantage under Cd stress relative to Fe acquisition via ferrous Fe. PMID:17337530

Meda, Anderson R.; Scheuermann, Enrico B.; Prechsl, Ulrich E.; Erenoglu, Bülent; Schaaf, Gabriel; Hayen, Heiko; Weber, Günther; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2007-01-01

83

Application of mercapto ordered carbohydrate-derived porous carbons for trace detection of cadmium and copper ions in agricultural products.  

PubMed

In this paper, we have introduced nanoporous carbon modified with mercapto groups as a new solid-phase method for extraction of cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions. The modified nanoporous carbon sorbent was characterised by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption surface area (BET) measurements. Effects of pH value, flow rates, type, concentration and volume of the eluent, breakthrough volume, and effect of other ions were studied. The experimental results show that simultaneous trace cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated at pH 6.0 with recoveries >97%. Under optimised conditions, limits of detection are 0.04 and 0.09 ng mL(-1) for the ions of cadmium and copper respectively, and the precision of the method for analysis of cadmium and copper ions (5.0 ?g of each target ions, N=8) are 2.4% and 2.1%, respectively. The obtained capacities of mercapto-nanoporous carbon were found to be 145 and 95 mg g(-1) for cadmium and copper ions, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing standard reference material. Finally, the introduced sorbent was successfully applied for trace determination of cadmium and copper ions in food samples. PMID:25466145

Behbahani, Mohammad; Abolhasani, Jafar; Amini, Mostafa M; Sadeghi, Omid; Omidi, Fariborz; Bagheri, Akbar; Salarian, Mani

2015-04-15

84

Lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and copper in chicken feathers from Tuskegee, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

The feather has been widely used as a indicator tissue of metal exposure in birds. The feathers were collected from Tuskegee University poultry farm (TUPF) and Harrison Poultry farm (HPF) chicken and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper contaminations. The mean levels of lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper in TUPF chicken were 3.67, 0.13, 12.23, 0.22, and 7.71 ppm, respectively, and in HPF chicken were 5.32, 0.096, 11.03, 0.15, and 8.06 ppm, respectively. The mean levels of these metals did not show any significant difference between TUPF and HPF chicken.

Khan, A.T. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology; Love, M.J.; Booker, T. [Washington High School, Tuskegee, AL (United States); Mielke, H.W. [Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1994-12-31

85

Cadmium Toxicity Induced Alterations in the Root Proteome of Green Gram in Contrasting Response towards Iron Supplement  

PubMed Central

Cadmium signifies a severe threat to crop productivity and green gram is a notably iron sensitive plant which shows considerable variation towards cadmium stress. A gel-based proteomics analysis was performed with the roots of green gram exposed to iron and cadmium combined treatments. The resulting data show that twenty three proteins were down-regulated in iron-deprived roots either in the absence (?Fe/?Cd) or presence (?Fe/+Cd) of cadmium. These down-regulated proteins were however well expressed in roots under iron sufficient conditions, even in the presence of cadmium (+Fe/+Cd). The functional classification of these proteins determined that 21% of the proteins are associated with nutrient metabolism. The other proteins in higher quantities are involved in either transcription or translation regulation, and the rest are involved in biosynthesis metabolism, antioxidant pathways, molecular chaperones and stress response. On the other hand, several protein spots were also absent in roots in response to iron deprivation either in absence (?Fe/?Cd) or presence (?Fe/+Cd) of cadmium but were well expressed in the presence of iron (+Fe/+Cd). Results suggest that green gram plants exposed to cadmium stress are able to change the nutrient metabolic balance in roots, but in the mean time regulate cadmium toxicity through iron supplements. PMID:24739807

Muneer, Sowbiya; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Mohamed, Rozi; Lee, Jeong Hyun

2014-01-01

86

Zinc, iron, manganese, and magnesium accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada  

SciTech Connect

The Sudbury basin has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. Elevated concentrations of copper, cadmium, and nickel have been reported in crayfish populations close to the Sudbury smelting works. The present study compares concentrations of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. These metals were selected since they are known to be emitted in moderately high quantities into the Sudbury environment as byproduct of the smelting process. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish were also examined to determined specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

Bagatto, G.; Alikhan, M.A.

1987-06-01

87

Ultrasound-enhanced copper removal by hydrous iron oxide adsorption  

SciTech Connect

A model system to investigate ultrasound-enhanced removal of metallic ions from aqueous solution by hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) adsorption has been conducted. The experimental data indicate that ultrasonic treatment of pre-formed HFO flocs can lead to enhanced removal of metallic ions from aqueous solution and that the level of enhancement is strongly correlated with the solution pH. Ultrasonic treatment has been shown to be effective at lowering the final solution concentration of copper species in the pH range 7.5--9.5 at copper to iron molar concentration ratios of 10 and 30%.

Campos, H.R. [Univ. de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile); Wheat, P.E. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology

1996-12-31

88

Changes in urinary excretions of cadmium, copper, and zinc in Japanese workers.  

PubMed

The authors undertook this study to determine changes in the daily concentration of cadmium, copper, and zinc in Japanese workers' urine over a 13-year period from 1985 to 1998. The workers were aged between 20 and 59 years. The authors studied 277 subjects in 1985, 320 in 1993, and 292 in 1998, for a total of 889 (464 men and 425 women). Although. in both men and women, urinary excretions of cadmium and copper were lower in 1993 and 1998 than in 1985, they were not substantially lower in 1998 than in 1993. The authors observed no marked changes between 1985, 1993, and 1998 regarding the excretion of zinc in any of the age groups in either men or women. Furthermore, the excretion of urinary cadmium in 1998 still exceeded the tolerable limit levels in the general population of the investigated region in Japan. This fact suggests the necessity of further nationwide investigation and comprehensive measures to reduce cadmium exposure in Japanese society. PMID:17891890

Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Nishijo, Muneko; Miura, Katsuyuki; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

2006-01-01

89

Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla  

SciTech Connect

The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

1988-09-01

90

Copper, Lead, Cadmium, and Zinc Sorption By Waterlogged and Air-Dry Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competitive sorption of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) was studied in three soils of contrasting chemical and physical properties under air-dry and waterlogged conditions. Competitive sorption was determined using the standard batch technique using six solutions, each with Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn concentrations of approximately 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 50?mg LWaterlogged soils tended

I. R. Phillips

1999-01-01

91

Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Selenium in Migrating Blue-Winged Teal ( Anas discors L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blue-winged teal (Anas discors L.), an abundant waterfowl species in North America, winters primarily in Mexico, Central America, and South America. Its\\u000a transcontinental migratory behavior provides the opportunity to examine contaminant acquisition across a diverse biogeographic\\u000a landscape that has varied environmental regulations and wildlife laws. We determined concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium\\u000a (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and selenium

A. M. Fedynich; B. M. Ballard; T. J. McBride; J. A. Estrella; J. M. Garvon; M. J. Hooper

2007-01-01

92

Estrogenic activity of cadmium, copper and zinc in the yeast estrogen screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals are increasingly studied due to their apparent ability to disrupt signaling pathways of living organisms including humans. Among various mechanisms of action, metals are suspected of exerting estrogenic activity in human and wildlife. In this study, a wide range of concentration of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc (from 95.4pM to 1mM) alone or in combination with the

Xavier Denier; Elisabeth M. Hill; Jeanette Rotchell; Christophe Minier

2009-01-01

93

Adsorption of Copper, Nickel, and Cadmium on Goethite in the Presence of Organic Ligands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of copper, cadmium and nickel at low concentrations on goethite was studied in the presence of the simple organic\\u000a ligands oxalate, salicylate, and pyromellitate. The experimental metal adsorption behavior was compared to calculations with\\u000a a surface complexation model to evaluate the most important interactions. Oxalate mostly decreased Cu and Ni adsorption at\\u000a high pH-values by competition between solution and

Diane Buerge-Weirich; Philippe Behra; Laura Sigg

2003-01-01

94

Nickel, cadmium, and copper in the northeast Pacific off the coast of Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of nickel, cadmium, and copper have been determined in northeast Pacific waters off the coast of Washington. Nickel concentrations average 5.5 nmol x kg⁻¹ at the surface and 10 nmol x kg⁻¹ in deep water. Although nickel shows a dual covariance with phosphate and dissolved silicon, a strong concentration gradient away from the coast cannot be explained by

CAROLYN J. JONES; JAMES W. MURRAY

1984-01-01

95

Cadmium, copper and zinc in octopuses from Kerguelen Islands, Southern Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc were measured in 34 octopuses over a large range of size and weight, caught in\\u000a the Kerguelen shelf waters. Compared with levels normally encountered in European cephalopods, Cd concentrations in both species\\u000a were very high: 30.7–47.1 and 27.3–54.4 ?g\\/g dry weight in Graneledone sp. and Benthoctopus thielei, respectively; Cu concentrations were generally low while

P. Bustamante; Y. Cherel; F. Caurant; P. Miramand

1998-01-01

96

Effects of copper and cadmium on heavy metal polluted waterbody restoration by duckweed ( Lemna minor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic plants have been identified as a potentially useful group for accumulating and bioconcentrating heavy metals. In the study, we investigated changes in the contents of soluble protein and photosynthetic pigments as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes caused by copper sulfate and cadmium dichloride, respectively in duckweed (Lemna minor) during concentration-dependent exposure (0.05–20mgl?1) to metal salt. The results

Wenhua Hou; Xiao Chen; Guanling Song; Qunhui Wang; Chein Chi Chang

2007-01-01

97

Genes involved in cysteine metabolism of Chironomus tepperi are regulated differently by copper and by cadmium.  

PubMed

Freshwater invertebrates are often exposed to metal contamination, and changes in gene expression patterns can help understand mechanisms underlying toxicity and act as pollutant-specific biomarkers. In this study the expressions of genes involved in cysteine metabolism are characterized in the midge Chironomus tepperi during exposures to sublethal concentrations of cadmium and copper. These metals altered gene expression of the cysteine metabolism differently. Both metals decreased S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase expression and did not change the expression of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Cadmium exposure likely increased cystathionine production by up-regulating cystathionine-?-synthase (C?S) expression, while maintaining control level cysteine production via cystathionine-?-lyase (C?L) expression. Conversely, copper down-regulated C?S expression and up-regulated C?L expression, which in turn could diminish cystathionine to favor cysteine production. Both metals up-regulated glutathione related expression (?-glutamylcysteine synthase and glutathione synthetase). Only cadmium up-regulated metallothionein expression and glutathione S-transferase d1 expression was up-regulated only by copper exposure. These different transcription responses of genes involved in cysteine metabolism in C. tepperi point to metal-specific detoxification pathways and suggest that the transsulfuration pathway could provide biomarkers for identifying specific metals. PMID:24603357

Jeppe, Katherine J; Carew, Melissa E; Long, Sara M; Lee, Siu F; Pettigrove, Vincent; Hoffmann, Ary A

2014-05-01

98

Immunotoxic effects of copper and cadmium in the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

Two phagocytes-mediated activities of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were examined after exposure to sublethal concentrations of copper and cadmium: (a) phagocytosis (measured by phagocytotic index), and (b) the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (luminol-dependent chemiluminescence) in response to bacteria Aeromonas salmonicida. In vivo exposure for 48 h to each metal separately by intraperitoneal injection did not affect the quantity of phagocytes of pronephros and their viability but inhibited, in dose-dependent manner, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of these cells. The half-inhibition value was 250 micrograms kg-1 for copper and 1 mg kg-1 for cadmium. In vitro exposure to copper for 30 min had the same immunomodulatory effect on macrophage chemiluminescence as that observed in vivo, whereas treatment with cadmium under the same conditions had a dose-dependent effect opposite to that observed in vivo. Assessment of these two macrophage-mediated functions could therefore be used as early bioindicators of the marine pollution. PMID:8683034

Bennani, N; Schmid-Alliana, A; Lafaurie, M

1996-02-01

99

OPT3 Is a Phloem-Specific Iron Transporter That Is Essential for Systemic Iron Signaling and Redistribution of Iron and Cadmium in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Knowledge of the signaling mechanisms that communicate iron demand from shoots to roots to regulate iron uptake as well as the transport systems mediating iron partitioning into edible plant tissues is critical for the development of crop biofortification strategies. Here, we report that OPT3, previously classified as an oligopeptide transporter, is a plasma membrane transporter capable of transporting transition ions in vitro. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana show that OPT3 loads iron into the phloem, facilitates iron recirculation from the xylem to the phloem, and regulates both shoot-to-root iron signaling and iron redistribution from mature to developing tissues. We also uncovered an aspect of crosstalk between iron homeostasis and cadmium partitioning that is mediated by OPT3. Together, these discoveries provide promising avenues for targeted strategies directed at increasing iron while decreasing cadmium density in the edible portions of crops and improving agricultural productivity in iron deficient soils. PMID:24867923

Zhai, Zhiyang; Gayomba, Sheena R.; Jung, Ha-il; Vimalakumari, Nanditha K.; Piñeros, Miguel; Craft, Eric; Rutzke, Michael A.; Danku, John; Lahner, Brett; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Vatamaniuk, Olena K.

2014-01-01

100

Copper, iron and zinc in Alzheimer's disease senile plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the rims and cores of senile plaques (SP) and in the neuropil of the amygdala of nine Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in the neuropil of the amygdala of five neurologically normal control subjects using micro particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). Comparison of SP rim and core values revealed

M. A Lovell; J. D Robertson; W. J Teesdale; J. L Campbell; W. R Markesbery

1998-01-01

101

Methods for making a supported iron-copper catalyst  

DOEpatents

A catalyst is described for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO+H.sub.2 utilizing a porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support impregnated with iron and copper and optionally promoted with an alkali metal. The use of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support results in the suppression of heavy waxes (C.sub.26 + hydrocarbons), particularly in slurry phase operation, when compared to unsupported or co-precipitated catalysts.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01

102

Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum  

E-print Network

Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum K. G precipitation; sorption; isotherms; X-ray diffraction; hydrous iron oxide; hydrous aluminum oxide; copper. INTRODUCTION Hydrous oxides of iron (HFO) and aluminum (HAO) are important mineral components of natural

Chorover, Jon

103

Significance of concentrations of lead, cadmium, and iron in the plumage of the feral pigeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead, cadmium, and iron contamination was examined in the plumage of feral pigeons. Metal contamination in pigeons from different regions in Bratislava or in different seasons did not differ significantly; seasonal type of food did not significantly influence the concentrations. The blood of birds was examined for the presence of complement fixing antibodies toChlamydia psittaci. Birds with antibodies did not

Marifin Janiga; Blanka Mafikovskfi; Monika Bobal'ová; Gabriela ?ur?ová

1990-01-01

104

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of zinc, cadmium, and copper metallothioneins: evidence for metal-binding cooperativity.  

PubMed Central

Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra of both well-characterized and novel metallothioneins (MTs) from various species were recorded to explore their metal-ion-binding modes and stoichiometries. The ESI mass spectra of the zinc- and cadmium-binding MTs showed a single main peak corresponding to metal-to-protein ratios of 4, 6, or 7. These findings combined with data obtained by other methods suggest that these MTs bind zinc or cadmium in a single predominant form and are consistent with the presence of three- and four-metal clusters. An unstable copper-specific MT isoform from Roman snails (Helix pomatia) could be isolated intact and was shown to preferentially bind 12 copper ions. To obtain additional information on the formation and relative stability of metal-thiolate clusters in MTs, a mass spectrometric titration study was conducted. One to seven molar equivalents of zinc or of cadmium were added to metal-free human MT-2 at neutral pH, and the resulting complexes were measured by ESI mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed that the formation of the four-metal cluster and of the thermodynamically less stable three-metal cluster is sequential and largely cooperative for both zinc and cadmium. Minor intermediate forms between metal-free MT, Me4MT, and fully reconstituted Me7MT were also observed. The addition of increasing amounts of cadmium to metal-free blue crab MT-I resulted in prominent peaks whose masses were consistent with apoMT, Cd3MT, and Cd6MT, reflecting the known structure of this MT with two Me3Cys9 centers. In a similar reconstitution experiment performed with Caenorhabditis elegans MT-II, a series of signals corresponding to apoMT and Cd3MT to Cd6MT species were observed. PMID:10716192

Gehrig, P. M.; You, C.; Dallinger, R.; Gruber, C.; Brouwer, M.; Kägi, J. H.; Hunziker, P. E.

2000-01-01

105

Cadmium and copper release kinetics in relation to afforestation of cultivated soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Afforestation of cultivated soils causes soil acidification and elevated concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOC) in the soil solution, and hence, aggravate the risk of heavy metal leaching. The kinetics of cadmium and copper release from an unpolluted arable soil applied with forest floor soil solution was investigated in the laboratory, and the release rates correlated to pH and DOC in solution through log-log equations. The soil solution was isolated from Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by centrifugation, and the solution passed a cation-exchange column to remove metal cations and to protonate the DOC. Soil samples from an arable Ap horizon were placed in completely mixed flow cells, and influent solutions with 0 to 5 mM DOC were applied. The solution pH was adjusted to achieve effluent pH values in the range 3.6 to 6.9 in the flow cells at steady-state conditions. Cadmium release rates were very low at pH > 5 and increased exponentially as pH decreased to <5. The release rate was correlated to solution pH in a simple model: log(cadmium release rate) = -0.21 pH - 15.28 ( R2 = 0.48), and no significant effect of DOC was observed. The kinetics of copper release from the soil was more complicated with effects of both pH and DOC. In experiments without DOC, the release rate of copper was slightly lower at high pH than at low pH. In experiments above pH 5, the presence of 5 mM DOC in the solution increased the release rate of copper. However, the copper release was retarded by DOC in the range pH 3.8 to 5.0, which coincided with a maximum retention of DOC in the flow cells. The release rate of copper was correlated to solution pH and concentration of DOC, including an interaction of pH and DOC: log(copper release rate) = 0.86 pH - 1.26 logDOC + 0.24 pH · logDOC - 19.26 ( R2 = 0.60). If the changes in soil chemical conditions after afforestation influence the cadmium and copper release rates in a similar way as observed in the flow cell experiments, then the release rate of cadmium will increase exponentially at soil solution pH < 4.5. The inhibition of copper release by DOC observed at pH 3.8 to 5.0 indicates that copper is retained in the soil by interactions with adsorbed organic matter.

Strobel, Bjarne W.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Borggaard, Ole K.; Andersen, Martin K.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

2001-04-01

106

Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron and copper disease states  

SciTech Connect

The tissue levels of paramagnetic ions are an important factor in the determination of T/sub 1/ values as observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The increased levels of iron present in human disease states such as hemochromatosis lead to decreased T/sub 1/ values. The mean liver T/sub 1/ of three patients with iron storage disease was determined to be 130 msec, significantly different from the value of 154 msec, the mean for 14 normal controls. Whether NMR will be able to detect the increased copper levels in liver and brain in Wilson disease remains for further clinical trials to evaluate. NMR imaging, however, does serve as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of states of iron overload and as a technique to follow progression of disease or response to medical therapy.

Runge, V.M. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN); Clanton, J.A.; Smith, F.W.; Hutchison, J.; Mallard, J.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

1983-11-01

107

Promotion of atherogenesis by copper or iron-Which is more likely?  

SciTech Connect

Iron levels increase in atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol fed-rabbits and play a role in atherosclerosis. We investigated whether copper also rises. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed high-cholesterol diets for 8 weeks. After sacrifice, lesion sizes were determined, and elemental analyses of the lesion and unaffected artery wall performed using nuclear microscopy. Unlike iron, lesion copper is decreased by about half compared with the unaffected artery wall, and much less copper than iron is present. Our data suggest that iron may be more likely to play a role in the promotion of atherosclerosis than copper.

Rajendran, Reshmi [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, MD7, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, MD7, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Ren, Minqin [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, MD7, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Ning, Pan [Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, MD7, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Tan Kwong Huat, Benny [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, MD7, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Halliwell, Barry [Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, MD7, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)]. E-mail: bchbh@nus.edu.sg; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, MD7, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)

2007-02-02

108

LEACHING OF CADMIUM, TELLURIUM AND COPPER FROM CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES.  

SciTech Connect

Separating the metals from the glass is the first step in recycling end-of-life cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules and manufacturing scrap. We accomplished this by leaching the metals in solutions of various concentrations of acids and hydrogen peroxide. A relatively dilute solution of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide was found to be most effective for leaching cadmium and tellurium from broken pieces of CdTe PV modules. A solution comprising 5 mL of hydrogen peroxide per kg of PV scrap in 1 M sulfuric acid, gave better results than the 12 mL H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/kg, 3.2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution currently used in the industry. Our study also showed that this dilute solution is more effective than hydrochloric-acid solutions and it can be reused after adding a small amount of hydrogen peroxide. These findings, when implemented in large-scale operation, would result in significant savings due to reductions in volume of the concentrated leaching agents (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and of the alkaline reagents required to neutralize the residuals of leaching.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2004-02-03

109

In vitro cytotoxicity testing of aquatic pollutants (cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel) using established fish cell lines  

SciTech Connect

The cytotoxicity of cadmium toward cultured bluegill fry (BF-2) cells was determined using several assay endpoints. The concentrations of cadmium causing a 50% decrease in colony formation, cell replication, uptake of neutral red, population growth (as determined by protein analysis), and uptake of (3H)uridine and 50% detachment of cells (as determined by protein analysis) were 0.03, 0.04, 0.08, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.21 mM cadmium, respectively. The neutral red assay was used to compare the relative sensitivities of bluegill BF-2 cells and RTG-2 cells, derived from the rainbow trout, toward four metals. The concentrations of cadmium, zinc, copper, and nickel causing a 50% reduction in the uptake of neutral red were 0.08, 0.19, 0.55, and 2.0 mM, respectively, with the BF-2 cells and 0.18, 0.64, 1.45, and greater than 10.0 mM, respectively, with the RTG-2 cells. The RTG-2 cells were less sensitive to the metals, in particular to nickel. The less stringent temperature requirements for growth, their greater sensitivity to pollutants, and their markedly shorter doubling time in vitro make the BF-2 cells the preferable cell line for ecotoxicity screening of aquatic pollutants.

Babich, H.; Shopsis, C.; Borenfreund, E.

1986-02-01

110

Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.  

PubMed

Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 ?M Cu), 5-50 ?M Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 ?M induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 ?M Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola. PMID:23959253

Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

2013-10-15

111

Tissue disposition of zinc and copper following repeated administration of cadmium and selenium to rats  

SciTech Connect

Female rats were divided into four groups of five rats each including one control group (C). The animals were administered Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ (Se), (CdCl/sub 2/Cd), and Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ + CdCl/sub 2/ (Cd +Se). Sodium selenite was given intragastrically at a dose of 0.5 mg Se/kg every day and cadmium chloride was injected subcutaneously every other day at a dose of 0.3 mg Cd/kg for 2 weeks. Exposure of rats to Cd caused an increase in the concentration of copper in the kidneys, blood, and liver and a decrease in the lung, but increased the concentration of zinc in the liver and brain and diminished it in the muscles and bones. In animals exposed to Se an increase in the copper concentration was observed in blood and brain; zinc was increased in the blood, heart, brain, and stomach, but decreased in the kidneys. Exposure of rats to Cd + Se resulted in an increase of copper in the kidneys and a decrease in the spleen, lungs, stomach, muscles and bones. Se prevented the cadmium-induced diminution of the zinc levels in the muscles and bones.

Chmielnicka, J.; Bem, E.M.; Brzeznicka, E.A.; Kasperek, M.

1985-08-01

112

EDTA chelation effects on urinary losses of cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, and zinc.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a chelating agent in binding a given metal in a biological system depends on the binding constants of the chelator for the particular metals in the system, the concentration of the metals, and the presence and concentrations of other ligands competing for the metals in question. In this study, we make a comparison of the in vitro binding constants for the chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, with the quantitative urinary excretion of the metals measured before and after EDTA infusion in 16 patients. There were significant increases in lead, zinc, cadmium, and calcium, and these increases roughly corresponded to the expected relative increases predicted by the EDTA-metal-binding constants as measured in vitro. There were no significant increases in urinary cobalt, chromium, or copper as a result of EDTA infusion. The actual increase in cobalt could be entirely attributed to the cobalt content of the cyanocobalamin that was added to the infusion. Although copper did increase in the post-EDTA specimens, the increase was not statistically significant. In the case of magnesium, there was a net retention of approximately 85% following chelation. These data demonstrate that EDTA chelation therapy results in significantly increased urinary losses of lead, zinc, cadmium, and calcium following EDTA chelation therapy. There were no significant changes in cobalt, chromium, or copper and a retention of magnesium. These effects are likely to have significant effects on nutrient concentrations and interactions and partially explain the clinical improvements seen in patients undergoing EDTA chelation therapy. PMID:11794513

Waters, R S; Bryden, N A; Patterson, K Y; Veillon, C; Anderson, R A

2001-12-01

113

Effect of cadmium on prenatal development and on tissue cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in rats  

SciTech Connect

Administration of 60 and 180 ppm Cd in the drinking water of female rats from Day 1 to Day 20 of gestation resulted in a pronounced accumulation of Cd in all organs examined with the highest increase in the intestinal wall. The copper concentration was decreased in the liver and in the intestine of females from both groups in a dose-dependent manner and in the blood of females given Cd (180 ppm). The zinc concentration was decreased only in the kidney and the intestine of females from the higher level group. The serum glucose level, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were not affected in maternal blood, but the hematocrit was reduced in fetal blood in the 60-ppm Cd group. The fetal body weight and length were decreased in both groups though litter size was not affected. The fetal growth retardation was not concomitant with an increase of Cd concentration or with a decrease of copper and zinc concentration in fetal organs. Cd concentration was not changed in the fetal brain, liver, and kidney and increased only in the gastrointestinal tract of fetuses from the 180-ppm Cd group. The zinc concentration was decreased in fetal liver in the 180-ppm group and in brain of fetuses from the 60-ppm Cd group. The copper concentration was decreased in the gastrointestinal tract and increased in kidney of fetuses from the higher level group.

Baranski, B.

1987-02-01

114

Determination of cadmium, copper and lead in mineral coal using solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GF AAS) was investigated as a potential technique for the routine determination of trace elements in mineral coal and cadmium, copper and lead were chosen as the model elements. Cadmium and lead could be determined at their main resonance lines at 228.8 nm and 283.3 nm, respectively, but an alternate, less sensitive line

M. G. R. Vale; M. M. Silva; B. Welz; É. C. Lima

2001-01-01

115

Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake. PMID:25618652

Do?ekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Do?ekal, Bohumil

2015-03-01

116

Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake.  

PubMed Central

Measurements of intake and uptake of cadmium in relation to diet composition were carried out in 57 nonsmoking women, 20-50 years of age. A vegetarian/high-fiber diet and a mixed-diet group were constructed based on results from a food frequency questionnaire. Duplicate diets and the corresponding feces were collected during 4 consecutive days in parallel with dietary recording of type and amount of food ingested for determination of the dietary intake of cadmium and various nutrients. Blood and 24-hr urine samples were collected for determination of cadmium, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc. There were no differences in the intake of nutrients between the mixed-diet and the high-fiber diet groups, except for a significantly higher intake of fiber (p < 0.001) and cadmium (p < 0.002) in the high-fiber group. Fecal cadmium corresponded to 98% in the mixed-diet group and 100% in the high-fiber diet group. No differences in blood cadmium (BCd) or urinary cadmium (UCd) between groups could be detected. There was a tendency toward higher BCd and UCd concentrations with increasing fiber intake; however, the concentrations were not statistically significant at the 5% level, indicating an inhibitory effect of fiber on the gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium. Sixty-seven percent of the women had serum ferritin < 30 micrograms/l, indicating reduced body iron stores, which were highly associated with higher BCd (irrespective of fiber intake). BCd was mainly correlated with UCd, serum ferritin, age, anf fibre intake. UCd and serum ferritin explained almost 60% of the variation in BCd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713018

Berglund, M; Akesson, A; Nermell, B; Vahter, M

1994-01-01

117

Recovery of iron from copper slag by deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at recovering iron from high-iron-content copper slag, this article introduced a combination technology of deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation, investigated the iron recovery efficiency and optimized the technical conditions. When coke powder with 86wt% fixed carbon was used as a reductant, iron was successfully extracted from the copper slag. Under the optimized condition of the coke powder content of 14wt%, the calcium-to-silicon mass ratio (Ca/Si) of 0.2, the roasting temperature of 1300°C, the roasting time of 3 h, the grinding time of 20 min, and the magnetic field intensity of 61 kA·m-1, the iron recovery rate of the copper slag can reach 91.82%, and the extracted iron powder has an iron grade of 96.21%. With the characteristics of high iron grade and low impurity content, the extracted iron powder can be used as high-quality raw materials of weathering steel.

Li, Ke-qing; Ping, Shuo; Wang, Hong-yu; Ni, Wen

2013-11-01

118

VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC-SULFIDE COATED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Tetra sulfide silane coated iron-copper nano-particle aggregates are found to be potentially very high capacity sorbents for vapor phase mercury capture. High equilibrium capacities were obtained for the silane coated iron copper nano-aggregate sorbent at 70 oC and 120 oC. Even a...

119

Specific features of photoluminescence properties of copper-doped cadmium selenide quantum dots  

SciTech Connect

The effect of doping with copper on the photoluminescence properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots 4 nm in dimension is studied. The quenching of the excitonic photoluminescence band related to the quantum dots and the appearance of an impurity photoluminescence band in the near-infrared region are observed after doping of the quantum dots with copper. It is established that, on doping of the quantum dots, the photoluminescence kinetics undergoes substantial changes. The photoluminescence kinetics of the undoped quantum dots is adequately described by a sum of exponential relaxation relations, whereas the photoluminescence kinetics experimentally observed in the region of the impurity band of the copper-doped samples follows stretched exponential decay, with the average lifetimes 0.3-0.6 {mu}s at the photon energies in the range of 1.47-1.82 eV. The experimentally observed changes in the photoluminescence properties are attributed to transformation of radiative centers in the quantum dots when doped with copper atoms.

Tselikov, G. I., E-mail: gleb@vega.phys.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Dorofeev, S. G.; Tananaev, P. N. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-09-15

120

Evidence of maternal copper and cadmium transfer in two live-bearing fish species.  

PubMed

We studied maternal transfer of an essential metal (copper) and a non-essential one (cadmium) in the live-bearing fishes Heterandria formosa and Gambusia affinis. The goals of this study were: (1) to determine whether metals are transferred from exposed females to their developing offspring; (2) to determine if this transfer differs between two fish species that differ in their degree of maternal provisioning during development; (3) to determine the duration of maternal metal transfer once females are no longer exposed; and (4) to determine whether copper and cadmium are transferred equivalently. We exposed gravid females to background levels (control) or 0.15 µM of metal for 10 days, and then transferred them to clean water. We allowed females to give birth to up to three broods, and then quantified metal levels in offspring born at least 3 days after the transfer. We detected maternal metal transfer for both metals and in both species. Offspring metal levels decreased as females spent more time in clean water. Similarly, metal levels were lower in later broods than in earlier ones. Maternal metal transfer was higher in H. formosa than in G. affinis. Our results constitute the first report of maternal metal transfer in live-bearing fishes, and show that developing embryos acquire both essential and non-essential metals from their mothers in both species. This shows that metal toxicity may be an issue for live-bearing fish in clean environments when the previous generation has encountered metal pollution. PMID:25194944

Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

2014-11-01

121

77 FR 36980 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for Waterfowl...applied for our approval of shot composed of copper and iron as nontoxic for waterfowl hunting...shot contains a maximum of 44.1 percent copper by weight, with iron composing the...

2012-06-20

122

Effect of copper and iron on the oxidative flavor deterioration of ice cream  

E-print Network

, . TQliv OF CO?TEKTS IRTRODICTI( R, , . . . , , , , . . . . , . . . ~ Ri'VIEW OF LITERATURE Copper and Iron in FdIR . Oxidised Flavor Defects . 3 3 7 EXFERIV& NTPI WTHCDS ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Souroe of Samples . . Determination cf Copper cnd... Iron Thiobarbituric Acid Test (TRA) preparation oi' Ios Cream Elth and Vithcut Added Copper or Iren, WEanoleptic Examination Determination of Fet in Ioe Cream. . . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 15 15 15 18 20 21 21 P ~ EIFERIRE?TAL RFNCLTS...

Miah, Md. Abdul Hamid

1961-01-01

123

Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

1995-07-06

124

Binary adsorption of copper(II) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by biomass of marine alga Durvillaea potatorum  

SciTech Connect

Much work on the biosorption of heavy metals by low-cost, natural biomass has been on the uptake of single metals. In practice, wastewaters often contain multiple heavy metal ions. In this paper the binary adsorption of copper(II) and cadmium(II) by a pretreated biomass of the marine alga Durvillaea potatorum from aqueous solutions was studied. The results showed that the uptake capacities for each heavy metal of the binary system were lower when compared with the single metal biosorption for copper and cadmium, respectively, but the total capacities for the binary system were similar to those obtained for single metal biosorption. The uptake capacities for copper and cadmium increased as the equilibrium pH increased and reached a plateau at a pH around 5.0. The uptake process was relatively fast, with 90% of the adsorption completed within 10 minutes for copper and 30 minutes for cadmium, and equilibrium reached after about 60 minutes of stirring. The biosorption isotherms of binary systems were not significantly affected by equilibrium temperature. The presence of light metal ions in solution also did not affect adsorption significantly. The binary adsorption was successfully predicted by the extended Langmuir model, using parameters and capacities obtained from single component systems.

Yu, Q.; Kaewsarn, P. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Queensland (Australia). School of Environmental Engineering

1999-06-01

125

Subcellular partitioning of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc in indigenous yellow perch ( Perca flavescens) sampled along a polymetallic gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-cellular metal distributions were studied in indigenous yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected from eight lakes located along a cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) concentration gradient. Ambient dissolved metal concentrations were measured to evaluate exposure and total hepatic metal concentrations were determined as a measure of metal bioaccumulation. Metal partitioning among potentially metal-sensitive fractions (cytosolic enzymes, organelles)

Anik Giguère; Peter G. C. Campbell; Landis Hare; Patrice Couture

2006-01-01

126

Biosorption of cadmium, copper and lead by isolated mother cell walls and whole cells of Chlorella fusca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new method for the isolation of released mother cell walls of Chlorella fusca, the biosorption of cadmium, copper and lead by purified cell wall isolates and whole cell suspensions was comparatively characterized. In all cases whole cells accumulated more metal ions than isolated cell walls. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were suitable for describing the short-term

B. Wehrheim; M. Wettern

1994-01-01

127

Total Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Two Dreissenid Mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis, at the Outflow of Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two closely related Dreissenid mussel species, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis, both recent invaders of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, have potential as biological monitors of metal contamination. To better understand their usefulness as biomonitors, we measured total cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in soft tissues of both species at a site at the outflow of Lake Ontario.

Carolyn Johns; Briana E. Timmerman

1998-01-01

128

Determination of Urinary Trace Elements (Arsenic, Copper, Cadmium, Manganese, Lead, Zinc, Selenium) in Patients with Blackfoot Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the relationship of arsenic, copper, cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and selenium to Blackfoot disease (BFD, a peripheral vascular disorder endemic to areas of Taiwan, which has been linked to arsenic in drinking water) the authors measured the amount of these substances in urine from BFD patients, using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results indicate significantly higher amounts of urinary arsenic,

Jin-Lian Tsai; Pin-Hua Horng; Tzung-Jeng Hwang; John W. Hsu; Ching-Jyi Horng

2004-01-01

129

EFFECTS OF PH ON THE TOXICITIES OF CADMIUM, COPPER, AND ZINC TO STEELHEAD TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI') (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased metal concentrations have been associated with freshwater acidification. Continuous-flow acute toxicity tests were conducted in soft water to determine the effect of pH on the toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to small (1-6 g) steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). LC50...

130

Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the comparative strategies of accumulation under standardised laboratory conditions of the essential metals zinc and copper, and the non-essential metal cadmium by three crustaceans of different taxa; vizPalaemon elegans Rathke (Malacostraca: Eucarida: Decapoda),Echinogammarus pirloti (Sexton & Spooner) (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda) and the barnacleElminius modestus Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

P. S. Rainbow; S. L. White

1989-01-01

131

ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT A MERCURY FILM ELECTRODE: BASELINE CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN SELECTED NATURAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...

132

Decomposition of the sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc: XPS, SEM, DRIFTS, XRD, and TGA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk and surface characteristics during decomposition of the transition metal sulfates of copper, iron (II), iron (III), nickel, and zinc are investigated utilizing various spectroscopic techniques. An oxidized form of sulfur was detected on the surface during decomposition of all metal sulfate samples, except zinc sulfate. Surface characteristics were not necessarily representative of the bulk characteristics. Oxy-sulfate was observed

Ranjani V Siriwardane; James A Poston Jr; Edward P Fisher; Ming-Shing Shen; Angela L Miltz

1999-01-01

133

Hyperfine Field and Hyperfine Anomalies of Copper Impurities in Iron  

E-print Network

A new value for the hyperfine magnetic field of copper impurities in iron is obtained by combining resonance frequencies from experiments involving {\\beta}-NMR on oriented nuclei on 59-Cu, 69-Cu, and 71-Cu with magnetic moment values from collinear laser spectroscopy measurements on these isotopes. The resulting value, i.e., Bhf(CuFe) = -21.794(10) T, is in agreement with the value adopted until now but is an order of magnitude more precise. It is consistent with predictions from ab initio calculations. Comparing the hyperfine field values obtained for the individual isotopes, the hyperfine anomalies in Fe were determined to be 59{\\Delta}69=0.15(9)% and 71{\\Delta}69=0.07(11)%.

V. V. Golovko; F. Wauters; S. Cottenier; M. Breitenfeldt; V. De Leebeeck; S. Roccia; G. Soti; M. Tandecki; E. Traykov; S. Van Gorp; D. Zákoucký; N. Severijns

2011-07-29

134

The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years  

SciTech Connect

Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)

2011-07-15

135

Sequential injection lab-on-valve simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of copper and iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential injection (SI) method in a lab-on-valve (LOV) format for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper and iron has been devised. The detection chemistry is based on the complex formation of 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-n-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]aniline (5-Br-PSAA) with copper(II) and\\/or iron(II) at pH 4.6. Copper(II) reacts with 5-Br-PSAA to form the complex which has an absorption maximum at 580nm but iron(III) does not react.

Shinsuke Ohno; Norio Teshima; Tadao Sakai; Kate Grudpan; Miroslav Polasek

2006-01-01

136

The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.’s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland, Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the solvent extraction/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for neutralization of the raffinate bleed) and has the potential to deliver higher current efficiencies in copper electrowinning, leading to increased copper production.

Shaw, D. R.; Dreisinger, D. B.; Lancaster, T.; Richmond, G. D.; Tomlinson, M.

2004-07-01

137

Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in female and embryonic Pacific sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon longurio) tissues.  

PubMed

In this work we compared the cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contents of muscle, liver and placenta of gestating females of the viviparous shark Rhizoprionodon longurio and of muscle, liver and umbilical cord of their respective embryos. The higher values of the essential Cu and Zn were in embryonic or embryo-related tissues (placenta and umbilical cord). Maternal muscle and liver had the highest values of Pb and Cd, respectively. There were significant direct correlations between the Zn and Cd concentrations of placenta and umbilical cord, as well as between maternal muscle and embryonic livers for Pb and Cd, but the relation between these tissues was inverse in the case of Zn. All correlations between the metal content of embryonic tissues and size of the embryos were negative, suggesting an inverse relation between the rate of mother-to-embryo metal transfer and embryonic growth. PMID:25151279

Frías-Espericueta, M G; Cardenas-Nava, N G; Márquez-Farías, J F; Osuna-López, J I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Voltolina, D

2014-11-01

138

Enhancement of copper and cadmium adsorption on kaolin by the presence of humic acids.  

PubMed

The competitive adsorption equilibrium isotherms of Cu2+ and Cd2+ on kaolin have been measured at 298 K, in the presence and the absence of humic acids (HAs). HAs were found to enhance the metal adsorption capacity of mineral surfaces, in particular kaolin. This enhancement was also observed in the competitive adsorption of copper and cadmium on kaolin and kaolin-HA complex. This competitive adsorption shows that the presence of Cd2+ has not an important effect on Cu2+ adsorption, whereas a dramatic decrease is observed on the adsorption of Cd2+ in the presence of Cu2+. The Freundlich isotherm equation was found to provide an excellent fit to the experimental data. These results were compared with the independent adsorption of both heavy metals. PMID:12227513

Arias, M; Barral, M T; Mejuto, J C

2002-09-01

139

Sorption of cadmium, copper, and zinc onto soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus  

SciTech Connect

Experiments involved testing the sorption properties of soft coal and the fungus Rhizopus javanicus to evaluate the feasibility of using these materials for acid mine reclamation. The metals cadmium, copper, and zinc were chosen since they are generally present in sulfide mine waste and are toxic. Their toxicity warrants their removal. To appropriate sulfide mine conditions, solutions of individual metals were prepared with concentrations between five and fifty milligrams/Liter and pH levels between three and seven. Results show forty to seventy percent metal removal for the fungus, and seventy-five to one-hundred percent removal by the coal. The pH of all the metal solutions equilibrated to between four and six when the fungus was used, and between five and seven for the coal. Sorption kinetics studies are currently underway and will be reported.

Watts, H.D.; Chapman, S.K. [Montana Tech, Butte, MT (United States)

1993-12-31

140

Effects of cadmium and copper on chemotaxis of marine and freshwater ciliates  

SciTech Connect

Recommendations of a workshop on biological screening requested the inclusion of behavior studies to reveal subtle, dysfunctional effects of pollutants on organisms and suggestions for additional research in development of behavioral tests incorporated into testing protocols were made at the ASTM Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology. The present study addresses these research needs by examining a rapid behavioral bioassay using protozoa, microfauna with important roles in microbial-based food chains, regeneration of nutrients, and regulation of bacterial populations in aquatic environments. In this study, ciliated protozoa from both marine and freshwater environments were examined with respect to their response to an attractant in the presence of a variety of concentrations of cadmium and copper.

Berk, S.G.; Gunderson, J.H.; Derk, L.A.

1985-06-01

141

Concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury and copper in mushrooms in the vicinity of a lead smelter.  

PubMed

The concentrations of four heavy metals in 149 samples of mushroom fruiting bodies, representing 11 species, mainly all edible, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mushrooms were collected up to a distance of 6 km from a lead smelter in central Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) in operation since 1786. Lead was accumulated extensively by Lepiota rhacodes and Lepista nuda. Among other species, significant accumulation was found up to a distance of 1 km from the source. Concentrations of greater than 100 mg kg-1 dry matter were often determined. The safe limit of 5 mg kg-1 dry matter was exceeded in most samples collected at distances of up to 6 km from the source. Concentrations of cadmium in the polluted area were generally significantly higher than in other parts of Bohemia. Cadmium was extensively accumulated by the toxic Amanita muscaria, but also by the edible Boletus edulis and Amanita rubescens, with mean values 28.6, 15.2 and 12.3 mg Cd kg-1 dry matter, respectively. The Czechoslovakian statutory limit is 0.5 mg Cd kg-1 dry matter. Statistically significant linear correlations between lead and cadmium concentrations were found only for Boletus edulis and Paxillus involutus. Mercury was accumulated by Lepista nuda and Lepiota rhacodes; mean values of 11.9 and 6.5 mg Hg kg-1 dry matter, respectively, were found. Concentrations of mercury in most species from the study area were higher than in those from other parts of Bohemia. Lepiota rhacodes and Lepista nuda also accumulated copper extensively with mean values of 280 and 193 mg Cu kg-1 dry matter, respectively. PMID:1925517

Kalac, P; Burda, J; Stasková, I

1991-06-01

142

Copper Deficiency Leads to Anemia, Duodenal Hypoxia, Upregulation of HIF-2? and Altered Expression of Iron Absorption Genes in Mice  

PubMed Central

Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2? (HIF-2?) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2? upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter – Dmt1) and ferric reductase – Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2?-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2? as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency. PMID:23555700

Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R. R.; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A.; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

2013-01-01

143

Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV  

PubMed Central

Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 ?g/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 ?g/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit. PMID:24734090

Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

2014-01-01

144

On-line solid phase extraction system using 1,10-phenanthroline immobilized on surfactant coated alumina for the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and cadmium.  

PubMed

An on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) preconcentration system coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) was developed for determination of copper and cadmium at microg L(-1) level. The method is based on the on-line retention of copper and cadmium on a microcolumn of alumina modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1,10-phenanthroline and subsequent elution with ethanol and determination by FAAS. The effect of chemical and flow variables that could affect the performance of the system was investigated. The relative standard deviation (n=6) at 20 microg L(-1) level for copper and cadmium were 1.4 and 2.2% and the corresponding limits of detection (based on 3 sigma) were 0.04 and 0.14 microg L(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determination of copper and cadmium in human hair and water samples. PMID:19615510

Shabani, Ali Mohammed Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Dehghani, Zahra

2009-09-15

145

THE CONCENTRATION OF MERCURY, COPPER, NICKEL, SILVER, CADMIUM, AND LEAD IN THE NORTHERN ADRIATIC ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS ENCRASICHOLUS, AND SARDINE, SARDINA PILCHARDUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of mercury, copper, nickel, silver, cadmium, and lead were determined in various tissues of the northern Adriatic anchovy, Engraulis encrasicholus, and sardine, Sardina pilchardus. throughout a 7-month fishing season. The highest concentrations of nickel, silver, cadmium, and lead occurred in the skin ar.d gills, with little interspecific differences and no unusually high values. The highest concentrations of mercury and

MALVERN GILMARTIN; NOELIA REVELANTE

146

VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

147

Acclimation and deacclimation of brown trout (Salmo trutta) to zinc and copper singly and in combination with cadmium or copper.  

PubMed

Brown trout (Salmo trutta) were chronically exposed to low and high levels of zinc (Zn) alone, copper (Cu) alone, a Zn-Cu mixture, and a Zn-cadmium (Cd) mixture all starting with eyed eggs and continuing through to the fingerling stage. Exposure to the metals and metal mixtures resulted in acclimation as measured by greater median lethal concentrations (LC50) values relative to metal-naïve fry. The degree of acclimation was similar between the low and high exposures except for Cu, where acclimation was observed at the high but not the low acclimation level. The increases in tolerance relative to metal-naïve controls were usually less than a factor of 2 and never exceeded a factor of 3. Acclimation exposures did not affect hatch or survival except for the high-acclimation regime of Zn plus Cu. Acclimation came at an apparent metabolic cost because growth was decreased by most acclimation exposures. Deacclimation, as evidenced by a return of LC50 values to naïve levels, occurred after 2-5 weeks in clean water. PMID:24770996

Brinkman, Stephen F; Woodling, John D

2014-08-01

148

Trends of total cadmium, copper, and zinc in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) along the upper reach of the St. Lawrence River: 1994-2005.  

PubMed

This study examines spatial and temporal variability of bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc in tissues of zebra mussels in the upper reach of the St. Lawrence River which originates at the outflow of Lake Ontario. It was hypothesized that concentrations of these metals in mussel tissues would decline over time and decrease with increasing distance from the outlet of Lake Ontario as a result of on-going efforts to reduce contaminant discharges into the lake. Size of mussels was also evaluated as a factor influencing bioaccumulation. Mussels were collected annually in October from six sites from 1994 to 2005, including one site near a local industry. Individuals were grouped into five or more size classes per site in each year. Soft tissues were analyzed for total cadmium, copper and zinc. Concentrations of cadmium and copper in tissues varied significantly both spatially and temporally. Cadmium concentrations were elevated at most sites; copper concentrations were moderately elevated compared with other studies in the Lake Ontario basin and St. Lawrence River. Zinc showed the most uniformity in mussels possibly due to internal regulation and to low levels of environmental exposure. Animal size correlated with copper concentrations of tissues in approximately 30% of samples but infrequently for cadmium and zinc. Cadmium and copper levels were found to decline downstream over time. Inter-annual variability of metal concentrations in mussel tissues suggests utilization in long-term monitoring programs to discern significant trends. PMID:21922178

Johns, Carolyn

2012-09-01

149

OPT3 Is a Component of the Iron-Signaling Network between Leaves and Roots and Misregulation of OPT3 Leads to an Over-Accumulation of Cadmium in Seeds  

PubMed Central

Plants and seeds are the main dietary sources of zinc, iron, manganese, and copper, but are also the main entry point for toxic elements such as cadmium into the food chain. We report here that an Arabidopsis oligopeptide transporter mutant, opt3-2, over-accumulates cadmium (Cd) in seeds and roots but, unexpectedly, under-accumulates Cd in leaves. The cadmium distribution in opt3-2 differs from iron, zinc, and manganese, suggesting a metal-specific mechanism for metal partitioning within the plant. The opt3-2 mutant constitutively up-regulates the Fe/Zn/Cd transporter IRT1 and FRO2 in roots, indicative of an iron-deficiency response. No genetic mutants that impair the shoot-to-root signaling of iron status in leaves have been identified. Interestingly, shoot-specific expression of OPT3 rescues the Cd sensitivity and complements the aberrant expression of IRT1 in opt3-2 roots, suggesting that OPT3 is required to relay the iron status from leaves to roots. OPT3 expression was found in the vasculature with preferential expression in the phloem at the plasma membrane. Using radioisotope experiments, we found that mobilization of Fe from leaves is severely affected in opt3-2, suggesting that Fe mobilization out of leaves is required for proper trace-metal homeostasis. When expressed in yeast, OPT3 does not localize to the plasma membrane, precluding the identification of the OPT3 substrate. Our in planta results show that OPT3 is important for leaf phloem-loading of iron and plays a key role regulating Fe, Zn, and Cd distribution within the plant. Furthermore, ferric chelate reductase activity analyses provide evidence that iron is not the sole signal transferred from leaves to roots in leaf iron status signaling. PMID:24880337

Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Xie, Qingqing; Akmakjian, Garo Z.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Patel, Ami; Stacey, Minviluz G.; Song, Lihui; Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Stacey, Gary; Schroeder, Julian I.

2014-01-01

150

Effects of cadmium, copper and zinc on growth of four isolated algae from a highly polluted Argentina river.  

PubMed

Toxicity of cadmium, copper and zinc was tested on four green algal species (Ankistrodesmus fusiformis, Chlorella ellipsoidea, Monoraphidium contortum and Scenedesmus acuminatus) isolated from a highly polluted river (Matanza-Riachuelo River, Buenos Aires, Argentina). The relative abundance of these species in river waters showed that C. ellipsoidea was the most abundant species (mean 4,540 ind mL(-1)), whereas the less abundant species was S. acuminatus (mean 220 ind mL(-1)). The most sensitive species was A. fusiformis, which EC50 were Cd = 141 ?g L(-1), Cu = 72 ?g L(-1), and Zn = 199 ?g L(-1), whereas C. ellipsoidea was the most resistant species to copper (EC50 = 489 ?g L(-1)) and cadmium (EC50 = 429 ?g L(-1)), and M. contortum and S. acuminatus were the most resistant species to zinc (EC50 = 381 and 394 ?g L(-1), respectively). PMID:24297640

Magdaleno, Anahí; Vélez, Carlos Guillermo; Wenzel, María Teresa; Tell, Guillermo

2014-02-01

151

Lipid production combined with biosorption and bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, manganese and zinc by oleaginous microalgae Chlorella minutissima UTEX2341.  

PubMed

Algae lipid production combined with heavy metal removal is a cost-effective and environment-friendly method for algae biofuel production and hazardous waste treatment. Chlorella minutissima UTEX 2341 had strong resistance to cadmium, copper, manganese and zinc ions under heterotrophic culture condition and could efficiently remove them through intracellular accumulation and extracellular immobilization. Meanwhile, lipid accumulation was not inhibited by heavy metals. Instead, the algae lipid content significantly increased by 21.07% and 93.90%, respectively with the addition of cadmium and copper. Furthermore, the heavy metal residue in lipid was within ?g range and satisfied the commercial standard. This artificial wastewater-algae biofuel-heavy-metal integrated utilization technology offered a new alternative solution to the problems of energy shortage and environmental pollution. PMID:25459865

Yang, JinShui; Cao, Jing; Xing, GuanLan; Yuan, HongLi

2014-11-01

152

Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

Viets, J.G.

1978-01-01

153

Us food and drug administration survey of cadmium, lead and other elements in clams and oysters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Fiscal Years 1985\\/1986, the US Food and Drug Administration conducted a survey of cadmium, lead and other elements in fresh clams and oysters collected from US coastal areas in use for shellfish production. Shellfish were analysed for cadmium and lead by using a dry ash?anodic stripping voltammetric method. Other elements (aluminium, arsenic, beryllium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium,

Stephen G. Capar; Norma J. Yess

1996-01-01

154

Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine algae Sargassum sp., Padina sp., Ulva sp., and Gracillaria sp., harvested locally, were investigated for their biosorption performance in the removal of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel from dilute aqueous solutions. It was found that the biosorption capacities were significantly affected by solution pH, with higher pH favoring higher metal-ion removal. Kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried

Ping Xin Sheng; Yen-Peng Ting; J. Paul Chen; Liang Hong

2004-01-01

155

Sorption of cadmium(II) and copper(II) by soil humic acids: temperature effects and sorption heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption by humic acids is known to modify the bioavailability and toxicity of metals in soils and aquatic systems. The sorption of cadmium(II) and copper(II) to two soil humic acids was measured at pH 6.0 using ion-selective electrode potentiometric titration at different temperatures. Sorption reactions were studied with all components in aqueous solution, or with the humates in suspension. Adsorption

Andrew W. Rate

2010-01-01

156

Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol\\/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol\\/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol\\/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol\\/kg) and Cd (80 pmol\\/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol\\/kg)

Edward A. Boyle; Sarah S. Huested; Susan P. Jones

1981-01-01

157

Studies on the role of iron in the reversal of cadmium toxicity in chicks.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to determine the effect of dietary iron (Fe) levels ranging from a deficiency to an excess on the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) in chicks. In Fe-deficient animals, cadmium was found to be more toxic than in Fe supplemented animals as measured by growth. The liver Cd burdens were increased significantly in the presence of dietary Fe supplementation, and there was a significant Cd-Fe interaction in the Cd concentration of the kidney, indicating that iron deficiency increased the concentration of Cd in the kidneys of those chicks receiving this element. Cd tended to reduce the Fe concentration in both the liver and kidney. The absorption of Cd as measured by the amount of 109Cd that disappeared from an isolated duodenal segment in one h was not affected by the Fe content of the diet, but the amount of isotope appearing in the liver compared to the amount present in the blood was increased in the Fe supplemented chicks. Separation of the Cd binding ligands by column chromatography revealed that more of the Cd in the liver, but not the kidney, was associated with ligands which eluted in a column volume that contained metallothionein in those chicks receiving Fe than in the livers from Fe deficient animals. The inverse relationship between the amount of Cd bound to the metallothionein containing fraction and toxicity may be related causally. PMID:2484363

Blalock, T L; Hill, C H

1988-01-01

158

Dietary iron lowers the intestinal uptake of cadmium-metallothionein in rats.  

PubMed

It has been shown that addition of extra calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe2+) to the diet results in a significant protection against cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in rats fed inorganic Cd salt. However, it is not clear whether the presence of these mineral supplements in the diet also protects against the Cd uptake from cadmium-metallothionein. The present study examines the influence of Ca/P, Zn and Fe2+ on the Cd disposition in rats fed diets containing either 1.5 and 8 mg Cd/kg diet as cadmium-metallothionein (CdMt) or as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 4 weeks. The feeding of Cd resulted in a dose-dependent increase of Cd in intestine, liver and kidneys. The total Cd uptake in liver and kidneys after exposure to CdMt was lower than after exposure to CdCl2. At the low dietary Cd level and after addition of the mineral supplement, the kidney/liver concentration ratio increased. However, this ratio was always higher with CdMt than with CdCl2, suggesting a selective renal disposition of dietary CdMt. The uptake of Cd from CdCl2 as well as from CdMt was significantly decreased by the presence of a combined mineral supplement of Ca/P, Zn and Fe2+. The protection which could be achieved was 72 and 75% for CdMt and 85 and 92% for CdCl2 after doses of 1.5 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg respectively. In a following experiment it was shown that the protective effect of the mineral mixture against CdMt was mainly due to the presence of Fe2+. It seems clear that Cd speciation and the mineral status of the diet have a considerable impact on the extent of Cd uptake in rats. PMID:1397065

Groten, J P; Luten, J B; van Bladeren, P J

1992-05-01

159

Impairment of Interrelated Iron- and Copper Homeostatic Mechanisms in Brain Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Iron and copper are important co-factors for a number of enzymes in the brain, including enzymes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and myelin formation. Both shortage and an excess of iron or copper will affect the brain. The transport of iron and copper into the brain from the circulation is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead to altered copper homeostasis in the brain. Similarly, changes in dietary copper affect the brain iron homeostasis. Moreover, the uptake routes of iron and copper overlap each other which affect the interplay between the concentrations of the two metals in the brain. The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) is involved in the uptake of both iron and copper. Furthermore, copper is an essential co-factor in numerous proteins that are vital for iron homeostasis and affects the binding of iron-response proteins to iron-response elements in the mRNA of the transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, all highly involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake, and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells that express various transporters. PMID:23055972

Skjørringe, Tina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben

2012-01-01

160

Biochemical Evolution of Iron and Copper Proteins, Substances Vital to Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes studies in the area of biochemical evolution of iron, copper, and heme proteins to provide an historical outline. Included are lists of major kinds of proteins and enzymes and charts illustrating electron flow in a cytochrome electron transport system and interconversion of jerrous to ferric ion in iron metabolism. (CC)

Frieden, Earl

1974-01-01

161

Iron, Manganese and Copper Release from Synthetic Hydroxyapatite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kinetic stir-flow dissolution experiments were performed on iron- (Fe-SHA), manganese- (Mn-SHA), and copper- (Cu-SHA) containing synthetic hydroxyapatites. Solution treatments consisted of de-ionized water, citric acid and DTPA. Initially, Mn concentrations were higher than Cu concentrations and Fe concentrations were the lowest in all treatments. At later times Mn and Cu concentrations dropped in the DTPA treatment while Fe rose to the concentration similar to Mn and Cu. At all times, metal release concentrations in the water and citric acid treatments followed the trend of Mn>Cu>Fe. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data and ^31P NMR indicated that the metals substituted for Ca in the SHA structure. However, EPR data suggested that a metal (hydr)oxide phase existed either on the SHA surface or between the SHA crystallites. The metal concentration trend of Mn>Cu>Fe suggested that the initial solution metal concentrations are dependent on the dissolution of (hydr)oxides from SHA surfaces or between SHA crystallites. Similar metal concentrations at later times in the DTPA experiments suggests that metal concentrations were controlled by the release of Mn, Cu, or Fe from the SHA structure.

Sutter, B.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, Douglas W.

1999-01-01

162

Blood zinc, iron, and copper levels in critically ill neonates.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood zinc, iron, and copper levels in critically ill neonates by comparing blood metal levels with the score for neonatal acute physiology (SNAP). Forty-six neonates (26 boys, 20 girls; ages ranging from 10 min to 23 days) who had been admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of hospital and who were critically ill according to SNAP were included. Another 15 neonates (12 boys, 8 girls; ages ranging from 30 min to 24 days) who were brought to the hospital for a health checkup were included as controls. Clinical data, time in the intensive care unit, prognosis, and SNAP for critically ill neonates were recorded. Blood Cu, Zn, and Fe values were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry. Ill neonates were divided into extremely critical (SNAP ?10) and critical groups (1???SNAP?0.05). Fe levels were not significantly between the critical and control groups (p >0.05). In ill neonates, blood Zn and Fe concentrations in the extremely critical group were lower than in the critical group (p <0.05). Serious illness in neonates may lead to decreased Zn and Fe blood concentrations. Zn and Fe supplements may be beneficial for critically ill children. PMID:25471202

Wang, Guanghuan; Wang, Dian; Jiang, Xuewu; Yu, Xiaojun; Ma, Lian; Zhong, Jun; Feng, Xueyong

2015-03-01

163

Cadmium accumulation and interactions with zinc, copper, and manganese, analysed by ICP-MS in a long-term Caco-2 TC7 cell model.  

PubMed

The influence of long-term exposure to cadmium (Cd) on essential minerals was investigated using a Caco-2 TC7 cells and a multi-analytical tool: microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Intracellular levels, effects on cadmium accumulation, distribution, and reference concentration ranges of the following elements were determined: Na, Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Cd. Results showed that Caco-2 TC7 cells incubated long-term with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 micromol Cd/l for 5 weeks exhibited a significant increase in cadmium accumulation. Furthermore, this accumulation was more marked in cells exposed long-term to cadmium compared with controls, and that this exposure resulted in a significant accumulation of copper and zinc but not of the other elements measured. Interactions of Cd with three elements: zinc, copper, and manganese were particularly studied. Exposed to 30 micromol/l of the element, manganese showed the highest inhibition and copper the lowest on cadmium intracellular accumulation but Zn, Cu, and Mn behave differently in terms of their mutual competition with Cd. Indeed, increasing cadmium in the culture medium resulted in a gradual and significant increase in the accumulation of zinc. There was a significant decrease in manganese from 5 micromol Cd/l exposure, and no variation was observed with copper. PMID:16937253

Noël, Laurent; Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Guérin, Thierry; Huet, Hélène; Frémy, Jean-Marc; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

2006-10-01

164

Total body burdens and tissue concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and ash in 55 human cadavers  

SciTech Connect

Trace metal contents of human tissues and total body burdens are useful for studies of nutrition and certain diseases. Data are summarized and analyzed for individuals exposed to the normal Cincinnati environment, for 29 tissues from 55 cadavers for lead and ash concentrations, and from 26 cadavers for cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations. Total body burdens also were calculated and correlated against each other and age. The distributions for ash, copper, and zinc were close to normal, but those for lead and cadmium were closer to lognormal. Bone lead increased with age, whereas soft tissue lead did not. The calculated mean percentage of total body lead in the bones ranged from 78% at age 20 to 96% at age 80. Correlations of blood concentrations with total body burdens were negligible for cadmium and zinc. For copper the correlation coefficient was a poor 0.54. For lead in blood vs soft tissue burden it was a very poor 0.37, and vs total body lead it was negligible. Thus the use of blood samples as a convenient clinical measure of body burdens for these metals may be of limited value. These and other findings provide a useful bank of information for health studies.

Saltzman, B.E.; Gross, S.B.; Yeager, D.W.; Meiners, B.G.; Gartside, P.S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA))

1990-08-01

165

Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 ?m) or the bulk sediment.

Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

166

Predicting the rate and extent of cadmium and copper desorption from soils in the presence of bacterial extracellular polymer.  

PubMed

The movement of cationic transition metals through the subsurface is strongly retarded by sorption to the porous media. However, dissolved organic ligands can compete with soil surfaces by providing binding sites for metals in solution. An extracellular polymer produced by a bacterium isolated from soil was used in this study to observe and model the influence of a naturally occurring ligand on the release of adsorbed metals from two test soils. Experimental results show that the presence of dissolved extracellular polymer enhanced the rate and extent of desorptive release of soil-bound cadmium and copper. A kinetic model that uses a gamma distribution of rate constants to account for the physical and chemical heterogeneity of the soil matrix was employed to describe the release of cadmium and copper in batch experiments. Model parameters describing soil, metal and extracellular polymer interactions were obtained through separate experiments. With these parameters the model successfully predicted the influence of dissolved polymer on the rate and extent of release of cadmium and copper from soil in independent batch experiments. These results suggest that the presence of natural metal-binding ligands such as bacterial extracellular polymers can act to increase the driving force for desorption by lowering the aqueous concentration of free unbound metals in solution. PMID:15142783

Jensen-Spaulding, Anna; Cabral, Kristen; Shuler, Michael L; Lion, Leonard W

2004-05-01

167

Direct determination of cadmium and copper in seawater using a transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with Zeeman-effect background corrector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the direct determination of copper and cadmium in seawater were described using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) and a longitudinal Zeeman effect background corrector. Ammonium nitrate was used as the chemical modifier to determine copper. The mixture of di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate and ammonium nitrate was used as the

Mei-Shu Chan; Shang-Da Huang

2000-01-01

168

Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

169

Copper and iron complexes catalytic for oxygen radical reactions in sweat from human athletes.  

PubMed

Sweat collected from 'explosive' and 'endurance' athletes immediately after exercise contains low molecular mass complexes of copper detectable by their ability to bind to o-phenanthroline. Concentrations of these copper complexes are much greater in arm sweat than in trunk sweat. The iron content of arm sweat, as determined by the ferrozine method, is also greater than that of trunk sweat. However, much of the iron in trunk sweat exists in a low molecular mass form that can bind to the antibiotic bleomycin, whereas the iron in arm sweat does not exist in this form. The metal complexes in human sweat are capable of stimulating the peroxidation of membrane lipids in the presence of ascorbic acid. The physiological significance of the presence of iron and copper complexes in sweat is discussed. PMID:2985297

Gutteridge, J M; Rowley, D A; Halliwell, B; Cooper, D F; Heeley, D M

1985-02-15

170

Zinc, lead and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in Typha latifolia as affected by iron plaque on the root surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of iron plaque on the growth of Typha latifolia L. and its accumulation of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated under field conditions and in nutrient solution cultures in the laboratory. In the field, Zn concentrations (but not Cd) on the root surface were positively related to Fe concentrations on the root surface. In the

Zhihong Ye; Alan J. M Baker; Ming-Hung Wong; Arthur J Willis

1998-01-01

171

IN-HOUSE CORROSION RESEARCH EMPHASIZING LEAD, COPPER AND IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead and copper are directly regulated via the "Lead and Copper Rule;" however, water suppliers must balance all water treatment processes in order to simultaneously comply with all regulations. Specific research needs for copper and lead chemistry still exist, as applications o...

172

Assessment of copper, cadmium and zinc remobilization in Mediterranean marine coastal sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remobilization of copper, cadmium and zinc in sediments of three selected coastal microenvironments of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) is assessed. Various analytical methods and techniques were employed providing concentrations, profiles and forms of metals and organic matter in sediments and pore waters. At Loutropyrgos, a non-industrial site located, however, within an intensively industrialized enclosed gulf, an intense resupply of zinc in pore water from sediment was recorded, correlating with the highest value of weakly bound fraction of zinc determined at this area. The comparatively high zinc concentrations measured in the pore waters (394 nM), exceed considerably those in the overlying seawater (12.5 nM determined by DGT; 13.5 nM total), resulting in the formation of a strong concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Potential zinc flux at the sediment-water interface at Loutropyrgos (based on 0.4 mm DGT profile) was calculated equal to 0.8 mmol.m -2.d -1. The half lives of trace metals at Loutropyrgos site, based on the aforementioned DGT profiles, amount to 0.1 y (Zn), 2.8 y (Cd), 4.5 y (Cu), 2.2 y (Mn) and 0.4 y (Fe) pointing out to the reactivity of these metals at the sediment-water interface. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore waters of the three selected sites (2.7-5.2 mg/L) was up to four times higher compared to that of the corresponding overlying seawater. Similarly, the concentrations of carbohydrates in pore waters (0.20-0.91 mg/L monosaccharides; 0.71-1.6 mg/L polysaccharides) are an order of magnitude higher than those of seawater, forming a concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Total carbohydrates contribute between 34 and 48% of the organic carbon of the pore waters, being significantly higher than those of seawater from the corresponding areas, which were in the range of 15-21%. The complexing capacity as for copper ions (CCu) determined in pore water ranges widely, from 0.03 ?M at Kalamos to 3.76 ?M at Molos, whereas the corresponding values for cadmium ions (CCd) were non detectable, except for Kalamos site, where the value for CCd was equal to 0.03 ?M. A significant increase in the values of CCu, normalized as for DOC, was observed in pore waters in relation to those of overlying seawater. This indicates an 'enrichment' of pore waters in dissolved organic ligands for copper ions per unit of DOC. Up to 72% of DOC could be present as ligands capable to complex copper ions.

Sakellari, Aikaterini; Plavši?, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

2011-01-01

173

Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study  

SciTech Connect

Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

Margrete Meltzer, Helle, E-mail: helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lise Brantsaeter, Anne [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)] [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Borch-Iohnsen, Berit [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)] [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, Dag G. [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)] [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Alexander, Jan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)] [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Thomassen, Yngvar [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)] [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Stigum, Hein [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)] [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ydersbond, Trond A. [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)] [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

2010-07-15

174

Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study.  

PubMed

Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin < 12 microg/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin < 12 microg/L and Hb < 120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p < 0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r(2) for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110 < or = Hb < 120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals. PMID:20381026

Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A

2010-07-01

175

Response of sugarcane to increasing concentrations of copper and cadmium and expression of metallothionein genes.  

PubMed

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) offers the potential to be a phytoremediator species due to its outstanding biomass production, but its prospective metal accumulation and tolerance have not been fully characterized. Sugarcane plantlets were able to tolerate up to 100microM of copper in nutrient solution for 33 days, with no significant reduction in fresh weight, while accumulating 45mgCukg(-1) shoot dry weight. Higher levels of copper in solution (250 and 500microM) were lethal. Sugarcane displayed tolerance to 500microM Cd without symptoms of toxicity, accumulating 451mgCdkg(-1) shoot dry weight after 33 days, indicating its potential as Cd phytoremediator. DNA gel blot analyses detected 8 fragments using a metallothionein (MT) Type I probe, while 10 were revealed for the MT Type II and 8 for MT Type III. The number of genes for each type of MT in sugarcane might be similar to the ones identified in rice considering the interspecific origin of sugarcane cultivars. MT Type I gene appeared to present the highest level of constitutive expression, mainly in roots, followed by MT Type II, corroborating the expression pattern described based on large-scale expressed sequence tags sequencing. MT Type II and III genes were more expressed in shoots, where MT I was also importantly expressed. Increasing Cu concentration had little or no effect in modulating MT genes expression, while an apparent minor modulation of some of the MT genes could be detected in Cd treatments. However, the level of response was too small to explain the tolerance and/or accumulation of Cd in sugarcane tissues. Thus, cadmium tolerance and accumulation in sugarcane might derive from other mechanisms, although MT may be involved in oxidative responses to high levels of Cd. Sugarcane can be considered a potential candidate to be tested in Cd phytoremediation. PMID:17175063

Sereno, Maria Lorena; Almeida, Raul S; Nishimura, Deborah S; Figueira, Antonio

2007-11-01

176

Electronic structure of face-centered-tetragonal iron in ferromagnetic iron-copper multilayers S. J. Lloyd and R. E. Dunin-Borkowski*  

E-print Network

Electronic structure of face-centered-tetragonal iron in ferromagnetic iron-copper multilayers S. J. Lloyd and R. E. Dunin-Borkowski* Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge plating, using a copper pyrophos- phate solution. Sections of the plated multilayers were ground

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

177

Iron, copper and zinc isotopic fractionation up mammal trophic chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing body of evidence that some non-traditional elements exhibit stable isotope compositions that are distinct in botanical and animal products, providing potential new tracers for diet reconstructions. Here, we present data for iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) stable isotope compositions in plants and bones of herbivores and carnivores. The samples come from trophic chains located in the Western Cape area and in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The Fe, Cu and Zn isotope systematics are similar in both parks. However, local Cu, and possibly Zn, isotopic values of soils influence that of plants and of higher trophic levels. Between plants and bones of herbivores, the Zn isotope compositions are 66Zn-enriched by about 0.8‰ whereas no significant trophic enrichment is observed for Fe and Cu. Between bones of herbivores and bones of carnivores, the Fe isotope compositions are 56Fe-depleted by about 0.6‰, the Cu isotope compositions are 65Cu-enriched by about 1.0‰, and the Zn isotope compositions are slightly 66Zn-depleted by about 0.2‰. The isotopic distributions of the metals in the body partly explain the observed trophic isotopic systematics. However, it is also necessary to invoke differential intestinal metal absorption between herbivores and carnivores to account for the observed results. Further studies are necessary to fully understand how the Fe, Cu and Zn isotope values are regulated within the ecosystem's trophic levels, but the data already suggests significant potential as new paleodietary and paleoecological proxies.

Jaouen, Klervia; Pons, Marie-Laure; Balter, Vincent

2013-07-01

178

Lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and copper levels in Chinese Yunnan Pu'er tea.  

PubMed

The Yunnan region of China produces a distinctive variety of Pu'er tea, which is consequently labeled as a Chinese geographic indication product. In this study, the safety of Chinese Yunnan Pu'er tea with regard to heavy metal content was evaluated in 30 different brands of Pu'er tea, including 150 commercial samples. Metal levels in the Pu'er tea samples followed the order: copper (12-22 µg/g) > lead (0.26-3.2 µg/g) > arsenic (0.035-0.24 µg/g) > cadmium (0.0059-0.085 µg/g) > mercury (<0.010 µg/g). Mercury was not detected in 17 of the brands of Pu'er tea. Metal-to-metal correlation studies showed that there were no significant correlation between metal pairs. Based on current safety standards, the low levels of metals detected in these Pu'er tea samples mean they are safe for human consumption. PMID:24779659

Ning, Pengbo; Gong, Chunmei; Zhang, Yanming; Guo, Kangkang; Bai, Juan

2011-01-01

179

Acute toxicity of cadmium and copper in hepatopancreas cells from the Roman snail (Helix pomatia).  

PubMed

The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on cellular metabolism and cell morphology were investigated in isolated hepatopancreas cells from the Roman snail (Helix pomatia). Cell viability was unaffected during 1 h of incubation with 100 microM Cd, but was significantly reduced from 93% in controls to 87% and 85% with 100 microM Cu and 500 microM Cd, respectively. The adverse effect of 500 microM Cd on cell viability was not observed in cells isolated from Cd pretreated snails. Oxygen consumption remained constant in the presence of 100 microM Cu but was inhibited by 38% after 1 h of exposure to 500 microM Cd. Hepatopancreas cells showed enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species when exposed to 100 microM Cu, but not in the presence of Cd. Morphologically, an increase in cell volume of Cd-exposed cells was noted, while cell membrane bleb formation was induced by both metals. The latter may have been induced by metal effects on the actin filamentous network of the cells which showed distinct actin-staining within the blebs at the cell surface. Overall, our data indicate that both Cd and Cu are acutely toxic for hepatopancreas cells form the Roman snail with Cu being more toxic than Cd. PMID:15313445

Manzl, Claudia; Krumschnabel, Gerhard; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J; Dallinger, Reinhard

2004-05-01

180

Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.  

PubMed

Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks. PMID:22497165

Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

2012-01-01

181

Heavy metals zinc, cadmium, and copper stimulate pulmonary sensory neurons via direct activation of TRPA1.  

PubMed

Airway exposure to zinc dust and zinc-containing ambient particulates can cause symptoms of airway irritation and inflammation, but the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is selectively expressed in a subpopulation of pulmonary C-fiber afferents and has been considered as a major irritant sensor in the lung and airways. Using whole cell patch-clamp recording and Ca(2+) imaging, we have demonstrated that application of ZnCl(2) concentration dependently evoked inward current and Ca(2+) transient in isolated vagal pulmonary sensory neurons; both responses were almost completely inhibited after pretreatment with AP18, a specific TRPA1 antagonist. In anesthetized spontaneously breathing animals, intratracheal instillation of ZnCl(2) (2 mM, 25 microl) induced pronounced respiratory depression in wild-type mice, and the effect was essentially absent in TRPA1-deficient mice. In addition, our study showed that two other heavy metals, cadmium and copper, also stimulated pulmonary sensory neurons via a direct activation of TRPA1. In summary, our results suggest that activation of TRPA1 in pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves may contribute to the respiratory toxicity induced by airway exposure to these three heavy metals. PMID:20133428

Gu, Qihai; Lin, Ruei-Lung

2010-04-01

182

Competitive biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper, and arsenic ions using algae.  

PubMed

The present study aims to evaluate the competitive biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper, and arsenic ions by using native algae. A series of experiments were carried out in a batch reactor to obtain equilibrium data for adsorption of single, binary, ternary, and quaternary metal solutions. The biosorption of these metals is based on ion exchange mechanism accompanied by the release of light metals such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Experimental parameters such as pH, initial metal concentrations, and temperature were studied. The optimum pH found for removal were 5 for Cd(2+) and As(3+) and 3 and 4 for Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy analysis was used to find the effects of functional groups of algae in biosorption process. The results showed that Pb(2+) made a greater change in the functional groups of algal biomass due to high affinity to this metal. An ion exchange model was found suitable for describing the biosorption process. The affinity constants sequence calculated for single system was K Pb > K Cu > K Cd > K As; these values reduced in binary, ternary, and quaternary systems. In addition, the experimental data showed that the biosorption of the four metals fitted well the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. PMID:23054774

Sulaymon, Abbas H; Mohammed, Ahmed A; Al-Musawi, Tariq J

2013-05-01

183

Concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead and copper in fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms in an emission area of a copper smelter and a mercury smelter.  

PubMed

Four metals were determined by AAS techniques in 56 samples of 23 wild mushroom species collected in a heavily polluted area in eastern Slovakia in 1997 and 1998. The area has been contaminated from historical polymetallic ores mining and smelting and by emissions from a mercury smelter between 1969 and 1993 and from a copper smelter since 1951. No significant differences in metal concentrations (P < 0.05) were found in four species when comparing the periods 1992-1993 and 1997-1998. Considerable contamination of most species was observed mainly for mercury and cadmium. The highest levels of mercury, up to 50 mg kg-1 dry matter, were found in Boletus reticulatus, Lycoperdon perlatum and Marasmius oreades, and of cadmium up to 20 mg kg-1 dry matter in Xerocomus chrysenteron and Lycoperdon perlatum. The latter species also had extremely high lead and copper concentrations in hundreds of milligrams per kilogram dry matter. Concentrations of mercury and copper in caps of four Boletaceae species were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in stipes. PMID:10682377

Svoboda, L; Zimmermannová, K; Kalac, P

2000-01-31

184

Analysis of foods for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, arsenic, and selenium, using closed system sample digestion: collaborative study.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of cadmium, lead, copper, arsenic, selenium, and zinc is presented. This method involves digesting a food sample with nitric acid under pressure and using aliquots of the solution for analysis by suitable techniques. Cadmium, lead, and copper are determined by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) after heating with equimolar sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate; arsenic and selenium are determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) after generation of their respective hydrides; zinc is determined by conventional AAS. The combined recoveries and reproducibilities (CVR) of the collaborative study on this multi-element analysis are: Cd, 89.14 (17.65) at 0.10-1.0 microgram/g; Zn, 96,53 (5.59) at 16.7 and 66.7 microgram/g; As, 99.50 (17.02) at 0.5 and 2.0 microgram/g; Se, 95.17 (16.52) at 0.5 and 2.0 microgram/g; Pb, 92.57 (15.22) at 0.3-3.0 microgram/g; Cu, 108.39 (18.30) at 1.0-10.0 microgram/g. The method has been adopted as official first action for cadmium, lead, arsenic, selenium, and zinc. PMID:7430035

Holak, W

1980-05-01

185

Use of Nb(2)O(5)-SiO(2) in an automated on-line preconcentration system for determination of copper and cadmium by FAAS.  

PubMed

A procedure for the determination of trace level of copper(II) and cadmium(II) by FAAS using an on-line preconcentration system has been proposed. In this system, copper and cadmium ions were adsorbed onto a minicolumn packed with silica gel modified with niobium(V) oxide (Nb(2)O(5)-SiO(2)), followed by nitric acid elution in reverse mode and determination on-line by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) without interference of the matrix. Chemical and flow variables as well as concomitant ions were studied in the developed procedure. The enrichment factor for copper(II) and cadmium(II) was 34.2 and 33.0, respectively, using a preconcentration time of 2min. The limit of detection for copper(II) and cadmium(II) was 0.4, and 0.1mugl(-1), respectively. The precision of the method, evaluated as the relative standard deviation in solutions containing 15mugl(-1) of copper and 10mugl(-1) of cadmium, by analyzing a series of seven replicates, was 1.8 and 1.6%, respectively. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments of certified material and water samples. PMID:18969355

da Silva, Edson Luiz; Ganzarolli, Edgard Moreira; Carasek, Eduardo

2004-03-10

186

Interactions of cadmium compounds with endogenous iron in the intestinal tract  

SciTech Connect

The authors previously reported that when cadmium (Cd) given orally to mice or rats, they showed a decrease of hemoglobin, or of hepatic and renal iron (Fe). The decrease may be due to the decrease of Fe uptake into the intestinal mucosa brush border membrane. In a related work, it was suggested that internalized-Cd blocks the transferrin cycle within intestinal cells. Recently, the role of ferritin in the process of intestinal Fe absorption has been evaluated. Even now, Fe absorption from the GI tract is still under discussion. In order to understand the competition of Cd with Fe further, the authors gave some Cd compounds known to be taken up in different manners into the intestinal mucosa to mice.

Sugawara, N.; Sugawara, C. (Sapporo Medical Coll., Sapporo (Japan))

1991-02-01

187

Chelatable iron and copper can be released from extracorporeally circulated blood during cardiopulmonary bypass.  

PubMed

During cardiopulmonary bypass surgery blood is extracorporeally oxygenated and circulated before returning to the systemic arterial circulation. Blood undergoing extracorporeal dilution and circulation is exposed to non-physiological surfaces, which cause the activation of several regulatory cascades. Cells are also subjected to damaging shear stresses. Under such conditions neutrophils can be 'activated' to release reactive oxygen intermediates such as O2- and H2O2, and other cells can release proteolytic enzymes and metalloproteins. Collectively, these events can result in the release of micromolar quantities of redox active iron and copper. Bleomycin-detectable iron and phenanthroline-detectable copper were found in two out of four mock bypass experiments. However, there was no correlation between the presence of chelatable iron and copper and the activation of neutrophils measured as elastase. PMID:7688319

Moat, N E; Evans, T E; Quinlan, G J; Gutteridge, J M

1993-08-01

188

Herbal infusions as a source of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper in human nutrition.  

PubMed

The study material consisted of five herbs: chamomile (flowers), mint (leaves), St John's wort (flowers and leaves), sage (leaves) and nettle (leaves), sourced from three producers. The calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper contents were determined for both dried herb samples and prepared infusions, and the extraction rates were calculated. Mineral components were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Analysis showed that the contents of individual elements in herbs and infusions depended on the type of raw material, as well as on its origin. Moreover, it was found that iron penetrated the herbal infusions to the lowest degree (4.4-12.4%), while copper did so to the highest (26.7-50.7%). It is felt that in average consumption the herbal infusions are not important as calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper sources in human nutrition. PMID:21916535

Suliburska, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Karolina

2012-03-01

189

Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

2013-06-01

190

Some new chromogens for iron, cobalt, and copper Substituted hydrazidines and 1,2,4-triazines containing the ferroin group.  

PubMed

The spectral characteristics and solution conditions requisite for formation of the iron(II), cobalt(II), and copper(I) complexes of some newly synthesised compounds containing the ferroin functional grouping have been determined. These properties are useful for evaluation of the possible analytical effectiveness of the compounds as spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of iron, cobalt, and copper. PMID:18959951

Schilt, A A

1966-07-01

191

77 FR 59158 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...51.1 tungsten, 44.4 copper, Rare Earth Magnet. 3.9 tin, and 0.6 iron...10-37 iron, Hot Shot[supreg] or Rare Earth Magnet. 9-16 copper, and 5-7...any proportions of Rare Earth Magnet. tungsten, tin, and...

2012-09-26

192

A review on biochemical roles, toxicity and interactions of zinc, copper and iron: IV. Interactions.  

PubMed

While the major impetus of most of our present knowledge of these metals emphasizes their deficiencies or toxicities, little has been done on their metabolic interactions. Such interactions acknowledge the importance of nutritional deficiencies or toxicities in the biospheres. The effect of dietary zinc supplementation on the bioavailability of copper and iron is a matter of conjecture. Likewise, further research is needed before a unifying hypothesis can be established on the effect of imbalances or interactions among copper and iron. Such mineral imbalance studies will be of value in determining their dietary requirements and in appraising circumstances in which risk to human and animal health may arise. PMID:2238446

Abdel-Mageed, A B; Oehme, F W

1990-10-01

193

Copper, iron, and zinc interactions with chlorophyll in extracts of photosynthetic pigments studied by VIS spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of copper, iron and zinc with chlorophyll, the major photosynthesis pigment, were studied by VIS spectrophotometry in extracts of photosynthetic pigments (in vitro). Copper predominantly forms Cu-Chl complexes in all studied systems (Cu-, Cu/Fe-, Cu/Zn- and Cu/Fe/Zn-incubated pigment solutions). It is not clear whether iron forms Fe-Chl complexes or produces pheophytin. It’s effect is dominant over zinc (Fe/Zn-system) but highly minor compared to Cu-effect when all three metals are present (Cu/Fe/Zn-Chl system) in the same concentrations.

Zvezdanovi?, J.; Markovi?, D.

2009-09-01

194

Trace Element Status (Iron, Zinc, Copper, Chromium, Cobalt, and Nickel) in Iron-Deficiency Anaemia of Children under 3 Years  

PubMed Central

Aim. To determine trace element status and aetiologic factors for development of trace elements deficiencies in children with iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) aged 0 to 3 years. Contingent and Methods. 30 patients of the University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria—I group; 48 patients of the Sumy Regional Child's Clinical Hospital, Sumy, Ukraine—II group; 25 healthy controls were investigated. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt, and nickel were determined spectrophotometrically and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. Because the obtained serum levels of zinc, copper, and chromium were near the lower reference limits, I group was divided into IA and IB. In IA group, serum concentrations were lower than the reference values for 47%, 57%, and 73% of patients, respectively. In IB group, these were within the reference values. In II group, results for zinc, cobalt, and nickel were significantly lower (P < 0.05), and results for copper were significantly higher in comparison to controls. Conclusion. Low serum concentrations of zinc, copper, cobalt, and nickel were mainly due to inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, and micronutrient interactions in both studied groups. Increased serum copper in II group was probably due to metabolic changes resulting from adaptations in IDA. Data can be used for developing a diagnostic algorithm for IDA. PMID:24839556

Angelova, Maria Georgieva; Petkova-Marinova, Tsvetelina Valentinova; Pogorielov, Maksym Vladimirovich; Loboda, Andrii Nikolaevich; Nedkova-Kolarova, Vania Nedkova; Bozhinova, Atanaska Naumova

2014-01-01

195

Trace Element Status (Iron, Zinc, Copper, Chromium, Cobalt, and Nickel) in Iron-Deficiency Anaemia of Children under 3 Years.  

PubMed

Aim. To determine trace element status and aetiologic factors for development of trace elements deficiencies in children with iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) aged 0 to 3 years. Contingent and Methods. 30 patients of the University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria-I group; 48 patients of the Sumy Regional Child's Clinical Hospital, Sumy, Ukraine-II group; 25 healthy controls were investigated. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt, and nickel were determined spectrophotometrically and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. Because the obtained serum levels of zinc, copper, and chromium were near the lower reference limits, I group was divided into IA and IB. In IA group, serum concentrations were lower than the reference values for 47%, 57%, and 73% of patients, respectively. In IB group, these were within the reference values. In II group, results for zinc, cobalt, and nickel were significantly lower (P < 0.05), and results for copper were significantly higher in comparison to controls. Conclusion. Low serum concentrations of zinc, copper, cobalt, and nickel were mainly due to inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, and micronutrient interactions in both studied groups. Increased serum copper in II group was probably due to metabolic changes resulting from adaptations in IDA. Data can be used for developing a diagnostic algorithm for IDA. PMID:24839556

Angelova, Maria Georgieva; Petkova-Marinova, Tsvetelina Valentinova; Pogorielov, Maksym Vladimirovich; Loboda, Andrii Nikolaevich; Nedkova-Kolarova, Vania Nedkova; Bozhinova, Atanaska Naumova

2014-01-01

196

Phormidium autumnale Growth and Anatoxin-a Production under Iron and Copper Stress  

PubMed Central

Studies on planktonic cyanobacteria have shown variability in cyanotoxin production, in response to changes in growth phase and environmental factors. Few studies have investigated cyanotoxin regulation in benthic mat-forming species, despite increasing reports on poisoning events caused by ingestion of these organisms. In this study, a method was developed to investigate changes in cyanotoxin quota in liquid cultures of benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria. Iron and copper are important in cellular processes and are well known to affect growth and selected metabolite production in cyanobacteria and algae. The effect of iron (40–4000 ?g L?1) and copper (2.5–250 ?g L?1) on growth and anatoxin-a quota in Phormidium autumnale was investigated in batch culture. These concentrations were chosen to span those found in freshwater, as well as those previously reported to be toxic to cyanobacteria. Anatoxin-a concentrations varied throughout the growth curve, with a maximum quota of between 0.49 and 0.55 pg cell?1 measured within the first two weeks of growth. Growth rates were significantly affected by copper and iron concentrations (P < 0.0001); however, no statistically significant difference between anatoxin-a quota maxima was observed. When the iron concentrations were 800 and 4000 ?g L?1, the P. autumnale cultures did not firmly attach to the substratum. At 250 ?g L?1 copper or either 40 or 4000 ?g L?1 iron, growth was suppressed. PMID:24351714

Harland, Francine M. J.; Wood, Susanna A.; Moltchanova, Elena; Williamson, Wendy M.; Gaw, Sally

2013-01-01

197

Stress-related physiological effects in fish exposed to combinations of copper and cadmium  

SciTech Connect

During waterborne exposure, heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are not only taken up by fish gills, but also exert their primary toxic effect on this tissue. When the adaptive responses of the animals are inadequate, symptoms of stress have been observed. Tolerance for toxicants depends on specific physiological and biochemical accommodation of this tissue, partly regulated hormonally by products from the pituitary-interrenal axis. Cortisol not only modulates bronchial ion mechanisms but also regulates intermediate metabolism. The hormone is released in response to various stressful stimuli, such as heavy metals, and has been put forward as a stress index. Despite the increasing knowledge about the toxic mechanisms of sublethal concentrations of either Cu or Cd for fish, little is known about the effects of combined Cu/Cd exposure. The potential toxic effects of mixtures of heavy metals for fish is a subject of growing interest. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects on fish exposed during 6 days to sublethal waterborne Cu and Cd concentrations, singly and in combination. It is demonstrated that although Cu and Cd have metal-specific effects, the effects observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish were not simple additive or synergistic, as demonstrated by metal accumulation in organs, chloride cell numbers, active ion transport activities and plasma ion composition. For several of these parameters, more deleterious effects were observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish than could have been predicted from effects observed in single Cu or Cd exposed fish. Plasma cortisol levels were increased in Cu-exposed fish, but an increase was not observed in combined Cu/Cd exposed fish. It is argued that the absence of this cortisol response contributes to the inadequate reaction of the combined Cu/Cd exposed fish.

Pelgrom, S.M.G.J.; Lock, R.A.C.; Balm, P.H.M.; Bonga, S.E.W. [Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Animal Physiology

1995-12-31

198

Biosorption of lead, copper, and cadmium with continuous hollow-fiber microfiltration processes  

SciTech Connect

A hollow-fiber crossflow microfiltration membrane was utilized to retain a biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21 for continuous biosorption of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) ions in single or ternary metal systems. The results obtained from the microfiltration systems showed that in both single and ternary biosorption, the metal removal efficiency based on a molar basis was clearly Pb > Cu > Cd. For a single-membrane process with an influent metal concentration of 200 {micro}M and a flow rate of 350 mL/h, the effluent concentration of Pb and Cu satisfied the national regulations for an influent volume of 6.3 L. With a three-metal influent, the adsorption capacity of the biomass for Pb, Cu, and Cd was reduced 4, 50, and 74% compared to that for single-metal adsorption. Selective biosorption with a three-column sequential microfiltration operation exhibited an enhancement of 40 and 57% of total metal removal for Cu and Cd, respectively, over the results from single-membrane operation. The multimembrane operation also enabled locally optimal accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Cd at the first, second, and third stage, respectively. The regeneration efficiency of the biomass was 70% after three repetitive adsorption desorption cycles, whereas the Pb recovery efficiency was maintained at nearly 90%. A rapid-equilibrium model (Model A) and a mass-transfer model (Model B) were used to describe the results of single- and multimetal biosorption with the microfiltration processes. Model A exhibited excellent prediction for the results of single-metal biosorption, while Model B was more applicable to interpret the multimetal biosorption data.

Chang, J.S.; Chen, C.C. [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-06-01

199

The interactive toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to Ceriodaphnia dubia and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

Traditionally, aquatic toxicity studies examine the toxicity of a single chemical to an organism. Organisms in nature, however, may be exposed to multiple toxicants. Given this is a more realistic exposure scenario in situ, the authors sought to understand the interactive toxicity of multiple metals to aquatic organisms. The authors performed a series of studies using equitoxic mixtures of cadmium, copper, and zinc to 2 aquatic organisms, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Single metal toxicity tests were conducted to determine the acute median lethal concentration (LC50) values for O. mykiss and short-term, chronic median effective concentration (EC50) values for C. dubia. All 3 metals were then combined in equitoxic concentrations for subsequent mixture studies using a toxic unit (TU) approach (i.e., 1 TU?=?EC50 or LC50). For C. dubia, the mixture study showed greater-than-additive effects in hard water (TU-based EC50?=?0.74 TU), but less-than-additive effects in soft water (TU-based EC50?=?1.93 TU). The mixture effects for O. mykiss showed less-than-additive effects in both hard and soft waters, with TU-based LC50 values of 2.33 total TU and 2.22 total TU, respectively. These data are useful in helping understand metal mixture toxicity in aquatic systems and indicate that although in most situations the assumption of additivity of metal mixture toxicity is valid, under certain conditions it may not be sufficiently protective. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:809-815. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25641563

Naddy, Rami B; Cohen, Adam S; Stubblefield, William A

2015-04-01

200

Investigating the distribution of dissolved copper, zinc, silver and cadmium in the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stated goal of the GEOTRACES program is to better understand the large-scale distribution of trace metals in the marine environment. A characteristic feature of the soft Lewis acid metals like copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag) and cadmium (Cd) is their correlation with the major algal nutrients. These correlations imply that the proximate control on the distribution of these metals is microbial uptake at the ocean surface, sinking associated with particulate organic matter and subsequent remineralization in the ocean interior. Combined with sedimentary records of past metal concentrations such correlations can provide much needed information on water mass circulation and nutrient cycling in the paleo-ocean. Today, as trace nutrients and/or toxins these metals help shape microbial community composition and influence productivity. Here we present depth profiles through the low dissolved oxygen waters of the north Pacific which show decoupling of trace metal-macronutrient relationships driven by depletion anomalies of trace metal concentrations in the broad, low oxygen layer. Similar anomalies have been previously reported in permanently anoxic layers (e.g. fjords) or in waters in contact with suboxic sediments and attributed to sulfidic removal of soft trace metals. The observed trace metal behavior and trace metal-macronutrient relationships in the oxygen minimum layer in the northeastern Pacific is consistent with the possibility of sulfidic scavenging of soft metals and the formation of insoluble metal sulfides in the water column. Implications of this influence on the basin scale distribution of soft metals like Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd through scavenging in the spreading low oxygen layer in the northeastern Pacific are discussed.

Janssen, D. J.; Cullen, J. T.

2012-12-01

201

Rates of dissolution of solid iron, cobalt, nickel, and silicon in liquid copper and diffusion rate of iron from liquid Cu-Fe alloy into liquid copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to the previously reported data on the observed dissolution rate of the vertical peripheries of cylindrical\\u000a iron, cobalt, and nickel in liquid copper at temperatures in the range of 1468 to 1653 K under natural convection. The observed\\u000a steady-state rate is close to the rate calculated from an equation expressed in terms of the activity of solute

Reiichi Ohno

1986-01-01

202

Arabidopsis HY1 confers cadmium tolerance by decreasing nitric oxide production and improving iron homeostasis.  

PubMed

Up-regulation of the gene that encodes intracellular heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) benefits plants under cadmium (Cd(2+)) stress; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we elucidate the role of Arabidopsis HY1 (AtHO1) in Cd(2+) tolerance by using genetic and molecular approaches. Analysis of two HY1 null mutants, three HY1 overexpression lines, HO double or triple mutants, as well as phyA and phyB mutants revealed the specific hypersensitivity of hy1 to Cd(2+) stress. Supplementation with two enzymatic by-products of HY1, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron (Fe, especially), rescued the Cd(2+)-induced inhibition of primary root (PR) elongation in hy1-100. The mutation of HY1, which exhibited lower glutathione content than Col-0 in root tissues, was able to induce nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, Cd(2+) accumulation, and severe Fe deficiency in root tissues. However, the contrasting responses appeared in 35S:HY1-4. Additionally, reduced levels of Ferric Reduction Oxidase 2 (FRO2) and Iron-Regulated Transporter 1 (IRT1) transcripts, and increased levels of Heavy Metal ATPase 2/4 (HMA2/4) transcripts bolster the notion that HY1 up-regulation ameliorates Fe deficiency, and might increase Cd(2+) exclusion. Taken together, these results showed that HY1 plays a common link in Cd(2+) tolerance by decreasing NO production and improving Fe homeostasis in Arabidopsis root tissues. PMID:23974911

Han, Bin; Yang, Zheng; Xie, Yanjie; Nie, Li; Cui, Jin; Shen, Wenbiao

2014-02-01

203

Effect of hemolytic and iron-deficiency anemia on intestinal absorption and tissue accumulation of cadmium.  

PubMed

Abnormal iron (Fe) metabolism induces iron-deficiency anemia (FeDA) and also affects body cadmium (Cd) accumulation. However, whether hemolytic anemia also affects Cd metabolism is not known. We compared the intestinal absorption and tissue accumulation of Cd after oral administration of Cd to mice with hemolytic anemia induced by treatment with phenylhydrazine (PHA mice) to that in mice with FeDA. Although the hematocrit decreased significantly in mice with either type of anemia, the Fe concentration decreased in the livers and kidneys of FeDA mice, but increased in those of PHA mice. After an oral administration with various amounts of Cd, hepatic and renal Cd concentrations significantly increased in both FeDA and PHA mice. An intraduodenal injection of Fe raised the hepatic Fe content in FeDA mice to the control level and raised the hepatic Fe content in PHA mice to 2.4 times that in control mice. Intestinal divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression increased significantly in mice with both types of anemia. These data indicate that, despite the accumulation of hepatic Fe associated with PHA, PHA also significantly increases hepatic and renal Cd accumulation according to an stimulation of intestinal DMT1 expression, as occurs in FeDA mice. This suggests that anemia may be a risk factor for Cd accumulation. PMID:18485624

Min, Kyong-Son; Iwata, Naoyuki; Tetsutikawahara, Noriko; Onosaka, Satomi; Tanaka, Keiichi

2008-06-10

204

Regulation of metal transporters by dietary iron, and the relationship between body iron levels and cadmium uptake.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) plays essential roles in biological processes, whereas cadmium (Cd) is a toxic and non-essential metal. Two metal transporters, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and metal transporter protein 1 (MTP1), are responsible for Fe transport in mammals. Here, we studied the effect of dietary Fe on the expression of these metal transporters in peripheral tissues, and the uptake by these tissues of Cd. Mice were fed an Fe-sufficient (FeS: 120 mg Fe/kg) or Fe-deficient (FeD: 2-6 mg Fe/kg) diet for 4 weeks. The total Fe levels in the body were evaluated by measuring tissue Fe concentrations. Tissue Cd concentrations were determined 24 h after the mice received a single oral dose of Cd. Animals fed a FeD diet showed depletion of body Fe levels and accumulated 2.8-fold higher levels of Cd than the FeS group. Quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed that whereas DMT1 and MTP1 were both ubiquitously expressed in all FeS peripheral tissues studied, DMT1 was highly expressed in brain, kidney, and testis, whereas MTP1 was highly expressed in liver and spleen. Depletion of the body Fe stores dramatically upregulated DMT1 and MTP1 mRNA expression in the duodenum as well as moderately upregulating their expression in several other peripheral tissues. The iron response element positive isoform of DMT1 was the most prominently upregulated isoform in the duodenum. Thus, DMT1 and MTP1 may play an important role in not only maintaining Fe levels but also facilitating the accumulation of Cd in the body of mammals. PMID:17031680

Kim, Dong-Won; Kim, Ki-Young; Choi, Byung-Sun; Youn, Pilju; Ryu, Doug-Young; Klaassen, Curtis D; Park, Jung-Duck

2007-05-01

205

Effects of Copper and Austempering on Corrosion Behavior of Ductile Iron in 3.5 Pct Sodium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although alloying and heat treatments are common industrial practices to obtain ductile irons with desired mechanical properties, related information on how the two practices affect corrosion behavior is scarce. In this study, two ductile irons—with and without 1 wt pct copper addition—were austempered to obtain austempered ductile irons (ADIs). Polarization tests and salt spray tests were conducted to explore how both copper-alloying and austempering heat treatments influenced the corrosion behavior of ductile irons. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of 1 wt pct copper-alloyed ductile iron was better than that of the unalloyed one, while ADI had improved corrosion resistance compared with the as-cast. In particular, the ductile iron combined with the copper-alloying and austempering treatments increased the corrosion inhibition efficiency up to 84 pct as tested in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution.

Hsu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Kuan-Ting

2013-10-01

206

Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity in Wilson's disease reflects local copper, but not iron accumulation.  

PubMed

In patients with Wilson's disease (WD) transcranial brain sonography typically reveals areas of increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity) of the lenticular nucleus (LN). Correlation with T2-hypointensity on magnetic resonance images suggested that LN hyperechogenicity in WD is caused by trace metal accumulation. Accumulation of both, copper and iron, in the brain of WD patients has been reported. The present study was designed to elucidate whether LN hyperechogenicity in WD reflects accumulation of copper or iron. Post-mortem brains of 15 WD patients and one non-WD subject were studied with ultrasonography in an investigator-blinded fashion. LN hyperechogenicity was measured planimetrically by manual tracing as well as using digitized image analysis. The putaminal copper content was determined in samples of 11 WD brains and the non-WD brains using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and iron content was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. LN was normal on ultrasonography only in the non-WD brain, but abnormal (hyperechogenic) in all WD brains. Digitized image analysis measures of LN hyperechogenicity and, by trend, manual measures correlated with putaminal copper content (Pearson test; digitized: r = 0.77, p = 0.04; manual: r = 0.57, p = 0.051) but not with iron content (each, p > 0.18). LN hyperechogenicity measures were unrelated to age at death of patients, age at onset of WD, WD duration, age of brain specimen, serum copper or serum ceruloplasmin (each, p > 0.1). We conclude that LN hyperechogenicity in WD reflects copper, but not iron accumulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the use of transcranial brain sonography for monitoring therapeutic effects of chelating agents in WD patients. PMID:24615184

Walter, Uwe; Skowro?ska, Marta; Litwin, Tomasz; Szpak, Gra?yna Maria; Jab?onka-Salach, Katarzyna; Skoloudík, David; Bulska, Ewa; Cz?onkowska, Anna

2014-10-01

207

Response of zinc, iron and copper status parameters to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in women  

SciTech Connect

Supplementation with zinc at levels available over-the-counter may compromise iron or copper status. This study examined the effects of zinc(50mg/day) or zinc and iron(50 mg each/day) on 18 women aged 25-40. Subjects were matched on initial levels of serum ferritin(SF) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase(ESOD) and randomly assigned to Group Z (zinc) or F-Z (iron and zinc). The following were measured pretreatment and after 6 and 10 weeks treatment: serum zinc (BZ), salivary sediment zinc (SSZ), hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), SF, serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) and ESOD. Effects of treatment and weeks of treatment on changes from initial blood and saliva levels were analyzed using AOV. BZ increased (P=0.0144) and ESOD decreased (P=0.0001) with weeks of treatment. Differences due to treatment are presented. No effects were noted on Hgb, Hct or Cp. Intakes of zinc supplements at about 4X RDA appear to decrease copper(ESOD) and iron(SF) status. Use of iron w/zinc may be protective for FE but not Cu, and may compromise zinc (SSZ) status.

Yadrick, K.; Kenney, M.A.; Winterfeldt, E.

1986-03-05

208

Electrokinetic Copper and Iron Migration in Anaerobic Granular Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of low-level direct electric current (0.15 mA cm?2) as an electrokinetic technique to treat copper-contaminated mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. The sludge was obtained from a full scale UASB reactor treating paper-mill wastewater and was artificially contaminated by Cu(NO3)2 or CuEDTA2? with initial copper concentrations of 1000 mg . kg?1 wet sludge. The effect of different electrokinetic

Jurate Virkutyte; Mika Sillanpää; Piet Lens

2006-01-01

209

Effect of biogenic iron species and copper ions on the reduction of carbon tetrachloride under iron-reducing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the cell-mediated and abiotic reduction of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) by biogenic iron species produced from the reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite in the presence of Geobacter sulfurreducens and copper ions (Cu(II)) were investigated. 9,10-Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), serving as a surrogate of natural organic matters and an electron shuttling compound, was added to enhance the efficiency of biological reduction of

R. A. Maithreepala; Ruey-an Doong

2008-01-01

210

Hexavalent chromium removal from near natural water by copper-iron bimetallic particles.  

PubMed

The reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) is self-inhibiting in near natural groundwater because insulating Fe(III)-Cr(III) (oxy)hydroxide film forms on the ZVI surface during the reaction. This study tries to overcome this deficiency by coating the surface of ZVI with copper to form copper-iron bimetallic particles. The Cr(VI) removal rate by ZVI rose significantly after the copper coating was applied. The copper loading needed for enhancing Cr(VI) removal was much higher than that needed for enhancing removal of chlorinated organic compounds or other oxidative contaminants, because of the higher oxidation potential of Cr(VI). The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that coating copper onto the surface of ZVI can not only increase the deepness of the oxidation film but also increase the oxidation state of iron in the film. This phenomenon means higher Cr(VI) removal capacity per unit weight of ZVI. PMID:20350740

Hu, Ching-Yao; Lo, Shang-Lien; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Shih, Kaimin; Lin, Chin-Jung

2010-05-01

211

Metal passivity as mechanism of metal carcinogenesis: Chromium, nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, platinum, molybdenum  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the transition metals chromium, nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, platinum, and molybdenum, mechanisms of stable bonding in biochemistry (emphasis on carcinogenic mechanisms), chemistry, industrial chemistry, as well as epidemiological, occupational, orthopedic (implant devices) effects related to carcinogenesis, were reviewed. Hypothetically, the propensity to stable bonding (inertness), which ensures the metals’ performance capacity for consumers and industrial application, relates to their

Cornelia Richardson-Boedler

2007-01-01

212

Gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper to nickel-chromium-iron. Welding procedure specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

C. H. Wodtke; D. R. Frizzell; W. A. Plunkett

1985-01-01

213

Iron(II) and Copper(I) Coordination Polymers: Electrochromic Materials with and without Chiroptical Properties  

E-print Network

Iron(II) and Copper(I) Coordination Polymers: Electrochromic Materials with and without Chiroptical of deterioration over 150 switching cycles. Additionally, in an effort to assemble an electrochromic device with chiroptical properties, the electrochromism of films generated from the enantiomerically pure CTPCT[FeII CTPCT

Bernhard, Stefan

214

Microelectrodes Based investigation of the Impacts of Water Chemistry on Copper and Iron Corrosion  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of bulk drinking water quality on copper and iron pipe corrosion has been extensively studied. Despite past research, many have argued that bulk water quality does not necessarily reflect water quality near the water-metal interface and that such knowledge is necessary...

215

Gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper to nickel-chromium-iron. Welding procedure specification  

SciTech Connect

Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

1985-08-01

216

Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

Erickson, M.M.

1981-01-01

217

MD description of damage production in displacement cascades in copper and ?-iron.  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics computer simulation was applied for an extensive study of primary damage creation in displacement cascades in copper and {alpha}-iron. Primary knock-on atom energy, E{sub p}, of up to 25 keV in copper and 100 keV in iron was considered for irradiation temperatures in the range 100-900 K. Special attention was paid to comprehensive statistical treatment of the number and type of defects created in cascades by conducting multiple simulations for each value of energy and temperature. The total number of point defects per cascade is significantly lower than that predicted by the NRT model and rather similar in the two metals. The fraction of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies that agglomerate in clusters in the cascade process was analysed in detail. The clustered fraction of SIAs increases with temperature increase and is larger in copper than iron. SIA clusters have a variety of forms in both metals and, although most are glissile clusters of parallel crowdions, a significant fraction are sessile. The latter include Frank dislocation loops in copper. Tightly packed arrangements of vacancies do not form in iron, and so the fraction of clustered vacancies depends strongly on the range within which point defects are defined to be near-neighbours. Arrangements of vacancies in first-neighbour sites are common in copper. Most are irregular stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs). In 53 simulations of cascades with E{sub p} = 25 keV at 100 K, the largest cluster formed contained 89 vacancies. The size spectrum of SFT-like clusters is similar to that found experimentally in neutron-irradiated copper, suggesting that the SFTs observed in experiment are formed directly in the cascade process.

Bacon, David J [University of Liverpool; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Voskoboinikov, Roman E [University of Liverpool

2003-01-01

218

Zinc Pyrithione Inhibits Yeast Growth through Copper Influx and Inactivation of Iron-Sulfur Proteins?†  

PubMed Central

Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is an antimicrobial material with widespread use in antidandruff shampoos and antifouling paints. Despite decades of commercial use, there is little understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. We used a combination of genome-wide approaches (yeast deletion mutants and microarrays) and traditional methods (gene constructs and atomic emission) to characterize the activity of ZPT against a model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ZPT acts through an increase in cellular copper levels that leads to loss of activity of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. ZPT was also found to mediate growth inhibition through an increase in copper in the scalp fungus Malassezia globosa. A model is presented in which pyrithione acts as a copper ionophore, enabling copper to enter cells and distribute across intracellular membranes. This is the first report of a metal-ligand complex that inhibits fungal growth by increasing the cellular level of a different metal. PMID:21947398

Reeder, Nancy L.; Kaplan, Jerry; Xu, Jun; Youngquist, R. Scott; Wallace, Jared; Hu, Ping; Juhlin, Kenton D.; Schwartz, James R.; Grant, Raymond A.; Fieno, Angela; Nemeth, Suzanne; Reichling, Tim; Tiesman, Jay P.; Mills, Tim; Steinke, Mark; Wang, Shuo L.; Saunders, Charles W.

2011-01-01

219

Computational Benchmarking in Biomimetic Nickel, Copper, and Iron Complexes  

E-print Network

in the absence of experimental data. In this dissertation, such techniques serve to elucidate the observed reactivity or electronic character of both nickel and copper bound in square planar N?S? ligand fields, and of {Fe(NO)?} units, respectively. Nickel...

Brothers, Scott Michael

2012-02-14

220

Determination of copper, cadmium and lead in seawater and mineral water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with aluminum hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aluminum hydroxide coprecipitation method for the determination of cadmium, copper and lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in aqueous solutions, seawater and mineral water samples has been investigated. The coprecipitation conditions, such as the effect of the pH, the amount of carrier element, the effect of possible matrix ions and the time were examined in detail for the studied

G. Doner; A. Ege

2005-01-01

221

Bioaccumulation of Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in some Tissues of Three Species of Marine Turtles Stranded Along the French Atlantic Coasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium, copper and zinc have been analysed in some tissues and organs of Loggerhead, Kemp’s Ridley (only muscle for this species) and Leatherback turtles stranded along the Atlantic coasts of France. The pancreas analysed only in Leatherback turtles exhibited the highest metal concentrations, which is very surprising for an organ which does not play a role in the detoxification processes.

F Caurant; P Bustamante; M Bordes; P Miramand

1999-01-01

222

Short-term effects of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc on soil nematodes from different feeding and life-history strategy groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc on a nematode community were examined with a ‘natural soil method’. Changes in the indigenous nematode community structure were studied 1–2 weeks after the addition of these metals (as sulphates) to soil collected from an agroecosystem. The soil was acid and only contained a moderate quantity of organic matter as the main

Gerard W. Korthals; Albert van de Ende; Hanny van Megen; Theo M. Lexmond; Jan E. Kammenga; Tom Bongers

1996-01-01

223

Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead in a temperate seagrass ecosystem from Lake Macquarie Estuary, NSW, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass ecosystem in Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia, to determine if biomagnification of these trace metals is occurring and if they reach concentrations that pose a threat to the resident organisms or human consumers. Selenium was found to biomagnify, exceeding maximum permitted concentrations

M Barwick; W Maher

2003-01-01

224

Trophic relationships and transference of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in a subtropical coastal lagoon food web from SE Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trophic relationships and heavy metal transference in a coastal subtropical lagoon marine food web were investigated through the use of stable isotopes in food sources and biota. A selective extraction scheme was applied to the surface sediments as an indirect way to evaluate the potential of toxicity of metals. Results showed that cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations were within

M. E. Jara-Marini; M. F. Soto-Jiménez; F. Páez-Osuna

2009-01-01

225

Accumulation and Soluble Binding of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in the Polychaete Hediste diversicolor from Coastal Sites with Different Trace Metal Bioavailabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc was examined in common ragworms Hediste diversicolor from control (Bay of Somme, Blackwater) and metal-rich (Seine estuary, Boulogne harbor, Restronguet Creek) sites in France and the United Kingdom. The degree of exposure in the field was assessed by considering both total concentrations in superficial sediment and the quantities of metals which may be released

B. Berthet; C. Mouneyrac; J. C. Amiard; C. Amiard-Triquet; Y. Berthelot; A. Le Hen; O. Mastain; P. S. Rainbow; B. D. Smith

2003-01-01

226

Bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc in some tissues of three species of marine turtles stranded along the French Atlantic coasts  

E-print Network

Bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc in some tissues of three species of marine turtles for this species) and Leatherback turtles stranded along the Atlantic coasts of France. The pancreas analysed only in Leatherback turtles exhibited the highest metal concentrations, which is very surprising for an organ which

Boyer, Edmond

227

The common mussel Mytilus edulis as an indicator of pollution by zinc, cadmium, lead and copper. I. Effects of environmental variables on uptake of metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net uptake of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper by the common mussel Mytilus edulis (L.) exposed to different conditions was investigated with a view to using this species as an indicator of contamination of the marine environment by these metals. The variables studied were season, position of the mussel in the water column, water salinity, water temperature, and the

D. J. H. Phillips

1976-01-01

228

Effects of dietary carbohydrate on iron metabolism and cytochrome oxidase activity in copper-deficient rats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of dietary carbohydrate on the metabolism of iron and the activity of cytochrome oxidase were examined in Cu-deficient and Cu-adequate rats. Male rats (n = 36) were fed one of six diets which varied in copper level (Cu-: < 0.6 ppm or Cu+: 8.2 ppm) and carbohydrate type (cornstarch, sucrose or fructose). After 31 days, Cu- rats had 50% more iron in the liver and 38, 30 and 18% less iron in the tibia, spleen and kidneys, respectively, than Cu+ rats. The activity of cytochrome oxidase in the bone marrow, heart, and liver were 59%, 51%, and 43%, respectively, of the levels in Cu/sup +/ rats. The type of dietary carbohydrate significantly affected the development of anemia during copper deficiency. Cu-rats fed cornstarch, sucrose or fructose had hematocrit levels which were 92, 83 or 73%, respectively, of Cu+ rats. Similarly, the levels of iron in the tibias of Cu- rats fed cornstarch, sucrose or fructose were 69, 66 or 54%, respectively, of Cu+ rats. The hematocrit levels of Cu- rats were positively correlated to both tibia iron levels (r = 0.64, p < 0.005) and liver cytochrome oxidase activities (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). Thus, it appears that changes in the metabolism of iron may be involved with the development of anemia in Cu- rats fed fructose or sucrose.

Johnson, M.A.; Henderson, J.

1986-03-01

229

Characterizing the role of rice NRAMP5 in Manganese, Iron and Cadmium Transport  

PubMed Central

Metals like manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are essential for metabolism, while cadmium (Cd) is toxic for virtually all living organisms. Understanding the transport of these metals is important for breeding better crops. We have identified that OsNRAMP5 contributes to Mn, Fe and Cd transport in rice. OsNRAMP5 expression was restricted to roots epidermis, exodermis, and outer layers of the cortex as well as in tissues around the xylem. OsNRAMP5 localized to the plasma membrane, and complemented the growth of yeast strains defective in Mn, Fe, and Cd transport. OsNRAMP5 RNAi (OsNRAMP5i) plants accumulated less Mn in the roots, and less Mn and Fe in shoots, and xylem sap. The suppression of OsNRAMP5 promoted Cd translocation to shoots, highlighting the importance of this gene for Cd phytoremediation. These data reveal that OsNRAMP5 contributes to Mn, Cd, and Fe transport in rice and is important for plant growth and development. PMID:22368778

Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Bashir, Khurram; Shimo, Hugo; Senoura, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ono, Kazuko; Yano, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Satoru; Arao, Tomohito; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

2012-01-01

230

Toxicogenomics | Article Inhibition of Ape1 Nuclease Activity by Lead, Iron, and Cadmium  

E-print Network

Many environmental metals are co-carcinogens, eliciting their effects via inhibition of DNA repair. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (Ape1) is the major mammalian abasic endonuclease and initiates repair of this cytotoxic/mutagenic lesion by incising the DNA backbone via a Mg 2+-dependent reaction. In this study we examined the effects of arsenite [As(III)], cadmium [Cd(II)], cobalt [Co(II)], iron [Fe(II)], nickel [Ni(II)], and lead [Pb(II)] at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 100 µM on the incision activity of Ape1 in the presence of 1 mM MgCl 2. Pb(II) and Fe(II) inhibited Ape1 activity at each of the concentrations tested, with an IC 50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) of 0.61 and 1.0 µM, respectively. Cd(II) also inhibited Ape1 activity but only at concentrations> 10 µM. No inhibition was seen with As(III), Co(II), or Ni(II). A similar inhibition pattern was observed with the homologous Escherichia coli protein, exonuclease III, but no inhibition was seen with the structurally distinct AP endonuclease

Daniel R. Mcneill; Avinash Narayana; Heng-kuan Wong; David M. Wilson Iii

231

Seasonal changes of body iron status determine cadmium accumulation in the wild bank voles.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine relations between body iron (Fe) status and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in a small rodent, the bank vole, caught from the wild population in late autumn (November) and early spring (March). The concentrations of Fe in the liver, kidneys, and duodenum in the bank voles from the spring were only 30%, 60%, and 70%, respectively, of those found in the animals from the autumn. An analysis of hematocrit and hemoglobin content of blood showed no significant effect of the season, suggesting that the animals from the spring were not anemic. The exposure to dietary Cd (10 microg/g) for 7 days resulted in 70% higher accumulation of Cd in the liver and kidneys of the spring than autumn bank voles, and the concentration of Cd in the duodenum was 3.5 times higher in the spring animals, despite the fact that relative Cd intake was significantly higher in the autumn bank voles. The data indicate that seasonal changes of body Fe status occurring in the wild bank voles may influence tissue accumulation of Cd. PMID:19352597

W?ostowski, Tadeusz; Krasowska, Alicja; Sali?ska, Aneta; W?ostowska, Monika

2009-12-01

232

Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

233

Magnetic effects of hydrothermal alteration in porphyry copper and iron-oxide copper-gold systems: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic anomaly patterns can be used as a tool for mapping lithology, metamorphic zones and hydrothermal alteration systems, as well as identifying structures that may control passage of magmas or hydrothermal fluids associated with mineralisation. Reliable geological interpretation of mineralised systems requires an understanding of the magmatic, metamorphic and hydrothermal processes that create, alter and destroy magnetic minerals in rocks. Predictive magnetic exploration models for porphyry copper and iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits can be derived from standard geological models by integrating magnetic petrological principles with petrophysical data, deposit descriptions, and modelling of observed magnetic signatures of these deposits. Even within a particular geological province, the magnetic signatures of similar deposits may differ substantially, due to differences in the local geological setting. Searching for “look-alike” signatures of a known deposit is likely to be unrewarding unless pertinent geological factors are taken into account. These factors include the tectonic setting and magma type, composition and disposition of host rocks, depth of emplacement and post-emplacement erosion level, depth of burial beneath younger cover, post-emplacement faulting and tilting, remanence effects contingent on ages of intrusion and alteration, and metamorphism. Because the effects of these factors on magnetic signatures are reasonably well understood, theoretical magnetic signatures appropriate for the local geological environment can qualitatively guide exploration and make semiquantitative predictions of anomaly amplitudes and patterns. The predictive models also allow detectability of deposit signatures to be assessed, for example when deposits are buried beneath a considerable thickness of nonmagnetic overburden, are covered by highly magnetic heterogeneous volcanic rocks, or there is a strong regional magnetic gradient. This paper reviews the effects of hydrothermal alteration on magnetic properties and magnetic signatures of porphyry copper and iron oxide copper-gold systems and presents examples of predictive magnetic exploration models, and their predicted signatures, in various geological circumstances.

Clark, David A.

2014-06-01

234

Fabrication of a nanocomposite from in situ iron nanoparticle reinforced copper alloy.  

PubMed

In situ iron nanoparticle reinforced Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy has been fabricated by centrifugal casting in a vacuum chamber with a medium frequency electrical furnace. The microstructure of this alloy was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and the results show that the grains of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy without iron have a typical dendrite structure with dimensions from 500 to 1500 microm, and the grains of the alloy with the addition of 1% iron are small and equiaxed, with dimensions from 20 to 60 microm. Then, the relatively uniform dispersed particles in the copper matrix were identified with the HRTEM to be pure iron with dimensions in the order of 2-20 nm. The mechanical properties of the alloys were measured and the results show a significant increase in the tensile strength of the alloy with iron nanoparticles and a slight increase of the elongation compared to that without iron. The mechanism of formation of the iron nanoparticles was analyzed by thermodynamic and dynamic theories, and the results indicate that the in situ iron nanoparticles of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy can reasonably form during solidification in the centrifugal casting technique. PMID:19417426

Wang, Zidong; Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Qiangsong; Shih, I; Xu, J J

2009-02-18

235

Fabrication of a nanocomposite from in situ iron nanoparticle reinforced copper alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ iron nanoparticle reinforced Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy has been fabricated by centrifugal casting in a vacuum chamber with a medium frequency electrical furnace. The microstructure of this alloy was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and the results show that the grains of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy without iron have a typical dendrite structure with dimensions from 500 to 1500 µm, and the grains of the alloy with the addition of 1% iron are small and equiaxed, with dimensions from 20 to 60 µm. Then, the relatively uniform dispersed particles in the copper matrix were identified with the HRTEM to be pure iron with dimensions in the order of 2-20 nm. The mechanical properties of the alloys were measured and the results show a significant increase in the tensile strength of the alloy with iron nanoparticles and a slight increase of the elongation compared to that without iron. The mechanism of formation of the iron nanoparticles was analyzed by thermodynamic and dynamic theories, and the results indicate that the in situ iron nanoparticles of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy can reasonably form during solidification in the centrifugal casting technique.

Wang, Zidong; Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Qiangsong; Shih, I.; Xu, J. J.

2009-02-01

236

Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead in a temperate seagrass ecosystem from Lake Macquarie Estuary, NSW, Australia.  

PubMed

In this study the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass ecosystem in Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia, to determine if biomagnification of these trace metals is occurring and if they reach concentrations that pose a threat to the resident organisms or human consumers. Selenium was found to biomagnify, exceeding maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption within carnivorous fish tissue, the highest trophic level examined. Selenium concentrations measured within carnivorous fish were also above those shown to elicit sub-lethal effects in freshwater fish. As comparisons are made to selenium concentrations known to effect freshwater fish, inferences must be made with caution. There was no evidence of copper, cadmium, zinc or lead biomagnification within the food web examined. Copper, cadmium, zinc and lead concentrations were below concentrations shown to elicit adverse responses in biota. Copper concentrations within crustaceans M. bennettae and P. palagicus were found to exceed maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. It is likely that copper concentrations within these species were accumulated due to the essential nature of this trace metal for many species of molluscs and crustaceans. Arsenic showed some evidence of biomagnification. Total arsenic concentrations are similar to those found in other uncontaminated marine ecosystems, thus arsenic concentrations are unlikely to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are below maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. PMID:12860434

Barwick, M; Maher, W

2003-10-01

237

Effects of endogenous neurotoxin quinolinic acid on reactive oxygen species production by Fenton reaction catalyzed by iron or copper  

PubMed Central

The tryptophan metabolite, quinolinic (2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic) acid, is known as an endogenous neurotoxin. Quinolinic acid can form coordination complexes with iron or copper. The effects of quinolinic acid on reactive oxygen species production in the presence of iron or copper were explored by a combination of chemical assays, classical site-specific and ascorbic acid-free variants of the deoxyribose degradation assay, and mass spectrometry (ESI–MS). Quinolinic acid showed evident antioxidant activity in chemical assays, but the effect was more pronounced in the presence of copper as transition metal catalyst than in presence of iron. Nano-ESI–MS confirmed the ability of quinolinic acid to form coordination complexes with iron(II) or copper(II) and quinolinic acid stability against oxidative attack by hydroxyl radicals. The results illustrate a highly milieu-dependent quinolinic acid chemistry when it enters reactions as competitive ligand.

Kubicova, Lenka; Hadacek, Franz; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chobot, Vladimir

2015-01-01

238

Content of total iron, copper and manganese in liver of animals during hypokinesia, muscle activity and process of recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the content of total iron, copper and manganese in the liver of animals is altered depending on the intensity and duration of their swimming. Hypodynamia for 7 days does not alter the concentration of iron, but sufficiently increases the content of copper and manganese. The barometric factor effectively influences the maintenance of constancy in the content of microelements accumulated in the liver after intensive muscle activity.

Potapovich, G. M.; Taneyeva, G. V.; Uteshev, A. B.

1980-01-01

239

The influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on zinc, copper, and iron status in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Mineral homeostasis in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on mineral homeostasis in a rat model of hypertension. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with perindopril, metoprolol, indapamide, amlodipine, or no drug for 45 days. In another experiment, the SHRs were treated with indapamide or amlodipine in the presence of zinc and copper gluconate supplement. Lipids, glucose, and insulin levels along with superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were assayed in serum. Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in serum, erythrocytes, and tissues were determined using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood pressure was measured using a tail-cuff plethysmograph. Treatment with indapamide and amlodipine was found to significantly lower zinc levels in serum, erythrocytes, livers, and spleens of the SHRs, as well as copper levels in the kidneys, compared with the control no-drug group. A markedly higher concentration of glucose was found in the indapamide-treated rats. Supplementing the indapamide-treated SHRs with zinc and copper gluconate resulted in a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and also lowered serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) values. The results show that indapamide and amlodipine disturb zinc and copper homeostasis in SHRs. Supplementation with zinc and copper restores mineral homeostasis in SHRs treated with indapamide and amlodipine, and also corrects metabolic imbalances while improving the antihypertensive efficiency of indapamide. PMID:24927993

Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Pawe?; Jakubowski, Hieronim

2014-09-01

240

Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

1984-01-01

241

78 FR 65573 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...51.1 tungsten, 44.4 Rare Earth copper, 3.9 tin, and Magnet...supreg] iron, 9-16 copper, or Rare Earth and 5-7 nickel. Magnet. Tungsten-matrix...any proportions of Rare Earth tungsten, tin, and Magnet....

2013-11-01

242

Generation of oxidant response to copper and iron nanoparticles and salts: Stimulation by ascorbate  

PubMed Central

The present work describes a two-stage approach to analyzing combustion-generated samples for their potential to produce oxidant stress. This approach is illustrated with the two commonly encountered transition metals, copper and iron. First, their abilities to generate hydroxyl radical were measured in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline solution containing ascorbate and/or citrate. Second, their abilities to induce heme oxygenase-1 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were assessed in cell culture. Combustion-generated copper oxide nanoparticles were active in both assays and were found to be soluble in culture medium. Depletion of glutathione in the cells or loading the cells with ascorbate greatly increased heme oxygenase-1 induction in the presence of copper. By contrast, iron oxide nanoparticles were active in the phosphate buffered saline but not in cell culture, and they aggregated in culture medium. Soluble salts of copper and iron exhibited the same contrast in activities as the respective combustion-generated particles. The results suggest that the capability of combustion-generated environmental samples to produce oxidant stress can be screened effectively in a two step process, first in phosphate buffered saline with ascorbate and subsequently in epithelial cell culture for those exhibiting activity initially. The results also point to an unanticipated interaction in cells of oxidant stress-generating metals with an anti-oxidant (ascorbate) that is usually missing in culture medium formulations. Thus, ascorbate supplementation of cultured human cells is likely to improve their ability to model the in vivo effects of particulate matter containing copper and other redox-active metals. PMID:19683516

Rice, Robert H.; Vidrio, Edgar A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Qin, Qin; Willits, Neil H.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

2009-01-01

243

PICOSECOND X-RAY DIFFRACTION FROM LASER-SHOCKED COPPER AND IRON  

E-print Network

PICOSECOND X-RAY DIFFRACTION FROM LASER-SHOCKED COPPER AND IRON J.S. Wark, J.F. Belak, G.W. Collins, J.D. Colvin, H.M. Davies, M. Duchaineau, J.H. Eggert, T.C. Germann, J. Hawreliak, A. Higginbotham, B Compression of Condensed Matter - 2005, edited by M. D. Furnish, M. Elert, T. P. Russell, and C. T. White

Meyers, Marc A.

244

Copper, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Nickel, and Zinc Levels in Biological Samples of Diabetes Mellitus Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus and that these\\u000a nutrients might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of this disease. The aim of present study was to compare\\u000a the level of essential trace elements, chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in

Tasneem Gul Kazi; Hassan Imran Afridi; Naveed Kazi; Mohammad Khan Jamali; Mohammad Bilal Arain; Nussarat Jalbani; Ghulam Abbas Kandhro

2008-01-01

245

Evaluation of trace elements iron, zinc, copper and lead In the diet of female university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food consumption of 50 female students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia was recorded for 7 days. Foods and drinks most frequently consumed were selected for analysis of iron, zinc, copper and lead content. The mean daily intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat among the students are 6.5±1.4 MJ (1550±335 kcal), 59.8±18.5g. 227. 1±54.6 g and 46.0±11.5 g respectively. This diet

Zawiah Hashim

246

Valences of iron and copper in coral skeleton: X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicates that both iron and copper are present in their normal fully oxidized states, Fe(III) and Cu(II), in the aragonite (CaCO3, orthorhombic) skeletons of scleractinian reef corals. The Fe(III) may substitute for Ca(II) at its structural sites; alternatively, it may be present in clay or other detritus incorporated in the coral skeleton. The XAS-determined Cu(II)

Nicholas E. Pingitore Jr.; Arturo Iglesias; Allison Bruce; Farrel Lytle; Gerard M. Wellington

2002-01-01

247

pH-dependent release of cadmium, copper, and lead from natural and sludge-amended soils.  

PubMed

The pH-dependent release of cadmium, copper, and lead from soil materials was studied by use of a stirred flow cell to quantify their release and release rates, and to evaluate the method as a test for the bonding strength and potential mobility of heavy metals in soils. Soil materials from sludge-amended and nonamended A horizons from a Thai coarse-textured Kandiustult and a Danish loamy Hapludalf were characterized and tested. For each soil sample, release experiments with steady state pH values in the range 2.9 to 7.1 and duration of 7 d were performed. The effluent was continuously collected and analyzed. Release rates and total releases were higher for the Hapludalf than the Kandiustult and higher for the sludge-amended soils than the nonamended soils. With two exceptions the relative release rates (release rate/total content of metal in soil) plotted vs. steady state pH followed the same curves for each metal, indicating similar bonding strengths. These curves could be described by a rate expression of the form: relative release rate = k[H+]a, with specific a (empirical constant) and k (rate constant) parameters for each metal demonstrating that metal release in these systems can be explained by proton-induced desorption and dissolution reactions. With decreasing pH, pronounced increases in release rates were observed in the sequence cadmium > lead > copper, which express the order of metal lability in the soils. The flow cell system is useful for comparison of metal releases as a function of soil properties, and can be used as a test to rank soils with respect to heavy metal leaching. PMID:12469840

Sukreeyapongse, Orathai; Holm, Peter E; Strobel, Bjarne W; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Magid, Jakob; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

2002-01-01

248

National contaminant biomonitoring program: Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

From late 1984 to early 1985, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected a total of 315 composite samples of whole fish\\u000a from 109 stations nationwide, which were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Geometric\\u000a mean, maximum, and 85th percentile concentrations (?g\\/g wet weight) for 1984 samples were as follows: arsenic-0.14, 1.5, 0.27;\\u000a cadmium-0.03, 0.22, 0.05;

Christopher J. Schmitt; William G. Brumbaugh

1990-01-01

249

A chemical potentiator of copper-accumulation used to investigate the iron-regulons of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The extreme resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to copper is overcome by 2-(6-benzyl-2-pyridyl)quinazoline (BPQ), providing a chemical-biology tool which has been exploited in two lines of discovery. First, BPQ is shown to form a red (BPQ)2Cu(I) complex and promote Ctr1-independent copper-accumulation in whole cells and in mitochondria isolated from treated cells. Multiple phenotypes, including loss of aconitase activity, are consistent with copper-BPQ mediated damage to mitochondrial iron–sulphur clusters. Thus, a biochemical basis of copper-toxicity in S. cerevisiae is analogous to other organisms. Second, iron regulons controlled by Aft1/2, Cth2 and Yap5 that respond to mitochondrial iron–sulphur cluster status are modulated by copper-BPQ causing iron hyper-accumulation via upregulated iron-import. Comparison of copper-BPQ treated, untreated and copper-only treated wild-type and fra2? by RNA-seq has uncovered a new candidate Aft1 target-gene (LSO1) and paralogous non-target (LSO2), plus nine putative Cth2 target-transcripts. Two lines of evidence confirm that Fra2 dominates basal repression of the Aft1/2 regulons in iron-replete cultures. Fra2-independent control of these regulons is also observed but CTH2 itself appears to be atypically Fra2-dependent. However, control of Cth2-target transcripts which is independent of CTH2 transcript abundance or of Fra2, is also quantified. Use of copper-BPQ supports a substantial contribution of metabolite repression to iron-regulation. PMID:24895027

Foster, Andrew W; Dainty, Samantha J; Patterson, Carl J; Pohl, Ehmke; Blackburn, Hannah; Wilson, Clare; Hess, Corinna R; Rutherford, Julian C; Quaranta, Laura; Corran, Andy; Robinson, Nigel J

2014-01-01

250

Heterogeneous irradiation-induced copper precipitation in ferritic iron–copper model alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism at the origin of the formation of nano-copper-enriched clusters in the ferritic matrix of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel is not yet fully understood. In this work, specific irradiation experiments were carried out using 3MeV electron and 150keV Fe+ ions in order to point out the effect of (i) free migrating point defects (produced as Frenkel pairs with

Philippe Pareige; Bertrand Radiguet; Alain Barbu

2006-01-01

251

Heterogeneous irradiation-induced copper precipitation in ferritic iron copper model alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism at the origin of the formation of nano-copper-enriched clusters in the ferritic matrix of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel is not yet fully understood. In this work, specific irradiation experiments were carried out using 3 MeV electron and 150 keV Fe + ions in order to point out the effect of (i) free migrating point defects (produced as Frenkel pairs with 3 MeV electron) and (ii) the ballistic mixing and partial recombination of atoms due to displacement cascades (produced with ions). In both cases the irradiation-induced phase transformation were characterized using the 3D atom probe technique. The time-dependant evolution of the point defect population was computed using the cluster dynamic code (MFPVIC) developed at CEA. The combination of experiment and simulation shows that, in low copper (<0.1 at.% Cu) FeCu alloys, heterogeneous irradiation-induced copper precipitation is taking place on point defects clusters generated by 20-30 keV displacement cascades.

Pareige, Philippe; Radiguet, Bertrand; Barbu, Alain

2006-06-01

252

Survival and hepatic metallothionein in developing rainbow trout exposed to a mixture of zinc, copper, and cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Buttle Lake on Vancouver Island, B.C. are exposed to metal contamination originating from a copper and zinc mining operation at Myra Falls near the head of the lake. In order to properly assess the risk to a population of rainbow trout in Buttle Lake, the authors initiated a long-term exposure of rainbow trout from hatch including the swim-up stage. Copper, zinc or cadmium are known to induce metallothionein in mammals and as a mixture of metals, induce hepatic metallothionein in rainbow trout. Investigation of hepatic metallothionein concentrations in wild rainbow trout from Buttle Lake and in lakes of the Campbell River downstream showed a correlation with metal concentrations in the water. Rainbow trout held in situ for 4 weeks showed the same correlation. In this report they determined whether or not the degree of contamination was correlated with concentrations of metallothionein in the livers of rainbow trout exposed to the mixture of metals during the early life stages.

Roch, M.; McCarter, J.A.

1986-02-01

253

An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Study of Copper Hopping in Doped Bis(L-histidinato)cadmium Dihydrate  

PubMed Central

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to study Cu(II) dynamic behavior in a doped biological model crystal; bis(L-histidinato)cadmium dihydrate, in order to gain better insight into copper site stability in metalloproteins. Temperature dependent changes in the low temperature X-band EPR spectra became visible around 100 K and continued up to room temperature. The measured 298 K g-tensor (principal values: 2.17, 2.16, 2.07) and copper hyperfine coupling tensor (principal values: ?260, ? 190, ?37 MHz) were similar to the average of the 77 K tensor values pertaining to two neighboring histidine binding sites. The observed temperature dependence was interpreted using Anderson’s theory of motional narrowing, where the magnetic parameters for the different states are averaged as the copper rapidly hops between sites. The EPR pattern was also found to undergo a sharp sigmoidal-shaped, temperature dependent conversion between two species with a critical temperature Tc ? 160 K. The species below Tc hops between the two low temperature site patterns, and the one above Tc represents an average of the molecular spin Hamiltonian coupling tensors of the two 77 K sites. In addition, the low and high temperature species hop between one another, contributing to the dynamic averaging. Spectral simulations using this 4-state model determined a hop rate between the two low temperature sites ?h4 = 4.5 × 108 s?1 and between the low and high temperature states ?h2 = 1.7 × 108 s?1 at 160 K. An Arrhenius relationship of hop rate and temperature gave energy barriers of ?E4 = 389 cm?1 and ?E2 = 656 cm?1 between the two low temperature sites, and between the low and high temperature states, respectively. PMID:23530765

Colaneri, Michael J.; Vitali, Jacqueline; Kirschbaum, Kristin

2013-01-01

254

Apoptotic rate and metallothionein levels in the tissues of cadmium-and copper-exposed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that cadmium (Cd) has toxic and carcinogenic effects in rodents and humans, but the effects of Cd on apoptosis\\u000a are still not clear. Although some studies have shown that Cd has apoptotic potential, other studies have shown that Cd can\\u000a be antiapoptotic. Parameters such as sensitivity of the exposed organism or cells and the exposure conditions

Zafer Gurel; Dervis Ozcelik; Sefik Dursun

2007-01-01

255

Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III), indium(III), cadmium(II), and copper(II) on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense)  

PubMed Central

Background Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Results The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0?±?0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals. PMID:25027256

2014-01-01

256

The influence of tin, nickel, and cadmium on the intestinal absorption of iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of increasing doses of cadmium, nickel, and tin on the net absorption of fluid as well as upon the absorption of ⁵⁹Fe, administered as ⁵⁹Fe-(FeSOâ), from tied-off jejunal segments of male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated. The three metals examined decreased the net absorption of fluid from the jejunal segments progressively with increasing metal doses. Cadmium was the most

S. G. Schaefer; W. Forth

1983-01-01

257

Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.134 references.

Ragan, H.A.; Mast, T.J. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (USA))

1990-01-01

258

Branchial cadmium and copper binding and intestinal cadmium uptake in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from clean and metal-contaminated lakes.  

PubMed

Branchial binding kinetics and gastro-intestinal uptake of copper and cadmium where examined in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from a metal-contaminated lake (Hannah Lake, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada) and an uncontaminated lake (James Lake, North Bay, Ontario, Canada). An in vivo approach was taken for gill binding comparisons while an in vitro gut binding assay was employed for gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) uptake analysis. By investigating metal uptake at the gill and the gut we cover the two main routes of metal entry into fish. Comparisons of water and sediment chemistries, metal burdens in benthic invertebrate, and metal burdens in the livers of perch from the two study lakes clearly show that yellow perch from Hannah L. are chronically exposed to a highly metal-contaminated environment compared to a reference lake. We found that metal-contaminated yellow perch showed no significant difference in gill Cd binding compared to reference fish, but they did show significant decreases in new Cd binding and absorption in their GITs. The results show that gill Cd binding may involve low-capacity, high-affinity binding sites, while gastro-intestinal Cd uptake involves binding sites that are high-capacity, low-affinity. From this we infer that Cd may be more critically controlled at the gut rather than gills. Significant differences in branchial Cu binding (increased binding) were observed in metal-contaminated yellow perch. We suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu (and/or other metals) may be the dominant influence in gill Cu binding rather than chronic exposure to high Cu diets. We give supporting evidence that Cd is taken up in the GIT, at least in part, by a similar pathway as Ca(2+), principally that elevated dietary Ca(2+) reduces Cd binding and uptake. Overall our study reveals that metal pre-exposure via water and diet can alter uptake kinetics of Cu and Cd at the gill and/or the gut. PMID:17643503

Klinck, J S; Green, W W; Mirza, R S; Nadella, S R; Chowdhury, M J; Wood, C M; Pyle, G G

2007-08-30

259

Trace Element Concentrations (Mercury, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Lead, Aluminium, Nickel, Arsenic, and Selenium) in Some Aquatic Birds of the Southwest Atlantic Coast of France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace elements (mercury [Hg], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], lead [Pb], aluminium [Al], nickel [Ni], arsenic [As],\\u000a and selenium [Se]) were investigated using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry in liver, kidney, muscle, and feather\\u000a of aquatic birds wintering or inhabiting the wetlands situated on the Southwest Atlantic coast of France. A majority of greylag\\u000a geese, red knots, and grey plovers

Magali Lucia; Jean-Marc André; Karine Gontier; Nicolas Diot; Jesus Veiga; Stéphane Davail

2010-01-01

260

Determination of Copper, Nickel and Cadmium by Faas After Preconcentration with Zinc-Piperazinedithiocarbamate Loaded on Activated Carbon by SolidPhase Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for the preconcentration of copper, nickel and cadmium in water samples, prior to their determination by FAAS, using the Zn-piperazinedithiocarbamate complex (ZnPDC) loaded on activated carbon. In this method, Cu, Ni and Cd in liquid phase quantitatively replaced zinc on a ZnPDC-activated carbon solid phase. Afterwards, the metals on the solid phase were easily eluted by

Hasan Cesur; Mustafa Macit; Bekir Bati

2000-01-01

261

Insoluble detoxification of trace metals in a marine copepod Tigriopus brevicornis (Müller) exposed to copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, silver and mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine harpacticoid copepods Tigriopus brevicornis were collected along the French Atlantic Coast (Loire Atlantique) and subsequently exposed to different lethal and sublethal\\u000a concentrations of various metals (copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, silver and mercury) for varying lengths of time. Ultrastructural\\u000a investigations of control and experimentally exposed copepods were performed to investigate the intracellular localization\\u000a of metals using transmission electronic microscopy

Sabria Barka

2007-01-01

262

THE EFFECT OF MERCURY, COPPER AND CADMIUM DURING SINGLE AND COMBINED EXPOSURE ON OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS WAL. AND CYPRINUS CARPIO L. LARVAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygen consumption of common carp and rainbow trout larvae exposed to mercury, cadmium and copper was measured. The experiment was performed on seven-month-old common carp (0.9-1.39 g) and one-month-old rainbow trout larvae (1.2-1.5 g) reared under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated for one hour with solutions of a single metal or mixtures of Hg+Cd, Cd+Cu or Hg+Cu. The

Barbara Jezierska; Piotr Sarnowski

263

Experimental studies of the interaction of aqueous metal cations with mineral substrates: Lead, cadmium, and copper with perthitic feldspar, muscovite, and biotite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between each of the metal ions copper(II), cadmium(II), and lead(II) in aqueous solution and the surfaces of the minerals muscovite, biotite, and perthitic feldspar have been studied using batch sorption experiments and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The purpose of the work has been to establish the extent of removal from solution of these metal

Morag L. Farquhar; David J. Vaughan; Colin R. Hughes; John M. Charnock; Katharine E. R. England

1997-01-01

264

Zebrafish in the sea of mineral (iron, zinc, and copper) metabolism  

PubMed Central

Iron, copper, zinc, and eight other minerals are classified as essential trace elements because they present in minute in vivo quantities and are essential for life. Because either excess or insufficient levels of trace elements can be detrimental to life (causing human diseases such as iron-deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease), the endogenous levels of trace minerals must be tightly regulated. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of systems that maintain trace element homeostasis, and these systems are highly conserved in multiple species ranging from yeast to mice. As a model for studying trace mineral metabolism, the zebrafish is indispensable to researchers. Several large-scale mutagenesis screens have been performed in zebrafish, and these screens led to the identification of a series of metal transporters and the generation of several mutagenesis lines, providing an in-depth functional analysis at the system level. Moreover, because of their developmental advantages, zebrafish have also been used in mineral metabolism-related chemical screens and toxicology studies. Here, we systematically review the major findings of trace element homeostasis studies using the zebrafish model, with a focus on iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and iodine. We also provide a homology analysis of trace mineral transporters in fish, mice and humans. Finally, we discuss the evidence that zebrafish is an ideal experimental tool for uncovering novel mechanisms of trace mineral metabolism and for improving approaches to treat mineral imbalance-related diseases. PMID:24639652

Zhao, Lu; Xia, Zhidan; Wang, Fudi

2014-01-01

265

Zebrafish in the sea of mineral (iron, zinc, and copper) metabolism.  

PubMed

Iron, copper, zinc, and eight other minerals are classified as essential trace elements because they present in minute in vivo quantities and are essential for life. Because either excess or insufficient levels of trace elements can be detrimental to life (causing human diseases such as iron-deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease), the endogenous levels of trace minerals must be tightly regulated. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of systems that maintain trace element homeostasis, and these systems are highly conserved in multiple species ranging from yeast to mice. As a model for studying trace mineral metabolism, the zebrafish is indispensable to researchers. Several large-scale mutagenesis screens have been performed in zebrafish, and these screens led to the identification of a series of metal transporters and the generation of several mutagenesis lines, providing an in-depth functional analysis at the system level. Moreover, because of their developmental advantages, zebrafish have also been used in mineral metabolism-related chemical screens and toxicology studies. Here, we systematically review the major findings of trace element homeostasis studies using the zebrafish model, with a focus on iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and iodine. We also provide a homology analysis of trace mineral transporters in fish, mice and humans. Finally, we discuss the evidence that zebrafish is an ideal experimental tool for uncovering novel mechanisms of trace mineral metabolism and for improving approaches to treat mineral imbalance-related diseases. PMID:24639652

Zhao, Lu; Xia, Zhidan; Wang, Fudi

2014-01-01

266

PICOSECOND X-RAY DIFFRACTION FROM LASER-SHOCKED COPPER AND IRON  

SciTech Connect

In situ X-ray diffraction allows the determination of the structure of transient states of matter. We have used laser-plasma generated X-rays to study how single crystals of metals (copper and iron) react to uniaxial shock compression. We find that copper, as a face-centered-cubic material, allows rapid generation and motion of dislocations, allowing close to hydrostatic conditions to be achieved on sub-nanosecond timescales. Detailed molecular dynamics calculations provide novel information about the process, and point towards methods whereby the dislocation density might be measured during the passage of the shock wave itself. We also report on recent experiments where we have obtained diffraction images from shock-compressed single-crystal iron. The single crystal sample transforms to the hcp phase above a critical pressure, below which it appears to be uniaxially compressed bcc, with no evidence of plasticity. Above the transition threshold, clear evidence for the hcp phase can be seen in the diffraction images, and via a mechanism that is also consistent with recent multi-million atom molecular dynamics simulations that use the Voter-Chen potential. We believe these data to be of import, in that they constitute the first conclusive in situ evidence of the transformed structure of iron during the passage of a shock wave.

Wark, J S; Belak, J F; Collins, G W; Colvin, J D; Davies, H M; Duchaineau, M; Eggert, J H; Germann, T C; Hawreliak, J; Higginbotham, A; Holian, B L; Kadau, K; Kalantar, D H; Lomdahl, P S; Lorenzana, H E; Meyers, M A; Remington, B A; Rosolankova, K; Rudd, R E; Schneider, M S; Sheppard, J; Stolken, J S

2005-08-23

267

Picosecond X-Ray Diffraction from Laser-Shocked Copper and Iron  

SciTech Connect

In situ X-ray diffraction allows the determination of the structure of transient states of matter. We have used laser-plasma generated X-rays to study how single crystals of metals (copper and iron) react to uniaxial shock compression. We find that copper, as a face-centred-cubic material, allows rapid generation and motion of dislocations, allowing close to hydrostatic conditions to be achieved on sub-nanosecond timescales. Detailed molecular dynamics calculations provide novel information about the process, and point towards methods whereby the dislocation density might be measured during the passage of the shock wave itself. We also report on recent experiments where we have obtained diffraction images from shock-compressed single-crystal iron. The single crystal sample transforms to the hcp phase above a critical pressure, below which it appears to be uniaxially compressed bcc, with no evidence of plasticity. Above the transition threshold, clear evidence for the hcp phase can be seen in the diffraction images, and via a mechanism that is also consistent with recent multi- million atom molecular dynamics simulations that use the Voter- Chen potential. We believe these data to be of import, in that they constitute the first conclusive in situ evidence of the transformed structure of iron during the passage of a shock wave.

Wark, J. S.; Hawreliak, J.; Higginbotham, A.; Rosolankova, K.; Sheppard, J. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Belak, J. F.; Collins, G. W.; Colvin, J. D.; Duchaineau, M.; Eggert, J. H.; Kalantar, D. H.; Lorenzana, H. E.; Remington, B. A.; Rudd, R. E.; Stolken, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Davies, H. M. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Germann, T. C.; Holian, B. L.; Kadau, K.; Lomdahl, P. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] (and others)

2006-07-28

268

Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status of young women fed vitamin B-6 deficient diets  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted in young women to determine the effect of vitamin B-6 deficient diets on copper, iron and zinc metabolism. Young women were confined to a metabolic research unit for 84 and 98 days. They were fed a vitamin B-6 deficient formula diet initially, followed by food diet containing four increasing levels of vitamin B-6. Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status were determined at intervals throughout the study. Absorption was determined using the stable isotopes {sup 65}Cu, {sup 54}Fe, and {sup 67}Zn. Status was based on serum copper and zinc, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume. Copper absorption averaged 18 {plus minus} 1% during vitamin B-6 depletion, significantly lower than 24 {plus minus} 1% during repletion, but serum copper was not affected and balance was positive. Iron absorption was not impaired significantly by vitamin B-6 deficient diets, but status declined during the depletion period. Zinc absorption averaged 40 {plus minus} 2% during depletion and 27 {plus minus} 2% during repletion. Zinc absorption and retention were significantly greater during vitamin B-6 depletion, but serum zinc declined suggesting the absorbed zinc was not available for utilization. The results suggest that vitamin B-6 depletion of young women may inhibit copper absorption, affect iron status and alter zinc metabolism. The effects of vitamin B-6 depletion differ markedly among these elements.

Turnlund, J.R.; Keyes, W.R.; Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Kretsch, M.J.; Sauberlich, H.E. (USDA/ARS, San Francisco, CA (United States) Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA (United States))

1991-03-11

269

Copper and zinc recycling from copper alloys` spent pickling solutions  

SciTech Connect

The precipitation of copper and zinc as cements from a copper alloys` spent pickling solution has been studied at laboratory and pilot scale, with the objective of designing an economic process to recover both metals and render a solution to be either recycled to the pickling process or treated in a standard fashion and produce a non-hazardous sludge. The sulfuric acid spent pickling solution already containing copper and zinc was used first to dissolve another solid residue originated in the copper alloys foundry to neutralize part of the acidity. The resulting enriched solution was treated separately with two reductants: sodium borohydride and iron powder varying pH and excess of reductant under constant agitation. Under the best conditions, precipitation of over 95 percent of zinc and copper was achieved together with the reduction of lead and cadmium contents respectively. A process for the combined residues treatment is proposed.

Roman-Moguel, G.J.; Plascencia, G.; Perez, J.

1995-12-31

270

Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: influence of elevated dietary iron.  

PubMed

Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine>kidney>stomach>liver>gill>carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish. PMID:21371606

Kwong, Raymond W M; Andrés, Jose A; Niyogi, Som

2011-03-01

271

Determination of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements in lunar surface materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distribution regularities of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements were investigated in basaltoid rocks of lunar and terrestrial origin. Samples of various regolith zones taken in the area of the Sea of Fertility were analyzed, along with samples of basic and ultrabasic rocks of the East African Rift for their content of the trace admixtures listed. Data obtained on the abundance of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in Luna 16 lunar surface material were compared with the abundance of these elements in samples of lunar rocks returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, with the exception of scandium; its content in the latter samples was considerably higher.

Pavlenko, L. I.; Simonova, L. V.; Karyakin, A. V.

1974-01-01

272

Impairment of metabolic capacities in copper and cadmium contaminated wild yellow perch ( Perca flavescens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined variations in resting oxygen consumption rate (ROCR), post-exercise oxygen consumption rate, relative scope for activity (RSA), liver and muscle aerobic and anaerobic capacities (using citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively, as indicators), and tissue biosynthetic capacities (using nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) as an indicator), in wild yellow perch from four lakes varying in copper (Cu) and

Patrice Couture; Puja Rajender Kumar

2003-01-01

273

Iron and Copper Act Synergistically To Delay Anaerobic Growth of Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Transition metals are known to cause toxic effects through their interaction with oxygen, but toxicity under anoxic conditions is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on the anaerobic growth and gene expression of the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. We found that Fe(II) and Cu(II) act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth at environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Cu(I) and Cu(II) had similar effects both alone and in the presence of ascorbate, a Cu(II) reductant, indicating that reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Fe(II) is not sufficient to explain the growth inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) increased the toxicity of Co(II) and Ni(II); in contrast, Ni(II) toxicity was diminished in the presence of Fe(II). The synergistic anaerobic toxicity of Fe(II) and Cu(II) was also observed for Escherichia coli MG1655, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Gene expression analyses for R. palustris identified three regulatory genes that respond to Cu(II) and not to Fe(II): homologs of cueR and cusR, two known proteobacterial copper homeostasis regulators, and csoR, a copper regulator recently identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two P-type ATPase efflux pumps, along with an FoF1 ATP synthase, were also upregulated by Cu(II) but not by Fe(II). An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in copA, cus, and cueO showed a smaller synergistic effect, indicating that iron might interfere with one or more of the copper homeostasis systems. Our results suggest that interactive effects of transition metals on microbial physiology may be widespread under anoxic conditions, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be more fully elucidated. PMID:23563938

Bird, Lina J.; Coleman, Maureen L.

2013-01-01

274

Relationship between Paratuberculosis and the microelements Copper, Zinc, Iron, Selenium and Molybdenum in Beef Cattle  

PubMed Central

To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship between selenium deficiencies in animals with Map infection and ELISA positive results. PMID:24159298

Paolicchi, F.; Perea, J.; Cseh, S.; Morsella, C.

2013-01-01

275

Sorption concentration of copper, lead, and iron on carriers modified by 8-hydroxyquinoline and its derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of copper, lead, and iron ions on carriers (silochrome S-120, anion exchanger AB-17, enterosgel, polysorb) noncovalently\\u000a modified by 8-hydroxynoline, 5,7-dibrom-8-hydroxyquinoline, and 8-hydroxynoline-5-sulfo-acid has been studied. Optimal sorption\\u000a conditions have been found. The determination is not impeded by a 103-fold excess of potassium, natrium, calcium and magnesium. The methods have been tested on water and soil samples from Saransk\\u000a city.

V. M. Ivanov; E. V. Antonova; E. N. Uskova

2009-01-01

276

Contact Killing of Bacteria on Copper Is Suppressed if Bacterial-Metal Contact Is Prevented and Is Induced on Iron by Copper Ions  

PubMed Central

Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces, and copper ions released from the surface have been proposed to play a major role in the killing process. However, it has remained unclear whether contact of the bacteria with the copper surface is also an important factor. Using laser interference lithography, we engineered copper surfaces which were covered with a grid of an inert polymer which prevented contact of the bacteria with the surface. Using Enterococcus hirae as a model organism, we showed that the release of ionic copper from these modified surfaces was not significantly reduced. In contrast, killing of bacteria was strongly attenuated. When E. hirae cells were exposed to a solid iron surface, the loss of cell viability was the same as on glass. However, exposing cells to iron in the presence of 4 mM CuSO4 led to complete killing in 100 min. These experiments suggest that contact killing proceeds by a mechanism whereby the metal-bacterial contact damages the cell envelope, which, in turn, makes the cells susceptible to further damage by copper ions. PMID:23396344

Mathews, Salima; Hans, Michael

2013-01-01

277

Effect of adsorbed chlorine and oxygen on shear strength of iron and copper junctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static friction experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature on copper, iron, and steel contacts selectively contaminated with oxygen and chlorine in submonolayer amounts. The concentration of the adsorbates was determined with Auger electron spectroscopy and was measured relative to the saturation concentration of oxygen on iron (concentration 1.0). The coefficient of static friction decreased with increasing adsorbate concentration. It was independent of the metal and the adsorbate. The results compared satisfactorily with an extension of the junction growth theory to heterogeneous interfaces. The reduction in interfacial shear strength was measured by the ratio sub a/sub m where sub a is the shear strength of the interface with an adsorbate concentration of 1.0, and sub m is the strength of the clean metal interface. This ratio was 0.835 + or - 0.012 for all the systems tested.

Wheeler, D. R.

1975-01-01

278

Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed.

Noda, M.; Yasuda, M.; Kitagawa, M. (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

1991-03-01

279

Dry Sliding Wear of a Powder Metallurgy Copper-based Metal Matrix Composite Reinforced with Iron Aluminide Intermetallic Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, dry sliding wear behavior of a powder metallurgy copper alloy matrix composite containing iron aluminide (Fe3Al) intermetallic particles was investigated using a pin-on-disk machine. A sintered copper alloy (Cu—90%, Sn—10%) was used as matrix. Reinforcement Fe3Al particles were prepared by mechanical alloying (42 h) and used as reinforcement (10 and 20 vol%) in the matrix. The

K. Venkateswaran; M. Kamaraj; K. Prasad Rao

2007-01-01

280

Joint toxicity of tetracycline with copper(II) and cadmium(II) to Vibrio fischeri: effect of complexation reaction.  

PubMed

Co-contamination of antibiotic and heavy metals commonly occurs in the environment. Tetracycline (TC), a common antibiotic, can behave as an efficient organic ligand to complex with cations. In this paper, the joint toxicity of TC with two commonly existing metals, copper(II) and cadmium(II), towards a luminescent bacteria, Vibrio fischeri, are investigated. Results showed that coexistence of TC and Cu(II) showed a significant antagonistic effect, while TC and Cd(II) showed a synergistic effect. The aqueous speciation of TC with two metal cations was calculated using a chemical equilibrium software Visual MINTEQ and results indicated that a strong complexation exist between TC and Cu(II), while much weaker interaction between TC and Cd(II). Traditional joint toxicity prediction model based on independent action failed to predict the combined toxicity of TC with metals. A new method based on speciation calculation was used to evaluate the joint toxicity of ligands and cations. It is assumed that the metal-ligand complexes are non-toxic to V. fischeri and the joint toxicity is determined by the sum of toxic unit of free metal-ions and free organic ligands. It explained the joint toxicity of the mixed systems reasonably well. Meanwhile, citric acid (CA) and fulvic acid (FA) were also introduced in this study to provide a benchmark comparison with TC. Results showed it is also valid for mixed systems of CA and FA with metals except for the Cd-CA mixture. PMID:25398505

Tong, Fei; Zhao, Yanping; Gu, Xueyuan; Gu, Cheng; Lee, Charles C C

2015-03-01

281

Controlling electron beam-induced structure modifications and cation exchange in cadmium sulfide-copper sulfide heterostructured nanorods.  

PubMed

The atomic structure and interfaces of CdS/Cu2S heterostructured nanorods are investigated with the aberration-corrected TEAM 0.5 electron microscope operated at 80 kV and 300 kV applying in-line holography and complementary techniques. Cu2S exhibits a low-chalcocite structure in pristine CdS/Cu2S nanorods. Under electron beam irradiation the Cu2S phase transforms into a high-chalcocite phase while the CdS phase maintains its wurtzite structure. Time-resolved experiments reveal that Cu(+)-Cd(2+) cation exchange at the CdS/Cu2S interfaces is stimulated by the electron beam and proceeds within an undisturbed and coherent sulfur sub-lattice. A variation of the electron beam current provides an efficient way to control and exploit such irreversible solid-state chemical processes that provide unique information about system dynamics at the atomic scale. Specifically, we show that the electron beam-induced copper-cadmium exchange is site specific and anisotropic. A resulting displacement of the CdS/Cu2S interfaces caused by beam-induced cation interdiffusion equals within a factor of 3-10 previously reported Cu diffusion length measurements in heterostructured CdS/Cu2S thin film solar cells with an activation energy of 0.96 eV. PMID:23830376

Zheng, Haimei; Sadtler, Bryce; Habenicht, Carsten; Freitag, Bert; Alivisatos, A Paul; Kisielowski, Christian

2013-11-01

282

Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti †  

PubMed Central

The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

2013-01-01

283

Comparative study between probe focussed sonication and conventional stirring in the evaluation of cadmium and copper in plants.  

PubMed

Ultrasound (US)-assisted extraction has been widely used for metal ion extraction in plants due to its unique properties of decreased extraction time, minimal contamination, low reagent consumption and low cost. However, very few papers present a sound comparison between probe-focussed sonication and conventional stirring in the evaluation of metal ion extraction in plants. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted digestion has been evaluated and compared to magnetic stirring for total copper and cadmium determination by atomic absorption spectrometry in biological samples (plants, plankton and mussels). The same experimental conditions of sample amount and particle size, extractant solution and extraction time were applied for both ultrasound and magnetic stirring-assisted extraction methods in order to truly compare their effect on metal ion solubilisation. To gain further insight in this issue, dried and fresh plants were tested. The results obtained indicated that osmotic tension in cell walls, produced when dried and powdered samples were immersed in the extractant solution, had an important contribution to metal ion solubilisation, the enhancement due to US for the same purpose being negligible. PMID:20890593

Pereira, Sara; Fonseca, Luís P; Capelo, José L; Armas, Teresa; Vilhena, Fernanda; Pinto, Ana P; Gonçalves, Maria L S; Mota, A M

2010-11-01

284

Assessing the mobility of lead, copper and cadmium in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.  

PubMed

The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

2013-11-01

285

IRON NUTRITION INFLUENCE ON CADMIUM ACCUMULATION BY ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA (L.) HEYNH  

EPA Science Inventory

Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine whether Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, a putative Fe-efficient species, accumulated higher concentrations of Cd from a sparingly soluble Cd source (cadmium dihydrogen phosphate) when growing in Fe-deficient rather than in Fe-su...

286

Friction and transfer of copper, silver, and gold to iron in the presence of various adsorbed surface films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sliding friction experiments were conducted with the noble metals copper, silver, and gold and two binary alloys of these metals contacting iron in the presence of various adsorbates including, oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride. A pin on disk specimen configuration was used with a load of 100 grams, sliding velocity of 60 mm/min; at 25 C with the surfaces saturated with the adsorbates. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor surface films. Results of the experiments indicate that friction and transfer characteristics are highly specific with respect to both the noble metal and surface film present. With all three metals and films transfer of the noble metal to iron occurred very rapidly. With all metals and films transfer of the noble metal to iron continuously increased with repeated passes except for silver and copper sliding on iron sulfide.

Buckley, D. H.

1979-01-01

287

The proteome of copper, iron, zinc, and manganese micronutrient deficiency in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

Trace metals such as copper, iron, zinc, and manganese play important roles in several biochemical processes, including respiration and photosynthesis. Using a label-free, quantitative proteomics strategy (MS(E)), we examined the effect of deficiencies in these micronutrients on the soluble proteome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We quantified >10(3) proteins with abundances within a dynamic range of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude and demonstrated statistically significant changes in ~200 proteins in each metal-deficient growth condition relative to nutrient-replete media. Through analysis of Pearson's coefficient, we also examined the correlation between protein abundance and transcript abundance (as determined via RNA-Seq analysis) and found moderate correlations under all nutritional states. Interestingly, in a subset of transcripts known to significantly change in abundance in metal-replete and metal-deficient conditions, the correlation to protein abundance is much stronger. Examples of new discoveries highlighted in this work include the accumulation of O(2) labile, anaerobiosis-related enzymes (Hyd1, Pfr1, and Hcp2) in copper-deficient cells; co-variation of Cgl78/Ycf54 and coprogen oxidase; the loss of various stromal and lumenal photosynthesis-related proteins, including plastocyanin, in iron-limited cells; a large accumulation (from undetectable amounts to over 1,000 zmol/cell) of two COG0523 domain-containing proteins in zinc-deficient cells; and the preservation of photosynthesis proteins in manganese-deficient cells despite known losses in photosynthetic function in this condition. PMID:23065468

Hsieh, Scott I; Castruita, Madeli; Malasarn, Davin; Urzica, Eugen; Erde, Jonathan; Page, M Dudley; Yamasaki, Hiroaki; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Loo, Joseph A

2013-01-01

288

Dynamic properties of edge dislocations decorated by interstitial dislocation loops in alpha-iron and copper.  

SciTech Connect

Clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in the form of parallel crowdions are created directly in high-energy displacement cascades produced in metals by neutron irradiation. They are equivalent to small perfect dislocation loops and, in isolation in pure metals, undergo fast thermally-activated glide in the direction of their Burgers vector. Their strain field and ability to glide allows long-range interaction with other extended defects. Indeed, dislocations decorated by dislocation loops are commonly observed after neutron irradiation. Dislocations gliding under applied stress also encounter these mobile defects. These effects influence mechanical properties and require further investigation. This paper presents results from an atomic-scale study of copper and {alpha}-iron at either 0 K or 300 K. Loop drag and breakaway effects are investigated for an edge dislocation under applied stress interacting with a row of SIA loops below its glide plane. The maximum speed at which a loop is dragged is lower in copper than iron, and the applied stress at which this occurs is also lower. These differences in the dynamics of cluster-dislocation interaction are determined by the atomic structure of the defects and cannot be investigated by continuum treatment.

Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Bacon, David J [University of Liverpool; Rong, Zhouwen [University of Liverpool; Singh, Bachu [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark

2004-01-01

289

The Proteome of Copper, Iron, Zinc, and Manganese Micronutrient Deficiency in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*  

PubMed Central

Trace metals such as copper, iron, zinc, and manganese play important roles in several biochemical processes, including respiration and photosynthesis. Using a label-free, quantitative proteomics strategy (MSE), we examined the effect of deficiencies in these micronutrients on the soluble proteome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We quantified >103 proteins with abundances within a dynamic range of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude and demonstrated statistically significant changes in ?200 proteins in each metal-deficient growth condition relative to nutrient-replete media. Through analysis of Pearson's coefficient, we also examined the correlation between protein abundance and transcript abundance (as determined via RNA-Seq analysis) and found moderate correlations under all nutritional states. Interestingly, in a subset of transcripts known to significantly change in abundance in metal-replete and metal-deficient conditions, the correlation to protein abundance is much stronger. Examples of new discoveries highlighted in this work include the accumulation of O2 labile, anaerobiosis-related enzymes (Hyd1, Pfr1, and Hcp2) in copper-deficient cells; co-variation of Cgl78/Ycf54 and coprogen oxidase; the loss of various stromal and lumenal photosynthesis-related proteins, including plastocyanin, in iron-limited cells; a large accumulation (from undetectable amounts to over 1,000 zmol/cell) of two COG0523 domain-containing proteins in zinc-deficient cells; and the preservation of photosynthesis proteins in manganese-deficient cells despite known losses in photosynthetic function in this condition. PMID:23065468

Hsieh, Scott I.; Castruita, Madeli; Malasarn, Davin; Urzica, Eugen; Erde, Jonathan; Page, M. Dudley; Yamasaki, Hiroaki; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Loo, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

290

Rapid Size- Controlled Synthesis of Dextran-Coated, Copper-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of dual modality probes enabled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has been on the rise in recent years due to the potential for these probes to facilitate combining the complementary high resolution of MRI and the high sensitivity of PET. The efficient synthesis of multimodal probes that include the radiolabels for PET can be hindered due to prolonged reaction times during radioisotope incorporation, and the resulting decay of the radiolabel. Along with a time-efficient synthesis, one also needs an optimal synthesis that yields products in a desirable size range (between 20-100 nm) to increase blood retention time. In this work, we describe a novel, rapid, microwave-based synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles doped with copper (DIO/Cu). Traditional methods for synthesizing dextran-coated iron oxide particles require refluxing for 2 hours and result in approximately 50 nm particles. We demonstrate that microwave synthesis can produce 50 nm nanoparticles in 5 minutes of heating. We discuss the various parameters used in the microwave synthesis protocol to vary the size distribution of DIO/Cu, and demonstrate the successful incorporation of copper into these particles with the aim of future use for rapid 64Cu incorporation.

Wong, Ray M.

2011-12-01

291

Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

2007-01-01

292

Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

2013-06-01

293

Bioaccumulation of iron, zinc, cadmium and chromium by juvenile snail Limicolaria aurora J., fed edible mushroom Pleurotus spp from Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The effects of uptake of metals (iron, zinc, cadmium and chromium) by juvenile snail Limicolaria aurora fed edible mushroom Pleurotus spp from 3 contaminated farm sites and a laboratory grown species (control) respectively were investigated. The 120 snails were fed in plastic snaileries for 4 weeks in the laboratory. Control site was risk free. Metal uptake was low and bioaccumulation in L. aurora tissue was below FAO/WHO standard of 1 mg/kg for chromium and cadmium. Snails were considered safe for consumption. PMID:23229305

Ebenso, I E; Solomon, I P; Akoje, C C; Akpan, I P; Eko, P M; Akpan, E A; Omole, A J

2013-03-01

294

Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate  

PubMed Central

Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 ?mol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 ?mol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

2014-01-01

295

Haemolysis and Perturbations in the Systemic Iron Metabolism of Suckling, Copper-Deficient Mosaic Mutant Mice – An Animal Model of Menkes Disease  

PubMed Central

The biological interaction between copper and iron is best exemplified by the decreased activity of multicopper ferroxidases under conditions of copper deficiency that limits the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. However, little is known about how copper deficiency affects iron homeostasis through alteration of the activity of other copper-containing proteins, not directly connected with iron metabolism, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This antioxidant enzyme scavenges the superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species contributing to the toxicity of iron via the Fenton reaction. Here, we analyzed changes in the systemic iron metabolism using an animal model of Menkes disease: copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice with dysfunction of the ATP7A copper transporter. We found that the erythrocytes of these mutants are copper-deficient, display decreased SOD1 activity/expression and have cell membrane abnormalities. In consequence, the mosaic mice show evidence of haemolysis accompanied by haptoglobin-dependent elimination of haemoglobin (Hb) from the circulation, as well as the induction of haem oxygenase 1 (HO1) in the liver and kidney. Moreover, the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis is strongly affected in mosaic mice. These findings indicate that haemolysis is an additional pathogenic factor in a mouse model of Menkes diseases and provides evidence of a new indirect connection between copper deficiency and iron metabolism. PMID:25247420

Lenartowicz, Ma?gorzata; Starzy?ski, Rafa? R.; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Grzmil, Pawe?; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Ogórek, Mateusz; Pierzcha?a, Olga; Staro?, Robert; Gajowiak, Anna; Lipi?ski, Pawe?

2014-01-01

296

Effects of cadmium, copper, magnesium, and zinc on the decomposition of citrate by a Klebsiella sp.  

PubMed Central

The effects of Cd2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ on the decomposition of citric acid by a Klebsiella sp. were studied by monitoring the degradation of [14C]citrate. The carbon concentration used was 10 micrograms of C liter-1, and the media were designed to provide at least 95% of the citrate complexed to the metal studied. After 72 h of incubation, 80% of the uncomplexed citric acid and 76% of the magnesium citrate had been decomposed. A marked inhibition was observed when Cd2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+ was bound to the organic anion; only 23% of the cadmium citrate, 14% of the zinc citrate, and 5% of the cuprous citrate had been decomposed. The effects were not the result of toxicity, since experiments run with [14C]glucose (nonchelating compound) instead of citrate resulted in similar decomposition rates regardless of the presence of the metal. To examine whether the binding of a metal to citrate enhanced its uptake by the Klebsiella sp., we studied the relative uptake of 65Zn in citrate- and in glucose-containing media. No such effect could be observed, with the uptake of Zn2+ being higher in the glucose-containing media. The study shows that metals may render low-molecular-weight organic acids, such as citric acid, resistant to bacterial degradation. This stresses the importance of metals in influencing microbial decomposition of organic compounds, not only as a result of toxicity. PMID:2764560

Brynhildsen, L; Rosswall, T

1989-01-01

297

The Effects of Cadmium and Iron on Catalase Activities in Tubifex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 1 ?\\/M Cd(II), alone and in combination with several concentrations of Fe(II), were investigated in Tubifex tubifex (a fresh water worm) by the determination of catalase activities in vivo at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. At 6 h postexposure the catalase activities in all cadmium-exposed groups dropped below control values. At 12 and 24 h the

Tao Chen; Arthur Furst; Paul K. Chien

1994-01-01

298

Partitioning and distribution of dissolved copper, cadmium and organic matter in Mediterranean marine coastal areas: The case of a mucilage event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved copper and cadmium partitioning and their interaction with organic matter were investigated in shallow coastal areas of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). The percentage of DGT-labile copper as for total dissolved copper ranged from 13 to 34% during summer and from 23 to 36% during winter, whereas the corresponding percentage for DGT-labile cadmium was higher in summer (38-68%), in comparison to winter (29-44%). The CCu was found to be 100-260 nM during summer while in winter the range was 42-430 nM. The corresponding CCd reached 27 and 45 nM, respectively. The mean TEP value in summer was high (208 ?g/L xanthan equiv.), while in winter it reached 441 ?g/L xanthan equiv., which indicates significant phytoplankton activity in winter, a feature occasionally observed in the stratified study areas after the breaking down of the thermocline/pycnocline, followed by consequent nutrient enrichment of the surface layers by nutrients accumulated in the sea bottom. A significant fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exhibited surface active properties and was determined as surface active substances (SAS) in mg/L eq. of nonionic surfactant Triton-X-100. Carbohydrates were also determined and they represented up to 33% of the DOC.

Scoullos, Michael; Plavši?, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Sakellari, Aikaterini

2006-04-01

299

Distribution of trace elements like calcium, copper, iron and zinc in serum samples of colon cancer – A case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of a number of diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer has been associated with changes in the balance of certain trace elements. In the present study we aimed to investigate the levels of trace elements like calcium, copper, iron and zinc in colon cancer patients in comparison with healthy controls. Serum samples were collected from 256 colon

Nora A. Al Faris; Dilshad Ahmad

2011-01-01

300

Determination of Microamount of Aluminum, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Nickel in Pure Water by Extraction Photometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum, iron (III), copper, and molybdenum 8-quinolinol complexes, chromium (III) and manganese 8-hydroxyquinaldine complexes and nickel dimethylglyoxime complex can be quantitatively extracted into chloroform from large volumes of aqueous phases adjusted to an approriate pH for each metal. These metals can be determined by measuring the absorbance of the organic phases containing their complexes at an appropriate wavelength for each

Kenji MOTOJIMA; Nasumi ISHIWATARI

1965-01-01

301

Structure of self-interstitial atom clusters in iron and copper  

SciTech Connect

The dislocation core structure of self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in bcc iron and fcc copper is determined using the hybrid ab initio continuum method of Banerjee et al. [Philos. Mag. 87, 4131 (2007)]. To reduce reliance on empirical potentials and to facilitate predictions of the effects of local chemistry and stress on the structure of defects, we present here a hybrid extension of the Peierls-Nabarro continuum model, with lattice resistance to slip determined separately from ab initio calculations. A method is developed to reconstruct atomic arrangements and geometry of SIA clusters from the hybrid model. The results are shown to compare well with molecular-dynamics simulations. In iron, the core structure does not show dependence on the size of the self-interstitial cluster, and is nearly identical to that of a straight edge dislocation. However, the core structure of SIA clusters in Cu is shown to depend strongly on the cluster size. Small SIA clusters are found to have nondissociated compact dislocation cores, with a strong merging of Shockley partial dislocations and a relatively narrow stacking fault (SF) region. The compact nature of the SIA core in copper is attributed to the strong dependence of the self-energy on the cluster size. As the number of atoms in the SIA cluster increases, Shockley partial dislocations separate and the SF region widens, rendering the SIA core structure to that of an edge dislocation. The separation distance between the two partials widens as the cluster size increases, and tends to the value of a straight edge dislocation for cluster sizes above 400 atoms. The local stress is found to have a significant effect on the atomic arrangements within SIA clusters in copper and the width of the stacking faults. An applied external shear can delocalize the core of an SIA cluster in copper, with positive shear defined to be on the (111) plane along the [112] direction. For an SIA cluster containing 1600 atoms, a positive 1 GPa shear stress delocalizes the cluster and expands the SF to 30b, while a negative shear stress of 2 GPa contracts the core to less than 5b, where b is the Burgers vector magnitude.

Takahashi, Akiyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda-shi, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Ghoniem, Nasr M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2009-11-01

302

Effect of complexans (EDTA, NTA and DTPA) on the exposure to high concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead  

SciTech Connect

The effects of complexans on the toxicity of short exposures to high chemical concentrations of heavy meals were examined. The heavy metals used were cadmium, zinc, lead and copper. Mortality every 24-h and the content of metal in each of three areas of fish - viscera, gills and other parts - were detemined both in the groups kept in water containing metal alone and in those whose aqueous environments contained complexan in mole concentrations three time that of the heavy metal. The carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) 8.0 + 0.5 cm were kept in groups of 8 to 10. There were altogether 49 such groups: 12 kept in three relatively high concentrations of each of the metals, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, alone; 36 groups in environments each containing only one of the three complexans, the tetrasodium salt of ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the trisodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and the pentasodium salt of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were used. Results indicate that the addition of the complexans resulted in the decrease of the tissue concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. It is considered that the heavy metals were not present merely as metal ions but formed complexes with the complexans, since the complexans were added at three times mole of the metal and therefore complex formation occurred in preference to the binding of the metals with the tissue proteins of the fish. It is furthermore assumed that the heavy metals can pass through the fish as metal-complexes, and so are not retained.

Muramoto, S.

1980-12-01

303

Liver and kidney concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in cats  

PubMed Central

Background In order to provide new knowledge on the storage of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the feline organism, we measured the concentrations of these elements in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the impact of age, sex or the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). The element concentrations in the tissues of 47 cats (22 male; 25 female; aged between 2 months and 18 years) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Cu, Zn and Mn were the highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The Cd concentrations were lower in the renal medulla compared to the renal cortex and the liver, and Sr was higher in the renal medulla compared to the liver. The Se concentrations in the cortex of the kidneys were higher than in the medulla of the kidneys and in the liver. Higher Cd concentrations were measured in the renal cortex of female cats, while no further gender-related differences were observed. Except for Cr, Sb and Se, age-dependencies were detected for the storage of all elements. The occurrence of a CKD also affected the storage of the elements, with lower concentrations of Ba (renal medulla), Zn (renal cortex; renal medulla) and Mn (liver; renal medulla), but higher Cd concentrations (liver; renal cortex) in diseased cats. Conclusions In conclusion, the present results provide new information on the accumulation of specific elements in the feline liver and kidneys, demonstrating a dependency on age and an impaired kidney function, but not on the sex of the animals. PMID:25030305

2014-01-01

304

Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in the equine liver and kidneys.  

PubMed

The concentrations of specific elements in the equine liver and kidneys are of practical relevance since horses are not only food-producing animals, but also partially serve as an indicator for the environmental pollution, as the basic feed includes plants like grass, grain and fruits. In this study, the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) were measured in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla of 21 horses (8 male; 13 female; aged between 5 months-28 years), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Comparable Cu and Zn concentrations were detected in the liver and renal cortex, while approximately 50% lower concentrations were measured in the renal medulla. The lowest Sr, Cd and Se, but the highest Mn, Sb and Pb concentrations were measured in the liver. The Ba concentrations were comparable in the renal cortex and medulla, but lower in the liver of the horses. Gender-related differences were observed for Cd, Mn and Cr, with higher Cd concentrations in the liver, but lower Mn concentrations in the renal cortex and lower Cr concentrations in the renal medulla of female horses. Age-related differences were detected for most measured elements, however, the animal number per age-group was only low. In conclusion, the present study provides important reference data for the storage of Sr, Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Sb, Se and Pb in the liver and kidneys of horses, which are of practical relevance for an evaluation of the exposure of horses to these elements, either via feed or the environment. PMID:25061551

Paßlack, Nadine; Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

2014-01-01

305

Biosorption of lead(II), cadmium(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) by anaerobic granular biomass.  

PubMed

Biosorption is potentially an attractive technology for treatment of wastewater for retaining heavy metals from dilute solutions. This study investigated the feasibility of anaerobic granules as a novel type of biosorbent, for lead, copper, cadmium, and nickel removal from aqueous solutions. Anaerobic sludge supplied from a wastewater treatment plant in the province of Quebec was used. Anaerobic granules are microbial aggregates with a strong, compact and porous structure and excellent settling ability. After treatment of the biomass with Ca ions, the cation exchange capacity of the biomass was approximately 111 meq/100 g of biomass dry weight which is comparable to the metal binding capacities of commercial ion exchange resins. This work investigated the equilibrium, batch dynamics for the biosorption process. Binding capacity experiments using viable biomass revealed a higher value than those for nonviable biomass. Binding capacity experiments using non-viable biomass treated with Ca revealed a high value of metals uptake. The solution initial pH value affected metal sorption. Over the pH range of 4.0-5.5, pH-related effects were not significant. Meanwhile, at lower pH values the uptake capacity decreased. Time dependency experiments for the metal ions uptake showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached almost 30 min after metal addition. It was found that the q(max) for Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+ ions, were 255, 60, 55, and 26 mg/g respectively (1.23, 0.53, 0.87, and 0.44 mmol/g respectively). The data pertaining to the sorption dependence upon metal ion concentration could be fitted to a Langmiur isotherm model. Based on the results, the anaerobic granules treated with Ca appear to be a promising biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater due to its optimal uptake of heavy metals, its particulate shape, compact porous structure, excellent settling ability, and its high mechanical strength. PMID:15935654

Hawari, Alaa H; Mulligan, Catherine N

2006-03-01

306

Changes in tissue contents of zinc, copper and iron in rats and beagle dogs treated with polaprezinc.  

PubMed

Zinc, copper and iron levels of tissues in rats or beagle dogs were measured after a 13- or 52-week toxicity study of polaprezinc, which contains a zinc element. The zinc content in almost all rat tissues remarkably increased with a conspicuous decrease of copper and various changes of iron at doses of 600 mg/kg/day or more. Zinc and copper levels increased and decreased respectively, at 300 mg/kg/day. At a dose of 150 mg/kg/day, there was a slight increase of zinc in some tissues at 52-weeks, but no copper decrease. The results obtained from beagle dogs differed somewhat from that in rats. Dogs treated with polaprezinc at 50 mg/kg/day or more accumulated zinc in some tissues. A copper decrement was seen only in the liver and heart from the group given 300 mg/kg/day, whereas copper levels in the kidney of all treated groups were higher than that in the control, suggesting that canine polaprezinc toxicity is due to direct zinc toxic effects. PMID:8887886

Yamaguchi, I; Shibata, K; Takei, M; Matsuda, K

1996-08-01

307

Creation of ribbon substrates with a sharp cube texture of copper and copper-nickel alloys additionally alloyed with iron and chromium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of obtaining a perfect cube texture in thin ribbon made of binary copper-nickel alloys opens the possibility of using them as substrates in the technology of second-generation HTSC cables. The possibility of production of multicomponent alloys based on a binary Cu-30% Ni alloy additionally alloyed with elements (such as iron or chromium) that strengthen the fcc matrix has been shown. Optimum regimes of annealing have been determined, which make it possible to obtain a perfect biaxial texture with the content of cube grains {001}<100> exceeding 97% in Cu- M and Cu-30Ni- M ( M = Fe or Cr) alloys. In the tapes made of copper alloys with iron or chromium, the precipitation of disperse particles occurs in the process of cooling after recrystallization annealing, which improves the mechanical properties of the substrate. The estimation of the mechanical properties of the textured ribbons of binary and ternary copper alloys demonstrates a yield stress higher than that of the ribbons of pure copper by a factor of 2.5-4.5.

Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Rodionov, D. P.; Gervas'eva, I. V.; Suaridze, T. R.

2014-12-01

308

Photometric and spectrochemical determination of gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates.  

PubMed

A photometric and a spectrochemical method have been developed for determining gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates. In both, the sample is dissolved and gold is extracted from 1M hydrochloric add solution with a mixture of ethyl methyl ketone and chloroform (1:1). Gold was determined photometrically with N,N'-tetramethyl-o-tolidine. Conditions have been found for satisfactorily sensitive and reproducible spectral determination of gold. For this purpose the effect of various collectors and buffers on the evaporation curves of gold has been studied, as well as excitation conditions, form of the electrodes, optimum slit-width, and photographic variables. The sensitivity and precision of both methods have been evaluated. PMID:18960389

Jordanov, N; Mareva, S; Krasnobaeva, N; Nedyalkova, N

1968-09-01

309

Selective nucleation of iron phthalocyanine crystals on micro-structured copper iodide.  

PubMed

Morphological and structural control of organic semiconductors through structural templating is an efficient route by which to tune their physical properties. The preparation and characterisation of iron phthalocyanine (FePc)-copper iodide (CuI) bilayers at elevated substrate temperatures is presented. Thin CuI(111) layers are prepared which are composed of isolated islands rather than continuous films previously employed in device structures. Nucleation in the early stages of FePc growth is observed at the edges of islands rather than on the top (111) faces with the use of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Structural measurements show two distinct polymorphs of FePc, with CuI islands edges nucleating high aspect ratio FePc crystallites with modified intermolecular spacing. By combining high substrate temperature growth and micro-structuring of the templating CuI(111) layer structural and morphological control of the organic film is demonstrated. PMID:25340949

Rochford, Luke A; Ramadan, Alexandra J; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim S

2014-12-14

310

Predicting copper-, iron-, and zinc-binding proteins in pathogenic species of the Paracoccidioides genus  

PubMed Central

Approximately one-third of all proteins have been estimated to contain at least one metal cofactor, and these proteins are referred to as metalloproteins. These represent one of the most diverse classes of proteins, containing metal ions that bind to specific sites to perform catalytic, regulatory and structural functions. Bioinformatic tools have been developed to predict metalloproteins encoded by an organism based only on its genome sequence. Its function and the type of metal binder can also be predicted via a bioinformatics approach. Paracoccidioides complex includes termodimorphic pathogenic fungi that are found as saprobic mycelia in the environment and as yeast, the parasitic form, in host tissues. They are the etiologic agents of Paracoccidioidomycosis, a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Many metalloproteins are important for the virulence of several pathogenic microorganisms. Accordingly, the present work aimed to predict the copper, iron and zinc proteins encoded by the genomes of three phylogenetic species of Paracoccidioides (Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18). The metalloproteins were identified using bioinformatics approaches based on structure, annotation and domains. Cu-, Fe-, and Zn-binding proteins represent 7% of the total proteins encoded by Paracoccidioides spp. genomes. Zinc proteins were the most abundant metalloproteins, representing 5.7% of the fungus proteome, whereas copper and iron proteins represent 0.3 and 1.2%, respectively. Functional classification revealed that metalloproteins are related to many cellular processes. Furthermore, it was observed that many of these metalloproteins serve as virulence factors in the biology of the fungus. Thus, it is concluded that the Cu, Fe, and Zn metalloproteomes of the Paracoccidioides spp. are of the utmost importance for the biology and virulence of these particular human pathogens. PMID:25620964

Tristão, Gabriel B.; Assunção, Leandro do Prado; dos Santos, Luiz Paulo A.; Borges, Clayton L.; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Soares, Célia M. de Almeida; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Bailão, Alexandre M.

2015-01-01

311

Predicting copper-, iron-, and zinc-binding proteins in pathogenic species of the Paracoccidioides genus.  

PubMed

Approximately one-third of all proteins have been estimated to contain at least one metal cofactor, and these proteins are referred to as metalloproteins. These represent one of the most diverse classes of proteins, containing metal ions that bind to specific sites to perform catalytic, regulatory and structural functions. Bioinformatic tools have been developed to predict metalloproteins encoded by an organism based only on its genome sequence. Its function and the type of metal binder can also be predicted via a bioinformatics approach. Paracoccidioides complex includes termodimorphic pathogenic fungi that are found as saprobic mycelia in the environment and as yeast, the parasitic form, in host tissues. They are the etiologic agents of Paracoccidioidomycosis, a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Many metalloproteins are important for the virulence of several pathogenic microorganisms. Accordingly, the present work aimed to predict the copper, iron and zinc proteins encoded by the genomes of three phylogenetic species of Paracoccidioides (Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18). The metalloproteins were identified using bioinformatics approaches based on structure, annotation and domains. Cu-, Fe-, and Zn-binding proteins represent 7% of the total proteins encoded by Paracoccidioides spp. genomes. Zinc proteins were the most abundant metalloproteins, representing 5.7% of the fungus proteome, whereas copper and iron proteins represent 0.3 and 1.2%, respectively. Functional classification revealed that metalloproteins are related to many cellular processes. Furthermore, it was observed that many of these metalloproteins serve as virulence factors in the biology of the fungus. Thus, it is concluded that the Cu, Fe, and Zn metalloproteomes of the Paracoccidioides spp. are of the utmost importance for the biology and virulence of these particular human pathogens. PMID:25620964

Tristão, Gabriel B; Assunção, Leandro do Prado; Dos Santos, Luiz Paulo A; Borges, Clayton L; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Soares, Célia M de Almeida; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Bailão, Alexandre M

2014-01-01

312

Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.  

PubMed

Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems. PMID:25201323

Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

2015-02-01

313

COPPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

314

A comparison between the dislocation structure of ball-milled iron and copper as derived from the X-ray diffraction peak profile analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray diffraction line profile analyses were used for determination of the dislocation structure of ball-milled copper and iron samples. Plots of integral breadths of the diffraction line profiles in accordance with the classical Williamson-Hall equation clarified stronger strain anisotropy in iron than copper. By the analyses of the integral breadths in accordance with the modified Williamson-Hall equation, the relative fractions of edge and screw dislocations were determined. Prevailing dislocation structure of copper had edge character while those of iron showed mainly screw character.

Hosseini Nasab, F.; Hossein Nedjad, S.; Karimi, S.

2013-12-01

315

Organic Constituents and Complexation of Nickel(II), Iron(III), Cadmium(II), and plutonium(IV) in Soybean Xylem Exudates 1  

PubMed Central

The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv Williams), provided with fixed N, were characterized as to their organic constituents and in vivo and in vitro complexation of plutonium, iron, cadmium, and nickel. Ion exchange fractionation of whole exudates into their compound classes (organic acid, neutral, amino acid, and polyphosphate), followed by thinlayer electrophoresis, permitted evaluation of the types of ligands which stabilize each element. The polyvalent elements plutonium(IV) and iron(III) are found primarily as organic acid complexes, while the divalent elements nickel(II) and cadmium(II) are associated primarily with components of the amino acid/peptide fraction. For plutonium and cadmium, it was not possible to fully duplicate complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or individual class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics, and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes. The number and distribution of specific iron- and nickel-containing complexes varies with plant age and appears to be related to the relative concentration of organic acids and amino acids/peptides being produced and transported in the xylem as the plant matures. PMID:16665978

Cataldo, Dominic A.; McFadden, Kristin M.; Garland, Thomas R.; Wildung, Raymond E.

1988-01-01

316

Copper(I)- and copper(0)-promoted homocoupling and homocoupling-hydrodehalogenation reactions of dihalogenoclathrochelate precursors for C-C conjugated iron(II) bis-cage complexes.  

PubMed

Iron(II) dibromo- and diiodoclathrochelates undergo copper(I)-promoted reductive homocoupling in HMPA at 70-80 °C leading to C-C conjugated dibromo- and diiodo-bis-clathrochelates in high yields. Under the same conditions, their dichloroclathrochelate analog does not undergo the same homocoupling reaction, so the target dichloro-bis-cage product was obtained in high yield via dimerization of its heterodihalogenide iodochloromonomacrobicyclic precursor. The use of NMP as a solvent at 120-140 °C gave the mixture of bis-clathrochelates resulting from a tandem homocoupling-hydrodehalogenation reaction: the initial acetonitrile copper(I) solvato-complex at a high temperature underwent re-solvatation and disproportionation leading to Cu(II) ions and nano-copper, which promoted the hydrodehalogenation process even at room temperature. The most probable pathway of this reaction in situ includes hydrodehalogenation of the already formed dihalogeno-bis-clathrochelate via the formation of reduced anion radical intermediates. As a result, chemical transformations of the iron(II) dihalogenoclathrochelates in the presence of an acetonitrile copper(I) solvato-complex were found to depend both on the nature of halogen atoms in their ribbed chelate fragments and on reaction conditions (i.e. solvent and temperature). The C-C conjugated iron(II) dihalogeno-bis-clathrochelates easily undergo nucleophilic substitution with various N,S-nucleophiles giving ribbed-functionalized bis-cage species. These iron(II) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, IR, UV-Vis, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and by X-ray diffraction; their electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The isomeric shift values in (57)Fe Mössbauer spectra of such cage compounds allowed identifying them as low-spin iron(II) complexes, while those of the quadrupole splitting are the evidence for a significant TP distortion of their FeN6-coordination polyhedra. As follows from CV data, the C-C conjugated iron(II) bis-clathrochelates undergo stepwise electrochemical reduction and oxidation giving mixed-valence Fe(II)Fe(I) and Fe(II)Fe(III) bis-cage intermediates. PMID:25056255

Varzatskii, Oleg A; Shul'ga, Sergey V; Belov, Alexander S; Novikov, Valentin V; Dolganov, Alexander V; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Voloshin, Yan Z

2014-12-28

317

Cadmium removal from wastewater by sponge iron sphere prepared by charcoal direct reduction.  

PubMed

Sponge iron sphere (SIS), made of concentrated iron powder and possessed high activity and intension, was prepared through the process of palletizing, roasting and direct reduction by charcoal. The sponge iron sphere could remove most of Cd(2+) from wastewater. The results showed the Cd(2+) removal followed the first order reaction. Initial pH value played an important role in Cd(2+) removal. With original initial pH, Cd(2+) removal decreased to the minimum and then increased slightly with the rising of original concentration. The removal rate constant was -0.1263 and -0.0711 h(-1), respectively, under the Cd(2+) concentration of 50 and 200 mg/L. When the initial pH was adjusted to 3.0, the removal rate constant could increase to -9.896 and -4.351 h(-1), respectively. The removal percentage almost reached to 100% when Cd(2+) concentration was below 100 mg/L. While Cd(2+) concentration was above 100 mg/L, Cd(2+) removal percentage decreased slightly. In dynamic experiments, the column filled with sponge iron sphere exhibited favorable permeability. There was no sphere pulverization and conglutination between spheres. In contrast to the static state experiments, the Cd(2+) removal percentage in dynamic state experiment was lower, and the removal Cd(2+) quantity was 1.749 mg/g. PMID:25084434

Li, Junguo; Li, Jun; Li, Yungang

2009-01-01

318

Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog- dependent  

PubMed Central

Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC.

2013-01-01

319

Perturbations in ROS-related processes of the fish Gambusia holbrooki after acute and chronic exposures to the metals copper and cadmium.  

PubMed

Metallic contamination is a widespread phenomena, particularly in areas impacted by human activities, and has become a relevant environmental concern. However, the toxicity of metals on fish requires full characterization in terms of short- and long-term effects. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute and chronic oxidative stress response in liver and gills of Gambusia holbrooki exposed to copper and cadmium. To assess the effects of these two metals, we adopted a strategy of analyzing the pollution effects caused by salts of the two metallic elements, and we quantified the oxidative stress biomarkers catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferases, and lipid peroxidation after exposure (4 and 28 days) to ecologically relevant concentrations, thus simulating actual conditions of exposure in the wild. Our results showed that copper elicited strong effects in all tested biomarkers for both acute and chronic challenges. Cadmium caused a similar response and was shown to cause significant changes particularly in catalase and glutathione-S-transferases activities. These findings evidence that ecologically relevant concentrations of common anthropogenic contaminants are causative agents of serious imbalances (namely oxidative stress) that are likely to trigger life-threatening events. PMID:25263413

Nunes, Bruno; Caldeira, Carina; Pereira, Joana Luísa; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

2015-03-01

320

Effects of copper, lead, and cadmium on the sorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol onto and desorption from wheat ash and two commercial humic acids.  

PubMed

The effects of copper (Cu2+), lead (Pb2+), and cadmium (Cd2+) on the sorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) to and desorption from wheat ash and two commercial humic acids were studied. Copper and Pb2+ diminished the sorption of TCP onto all adsorbents, and made desorption of TCP less hysteretic from ash and German humic acids (GeHA), but more hysteretic from Tianjin humic acids (TJHA). Cadmium had little effect on TCP sorption and desorption. Fourier-transform infra red (FTIR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in conjunction with fluorescence quenching studies provided insights into the mechanisms of TCP sorption and desorption as affected by Cu2+ and Pb2+, indicating that complexation of Cu2+ and Pb2+ was likely via carboxylic, hydroxylic and phenolic groups of ash, TJHA and GeHA, and that theses same functional groups also reacted with TCP during sorption. In contrast, Cd, a "soft acid", had no effect on the adsorption of TCP. Hydration shells of dense water around adsorbed Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions may also compete with TCP for available surface area. Fluorescence quenching of pyrene verified that for TJHA, Cu2+ and Pb2+ promoted the formation of supramolecular associations with interior hydrophobic regions separated from aqueous surroundings by exterior hydrophilic layers. PMID:19731669

Wang, Yu-Sheng; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Feng, Mu-Hua; Chen, Guang-Cai; Pei, Zhi-Guo; Wen, Bei; Liu, Tao; Xie, Ya-Ning; Owens, Gary

2009-08-01

321

Migration of iron, lead, cadmium and tin from tinplate-coated cans into chickpeas.  

PubMed

Migration studies of trace metals were carried out on coated chickpea cans marketed in Lebanon. Four elements--(Fe), tin (Sn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)--were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion. Over 3 months, three different storage temperatures (5°C, room temperature and 40°C) were tested. In all cases, the migration of Fe reached a plateau after around 50 days of storage, while the migration of Pb was slow till 50 days, then it increased rapidly. Cd and Sn levels did not increase. Moreover, no effect of temperature was observed in the case of Fe, whereas Pb levels showed slower migration in cans stored at 5°C. Comparing cans from different chickpea brands (Lebanese and foreign) showed that the characteristics of the container have an effect on metal release. PMID:24059695

Kassouf, A; Chebib, H; Lebbos, N; Ouaini, R

2013-01-01

322

Effects of rutin supplementation on antioxidant status and iron, copper, and zinc contents in mouse liver and brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of rutin on total antioxidant status as well as on trace elements such as iron, copper, and zinc in mouse liver\\u000a and brain were studied. Mice were administrated with 0.75 g\\/kg or 2.25 g\\/kg P. O. of rutin for 30 d consecutively. Following\\u000a the treatment, the activity of total antioxidant status, catalase, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, zinc,\\u000a copper,

Zhonghong Gao; Huibi Xu; Kaixun Huang

2002-01-01

323

Expression profiling reveals functionally redundant multiple-copy genes related to zinc, iron and cadmium responses in Brassica rapa.  

PubMed

Genes underlying environmental adaptability tend to be over-retained in polyploid plant species. Zinc deficiency (ZnD) and iron deficiency (FeD), excess Zn (ZnE) and cadmium exposure (CdE) are major environmental problems for crop cultivation, but little is known about the differential expression of duplicated genes upon these stress conditions. Applying Tag-Seq technology to leaves of Brassica rapa grown under FeD, ZnD, ZnE or CdE conditions, with normal conditions as a control, we examined global gene expression changes and compared the expression patterns of multiple paralogs. We identified 812, 543, 331 and 447 differentially expressed genes under FeD, ZnD, ZnE and CdE conditions, respectively, in B. rapa leaves. Genes involved in regulatory networks centered on the transcription factors bHLH038 or bHLH100 were differentially expressed under (ZnE-induced) FeD. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with Zn, Fe and Cd responses tended to be over-retained in the B. rapa genome. Most of these multiple-copy genes showed the same direction of expression change under stress conditions. We conclude that the duplicated genes involved in trace element responses in B. rapa are functionally redundant, making the regulatory network more complex in B. rapa than in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24738937

Li, Jimeng; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Aarts, Mark G M; Wu, Jian

2014-07-01

324

Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene.  

PubMed

Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd(2+) uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. PMID:25446093

Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting

2014-12-12

325

Evaluating the Metal Source(s) of Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) Deposits (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxide - copper - gold deposits (IOCG) are characterized by high modal abundances of magnetite and/or hematite, ubiquitous and variable grades of Cu and Au, and, often, economic grades of other metals including REE, U, Ag, Mo and Zn. The largest deposits contain >1 billion tonnes of iron. There seems to be a general consensus that metals in IOCG deposits were transported by, and precipitated from, aqueous fluids. However, there is a lack of agreement for the source of the metal-bearing aqueous fluid(s) as well as the source of iron and other metals (i.e., magmatic or hydrothermal, or some combination of the two). Published fluid inclusion data indicate that metal-bearing aqueous fluids were trapped over a wide range of temperatures, with homogenization temperatures between 500 and 600 °C for inclusions associated with the precipitation of iron-oxide minerals, and between 300 and 500 °C for inclusions associated with main-stage sulfides (e.g., chalcopyrite, pyrite). The high trapping temperatures for fluid inclusions and the observation that some IOCG deposits appear to be related temporally and spatially to igneous intrusions, characteristics similar to those observed for porphyry-type ore deposits, have led some authors to propose that magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluids are responsible for IOCG formation. Others, however, favor a genetic model that invokes large-scale circulation of basinal brines, which are heated by magmatic intrusions and subsequently leach Fe and other metals from the crust. Evidence cited for this model includes the pervasive alkali metasomatism associated with some IOCG deposits, and the depletion of Fe, Cu and Au in some deposit wall rocks. Stable isotope evidence thus far is inconclusive. Published d34S values for IOCG deposits range from -30 to +30, but generally cluster around zero per mil. d18O ranges from ~0 to +10 per mil. Chlorine isotope values for fluids in inclusions liberated from quartz, calcite and apatite are consistent with mantle derived Cl, mixed with basinal brines. All of these data provide important constraints on various aspects of IOCG deposits. None of these data however provide direct evidence for the source of the metals in IOCG deposits. In this contribution, we will evaluate the source of Fe in selected IOCG deposits, as well as the plausibility for other metals to be magmatically sourced. Our approach combines: 1) solubility data for iron in aqueous fluid at temperatures that span the hydrothermal to magmatic regime; 2) new experimental data that constrain the fractionation of iron isotopes among silicate melt, aqueous fluid, magnetite, and sulfide, and at sub-solidus temperatures between aqueous fluid and magnetite; and 3) new iron isotope data for several IOCG deposits of the Coastal Cordillera in northern Chile. The combination of these data allows us to discriminate between the proposed basinal brine and magmatic-hydrothermal models.

Simon, A. C.; Bilenker, L.; Lundstrom, C.; Reich, M.; Barra, F.; Hanchar, J. M.; Westhues, A.

2013-12-01

326

The distribution of copper, manganese, zinc, and iron in antarctic waters and the relation of the concentrations of these metals to biological primary productivity  

E-print Network

THE DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER, MANGANESE, ZINC, AND IRON IN ANTARCTIC WATERS AND THE RELATION OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF THESE METALS TO BIOLOGICAL PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY A Thesis By MARTIN EDWARD ARHELGER Submitted to the Graduate College... of the Texas A& 1 University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August I967 Major Subj ect: CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY THE DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER, MANGANESE, ZINC, AND IRON IN ANTARCTIC WATERS AND THE RELATION...

Arhelger, Martin Edward

1967-01-01

327

Effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on growth, reproduction and survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny): Assessing the environmental impact of point-source metal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida: Oligochaeta) was exposed to a geometric series of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in artificial soil using the OECD recommended protocol. Mortality, growth and cocoon production were measured over 56 days to deter- mine LCso and EC~ values. No observed effect concen- trations ( NOECs) were also estimated. Furthermore, the percentage of viable

D. J. Spurgeon; S. P. Hopkin; D. T. Jones

1994-01-01

328

Diffusion bonding of iron aluminide Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} using a copper interlayer  

SciTech Connect

An Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} alloy was diffusion-bonded using a copper interlayer under vacuum at 1075 deg. C for 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h durations at 3.2 MPa applied pressure. The bond microstructure was found to be composed of the copper rich interlayer, copper rich precipitates and the base metal. SEM-EDS studies indicated major diffusion of aluminium and iron atoms from Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} into the copper interlayer and copper atoms from the copper interlayer into the Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} matrix. SEM observations of fractured surfaces of the diffusion-bonded samples showed some plastic deformation and signs of good bonding. Cu{sub 3}Al and B{sub 2}-FeAl-based phases were identified by SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction studies at the bond and on the fracture surfaces of all samples investigated. Good bonding was achieved with a maximum shear strength of 298 MPa which is 65% of the parent material shear strength for a sample diffusion-bonded for 6 h.

Torun, O. [Afyonkarahisar Kocatepe University, Bolvadin Vocational High School, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Celikyuerek, I. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Institute of Metallurgy, Eskisehir (Turkey); Guerler, R. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Institute of Metallurgy, Eskisehir (Turkey)], E-mail: rgurler@ogu.edu.tr

2008-07-15

329

Novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids from porcine and human isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants.  

PubMed

This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. The plasmids, designated pUR1902, pUR2940, and pUR2941, were obtained from porcine and human methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal lineage ST398. In addition to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance gene erm(T), all three plasmids also carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Furthermore, plasmid pUR2940 harbors the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the MLSB resistance gene erm(C), while plasmids pUR1902 and pUR2941 possess the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD. Sequence analysis of approximately 18.1 kb of the erm(T)-flanking region from pUR1902, 20.0 kb from pUR2940, and 20.8 kb from pUR2941 revealed the presence of several copies of the recently described insertion sequence ISSau10, which is probably involved in the evolution of the respective plasmids. All plasmids carried a functional cadmium resistance operon with the genes cadD and cadX, in addition to the multicopper oxidase gene mco and the ATPase copper transport gene copA, which are involved in copper resistance. The comparative analysis of S. aureus RN4220 and the three S. aureus RN4220 transformants carrying plasmid pUR1902, pUR2940, or pUR2941 revealed an 8-fold increase in CdSO4 and a 2-fold increase in CuSO4 MICs. The emergence of multidrug resistance plasmids that also carry heavy metal resistance genes is alarming and requires further surveillance. The colocalization of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes that confer resistance to heavy metals may facilitate their persistence, coselection, and dissemination. PMID:23629701

Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen; Schwarz, Stefan

2013-07-01

330

Limbic system pathologies associated with deficiencies and excesses of the trace elements iron, zinc, copper, and selenium.  

PubMed

Deficiencies of nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins, lipids, and trace elements during gestation and early infanthood have strong deleterious effects on the development of the limbic system; these effects may be irreversible, even when adequate supplementation is provided at later developmental stages. Recent advances in the neurochemistry of biometals are increasingly establishing the roles of the trace elements iron, copper, zinc, and selenium in a variety of cell functions and are providing insight into the repercussions of deficiencies and excesses of these elements on the development of the central nervous system, especially the limbic system. The limbic system comprises diverse areas with high metabolic demands and differential storage of iron, copper, zinc, and selenium. This review summarizes available evidence suggesting the involvement of these trace elements in pathological disorders of the limbic system. PMID:23206282

Torres-Vega, Adriana; Pliego-Rivero, Bernardo F; Otero-Ojeda, Gloria A; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo M; Vieyra-Reyes, Patricia

2012-12-01

331

Tribological behaviour and statistical experimental design of sintered iron-copper based composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sintered iron-copper based composites for automotive brake pads have a complex composite composition and should have good physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this paper, we obtained frictional composites by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) technique and we have characterized them by microstructural and tribological point of view. The morphology of raw powders was determined by SEM and the surfaces of obtained sintered friction materials were analyzed by ESEM, EDS elemental and compo-images analyses. One lot of samples were tested on a "pin-on-disc" type wear machine under dry sliding conditions, at applied load between 3.5 and 11.5 × 10-1 MPa and 12.5 and 16.9 m/s relative speed in braking point at constant temperature. The other lot of samples were tested on an inertial test stand according to a methodology simulating the real conditions of dry friction, at a contact pressure of 2.5-3 MPa, at 300-1200 rpm. The most important characteristics required for sintered friction materials are high and stable friction coefficient during breaking and also, for high durability in service, must have: low wear, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability at elevated temperature. Because of the tribological characteristics importance (wear rate and friction coefficient) of sintered iron-copper based composites, we predicted the tribological behaviour through statistical analysis. For the first lot of samples, the response variables Yi (represented by the wear rate and friction coefficient) have been correlated with x1 and x2 (the code value of applied load and relative speed in braking points, respectively) using a linear factorial design approach. We obtained brake friction materials with improved wear resistance characteristics and high and stable friction coefficients. It has been shown, through experimental data and obtained linear regression equations, that the sintered composites wear rate increases with increasing applied load and relative speed, but in the same conditions, the frictional coefficients slowly decrease.

Popescu, Ileana Nicoleta; Ghi??, Constantin; Bratu, Vasile; Palacios Navarro, Guillermo

2013-11-01

332

Investigations into the uptake of copper, iron and selenium by a highly sulphated bacterial exopolysaccharide isolated from microbial mats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterium isolated from microbial mats located on a polynesian atoll produced a high molecular weight (3,000 kDa) and highly\\u000a sulphated exopolysaccharide. Previous studies showed that the chemical structure of this EPS consisted of neutral sugars,\\u000a uronic acids, and high proportions of acetate and sulphate groups. The copper- and iron-binding ability of the purified pre-treated\\u000a native EPS was investigated. Results

Xavier Moppert; Tinaïg Le Costaouec; Gérard Raguenes; Anthony Courtois; Christelle Simon-Colin; Philippe Crassous; Bernard Costa; Jean Guezennec

2009-01-01

333

Copper mobility in the Eastern Creek Volcanics, Mount Isa, Australia: evidence from laser ablation ICP-MS of iron-titanium oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Palaeoproterozoic Eastern Creek Volcanics are a series of copper-rich tholeiitic basalts which occur adjacent to the giant sediment-hosted Mount Isa copper deposit in Queensland, Australia. The volcanic rocks are often cited as the source of metals for the deposit. New laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of iron–titanium oxides from the basalts provide evidence for the local mobilisation of copper during

Melissa J. Gregory

2006-01-01

334

The effect of occupational lead exposure on blood levels of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and related proteins.  

PubMed

The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc-lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed. PMID:22923205

Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Prokopowicz, Adam; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Pawlas, Natalia; Kasperczyk, S?awomir

2012-12-01

335

Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures  

PubMed Central

The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47?µg Cd/L to 2.62?µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46?µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02?µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51?µg Cu/L to 21.9?µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209?µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2259–2272. © 2014. The Authors. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID:25043712

Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

2014-01-01

336

Cadmium removal from wastewater by sponge iron sphere prepared by hydrogen reduction.  

PubMed

A new type of sponge iron sphere (NSIS) with 1-5 mm diameter, made of concentrated iron powder and possessed high activity and intension, was prepared by mini-pellet sintering integrated with H2 direct reduction. Static state experiment has been carried on to investigate the Cd(2+) removal efficiency from wastewater by the NSIS and to explore the Cd(2+) removal reaction kinetics. It was suggested that initial pH value and Cd(2+) original concentration had significant influence on Cd(2+) removal percentage. Cd(2+) removal percentage decreased significantly with the increasing of Cd(2+)original concentration whether the original pH value be adjusted to 3.0 or without adjustment. The results showed that the Cd(2+) removal process followed the first order reaction because the reaction order was from 0.803 to 0.996. The apparent reaction rate constant between Cd(2+) and NSIS was from 0.0025 to 0.1000 (mg·L(-1))(1-n)·min(-1). Compared with SIS reduced by charcoal reduction, NSIS deoxided by hydrogen possessed higher activity, and could remove the same quantity of Cd(2+) within a shorter period of time. PMID:25084570

Li, Junguo; Wei, Linghong; Li, Yungang; Bi, Na; Song, Fangfang

2011-06-01

337

Assessing Plasma Levels of Selenium, Copper, Iron and Zinc in Patients of Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression. PMID:24340079

Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

2013-01-01

338

Bleomycin-detectable iron and phenanthroline-detectable copper in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses.  

PubMed

The neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of recessively inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases, the pathogenesis of which is unknown. In the present study, we have measured iron and cooper in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) using methods that detect these metals in a "loosely bound" form, complexable to the chelators bleomycin and 1,10-phenanthroline. We studied 25 children with NCL, 21 children with encephalopathy of some other type, and 5 control children without neurological complications. The CSF concentrations of loosely bound iron at neutral pH values and of loosely bound copper did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis of the patients, nor did they parallel degenerative symptoms in NCL, such as mental impairment, visual loss, motor handicap, and epilepsy. However, the concentrations of loosely bound iron and copper increased significantly with the age of the patient; this is a novel finding and may represent increasing tissue destruction with age. Our present findings do not support a major role for primary iron toxicity in the development of neuronal degeneration. To investigate any secondary pathological role for malplaced transition metals, further research is required. PMID:2464355

Heiskala, H; Gutteridge, J M; Westermarck, T; Alanen, T; Santavuori, P

1988-01-01

339

Ion paired chromatography of iron (II,III), nickel (II) and copper (II) as their 4,7Diphenyl1,10-phenanthroline chelates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed phase ion-paired chromatographic method that can be used to determine trace amounts of iron (II,III), nickel (II) and copper (II) was developed and applied to the determination of iron (II) and iron (III) levels in natural water. The separation of these metal ions as their 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline) chelates on an Inertsil ODS column was investigated by using acetonitrile-water

N Mudasir; Naoki Yoshioka; Hidenari Inoue

1997-01-01

340

Copper  

MedlinePLUS

... at whether a copper-lowering drug, tetrathiomolybdate (or TM), could help patients with advanced kidney cancer. Some ... more people with advanced cancer. More study of TM and a related drug (ATN-224) is taking ...

341

DCTA Titration of iron(III) with p-aminosalicylic acid and sodium azide as indicators.  

PubMed

Iron(III) has been determined by DCTA titration with p-aminosalicylic acid and sodium azide as indicator at pH 1.4-3.5. The titrations are rapid, simple, accurate and reversible and as little as 0.15 mg of iron(III) can be determined in the presence of up to 100 times as much of certain ions. Cadmium, zinc, lead, copper(II), aluminium, thorium, oxalate, phosphate, fluoride and sulphide interfere. The method is utilized for determination of iron(III) in presence of copper(II) or lead and in limestone, cement and haemetite. PMID:18962489

Parkash, R; Bala, R; Lal Singhal, R

1979-07-01

342

Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

1987-01-01

343

Trophic relationships and transference of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in a subtropical coastal lagoon food web from SE Gulf of California.  

PubMed

Trophic relationships and heavy metal transference in a coastal subtropical lagoon marine food web were investigated through the use of stable isotopes in food sources and biota. A selective extraction scheme was applied to the surface sediments as an indirect way to evaluate the potential of toxicity of metals. Results showed that cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations were within sediment quality guidelines criteria. Concentrations of these metals in organisms varied widely among functional groups and within the same and closely related taxa. delta(13)C values varied significantly among organisms from different functional groups, while the delta(15)N values varied according with their feeding habits. Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were not positively transferred (biomagnification factor <1) through entire food web. However, a partial positive transference was observed for Cu and Zn involving three trophic levels (from the phytoplankton to crab as secondary consumer). PMID:19818990

Jara-Marini, M E; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Páez-Osuna, F

2009-11-01

344

Ultrasound-assisted extraction in the determination of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and silver in contaminated soil samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

An extraction method was developed for the determination of toxic elements in contaminated soil samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The determination of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and silver in ultrasound-assisted extracts of SRM 2710 and SRM 2711 by ICP-AES was carried out with high accuracy and precision (RSD<3.7%). The certified concentrations of the SRMs were obtained for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and silver by using an ultrasound-assisted extraction method with a digestion solution of (1+1)-diluted aqua regia. The determination of copper in SRMs by the ultrasound-assisted extraction method and analysis by ICP-AES failed to obtain the certified concentrations at the 95% level of confidence using (+/-2 s) as confidence limits of the mean. However, the same results were observed with the use of the microwave digestion method and reflux, which is the ISO 11466 standard method. The analysis of the SRMs showed that the ultrasound-assisted extraction method is highly comparable with the other methods used for such purposes. The major advantages of the ultrasound-assisted extraction method compared to the microwave and reflux methods are the high treatment rate (50 samples simultaneously in nine minutes) and low reagent usage, the main benefit of which are the low chloride and nitrate concentrations in the extracts. PMID:12012178

Väisänen, Ari; Suontamo, Reijo; Silvonen, Janne; Rintala, Jukka

2002-05-01

345

Expression of a Vacuole-Localized BURP-Domain Protein from Soybean (SALI3-2) Enhances Tolerance to Cadmium and Copper Stresses  

PubMed Central

The plant-specific BURP family proteins play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses, but the function mechanism of these proteins is still poorly understood. Proteins in this family are characterized by a highly conserved BURP domain with four conserved Cys-His repeats and two other Cys, indicating that these proteins potentially interacts with metal ions. In this paper, an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) assay showed that the soybean BURP protein SALI3-2 could bind soft transition metal ions (Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+) but not hard metal ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the SALI3-2-GFP fusion protein was localized to the vacuoles. Physiological indexes assay showed that Sali3-2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were more tolerant to Cu2+ or Cd2+ stresses than the wild type. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis illustrated that, compared to the wild type seedlings the Sali3-2-transgenic seedlings accumulated more cadmium or copper in the roots but less in the upper ground tissues when the seedlings were exposed to excessive CuCl2 or CdCl2 stress. Therefore, our findings suggest that the SALI3-2 protein may confer cadmium (Cd2+) and copper (Cu2+) tolerance to plants by helping plants to sequester Cd2+ or Cu2+ in the root and reduce the amount of heavy metals transported to the shoots. PMID:24901737

Tang, Yulin; Cao, Yan; Qiu, Jianbin; Gao, Zhan; Ou, Zhonghua; Wang, Yajing; Zheng, Yizhi

2014-01-01

346

Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome. PMID:25640397

Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

2015-01-01

347

Seasonal and locational effects on serum, milk, liver and kidney chromium, manganese, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations of dairy cows.  

PubMed

Chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations were quantified in serum (n = 112), milk (n = 112), liver (n = 70), and kidney samples (n = 67) of dairy cows from an iron-steel processing region (Payas-Iskenderun) and from an area free of industrial pollution (Antakya) in Hatay, located in Southern Turkey. Samples were collected in the summer and winter and element determinations were carried out by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The mean concentrations of selected elements in serum were found to be similar in both regions. Milk samples collected from the nonindustrial region in the summer had higher Cr, Mn, and Zn concentrations than the polluted region. The liver Cu and kidney Mn levels of samples taken from the industrial region in winter were higher than samples of the unpolluted region. Copper and Fe concentrations in milk, Cr, Mn, Zn, and Fe levels in the liver, and Cr, Cu, Zn, and Fe levels in kidney samples were not found to be different among the regions in both seasons. Copper concentrations were below the critical level in the 25% of serum and 32% of liver samples analyzed in this study. Fifteen percent of serum samples and most of the liver samples had lower amounts of Zn than other reported studies. Although slight differences were observed between the industrial and nonindustrial regions, industrial activities and seasonal changes had no significant effect on selected element concentrations on cows and their milk. PMID:15051900

Erdogan, Suat; Celik, Sefa; Erdogan, Zeynep

2004-04-01

348

Influence of iron and copper oxides on polychlorinated diphenyl ether formation in heterogeneous reactions.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated diphenyl ether (PCDE) has attracted great attention recently as an important type of environmental pollutant. The influence of iron and copper oxides on formation of PCDEs was investigated using laboratory-scale flow reactors under air and under nitrogen at 350 °C, a temperature corresponding to the post-combustion zone of a municipal solid waste incinerator. The results show that the 2,2',3,4,4',5,5',6-otachlorodiphenyl ether (OCDE) formed from the condensation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (Cl4Bz) is the predominant congener formed on the SiO2/Fe2O3 surface with and without oxygen. This indicated that HCl elimination between PCP and 1,2,4,5-Cl4Bz molecules formed 2,2',3,4,4',5,5',6-OCDE in the presence of Fe2O3. On the other hand, decachlorodiphenyl ether, nonachlorodiphenyl ether, and OCDE were the dominant products on the SiO2/CuO surface without oxygen, although the 2,2',3,4,4',5,5',6-OCDE was the dominant product on the SiO2/CuO surface with oxygen. Therefore, the presence of Fe2O3 and CuO influences the formation and homologue distribution of PCDEs, which shifted towards the lower chlorinated species. Fe2O3 can promote both the condensation and dechlorination reaction without oxygen. On the contrary, with oxygen, Fe2O3 suppresses the condensation of chlorobenzene and chlorophenol to form PCDEs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). CuO can increase the formation of lower chlorinated PCDEs and PCDDs without oxygen. In conclusion, the different fly ash components have a major influence on PCDE emissions. PMID:23440438

Liu, Wenxia; Shen, Lianfeng; Zhang, Fawen; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Xitian

2013-08-01

349

Effect of the metals iron, copper and silver on fluorobenzene biodegradation by Labrys portucalensis.  

PubMed

Organic and metallic pollutants are ubiquitous in the environment. Many metals are reported to be toxic to microorganisms and to inhibit biodegradation. The effect of the metals iron, copper and silver on the metabolism of Labrys portucalensis F11 and on fluorobenzene (FB) biodegradation was examined. The results indicate that the addition of 1 mM of Fe(2+) to the culture medium has a positive effect on bacterial growth and has no impact in the biodegradation of 1 and 2 mM of FB. The presence of 1 mM of Cu(2+) was found to strongly inhibit the growth of F11 cultures and to reduce the biodegradation of 1 and 2 mM of FB to ca. 50 %, with 80 % of stoichiometrically expected fluoride released. In the experiments with resting cells, the FB degraded (from 2 mM supplied) was reduced ca. 20 % whereas the fluoride released was reduced to 45 % of that stoichiometrically expected. Ag(+) was the most potent inhibitor of FB degradation. In experiments with growing cells, the addition of 1 mM of Ag(+) to the culture medium containing 1 and 2 mM of FB resulted in no fluoride release, whereas FB degradation was only one third of that observed in control cultures. In the experiments with resting cells, the addition of Ag(+) resulted in 25 % reduction in substrate degradation and fluoride release was only 20 % of that stoichiometrically expected. The accumulation of catechol and 4-fluorocatechol in cultures supplemented with Cu(2+) or Ag(+) suggest inhibition of the key enzyme of FB metabolism-catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. PMID:22842857

Moreira, Irina S; Amorim, Catarina L; Carvalho, Maria F; Ferreira, António C; Afonso, Carlos M; Castro, Paula M L

2013-04-01

350

Copper in diet  

MedlinePLUS

Diet - copper ... Copper works with iron to help the body form red blood cells. It also helps keep the ... organ meats (kidneys, liver) are good sources of copper. Dark leafy greens, dried fruits such as prunes, ...

351

The membrane-associated form of methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a copper/iron protein.  

PubMed Central

A protocol has been developed which permits the purification of a membrane-associated methane-oxidizing complex from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). This complex has approximately 5 fold higher specific activity than any purified particulate methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO) previously reported from M. capsulatus (Bath). This efficiently functioning methane-oxidizing complex consists of the pMMO hydroxylase (pMMOH) and an unidentified component we have assigned as a potential pMMO reductase (pMMOR). The complex was isolated by solubilizing intracytoplasmic membrane preparations containing the high yields of active membrane-bound pMMO (pMMO(m)), using the non-ionic detergent dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside, to yield solubilized enzyme (pMMO(s)). Further purification gave rise to an active complex (pMMO(c)) that could be resolved (at low levels) by ion-exchange chromatography into two components, the pMMOH (47, 27 and 24 kDa subunits) and the pMMOR (63 and 8 kDa subunits). The purified complex contains two copper atoms and one non-haem iron atom/mol of enzyme. EPR spectra of preparations grown with (63)Cu indicated that the copper ion interacted with three or four nitrogenic ligands. These EPR data, in conjunction with other experimental results, including the oxidation by ferricyanide, EDTA treatment to remove copper and re-addition of copper to the depleted protein, verified the essential role of copper in enzyme catalysis and indicated the implausibility of copper existing as a trinuclear cluster. The EPR measurements also demonstrated the presence of a tightly bound mononuclear Fe(3+) ion in an octahedral environment that may well be exchange-coupled to another paramagnetic species. PMID:12379148

Basu, Piku; Katterle, Bettina; Andersson, K Kristoffer; Dalton, Howard

2003-01-01

352

Biochemical lesions in copper-deficient rats caused by secondary iron deficiency. Derangement of protein synthesis and impairment of energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

Severe copper deficiency was induced in rats by rearing nursing dams and their offsprings on a semisynthetic diet comprising all the requisite nutrients and trace metals except copper. The copper-deprived rats exhibited growth retardation, severe anaemia, loss of caeruloplasmin, decrease of cytochrome oxidase, accumulation of salt-soluble collagen and a drastic decrease in iron in plasma and liver. Apart from these characteristic signs of deficiency, a marked inhibition of protein synthesis was found to occur both in vivo and in cell-free liver preparations. The curtailed ability to carry out endogenously coded amino acid incorporation into protein contrasted with the unimpaired poly(U)-acid-directed phenylalanine polymerization. This inhibition pattern, as well as the attendant disaggregation of the liver polyribosomes, suggested that the primary biosynthetic lesion was located at the stage of peptide-chain initiation. Concurrently with this alteration there was a pronounced depletion of the hepatic ATP content, associated with a parallel depression of mitochondrial respiration and an enhancement of ATPase activity. Supplementation of the copper-deficient diet with a 2–4-fold excess of iron (relative to the standard diet) prevented growth retardation and anaemia and restored normal energy metabolism, as well as unimpaired protein-synthesizing capacity. The conclusion that these disturbances were primarily determined by the secondary iron deficiency was also borne out by the finding that similar alterations occurred in rats maintained on a copper-sufficient but iron-deficient diet. On the other hand, the iron-fortified diet failed to reverse the other signs of copper deficiency, namely the loss of caeruloplasmin, the diminished rate of cytochrome oxidase and the increase of soluble collagen. The interrelations between the various biochemical lesions induced by deprivation of copper or iron are discussed and the possible role of ATP depletion in determining the derangement of protein synthesis is considered. PMID:6258558

Weisenberg, Emil; Halbreich, Avraham; Mager, Jacob

1980-01-01

353

Erythrocytic antioxidant defense, lipid peroxides level and blood iron, zinc and copper concentrations in dogs naturally infected with Babesia gibsoni.  

PubMed

Babesiosis is a common tick borne disease of dogs in tropical and subtropical regions of the world caused by different species of Babesia. The present study aimed to examine erythrocyte lipid peroxide and erythrocytic antioxidant levels in dogs with clinical babesiosis, caused by Babesia gibsoni, and impact of the disease on blood iron, zinc and copper levels. The study was conducted on 10 naturally occurring cases of canine babesiosis with the history of tick infestation, erratic pyrexia, and prolonged illness. Microscopic examination of Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears confirmed B. gibsoni infection in the erythrocytes. Six apparently healthy dogs of different age, sex and breeds, brought for either health checkup or vaccination were used for comparison. Levels of erythrocytic antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P<0.01) higher in sick dogs than those of cytologically negative dogs (catalase: 0.192+/-0.024 units/mg Hb vs 0.074+/-0.004 units/mg Hb; superoxide dismutase: 0.014+/-0.0009 units/mg Hb vs 0.006+/-0.0008 units/mg Hb and lipid peroxide: 6.01+/-0.30 nmol MDA/mg Hb vs 1.89+/-0.10 nmol MDA/mg Hb). The levels of blood micronutrients were significantly low in these dogs (iron: 89.87+/-8.12 microg/g vs 126.44+/-14.65 microg/g; zinc: 3.67+/-1.85 microg/g vs 5.62+/-1.83 microg/g and copper: 0.55+/-0.63 microg/g vs 0.65+/-0.04 microg/g). The study demonstrated oxidative damage in dogs naturally infected with B. gibsoni. Low level of blood iron, zinc and copper seems to have an additional role in the genesis of anaemia and oxidative stress. PMID:18378268

Chaudhuri, S; Varshney, J P; Patra, R C

2008-08-01

354

In vitro toxicological assessment of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have a variety of applications in different industries including pharmaceutical industry where these NPs are used mainly for image analysis and drug delivery. The increasing interest in nanotechnology is largely associated with undefined risks to the human health and to the environment. Therefore, in the present study cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles were evaluated using most commonly used assays i.e. Ames assay, in vitro cytotoxicity assay, micronucleus assay and comet assay. Cytotoxicity to bacterial cells was assessed in terms of colony forming units by using Escherichia coli (gram negative) and Bacillus subtilis (gram positive). Ames assay was carried out using two bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Genotoxicity of these NPs was evaluated following exposure to monkey kidney cell line, CHS-20. No cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were observed for iron oxide, and aluminium oxide NPs. Copper NPs were found mutagenic in TA98 and in TA100 and also found cytotoxic in dose dependent manner. Copper NPs induced significant (p?Copper NPs also induced DNA strand breaks at 10?µg/mL and oxidative DNA damage at 5 and 10?µg/mL. We consider these findings very useful in evaluating the genotoxic potential of NPs especially because of their increasing applications in human health and environment with limited knowledge of their toxicity and genotoxicity. PMID:24896217

Sadiq, Rakhshinda; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood; Mobeen, Ameena; Hashmat, Amer Jamal

2014-06-01

355

Iron assisted growth of copper-tipped multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes incorporating copper are highly sought after for nanoelectronic applications. Indeed, several recent studies have demonstrated the production of copper-tipped nanotubes using the chemical vapor deposition method. Here we present the growth and detailed characterization of such copper-tipped nanotubes. The nanotubes grown were of a 'bamboo-like' structure, consisting of stacked cups of graphene, and were produced by chemical vapor

Z. R. Abrams; D. Szwarcman; Y. Lereah; G. Markovich; Y. Hanein

2007-01-01

356

Microdistribution of copper-carbonate and iron oxide nanoparticles in treated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous dispersions of copper-carbonate nanoparticles and microparticles have just begun to be exploited commercially for\\u000a the preservative treatment of wood. The success of the new systems will depend, in part, on the uniform distribution of the\\u000a preservative in wood and the ability of copper to penetrate cell walls. We examined the distribution of copper in wood treated\\u000a with a nano-Cu

Hiroshi Matsunaga; Makoto Kiguchi; Philip D. Evans

2009-01-01

357

COPPER ADSORPTION IN OXIDIC SOILS AFTER REMOVAL OF ORGANIC MATTER AND IRON OXIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper (Cu), despite being an essential micronutrient, may be toxic whenever it occurs in the soil solution at high concentrations. Chemical reactions that control copper availability in the soil–plant system are complex. Copper can be found in both organic and inorganic soil fractions. This work studied Cu adsorption into surface (0–0.2 m) and subsurface (in the B2 horizon) samples from three

Maria Lucia Azevedo Silveira; Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni; Otávio Antônio Camargo; José Carlos Casagrande

2002-01-01

358

1. Introduction Copper, along with iron active sites dominate the field of  

E-print Network

(dopamine b-hydroxylase, pepti- dylglycine a-hydroxylating monooxygenase, tyrosinase, and particulate proteins include hemocya- nin, tyrosinase, and catechol oxidase.[5, 7] The binuclear copper centers

Chen, Peng

359

Cadmium Removal from Contaminated Soil by Tunable  

E-print Network

, cadmium, nickel, zinc, and copper (2). Unlike most other organic pollutants, heavy metals cannotCadmium Removal from Contaminated Soil by Tunable Biopolymers G I R I D H A R P R A B H U K U M A R-binding biopolymer with high affinity toward cadmium. By taking advantage of the property of ELPH12 to undergo

Chen, Wilfred

360

Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 atomic percent indium, copper-2 atomic percent tin, and iron-6.55 atomic percent silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 at. % indium, copper-2 at. % tin and iron-6.55 at. % silicon. The copper-tin and copper-indium alloys were single crystals oriented with the /111/ direction normal to the surface. An iron-6.5 at. % silicon alloy was studied (a single crystal oriented in the /100/ direction for study of a (100) surface). It was found that surface segregation occurred following sputtering in all cases. Only the iron-silicon single crystal alloy exhibited equilibrium segregation (i.e., reversibility of surface concentration with temperature) for which at present we have no explanation. McLean's analysis for equilibrium segregation at grain boundaries did not apply to the present results, despite the successful application to dilute copper-aluminum alloys. The relation of solute atomic size and solubility to surface segregation is discussed. Estimates of the depth of segregation in the copper-tin alloy indicate that it is of the order of a monolayer surface film.

Ferrante, J.

1973-01-01

361

The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: 1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; 2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These ev...

362

Re–Os and Pb–Pb geochronology of the Archean Salobo iron oxide copper–gold deposit, Carajás mineral province, northern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhenium–osmium ages were determined for two molybdenite samples and a Pb–Pb age was derived from bornite–chalcopyrite–magnetite at the Salobo iron oxide copper–gold deposit to determine the timing of mineralization and its relation to the nearby Old Salobo Granite. Rhenium–osmium dating of molybdenite spatially associated with copper sulfide minerals yields ages with weighted means of 2576±8 and 2562±8 Ma. Removing the error

Karin Requia; Holly Stein; Lluís. Fontboté; Massimo Chiaradia

2003-01-01

363

Bosonics in the copper and iron based high transition temperature superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been long established that the phenomenon of superconductivity is administered by lattice deformations (phonons) which act to pair electrons into spinless bosons free to condense into a coherent ground state. This superconducting phase is protected up to a critical temperature above which thermal fluctuations are potent enough to destroy the resistance free phase. The strength of this phonon mediation has been calculated by strong coupling theory and found to be capable of accommodating pairing up to near 40 K. So with the advent of copper-oxide (cuprate) superconductors boasting transitions temperatures exceeding 90 K it was clear that these material represented a new breed of superconducting physics. More than twenty years after the initial discovery of these high-transition temperatures the most basic questions are yet to be answered, the most fundamental of which is by what mechanism does pairing occur? The field splits between those who feel that a boson mediator is still necessary to act as the virtual glue which binds electrons into cooper pairs while others insist that really the Coulomb force alone is enough to induce pairing physics. Even within the boson-seeker community there is no consensus on what particular type of boson is contained in this system whether it be a lattice excitation or spin excitation. This answer has been clouded by previous experimental results on the hole-doped cuprates which have made strong cases for every scenario rendering them largely inconclusive. For this answer though it is possible to explore materials that have not yet been clouded by conflicting results by performing the first high resolution ultra-high-vacuum low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of an electron-doped cuprate. A distinct and unambiguous bosonic mode is found at energy near 10.5 meV. Through comparison with other experimental data it is found that this mode does not fit the characteristics of a phonon. It is found, through comparison with neutron scattering experiments on the same sample, that this mode is consistent with a spin collective mode. Further more it is found that this mode is linked with the strength of superconductivity nominating it as the possible electron pairing mechanism. Doping and temperature dependence studies are performed to investigate this possibility. Finally the same procedures developed can be applied to the newly discovered iron based superconductors which may represent yet another type of new superconductor physics. Initial results on the first bosonic mode STM study of SrFe 2-xCoxAs 2 and BaFe2-xCo xAs2 are presented.

Niestemski, Francis Charles

364

New Measurements of the Densities of Copper, Nickel, and Iron Sulfide Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density measurements of sulfide liquids in the Fe-Ni-Cu-S-O system were performed from 1150°C-1250°C under controlled oxygen and sulfur fugacities. Measurements were made using the modified single bob (MSB) Archimedean method using zirconia ceramic bobs and crucibles. A 0.005mm resolution micrometer was attached to an elevator, which raised the crucible and melt relative to the free-hanging, stationary bob. A 0.001 g resolution analytical balance connected to a laptop computer continuously recorded the buoyancy as a function of crucible elevation. Densities were calculated by converting elevation to immersed volume and regressing the slope of buoyancy versus volume immersed. log(fO2) in the experiments ranged from -7.8 to -12.6 and log(fS2) ranged from -0.9 to -3.3. 38 successful sulfide liquid density measurements were performed, with values ranging from 3.8 g/cc to 6.6 g/cc. Regression of the resulting data suggests that a simple linear volume mixing model is adequate to represent the compositional dependence of density in copper- and nickel-sulfide liquids. A moderate positive excess mixing volume appears to be justified in iron-sulfide liquids. This result, along with high derived partial molar volumes for oxygen and sulfur components, are qualitatively consistent with the suggestion that increasing pressure will partition oxygen and sulfur out of the sulfide liquid during planetary accretion. The MSB density measurement also provides information on the relative magnitude of gas-zirconia and sulfide-zirconia surface energies. Assuming most of the observed variation results from sulfide chemistry it appears that oxidizing conditions significantly decrease sulfide-zirconia surface energies (increase wetting). If we can extrapolate this result to silicate minerals, this would suggest that oxidizing conditions will decrease wetting angle and thus increase the potential for sulfide segregation during planetary formation. We hope to test this hypothesis soon. Our experience suggests that trivial modifications to the apparatus used in this study may provide an effective and reliable method for measuring liquid-solid surface energies in both sulfide and silicate systems. Such data would prove useful in both melt percolation and bubble nucleation and growth calculations.

Mioduszewski, L.; Kress, V. C.

2005-12-01

365

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

366

Ferrous iron oxidation and leaching of copper ore with halotolerant bacteria in ore columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth on ferrous iron of a new isolate of the acidophile Thiobacillus prosperus occurred with a substrate oxidation rate similar to that of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. As well as similar capacities for iron oxidation, these species were shown to possess similar, but not identical, clusters of genes (the rus operon) that encode proteins likely to be involved in transfer of electrons

Carol S. Davis-Belmar; James Le C. Nicolle; Paul R. Norris

2008-01-01

367

Co-overexpression FIT with AtbHLH38 or AtbHLH39 in Arabidopsis-enhanced cadmium tolerance via increased cadmium sequestration in roots and improved iron homeostasis of shoots.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to plant cells. Under Cd exposure, the plant displayed leaf chlorosis, which is a typical symptom of iron (Fe) deficiency. Interactions of Cd with Fe have been reported. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-Fe interactions are not well understood. Here, we showed that FER-like Deficiency Induced Transcripition Factor (FIT), AtbHLH38, and AtbHLH39, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors involved in Fe homeostasis in plants, also play important roles in Cd tolerance. The gene expression analysis showed that the expression of FIT, AtbHLH38, and AtbHLH39 was up-regulated in the roots of plants treated with Cd. The plants overexpressing AtbHLH39 and double-overexpressing FIT/AtbHLH38 and FIT/AtbHLH39 exhibited more tolerance to Cd exposure than wild type, whereas no Cd tolerance was observed in plants overexpressing either AtbHLH38 or FIT. Further analysis revealed that co-overexpression of FIT with AtbHLH38 or AtbHLH39 constitutively activated the expression of Heavy Metal Associated3 (HMA3), Metal Tolerance Protein3 (MTP3), Iron Regulated Transporter2 (IRT2), and Iron Regulated Gene2 (IREG2), which are involved in the heavy metal detoxification in Arabidopsis (Arabidopis thaliana). Moreover, co-overexpression of FIT with AtbHLH38 or AtbHLH39 also enhanced the expression of NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHETASE1 (NAS1) and NAS2, resulting in the accumulation of nicotiananamine, a crucial chelator for Fe transportation and homeostasis. Finally, we showed that maintaining high Fe content in shoots under Cd exposure could alleviate the Cd toxicity. Our results provide new insight to understand the molecular mechanisms of Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:22184655

Wu, Huilan; Chen, Chunlin; Du, Juan; Liu, Hongfei; Cui, Yan; Zhang, Yue; He, Yujing; Wang, Yiqing; Chu, Chengcai; Feng, Zongyun; Li, Junming; Ling, Hong-Qing

2012-02-01

368

Co-Overexpression FIT with AtbHLH38 or AtbHLH39 in Arabidopsis-Enhanced Cadmium Tolerance via Increased Cadmium Sequestration in Roots and Improved Iron Homeostasis of Shoots1[W  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to plant cells. Under Cd exposure, the plant displayed leaf chlorosis, which is a typical symptom of iron (Fe) deficiency. Interactions of Cd with Fe have been reported. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-Fe interactions are not well understood. Here, we showed that FER-like Deficiency Induced Transcripition Factor (FIT), AtbHLH38, and AtbHLH39, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors involved in Fe homeostasis in plants, also play important roles in Cd tolerance. The gene expression analysis showed that the expression of FIT, AtbHLH38, and AtbHLH39 was up-regulated in the roots of plants treated with Cd. The plants overexpressing AtbHLH39 and double-overexpressing FIT/AtbHLH38 and FIT/AtbHLH39 exhibited more tolerance to Cd exposure than wild type, whereas no Cd tolerance was observed in plants overexpressing either AtbHLH38 or FIT. Further analysis revealed that co-overexpression of FIT with AtbHLH38 or AtbHLH39 constitutively activated the expression of Heavy Metal Associated3 (HMA3), Metal Tolerance Protein3 (MTP3), Iron Regulated Transporter2 (IRT2), and Iron Regulated Gene2 (IREG2), which are involved in the heavy metal detoxification in Arabidopsis (Arabidopis thaliana). Moreover, co-overexpression of FIT with AtbHLH38 or AtbHLH39 also enhanced the expression of NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHETASE1 (NAS1) and NAS2, resulting in the accumulation of nicotiananamine, a crucial chelator for Fe transportation and homeostasis. Finally, we showed that maintaining high Fe content in shoots under Cd exposure could alleviate the Cd toxicity. Our results provide new insight to understand the molecular mechanisms of Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:22184655

Wu, Huilan; Chen, Chunlin; Du, Juan; Liu, Hongfei; Cui, Yan; Zhang, Yue; He, Yujing; Wang, Yiqing; Chu, Chengcai; Feng, Zongyun; Li, Junming; Ling, Hong-Qing

2012-01-01

369

The impact of a copper smelter on adjacent soil zinc and cadmium fractions and soil organic carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We investigated the chemical fractions of Zn, Cd and Cu in soils collected from positions at different distances from a copper\\u000a smelter and studied the relationships between distribution patterns of Zn, Cd and Cu, fractions and soil organic carbon (SOC),\\u000a especially “black carbon” (BC), in contaminated soils. The relationships between soil particle size and concentrations of\\u000a Zn and Cd in

Ling Liu; Longhua Wu; Yongming Luo; Changbo Zhang; Yugen Jiang; Xiya Qiu

2010-01-01

370

Neutron production in collisions between carbon nuclei of energy 2 GeV per nucleon and carbon, aluminum, copper, cadmium, and lead nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Double-differential cross sections for neutron production were measured by the time-of-flight method for the interactions between carbon nuclei of energy 2 GeV per nucleon and carbon, aluminum, copper, cadmium, and lead nuclei. These measurements were performed for angles of 30 Degree-Sign , 53 Degree-Sign , and 90 Degree-Sign in the neutron-energy range fromseveral hundred keVunits to 300MeV. The phenomenologicalmodel of four moving sources was used as a basis in analyzing experimental results and in estimating the contribution to neutron emission from various reaction stages. The temperature parameters determined from the slope of the neutron energy spectra proved to be 22 {+-} 2 MeV for a hot source (fireball) and 4.5 {+-} 0.3 MeV for the stage of thermal fragmentation of highly excited heavy nuclear residues. The relative contribution of these two sources to the total neutron yield is independent of the type of the target nucleus and is about 42%, on average.

Yurevich, V. I., E-mail: yurevich@sunhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, R. M.; Lyapin, V. G. [Khlopin Radium Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

371

Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions.  

PubMed

Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety. PMID:21770376

Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong

2011-08-15

372

Copper and iron isotope fractionation during weathering and pedogenesis: Insights from saprolite profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron and copper isotopes are useful tools to track redox transformation and biogeochemical cycling in natural environment. To study the relationships of stable Fe and Cu isotopic variations with redox regime and biological processes during weathering and pedogenesis, we carried out Fe and Cu isotope analyses for two sets of basalt weathering profiles (South Carolina, USA and Hainan Island, China), which formed under different climatic conditions (subtropical vs. tropical). Unaltered parent rocks from both profiles have uniform ?56Fe and ?65Cu values close to the average of global basalts. In the South Carolina profile, ?56Fe values of saprolites vary from -0.01‰ to 0.92‰ in the lower (reduced) part and positively correlate with Fe3+/?Fe (R2 = 0.90), whereas ?65Cu values are almost constant. By contrast, ?56Fe values are less variable and negatively correlate with Fe3+/?Fe (R2 = 0.88) in the upper (oxidized) part, where large (4.85‰) ?65Cu variation is observed with most samples enriched in heavy isotopes. In the Hainan profile formed by extreme weathering under oxidized condition, ?56Fe values vary little (0.05-0.14‰), whereas ?65Cu values successively decrease from 0.32‰ to -0.12‰ with depth below 3 m and increase from -0.17‰ to 0.02‰ with depth above 3 m. Throughout the whole profile, ?65Cu positively correlate with Cu concentration and negatively correlate with the content of total organic carbon (TOC). Overall, the contrasting Fe isotopic patterns under different redox conditions suggest redox states play the key controls on Fe mobility and isotope fractionation. The negative correlation between ?56Fe and Fe3+/?Fe in the oxidized part of the South Carolina profile may reflect addition of isotopically light Fe. This is demonstrated by leaching experiments, which show that Fe mineral pools extracted by 0.5 N HCl, representing poorly-crystalline Fe (hydr)-oxides, are enriched in light Fe isotopes. The systematic Cu isotopic variation in the Hainan profile reflects desorption and downward transport of isotopically heavy Cu, leaving the organically-bound Cu enriched in light isotope as supported by the negative correlation of ?65Cu with TOC (R2 = 0.88). The contrasting (mostly positive vs. negative) Cu isotopic signatures in the upper parts of these two profiles can be attributed to the different climatic conditions, e.g., high rainfall at a tropical climate in Hainan favors desorption and the development of organism, whereas relatively dry climate in South Carolina favors Cu re-precipitation from soil solutions and adsorption onto Fe (hydr)-oxides. Our results highlight the potential applications of Fe and Cu isotopes as great tracers of redox condition, ancient climate and biological cycling during chemical weathering and pedogenic translocation.

Liu, Sheng-Ao; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shuguang; Wei, Gang-Jian; Ma, Jing-Long; Li, Dandan

2014-12-01

373

The effect of hexadecyl pyridinium bromide and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide on the behaviour of iron and copper in acidic solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hexadecyl pyridinium bromide (HPB) and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) on the corrosion behaviour of iron and copper in hydrochloric and sulphuric acid solutions has been investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Tafel extrapolation methods. The polarization curves indicate that the two compounds behave as mixed inhibitors, but the cathode is more inhibited. HPB is more effective than

S. A. Abd El-Maksoud

2004-01-01

374

[Study on synthesis and molecular spectra of the N-(2-hydroxy) naphthylmethyleneamino iron(III), cobalt(II) and copper(II) complexes].  

PubMed

The title complexes were synthesized via reaction of iron nitrate, cobalt acetate and copper acetate with the didentate O,N-donor Schiff bases in methanol solution. The electronic and infrared spectra of these complexes were measured and the major IR bands were assigned. PMID:15810239

Kuang, D; Zhang, F

1997-12-01

375

Circulating Immune Complexes and trace elements (Copper, Iron and Selenium) as markers in oral precancer and cancer : a randomised, controlled clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the levels of circulating immune complexes, trace elements (copper, iron and selenium) in serum of patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), oral leukoplakia (L), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), analyze the alteration and identify the best predictors amongst these parameters for disease occurrence and progression. METHODS: Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were estimated using 37.5% Polyethylene Glycol

Sunali S Khanna; Freny R Karjodkar

2006-01-01

376

Preconcentration and determination of iron and copper in spice samples by cloud point extraction and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A flow injection (FI) cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the determination of iron and copper by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) has been improved. The analytes were complexed with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine (Neutral Red, NR) and octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114)wasadded as a surfactant. The micellar solutionwasheated above 50 degrees C and loaded through a column packed with cotton for phase separation. Then the surfactant-rich phase was eluted using 0.05 mol L(-1) H2SO4 and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables influencing the instrumental and extraction conditions were optimized. Under optimized conditions for 25 mL of preconcentrated solution, the enrichment factors were 98 and 69, the limits of detection (3s) were 0.7 and 0.3 ng mL(-1), the limits of quantification (10s) were 2.2 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) for iron and copper, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for ten replicate measurements of 10 ng mL(-1) iron and copper were 2.1% and 1.8%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of iron and copper in spice samples. PMID:20627408

Sahin, Ci?dem Arpa; Tokgöz, Ilknur; Bekta?, Sema

2010-09-15

377

Photochemical aerobic detoxification of aqueous phenol and chlorophenol solutions promoted by iron salts and iron, vanadium, and copper oxides  

SciTech Connect

Phenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in air in the presence of soluble iron salts or insoluble V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO decompose in aqueous solution when irradiated by a luminescent lamp. The degree and the rate of decomposition are strongly influenced by the nature of the substrate and metal-containing promoter. As a result of decomposition, toxicity of solutions containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol with respect to two types of living organisms - Protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) and bacteria (Beneckea harveyi) - decreases significantly.

Nizova, G.V.; Bochkova, M.M.; Kozlova, N.B.; Shul`pin, G.B. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-09-10

378

Virus inactivation by copper or iron ions alone and in the presence of peroxide.  

PubMed

Cupric and ferric ions were able to inactivate five enveloped or nonenveloped, single- or double-stranded DNA or RNA viruses. The virucidal effect of these metals was enhanced by the addition of peroxide, particularly for copper(II). Under the conditions of our test, mixtures of copper(II) ions and peroxide were more efficient than glutaraldehyde in inactivating phi X174, T7, phi 6, Junin, and herpes simplex viruses. The substances described here should be able to inactivate most, if not all, viruses that have been found contaminating medical devices. PMID:8285724

Sagripanti, J L; Routson, L B; Lytle, C D

1993-12-01

379

Insight into Bio-metal Interface Formation in vacuo: Interplay of S-layer Protein with Copper and Iron  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of interaction between inorganic matter and biomolecules, as well as properties of resulting hybrids, are receiving growing interest due to the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. The majority of potential applications for metal-biohybrid structures require stability of these systems under vacuum conditions, where their chemistry is elusive, and may differ dramatically from the interaction between biomolecules and metal ions in vivo. Here we report for the first time a photoemission and X-ray absorption study of the formation of a hybrid metal-protein system, tracing step-by-step the chemical interactions between the protein and metals (Cu and Fe) in vacuo. Our experiments reveal stabilization of the enol form of peptide bonds as the result of protein-metal interactions for both metals. The resulting complex with copper appears to be rather stable. In contrast, the system with iron decomposes to form inorganic species like oxide, carbide, nitride, and cyanide. PMID:25736576

Makarova, Anna A.; Grachova, Elena V.; Neudachina, Vera S.; Yashina, Lada V.; Blüher, Anja; Molodtsov, Serguei L.; Mertig, Michael; Ehrlich, Hermann; Adamchuk, Vera K.; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V.

2015-01-01

380

Insight into Bio-metal Interface Formation in vacuo: Interplay of S-layer Protein with Copper and Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of interaction between inorganic matter and biomolecules, as well as properties of resulting hybrids, are receiving growing interest due to the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. The majority of potential applications for metal-biohybrid structures require stability of these systems under vacuum conditions, where their chemistry is elusive, and may differ dramatically from the interaction between biomolecules and metal ions in vivo. Here we report for the first time a photoemission and X-ray absorption study of the formation of a hybrid metal-protein system, tracing step-by-step the chemical interactions between the protein and metals (Cu and Fe) in vacuo. Our experiments reveal stabilization of the enol form of peptide bonds as the result of protein-metal interactions for both metals. The resulting complex with copper appears to be rather stable. In contrast, the system with iron decomposes to form inorganic species like oxide, carbide, nitride, and cyanide.

Makarova, Anna A.; Grachova, Elena V.; Neudachina, Vera S.; Yashina, Lada V.; Blüher, Anja; Molodtsov, Serguei L.; Mertig, Michael; Ehrlich, Hermann; Adamchuk, Vera K.; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V.

2015-03-01

381

Iron, copper, and manganese complexes with in vitro superoxide dismutase and/or catalase activities that keep Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells alive under severe oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Due to their aerobic lifestyle, eukaryotic organisms have evolved different strategies to overcome oxidative stress. The recruitment of some specific metalloenzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases (CATs) is of great importance for eliminating harmful reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion). Using the ligand HPClNOL {1-[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]-3-chloropropan-2-ol}, we have synthesized three coordination compounds containing iron(III), copper(II), and manganese(II) ions, which are also present in the active site of the above-noted metalloenzymes. These compounds were evaluated as SOD and CAT mimetics. The manganese and iron compounds showed both SOD and CAT activities, while copper showed only SOD activity. The copper and manganese in vitro SOD activities are very similar (IC50~0.4?mol dm(-3)) and about 70-fold higher than those of iron. The manganese compound showed CAT activity higher than that of the iron species. Analyzing their capacity to protect Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress (H2O2 and the O2(•-) radical), we observed that all compounds act as antioxidants, increasing the resistance of yeast cells mainly due to a reduction of lipid oxidation. Especially for the iron compound, the data indicate complete protection when wild-type cells were exposed to H2O2 or O2(•-) species. Interestingly, these compounds also compensate for both superoxide dismutase and catalase deficiencies; their antioxidant activity is metal ion dependent, in the order iron(III)>copper(II)>manganese(II). The protection mechanism employed by the complexes proved to be independent of the activation of transcription factors (such as Yap1, Hsf1, Msn2/Msn4) and protein synthesis. There is no direct relation between the in vitro and the in vivo antioxidant activities. PMID:25511255

Ribeiro, Thales P; Fernandes, Christiane; Melo, Karen V; Ferreira, Sarah S; Lessa, Josane A; Franco, Roberto W A; Schenk, Gerhard; Pereira, Marcos D; Horn, Adolfo

2015-03-01

382

Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on the Distribution Patterns of Zinc, Copper, and Magnesium in Rabbits Exposed to Prolonged Cadmium Intoxication  

PubMed Central

The present study is designed to investigate whether magnesium (Mg) supplementation may prevent Cd-induced alterations in zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg) status in rabbits. For this purpose, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mg were estimated in blood, urine, and organs (brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, skeletal muscle, and bone) of rabbits given Cd (10?mg/kg b.w.) and rabbits cotreated with Mg (40?mg/kg b.w.) orally, as aqueous solutions of Cd chloride and Mg acetate every day for 4 weeks. Samples were mineralized with conc. HNO3 and HClO4 (4:1) and metals concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Magnesium supplementation succeeded to overcome Cd-induced disbalance of investigated bioelements. Beneficial effects of Mg were observed on Zn levels in blood and urine, on Cu levels in urine, and on Mg levels in blood. Magnesium pretreatment also managed to counteract or reduce all Cd-induced changes in levels of Cu and Mg in organs, while it did not exert this effect on Zn levels. These findings suggest that enhanced dietary Mg intake during Cd exposure can have at least partly beneficial effect on Cd-induced alterations in homeostasis of zinc, copper, and magnesium. PMID:22701362

Bulat, Zorica; ?uki?-?osi?, Danijela; Antonijevi?, Biljana; Bulat, Petar; Vujanovi?, Dragana; Buha, Aleksandra; Matovi?, Vesna

2012-01-01

383

Removal of copper and iron by polyurethane foam column in FIA system for the determination of nickel in pierced ring.  

PubMed

Polyurethane foam (PUF) mini-column was used to eliminate copper and iron for the determination of nickel in pierced rings. The PUF mini-column was connected to FIA system for on-line sorption of copper and iron in complexes form of CuSCN(+) and FeSCN(2+). For this season, the acid solution containing a mixture of Ni(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) and SCN(-) ions was firstly flew into the PUF column. Then, the percolated solution which Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions is separated from analysis was injected into FIA system to react with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) reagent in basic condition which this method is called pH gradient technique. The Ni-PAR complexes obtained were measured theirs absorbance at 500 nm by UV visible spectrophotometer. In this study, it was found that Cu(II) and Fe(III) were completely to form complexes with 400 mmol/L KSCN and entirely to eliminate in acidic condition at pH 3.0. In the optimum condition of these experiments, the method provided the linear relationship between absorbance and the concentration of Ni(II) in the range from 5.00 to 30.00 mg/L. Linear equation is y=0.0134x+0.0033 (R(2)=0.9948). Precision, assessed in the term of the relative standard deviation, RSD, and accuracy for multiple determinations obtained in values of 0.77-1.73% and 97.4%, respectively. The level of an average amount of Ni(II) in six piercing rings was evaluated to be 14.78 mg/g. PMID:25281109

Vongboot, Monnapat; Suesoonthon, Monrudee

2015-01-01

384

Bioconcentration patterns of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in selected fish species from the Fox River, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine if bioconcentration patterns were similar between four common essential and nonessential trace elements. The whole body concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb were related to the whole body dry weights of blue-gill (Lepomis macrochirus), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), black bullhead (Ictalurus melas), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Zinc, Cu, Cd, and Pb were selected because most studies of heavy metal concentrations in fish have examined one or more of these elements. These metals are often closely associated with each other as natural impurities or as alloys. Zinc and Cu are essential components of metallo-enzymes. Cadmium and Pb have not been shown to have essential functions in fishes, but rather inhibit biological systems and competitively interfere with Zn and Cu. The fish species were chosen on the basis of their importance as recreational and food species and their frequent use in both field and laboratory studies. Patterns of metal bioconcentrations with fish size were determined by simple linear regression.

Vinikour, W.S.; Goldstein, R.M.; Anderson, R.V.

1980-05-01

385

Interactions of free copper (II) ions alone or in complex with iron (III) ions with erythrocytes of marine fish Dicentrarchus labrax.  

PubMed

As a consequence of human activity, various toxicants - especially metal ions - enter aquatic ecosystems and many fish are exposed to considerable levels. As the free ion and in some complexes, there is no doubt that copper promotes damage to cellular molecules and structures through radical formation. Therefore, we have investigated the influence of copper uptake by the red blood of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and its oxidative action and effects on cells in the presence of complexed and uncomplexed Fe3+ ions. Erythrocytes were exposed to various concentrations of CuSO4, Fe(NO3)3, and K3Fe(CN)6 for up to 5h, and the effects of copper ions alone and in the combination with iron determined. The results show that inside the cells cupric ion interacts with hemoglobin, causing methemoglobin formation by direct electron transfer from heme Fe2+ to Cu2+. Potassium ferricyanide as a source of complexed iron decreases Met-Hb formation induced by copper ions unlike Fe(NO3)3. We also found that incubation of fish erythrocytes with copper increased hemolysis of cells. But complexed and uncomplexed iron protected the effect of copper. CuSO4 increased the level of lipid peroxidation and a protective effect on complexed iron was observed. Incubation of erythrocytes with copper ions resulted in the loss of a considerable part of thiol content at 10 and 20 microM. This effect was decreased by potassium ferricyanide and Fe(NO3)3 only after 1 and 3h of incubation. The level of nuclear DNA damage assayed by comet assay showed that 20 microM CuSO4 as well as 20 microM Fe(NO3)3 and 10 mM K3Fe(CN)6 induce single- and double-strand breaks. The lower changes were observed after the exposure of cells to K3Fe(CN)6. The data suggest that complexed iron can act protectively against copper ions in contrast to Fe(NO3)3. PMID:19524693

Labieniec, Magdalena; Milowska, Katarzyna; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Rucinska, Agata; Sadowska, Magdalena; Jokiel, Marta; Brichon, Gerard; Gabryelak, Teresa

2009-09-01

386

Multiple-edge XAS studies of cyanide-bridged iron-copper molecular assemblies relevant to cyanide-inhibited heme-copper oxidases using four-body multiple-scattering analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pair of cyanide-bridged iron-copper molecular assemblies relevant to cyanide-inhibited heme-copper oxidases has been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at both Fe and Cu K-edges. These two complexes, [(py)(OEP)Fe-CN-Cu(Meâtren)]{sup 2+} (2) and [(py)(OEP)Fe-CN-Cu(TIM)]{sup 2+} (3), contain a unique four-body Fe-C-N-Cu bridge with an Fe-C-N angle of 179°. They, however, differ significantly in the Cu-N-C angle (174° in 2 and 147°

Hua Holly Zhang; A. Di Cicco; B. Hedman; K. O. Hodgson; A. Filipponi; M. J. Scott; R. H. Holm

1997-01-01

387

IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

388

Structure, insertion electrochemistry, and magnetic properties of a new type of substitutional solid solutions of copper, nickel, and iron hexacyanoferrates/hexacyanocobaltates.  

PubMed

Substitutional solid solutions of metal hexacyanometalates in which low-spin iron(III) and cobalt(III) ions populate the carbon-coordinated sites were synthesized and studied by powder diffraction including Rietveld refinement, cyclic voltammetry of immobilized microparticles, diffuse reflection vis-spectrometry, and magnetization techniques. The continuous solid solution series of potassium copper(II), potassium nickel(II), and iron(III) [(hexacyanoferrate(III))(1-x)(hexacyanocobaltate(III))(x)] show that the substitution of low-spin iron(III) by cobalt(III) in the hexacyanometalate units more strongly affects the formal potentials of the nitrogen-coordinated copper(II) and high-spin iron(III) ions than those of the remaining low-spin iron(III) ions. In the case of copper(II) and iron(III) [(hexacyanoferrate(III))(1-x)(hexacyanocobaltate(III))(x)] the peak currents decrease much more than can be explained by stoichiometry, indicating that the charge propagation is slowed by the substitution of low-spin iron(III) by cobalt(III). The Rietveld refinement of all compounds confirmed the structure initially proposed by Keggin for Prussian blue and contradicts the structure described later by Ludi. The dependencies of lattice parameters on composition exhibit in all series of solid solutions studied similar, although small, deviations from ideality, which correlate with the electrochemical behavior. Finally, a series of solid solutions of the composition KNi(0.5)(II)Cu(0.5)(II)[Fe(III)(CN)(6)](1-x)[Co(III)(CN)(6)](x), where both the nitrogen- and carbon-coordinated metal ions are mixed populated and were synthesized and characterized. These are the first examples of solid solutions of metal hexacyanometalates with four different metal ions, where both the nitrogen- and the carbon-coordinated sites possess a mixed population. PMID:12401075

Widmann, Antje; Kahlert, Heike; Petrovic-Prelevic, Irena; Wulff, Harm; Yakhmi, J V; Bagkar, Nitin; Scholz, Fritz

2002-11-01

389

Cadmium sulfide-copper sulfide heterojunction cell research. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Attempts have been continued to increase the short circuit current in cells of enhanced open circuit voltage. Both deposition of copper on the surface of the Cu/sub 2/S layer and hydrogen plasma treatments have been attempted. To date, no significant increase in ultimate current has been achieved. Various changes in cell production procedure have been made with significant improvements in reproducibility. Improvements in the structure of (CdZn)S layers and resulting cell properties have been achieved using modified substrates based on NiFe. Improvement have been made to the capacitance measuring systems with a consequent gain in resolution, accuracy and reproducibility. Structural studies of the electron beam deposited glass have revealed the presence of cracking and experiments have been carried out to determine the optimum deposition conditions for producing defect-free coatings.

None

1980-07-01

390

The Crd1 gene encodes a putative di-iron enzyme required for photosystem I accumulation in copper deficiency and hypoxia in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

PubMed Central

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii adapts to copper deficiency by degrading apoplastocyanin and inducing Cyc6 and Cpx1 encoding cytochrome c6 and coproporphyrinogen oxidase, respectively. To identify other components in this pathway, colonies resulting from insertional mutagenesis were screened for copper- conditional phenotypes. Twelve crd (copper response defect) strains were identified. In copper-deficient conditions, the crd strains fail to accumulate photosystem I and light-harvesting complex I, and they contain reduced amounts of light-harvesting complex II. Cyc6, Cpx1 expression and plastocyanin accumulation remain copper responsive. The crd phenotype is rescued by a similar amount of copper as is required for repression of Cyc6 and Cpx1 and for maintenance of plastocyanin at its usual stoichiometry, suggesting that the affected gene is a target of the same signal transduction pathway. The crd strains represent alleles at a single locus, CRD1, which encodes a 47 kDa, hydrophilic protein with a consensus carboxylate-bridged di-iron binding site. Crd1 homologs are present in the genomes of photosynthetic organisms. In Chlamydomonas, Crd1 expression is activated in copper- or oxygen-deficient cells, and Crd1 function is required for adaptation to these conditions. PMID:10811605

Moseley, Jeffrey; Quinn, Jeanette; Eriksson, Mats; Merchant, Sabeeha

2000-01-01

391

Iron, zinc and copper in the Alzheimer’s disease brain: a quantitative meta-analysis. Some insight on the influence of citation bias on scientific opinion  

PubMed Central

Dysfunctional homeostasis of transition metals is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although questioned by some, brain copper, zinc, and particularly iron overload are widely accepted features of AD which have led to the hypothesis that oxidative stress generated from aberrant homeostasis of these transition metals might be a pathogenic mechanism behind AD. This meta-analysis compiled and critically assessed available quantitative data on brain iron, zinc and copper levels in AD patients compared to aged controls. The results were very heterogeneous. A series of heavily cited articles from one laboratory reported a large increase in iron in AD neocortex compared to age-matched controls (p<0.0001) while seven laboratories failed to reproduce these findings reporting no significant difference between the groups (p=0.76). A more than three-fold citation bias was found to favor outlier studies reporting increases in iron and this bias was particularly prominent among narrative review articles. Additionally, while zinc was not significantly changed in the neocortex (p=0.29), copper was significantly depleted in AD (p=0.0003). In light of these findings, it will be important to re-evaluate the hypothesis that transition metal overload accounts for oxidative injury noted in AD. PMID:21600264

Schrag, Matthew; Mueller, Claudius; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Kirsch, Wolff M.

2011-01-01

392

Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5?g/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10?g/L, whereas, Cu reached 10?g/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. PMID:24632122

Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

2014-06-01

393

Biochemical responses of ecological importance in males of the austral South America amphipod Hyalella curvispina Shoemaker, 1942 exposed to waterborne cadmium and copper.  

PubMed

The use of physiological parameters as sensitive indicators of toxic stress from exposure to different pollutants is an important issue to be studied. Hyalella curvispina is a Neotropical amphipod often used in ecotoxicological evaluations. This work aimed to quantify biochemical responses of ecological importance in H. curvispina males under stress exposure to sublethal concentrations of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd); in order to obtain basic physiological data as indicators of early effect on this species, on track to its standardization. In order to evaluate the physiological, biochemical and energetic status of the exposed animals, the following endpoints were selected: content of glycogen, total proteins, total lipids, triglycerides, glycerol, arginine, arginine phosphate, levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Our results show that the concentrations of Cu (135 and 175 µg/L) and Cd (6.5 and 10.5 µg/L) tested altered most of the biochemical variables measured (glycogen, total proteins, total lipids, triglycerides, arginine phosphate, TBARS, and SOD and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activities). In addition, neither the levels of glycerol and arginine nor CAT activity were affected by exposure to either metal. Energy metabolism was similarly affected both by exposure to Cu and exposure to Cd. The results obtained show the existence of an energy imbalance associated with oxidative damage, suggesting a comprehensive response. This work represents a first contribution of the evaluation of the effect of two heavy metals in some parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism of H. curvispina males. The results indicate these parameters can provide a sensitive criterion for the assessment of early ecotoxicological effects of Cu and Cd in laboratory assays, on a native species representative of the zoobenthic and epiphytic communities of South America. PMID:24325969

Giusto, Anabella; Ferrari, Lucrecia

2014-02-01

394

Biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Huso huso) to a sub-lethal level of copper and cadmium in freshwater and brackish water environments  

PubMed Central

In Caspian Sea basin, sturgeons spend the larval and juvenile stages in freshwaters of rivers and then, they migrate to brackish waters of the sea where they grow and mature. With regard to the elevation of the metal concentrations in coastal waters and sediments of the Caspian Sea and its adjacent rivers, it is likely that juvenile sturgeon are exposed to sub-lethal levels of metals during seawater entry process. We compared the biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Beluga, Huso huso) exposed to a sub-lethal level of copper (Cu, 20 ?g/L) and cadmium (Cd, 300 ?g/L) in freshwater (FW, 0 ppt) and brackish water (BW, 11 ppt) for seven days. The results showed that the levels of plasma glucose increased significantly in BW and in all metal exposed groups. Also, plasma cortisol concentrations showed significant increases when juveniles were exposed to BW, Cu(FW/BW) and Cd(BW). The activity of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased significantly in BW compared with FW. Moreover, Cu and Cd exposure enhanced the activity of SOD in BW, while SOD did not show any changes in FW. The levels of tissue and plasma proteins as well as plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and liver Catalase (CAT) activity remained constant when animals were exposed to Cu/Cd in both FW and BW environments. Our data indicate that exposure of juvenile beluga to BW stimulated the general biochemical responses of stress such as cortisol and glucose, while sub-lethal exposure to Cu and Cd caused oxidative stress in BW environment but not in FW. PMID:24499513

2013-01-01

395

Effects of salinity on metal uptake and metallothionein mRNA levels in the organs of tilapia exposed to cadmium, copper, and zinc ions.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the effects of salinity on metal uptake and metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels in tilapia exposed to three metal ions. Male Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus juveniles (hereafter, "tilapia") were exposed to various concentrations (100, 500, and 1 ppm) of metal ions (Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+)) in freshwater and water with two levels of salinity (10 and 20 ppt) for 7 days. Tests were then performed to investigate the effects of salinity on metal concentrations and MT mRNA induction in the test subjects' organs. Saline decreased cadmium (Cd) uptake and MT mRNA fold induction in various internal organs, but it did not enhance MT mRNA induction in the gills. Exposure to Cu(2+) caused greater copper (Cu) levels in the brains, intestines and livers, but Cu uptake in the intestines and kidneys occurred only at 10 ppm. MT mRNA induction caused by Cu(2+) was observed in various internal organs, but it occurred in the gills only at greater levels of salinity. Exposure at greater salinities also decreased zinc (Zn) uptake and MT mRNA induction in all organs except the gills. Although greater salinity decreased Cd and Zn uptake, the metal content in the water correlated with the MT mRNA levels in most of the organs, except for the intestines. In conclusion, metal accumulations in the livers and kidneys of tilapia correlated with MT mRNA levels. The levels of MT mRNA in the livers and kidneys of tilapia might therefore be used as biomarkers of exposure to Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in water of various salinities. PMID:25575748

Shek, Alex C S; Chan, King Ming

2015-05-01

396

Development of a water-effect ratio for copper, cadmium, and lead for the Great Works River in Maine using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Salvelinus fontinalis  

SciTech Connect

The control of chemicals discharged to suface waters of the United States is an important objective of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) as specified by the Clean Water Act. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends a combination of chemical-specific and whole-effluent toxicity limits in NPDES permits to accomplish this objective. The requirements for toxicity testing and whole effluent toxicity limitations in NPDES permits are based on the narrative toxicity water quality standards, and, in some cases, numerical toxicity standards present in EPA regulations. Because national water quality criteria were developed to protect the biological integrity of all surface waters in the US, they may require modification for site-specific applications. As an alternative to national criteria, site-specific criteria can be tailored specifically to the local ecosystem. Site-specific factors like chemical quality of receiving water, flow, temperature and species composition play a major role in developing alternative discharge limits. The hazard posed by a chemical when released to wastewater and consequently to a receiving system is a function of concentration, bioavailability and influence of site conditions. The site-specific evaluation of toxicity of a chemical combines a knowledge of the properties which influence the behavior of a chemical such as partitioning, chelation, speciation, adsorption to solids, and interaction with other chemicals present in the matrix and an understanding of the toxicity of the chemical and its potential for bioaccumulation. The primary objective of this study was to develop water effect-ratios for cadmium, copper and lead which can be used to derive site-specific water quality criteria for process water discharged from a metal finishing plant. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

Jop, K.M.; Askew, A.M.; Foster, R.B. [Springborn Labs., Wareham, MA (United States)

1995-01-01

397

Biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Huso huso) to a sub-lethal level of copper and cadmium in freshwater and brackish water environments.  

PubMed

In Caspian Sea basin, sturgeons spend the larval and juvenile stages in freshwaters of rivers and then, they migrate to brackish waters of the sea where they grow and mature. With regard to the elevation of the metal concentrations in coastal waters and sediments of the Caspian Sea and its adjacent rivers, it is likely that juvenile sturgeon are exposed to sub-lethal levels of metals during seawater entry process. We compared the biochemical responses of juvenile European sturgeon, (Beluga, Huso huso) exposed to a sub-lethal level of copper (Cu, 20 ?g/L) and cadmium (Cd, 300 ?g/L) in freshwater (FW, 0 ppt) and brackish water (BW, 11 ppt) for seven days. The results showed that the levels of plasma glucose increased significantly in BW and in all metal exposed groups. Also, plasma cortisol concentrations showed significant increases when juveniles were exposed to BW, Cu(FW/BW) and Cd(BW). The activity of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased significantly in BW compared with FW. Moreover, Cu and Cd exposure enhanced the activity of SOD in BW, while SOD did not show any changes in FW. The levels of tissue and plasma proteins as well as plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and liver Catalase (CAT) activity remained constant when animals were exposed to Cu/Cd in both FW and BW environments. Our data indicate that exposure of juvenile beluga to BW stimulated the general biochemical responses of stress such as cortisol and glucose, while sub-lethal exposure to Cu and Cd caused oxidative stress in BW environment but not in FW. PMID:24499513

Zahedi, Saeed; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Rafati, Maryam; Banaee, Mahdi; Sepehri Moghadam, Heshmat; Raeici, Hadi

2013-01-01

398

Bioavailability of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in subtropical coastal lagoons from the southeast Gulf of California using mangrove oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea palmula).  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were assessed in the edible tissues of Crassrotrea corteziensis oysters collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 27 sites from 8 coastal lagoons of the southeast Gulf of California. In addition, C. palmula oysters were sampled at 9 sites from the same mangrove roots where C. corteziensis oysters were collected. Metal analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Cd, Cu, and Zn), graphite furnace (Pb), and cold vapor detection (Hg). The obtained mean levels were (µg g(-1) dry weight) as follows: Cd 6.05 ± 2.77, Cu 60.0 ± 33.4, Hg 0.38 ± 0.17, Pb 1.11 ± 0.63, and Zn 777 ± 528 µg g(-1). For all metals except Hg, the concentrations were greater during dry season than during rainy seasons. The high levels, particularly that for Cd, were related to upwelling along the eastern Gulf of California. High Hg levels in the rainy season were associated with the transport of materials from the watershed to the lagoon. Shrimp farming, agriculture, and other sources were considered as potential sources to explain the differences in metal bioavailability in the 8 lagoons. The mean concentrations of Cd (Santa María-La Reforma lagoon), Cu [San Ignacio-Navachiste-El Macapule (SINM), Urías (URI), and Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoons], and zinc (Zn) (URI, Santa María-Ohuira-Topolobampo, El Colorado, and SINM lagoons) during the dry season were greater than the maximum permissible limits. C. palmula collected in 8 sites where they were present simultaneously with C. corteziensis had consistently greater metal levels than C. corteziensis, but correlation analyses showed a high and significant (P < 0.05) correlation between metal concentrations in both species. The correlation equations obtained are useful where the same species is not distributed and is necessary to compare results from distinct regions. PMID:25556031

Páez-Osuna, Federico; Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C

2015-02-01

399

Bioaccumulation and Tissue Distribution of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Crassostrea virginica Grown at Two Different Depths in Jamaica Bay, New York  

PubMed Central

Historically, Jamaica Bay was a site of extensive oyster beds and shellfish culture leases that supported a significant oyster fishery in the New York area. The industrial and urban expansion of the early 1900’s led to over-harvesting and a deterioration in water and bay sediment quality that coincided with shellfish decline and the ultimate disappearance of oysters from the bay. Over the past 50 years, efforts to arrest and reverse the pollution problems of Jamaica Bay have been undertaken but the area still contains metals and other pollutants at levels higher than NYS Water Quality Standards. Previous we showed that Crassostrea virginica seed transplanted to the bay had excellent growth and survival despite the bay’s pollution problems. In this study we measured the one-year bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of four metals in C. virginica seed that were transplanted to the bay at two different depths: one foot from the surface and one foot above the sediment. Tissues of C. virginica were dissected, dried and digested in nitric acid. Arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc levels were measured using electrothermal vaporization with deuterium lamp background correction in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer fitted with a THGA graphite furnace. Metals were distributed in the various tissues in ?g/g dry weight amounts, which correlate well with published values for whole oysters grown in other polluted areas. Metal distributions were not homogeneous throughout the animals and in most of the tissues tested, oysters grown near the surface accumulated more metal than those positioned near bay sediment. PMID:21841973

Rodney, Eric; Herrera, Pedro; Luxama, Juan; Boykin, Mark; Crawford, Alisa; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

2011-01-01

400

Laser-initiated combustion studies of selected aluminum, copper, iron, and nickel alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of combustion studies at atmospheric pressure on ten metal alloys are presented. The alloys studied were aluminum alloys 1100, 2219, 6061, and tensile-50; 304, 347 and 21-6-9 stainless steel; inconel 600; beryllium copper and a bronze. It was found that once ignition was achieved all alloys would generally burn to completion. The overall combustion process appears to obey a first order rate process. Preliminary conclusions are presented along with recommendations for future work.

Bransford, J. W.; Clark, A. F.

1981-01-01

401

Rosette iron deficiency transcript and microRNA profiling reveals links between copper and iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe) is an essential plant micronutrient, and its deficiency limits plant growth and development on alkaline soils. Under Fe deficiency, plant responses include up-regulation of genes involved in Fe uptake from the soil. However, little is known about shoot responses to Fe deficiency. Using microarrays to probe gene expression in Kas-1 and Tsu-1 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, and comparison with existing Col-0 data, revealed conserved rosette gene expression responses to Fe deficiency. Fe-regulated genes included known metal homeostasis-related genes, and a number of genes of unknown function. Several genes responded to Fe deficiency in both roots and rosettes. Fe deficiency led to up-regulation of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes CSD1 and CSD2, and down-regulation of FeSOD genes FSD1 and FSD2. Eight microRNAs were found to respond to Fe deficiency. Three of these (miR397a, miR398a, and miR398b/c) are known to regulate transcripts of Cu-containing proteins, and were down-regulated by Fe deficiency, suggesting that they could be involved in plant adaptation to Fe limitation. Indeed, Fe deficiency led to accumulation of Cu in rosettes, prior to any detectable decrease in Fe concentration. ccs1 mutants that lack functional Cu,ZnSOD proteins were prone to greater oxidative stress under Fe deficiency, indicating that increased Cu concentration under Fe limitation has an important role in oxidative stress prevention. The present results show that Cu accumulation, microRNA regulation, and associated differential expression of Fe and CuSOD genes are coordinated responses to Fe limitation. PMID:22962679

Waters, Brian M.; Stein, Ricardo J.

2012-01-01

402

Rosette iron deficiency transcript and microRNA profiling reveals links between copper and iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) is an essential plant micronutrient, and its deficiency limits plant growth and development on alkaline soils. Under Fe deficiency, plant responses include up-regulation of genes involved in Fe uptake from the soil. However, little is known about shoot responses to Fe deficiency. Using microarrays to probe gene expression in Kas-1 and Tsu-1 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, and comparison with existing Col-0 data, revealed conserved rosette gene expression responses to Fe deficiency. Fe-regulated genes included known metal homeostasis-related genes, and a number of genes of unknown function. Several genes responded to Fe deficiency in both roots and rosettes. Fe deficiency led to up-regulation of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes CSD1 and CSD2, and down-regulation of FeSOD genes FSD1 and FSD2. Eight microRNAs were found to respond to Fe deficiency. Three of these (miR397a, miR398a, and miR398b/c) are known to regulate transcripts of Cu-containing proteins, and were down-regulated by Fe deficiency, suggesting that they could be involved in plant adaptation to Fe limitation. Indeed, Fe deficiency led to accumulation of Cu in rosettes, prior to any detectable decrease in Fe concentration. ccs1 mutants that lack functional Cu,ZnSOD proteins were prone to greater oxidative stress under Fe deficiency, indicating that increased Cu concentration under Fe limitation has an important role in oxidative stress prevention. The present results show that Cu accumulation, microRNA regulation, and associated differential expression of Fe and CuSOD genes are coordinated responses to Fe limitation. PMID:22962679

Waters, Brian M; McInturf, Samuel A; Stein, Ricardo J

2012-10-01

403

Preconcentration and separation of copper, zinc and cadmium by the use of 6-mercapto purinylazo resin and their application in microwave digested certified biological samples followed by AAS determination of the metal ions.  

PubMed

6-Mercapto purinylazo resin has been used as solid phase extractor. Based on solid phase extraction, the present work describes the preconcentration and determination of copper, zinc and cadmium in certified biological samples after microwave-assisted digestion. The exchange capacity of the resin, the sorption and desorption of metal ions, and the effect of diverse ions have also been determined. The results show that the resin is highly selective for determination of these biologically significant metals. The method is simple, rapid and free from interferences and can be used routinely. PMID:12437149

Mondal, Bhim C; Das, Debasis; Das, Arabinda K

2002-01-01

404

Elevated copper in the amyloid plaques and iron in the cortex are observed in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease that exhibit neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), alterations in metal homeostasis, including the accumulation of metal ions in the plaques and an increase of iron in the cortex, have been well documented but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE In this study, we compared the metal content in the plaques and the iron speciation in the cortex of three mouse models, two of which show neurodegeneration (5xFAD and Tg-SwDI/NOS2?/? (CVN) and one that shows very little neurodegeneration (PSAPP). METHODS The Fe, Cu, and Zn contents and speciation were determined using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), respectively. RESULTS In the mouse models with reported significant neurodegeneration, we found that plaques contained ~25% more copper compared to the PSAPP mice. The iron content in the cortex increased at the late stage of the disease in all mouse models, but iron speciation remains unchanged. CONCLUSIONS The elevation of copper in the plaques and iron in the cortex is associated with AD severity, suggesting that these redox-active metal ions may be inducing oxidative damage and directly influencing neurodegeneration. PMID:24926425

Bourassa, Megan W.; Leskovjan, Andreana C.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Farquhar, Erik R.; Colton, Carol A.; Van Nostrand, William E.; Miller, Lisa M.

2014-01-01

405

The neurotoxicity of iron, copper and manganese in Parkinson's and Wilson's diseases.  

PubMed

Impaired cellular homeostasis of metals, particularly of Cu, Fe and Mn may trigger neurodegeneration through various mechanisms, notably induction of oxidative stress, promotion of ?-synuclein aggregation and fibril formation, activation of microglial cells leading to inflammation and impaired production of metalloproteins. In this article we review available studies concerning Fe, Cu and Mn in Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease. In Parkinson's disease local dysregulation of iron metabolism in the substantia nigra (SN) seems to be related to neurodegeneration with an increase in SN iron concentration, accompanied by decreased SN Cu and ceruloplasmin concentrations and increased free Cu concentrations and decreased ferroxidase activity in the cerebrospinal fluid. Available data in Wilson's disease suggest that substantial increases in CNS Cu concentrations persist for a long time during chelating treatment and that local accumulation of Fe in certain brain nuclei may occur during the course of the disease. Consequences for chelating treatment strategies are discussed. PMID:24954801

Dusek, Petr; Roos, Per M; Litwin, Tomasz; Schneider, Susanne A; Flaten, Trond Peder; Aaseth, Jan

2014-06-01

406

Geophysical and petrophysical study of an iron oxide copper gold deposit in northern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geophysical–petrophysical study has been performed in an area WSW of the city of Kiruna, northern Sweden. The sub-regional tectonic setting is dominated by two important shear zones, which define the boundary of a granitic body. Many Cu–Fe-occurrences are located in proximity of faults related to these major deformation zones. Particular attention has been given to the Tjårrojåkka iron oxide

Alessandro Sandrin; Sten-Åke Elming

2006-01-01

407

Mineralization of phenol in aqueous solution by ozonation using iron or copper salts and light  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of aqueous phenol (100mgl?1) solutions using ozone, iron III and ultraviolet radiation has been carried out in two different devices: a laboratory installation and a pilot plant. From the results, it has been observed that mineralization of phenol solution is faster with the use of O3\\/UV\\/Fe3+ than with simple ozonation. Additionally, some experiments have shown that the substitution

Cristina Canton; Santiago Esplugas; Juan Casado

2003-01-01

408

Flow-injection determination of copper(II) based on its catalysis on the redox reaction of cysteine with iron(III) in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A redox reaction of cysteine with iron(III) proceeds slowly in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). However, this reaction is accelerated in the presence of copper(II) as a catalyst, producing an iron(II)–phen complex (?max=510 nm). A sensitive spectrophotometric flow-injection method is proposed for the determination of copper(II) based on its catalytic action on this redox reaction. The dynamic range was 0.1–10

Norio Teshima; Hideyuki Katsumata; Makoto Kurihara; Tadao Sakai; Takuji Kawashima

1999-01-01

409

Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.  

PubMed

Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2) + NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination. PMID:21860854

del Carmen Hernández-Soriano, Maria; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

2011-10-01

410

Bioaccumulation of lead, copper, iron, and zinc by fish in a transect of the Santa Catarina River in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Changes have been observed in the ichthyic species community, upriver in the San Juan River in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A disappearance of Notropis amabilis, Notropis stramineus, Dionda episcopa and Campostoma anomalum and an increased mortality of Astyanax mexicanus, Lepomis macrochirus and Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum have been found. These changes were probably due to industrial and domestic discharges which produced high levels of lead, copper, iron and detergents in the water. The investigation reported here was done in order to detect the possible presence of lead, copper, iron and zinc in the river waters and also, to determine a probable bioaccumulation of these metals in fish species of the Santa Catarina River in the state of Nuevo Leon in northeastern Mexico, since this river transports domestic and industrial wastes of urban and suburban zones.

Not Available

1986-09-01

411

Abundant, seasonally variable supply of glacier flour-derived iron drives high nitrate consumption in Copper River plume and adjacent Gulf of Alaska continental shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work has suggested that high iron supply may contribute to a northward increase in phytoplankton biomass along the U.S. west coast, consistent with ``bottom-up'' control of these coastal ecosystems. We examine this hypothesis in waters of the Copper River plume and nearby continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Alaska (GoA). These are the first data we know of

J. Crusius; A. W. Schroth; R. W. Campbell; J. L. Nielsen; I. R. Hoyer; W. Brooks

2010-01-01

412

Determination of Copper, Iron, Nickel and Zinc in fuel kerosene by FAAS after adsorption and pre-concentration on 2-aminothiazole-modified silica gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica gel chemically modified with 2-Aminotiazole groups, abbreviated as SiAT, was used for preconcentration of copper, zinc, nickel and iron from kerosene, normally used as a engine fuel for airplanes. Surface characteristics and surface area of the silica gel were obtained before and after chemical modification using FT-IR, Kjeldhal and surface area analysis (B.E.T.). The retention and recovery of the

P. S. Roldan; I. L. Alcântara; J. C. Rocha; C. C. F. Padilha; P. M. Padilha

2004-01-01

413

Relationship of Maternal Dietary Zinc during Gestation and Lactation to Development and Zinc, Iron and Copper Content of the Postnatal Rat '-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels (0.2 and 0.5% ) of zinc were fed to adult female rats be ginning at zero-day age of the fetus and continued to day 14 of lactation to study the development and iron, copper, and zinc status of zero- and 14-day-old postnatal rats. The results were compared with rats fed a basal diet containing 9 ppm zinc. Growth

MARION R. KETCHESON; GEORGE P. BARRON; DENNIS H. COX

414

Identification of Negative cis-Acting Elements in Response to Copper in the Chloroplastic Iron Superoxide Dismutase Gene of the Moss Barbula unguiculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals. Chloroplasts have two isozymes, copper\\/zinc SOD (Cu\\/ZnSOD) and iron SOD (FeSOD), encoded by nuclear genes. Because bryophytes are considered as the earliest land plants, they are one of the most interesting plant models for adaptation against oxidative stress. In a previous study, we found that the FeSOD

Miwa Nagae; Masaru Nakata; Yohsuke Takahashi

2008-01-01

415

Welding procedure specification: gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper to nickel-chromium-iron. Supplement 1. Records of procedure qualification tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness range of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

C. H. Wodtke; D. R. Frizzell; W. A. Plunkett

1986-01-01

416

An approach to noninvasive delivery, biodistribution, and fertility control potential evaluation of the Cuproferrogel iron oxide-copper-styrene maleic anhydride-dimethyl sulphoxide in the female.  

PubMed

Under guidance of an external pulsed magnetic field the Cuproferrogel iron oxide-copper-styrene maleic anhydride-dimethyl sulphoxide delivered into the rat/rabbit oviduct resulted in oocytes with granulated cytoplasm, zona enlargement, membrane disintegration, and finally loss of viability in 72 hours. Also, the percentage biodistribution of magnetic and electrically conductive particles observed under safe level advocates the use of Cuproferrogel as a potential female fertility control molecule. PMID:20674910

Jha, Rakhi; Jha, Pradeep K; Rana, Suresh V S; Guha, Sujoy K

2010-12-01

417

Essential trace elements selenium, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations and their related acute-phase proteins in patients with vivax malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the status of plasma essential trace elements selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper\\u000a (Cu), and iron (Fe) concentrations and their related acute-phase proteins, ceruloplasmin (Cp), ferritin, transferrin (Tf),\\u000a and albumin levels in patients with vivax malaria. Plasma Cu and Zn concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry\\u000a (AAS). Se concentrations were determined

Adnan Seyrek; Abdurrahim Kocyigit; Ozcan Erel

2005-01-01

418

Welding procedure specification: gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper to nickel-chromium-iron. Supplement 1. Records of procedure qualification tests  

SciTech Connect

Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness range of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

1986-06-01

419

Simultaneous removal of cadmium and nitrate in aqueous media by nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) and Au doped nZVI particles.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has demonstrated high efficacy for treating nitrate or cadmium (Cd) contamination, but its efficiency for simultaneous removal of nitrate and Cd has not been investigated. This study evaluated the reactivity of nZVI to the co-contaminants and by-product formation, employed different catalysts to reduce nitrite yield from nitrate, and examined the transformation of nZVI after reaction. Nitrate reduction resulted in high solution pH, negatively charged surface of nZVI, formation of Fe3O4 (a stable transformation of nZVI), and no release of ionic iron. Increased pH and negative charge contributed to significant increase in Cd(II) removal capacity (from 40 mg/g to 188 mg/g) with nitrate present. In addition, nitrate reduction by nZVI could be catalyzed by Cd(II): while 30% of nitrate was reduced by nZVI within 2 h in the absence of Cd(II), complete nitrate reduction was observed in the presence of 40 mg-Cd/L due to the formation of Cd islands (Cd(0) and CdO) on the nZVI particles. While nitrate was reduced mostly to ammonium when Cd(II) was not present or at Cd(II) concentrations ? 40 mg/L, up to 20% of the initial nitrate was reduced to nitrite at Cd(II) concentrations < 40 mg/L. Among nZVI particles doped with 1 wt. % Cu, Ag, or Au, nZVI deposited with 1 wt. % Au reduced nitrite yield to less than 3% of the initial nitrate, while maintaining a high Cd(II) removal capacity. PMID:24999115

Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Huang, Yuxiong; Sun, Xiaoya; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Keller, Arturo A

2014-10-15

420

Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probes for Dual Recognition of Copper(II) and Iron(III) Ions and Their Application in Bio-Imaging  

PubMed Central

Two new coumarin-based “turn-off” fluorescent probes, (E)-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1) and (E)-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2), were synthesized and their detection of copper(II) and iron(III) ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective for Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions over other metal ions. However, BS2 is detected directly, while detection of BS1 involves a hydrolysis reaction to regenerate 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin (3) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, of which 3 is able to react with copper(II) or iron(III) ions. The interaction between the tested compounds and copper or iron ions is associated with a large fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of ca. 10?5 M. Preliminary studies employing epifluorescence microscopy demonstrate that Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions can be imaged in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the tested probes. PMID:24419164

García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Cassels, Bruce K.; Pérez, Claudio; Mena, Natalia; Núñez, Marco T.; Martínez, Natalia P.; Pavez, Paulina; Aliaga, Margarita E.

2014-01-01