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Sample records for cai tien giong

  1. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  2. Current Issues in CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Duncan N.

    A great deal of research has been done on instructional strategies and concepts of individualized instruction in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Individualizing instruction within CAI can be defined in terms of an input output process which includes a stimulus array, cognitive processes, and response requirements. Research in these areas of…

  3. Skinner and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Harry N.

    1984-01-01

    The author cites comments of B.F. Skinner supporting the benefits of carefully constructed computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs. Preliminary studies on military populations suggesting the value of CAI are discussed, as is the collection of information about software. (CL)

  4. CAI Terminal Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Peter

    The bewildering number of available terminals which are offered to CAI users presents a rather formidable problem of which one to choose. This article surveys what appear to be evolving standards for terminals. The usefulness of these terminals for CAI purposes is discussed, together with the best known prototype exhibiting the particular feature.…

  5. Experience with the CAIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tighe, Michael F.

    1986-01-01

    Intermetrics' experience is that the Ada package construct, which allows separation of specification and implementation allows specification of a CAIS that is transportable across varying hardware and software bases. Additionally, the CAIS is an excellent basis for providing operating system functionality to Ada applications. By allowing the Byron APSE to be moved easily from system to system, and allowing significant re-writes of underlying code. Ada and the CAIS provide portability as well as transparency to change at the application operating system interface level.

  6. Carbon, CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Russell, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that C is present in CAI's and chondrules. It can be distinguished from matrix C both by its thermal stability and isotopic composition, which implies that it was not introduced after parent body accretion. It is concluded that C must have been present in the chondrule and CAI precursor material. Therefore any models of chondrule and CAI formation and inferences drawn about solar system conditions during these events must take into account the consequences of the presence of C on inclusion chemistry, mineralogy, and oxidation state.

  7. The CAIS 2 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Thall, Richard

    1986-01-01

    The Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) is a proposed MIL-STD intended to promote the portability of Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) tools written in Ada. The standardized interfaces define a virtual operating system, from which portable tools derive their basic services, e.g., file management, input/output, communications, and process control. In the Ada world, such a virtual operating system is called a Kernel Ada Programming Support Environment (KAPSE). The CAIS is a standardized interface between KAPSEs and tools. The CAIS has been proposed as a starting point for standard interfaces to be used in the NASA Software Support Environment (SSE) for the Space Station Program. The status of the CAIS standardization effort and plans for further development are described.

  8. CAI Update: So You Want to Do CAI?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carole

    1979-01-01

    Provides necessary characteristics to consider when selecting a CAI system plus a list of costs and capabilities available with the better known CAI systems. Characteristics of major CAI systems are presented in three categories--large/maxi, mini, and micro systems--in chart form. (JEG)

  9. Skill Specific CAI Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Roberta Z.; Fechter, Sharon Ahern

    Advantages of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for grammar-oriented exercises are considered, and a learning module to help the student prepare for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) exam is described. The exercises are modeled on the TOEFL exam: the student is given a sentence, one part of which is incorrect and is asked to…

  10. Maxi CAI with a Micro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhold, George; And Others

    This paper describes an effective microprocessor-based CAI system which has been repeatedly tested by a large number of students and edited accordingly. Tasks not suitable for microprocessor based systems (authoring, testing, and debugging) were handled on larger multi-terminal systems. This approach requires that the CAI language used on the…

  11. CAI: VS CBE Languages. Authoring, How Soon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carole A.

    This paper gives a view of CAI (computer assisted instruction), computers in education, CAI author languages, and concepts for authoring. Distinctions are drawn among CAI, CBE (computer based education), CMI (computer managed instruction), and CGM (computer managed materials), and the functions of each are described. CAI has been slow in coming…

  12. CAI in Thermodynamics at the USAF Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerley, Aaron R.; Winn, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates computer assisted instruction (CAI) at the United States Air Force (USAF) academy by presenting a sample CAI session involving thermodynamics. Comments on evaluation of the program. Future plans are included. (JN)

  13. CAI in Advanced Literature Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Norman

    1981-01-01

    Ways that computer assisted instruction (CAI) can be useful in teaching English at upperclass and graduate levels are considered, with illustrations from PLATO lessons that have been composed and programmed. One lesson takes advantage of PLATO's graphic design capabilities, which enabled the teacher to design the runic figures and to show them in…

  14. Teacher's Handbook for CAI Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    The handbooks for the most widely used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courses now available on computer terminals at the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University are presented. Handbooks are included for the following courses: Strands Drill-and-practice (arithmetic fundamentals for fourth grade), Logic…

  15. Flexible Teaching Methods for CAI Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, D. G.

    Although much progress has been made in the ten years that computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been researched, two major problems still exist. One is the high cost of CAI; the other is its lack of flexibility. The former problem will abate with improved technology and the creation of educational CAI utility systems. One possible solution to…

  16. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, John E.

    After six years of research in computer assisted instruction (CAI) using PLATO III, a decision was made at the University of Illinois to develop a larger system as a national CAI resource. This document describes the design specifications and problems in the development of PLATO IV, a system which is capable of accomodating up to 4,000 terminals…

  17. Computers for Your Classroom: CAI and CMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David B.; Bozeman, William C.

    1981-01-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost computer systems provides a means of assisting classroom teachers in the performance of their duties. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer-managed instruction (CMI) are two applications of computer technology with which school administrators should become familiar. CAI is a teaching medium in which…

  18. CAI Systems Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, Samuel L.

    In considering the development of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems over the past eleven years, one can see a pattern of interaction between advances in computer hardware and software and continuing efforts to solve the basic problems of CAI: problems of achieving a natural-language capability, of keeping the cost low, and of making…

  19. A risk management approach to CAIS development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Hal; Kerner, Judy; Alden, Tony; Belz, Frank; Tadman, Frank

    1986-01-01

    The proposed DoD standard Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) was developed as a framework set of interfaces that will support the transportability and interoperability of tools in the support environments of the future. While the current CAIS version is a promising start toward fulfilling those goals and current prototypes provide adequate testbeds for investigations in support of completing specifications for a full CAIS, there are many reasons why the proposed CAIS might fail to become a usable product and the foundation of next-generation (1990'S) project support environments such as NASA's Space Station software support environment. The most critical threats to the viability and acceptance of the CAIS include performance issues (especially in piggybacked implementations), transportability, and security requirements. To make the situation worse, the solution to some of these threats appears to be at conflict with the solutions to others.

  20. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  1. Simplified Tutorial Programming for Interactive CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelden, D. L.

    A validated instructional model generated on a large mainframe computer by the military was modified to a microcomputer format for use in programming tutorial computer assisted instruction (CAI) materials, and a simplified, compatible system of generating programs was identified--CP/M and MP/M from Digital Research Corporation. In order to…

  2. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  3. Man-Computer Communications and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, S.

    A variety of direct and indirect instructional activities during the last ten years have employed computers. Within Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) programs, the following broad classes of instructional strategies have been generally accepted: tutorial, drill and practice, review, testing, remediation and diagnosis, problem solving, and…

  4. Magnesium Isotopic Composition of CAIs and Chondrules from CBb Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounelle, M.; Young, E. D.; Shahar, A.; Kearsley, A.

    2006-03-01

    We measured magnesium isotope ratios in 17 chondrules and 3 CAIs from the CBb chondrites HH 237 and QUE 94411 by LA-MC-ICPMS. We find no detectable 26Al excesses in the three CAIs and approximately normal (chondritic) d25Mg in CAIs and chondrules.

  5. Quantitative Models of CAI Rim Layer Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

    1995-09-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to account for the ~50 micrometer-thick layer sequences (Wark-Lovering rims) that typically surround coarse-grained Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), but to date no consensus has emerged on how these rims formed. A two-step process-- flash heating of CAIs to produce a refractory residue on the margins of CAIs [1,2,3], followed by reaction and diffusion between CAIs or the refractory residue and an external medium rich in Mg, Si and other ferromagnesian and volatile elements to form the layers [3,4,5]-- may have formed the rims. We have tested the second step of this process quantitatively, and show that many, but not all, of the layering characteristics of CAI rims in the Vigarano, Leoville, and Efremovka CV3 chondrites can be explained by steady-state reaction and diffusion between CAIs and an external medium rich in Mg and Si. Moreover, observed variations in the details of the layering from one CAI to another can be explained primarily by differences in the identity and composition of the external medium, which appears to have included vapor alone, vapor + olivine, and olivine +/- clinopyroxene +/- vapor. An idealized layer sequence for CAI rims in Vigarano, Leoville, and Efremovka can be represented as MSF|S|AM|D|O, where MSF = melilite (M) + spinel (S) + fassaite (F) in the interior of CAIs; S = spinel-rich layer; AM = a layer consisting either of anorthite (A) alone, or M alone, or both A and M; D = a clinopyroxene layer consisting mainly of aluminous diopside (D) that is zoned to fassaite towards the CAI; and O = olivine-rich layer, composed mainly of individually zoned olivine grains that apparently pre-existed layer formation [3]. A or M are absent between the S and D layers in roughly half of the rims. The O layer varies considerably in thickness (0-60 micrometers thick) and in porosity from rim to rim, with olivine grains either tightly intergrown to form a compact layer or arranged loosely on the outer surfaces of the CAIs

  6. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  7. Research on TRIZ and CAIs Application Problems for Technology Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Li, Qinghai; Bai, Zhonghang; Geng, Lixiao

    In order to realize application of invent problem solve theory (TRIZ) and computer aided innovation software (CAIs) , need to solve some key problems, such as the mode choice of technology innovation, establishment of technology innovation organization network(TION), and achievement of innovative process based on TRIZ and CAIs, etc.. This paper shows that the demands for TRIZ and CAIs according to the characteristics and existing problem of the manufacturing enterprises. Have explained that the manufacturing enterprises need to set up an open TION of enterprise leading type, and achieve the longitudinal cooperation innovation with institution of higher learning. The process of technology innovation based on TRIZ and CAIs has been set up from researching and developing point of view. Application of TRIZ and CAIs in FY Company has been summarized. The application effect of TRIZ and CAIs has been explained using technology innovation of the close goggle valve product.

  8. Physical properties of CAI-rich asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Cellino, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.; Bus, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Some L-type asteroids (collectively called "Barbarians") are known to exhibit an anomalous polarimetric behavior, whose origin - still to be elucidated - can be related to compositional and/or scattering effects. The fact that these asteroids belong to the same taxonomic class (following the De Meo 2009 classification, including NIR) implies that composition must play a role. Sunshine et al. 2008 showed that these asteroids contain high amounts of CAIs, possibly hinting to a formation in an early proto-planetary environment, very rich in refractory material. On the base of this evidence, we started an observational campaign to increase the data coverage of these objects, by obtaining new NIR spectra, photometric and polarimetric measurements. Our first results show that the peculiar features are not restricted to polarimetry. In particular we show the existence of an anomalous distribution of the rotation periods, and a possible relation between CAI abundance and albedos determined by WISE. We tentatively discuss a possible scenario justifying the different observed features.

  9. Titanium Isotopes in CAIs -- Heterogeneities in the Early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leya, I.; Schönbächler, M.; Halliday, A. N.

    2009-03-01

    We present Ti isotope data for CAIs from Allende and Efremovka. The new data demonstrate that n-rich isotopes, e.g., 50Ti, 62Ni, and 96Zr, are correlated in CAIs and that the n-rich addition was heteogeneously distributed in the early solar system.

  10. E-CAI: a novel server to estimate an expected value of Codon Adaptation Index (eCAI)

    PubMed Central

    Puigbò, Pere; Bravo, Ignacio G; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Background The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is a measure of the synonymous codon usage bias for a DNA or RNA sequence. It quantifies the similarity between the synonymous codon usage of a gene and the synonymous codon frequency of a reference set. Extreme values in the nucleotide or in the amino acid composition have a large impact on differential preference for synonymous codons. It is thence essential to define the limits for the expected value of CAI on the basis of sequence composition in order to properly interpret the CAI and provide statistical support to CAI analyses. Though several freely available programs calculate the CAI for a given DNA sequence, none of them corrects for compositional biases or provides confidence intervals for CAI values. Results The E-CAI server, available at , is a web-application that calculates an expected value of CAI for a set of query sequences by generating random sequences with G+C and amino acid content similar to those of the input. An executable file, a tutorial, a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) section and several examples are also available. To exemplify the use of the E-CAI server, we have analysed the codon adaptation of human mitochondrial genes that codify a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (excluding those genes that lack a prokaryotic orthologue) and are encoded in the nuclear genome. It is assumed that these genes were transferred from the proto-mitochondrial to the nuclear genome and that its codon usage was then ameliorated. Conclusion The E-CAI server provides a direct threshold value for discerning whether the differences in CAI are statistically significant or whether they are merely artifacts that arise from internal biases in the G+C composition and/or amino acid composition of the query sequences. PMID:18230160

  11. Metamorphism of an Efremovka Type B CAI and Comparison with Other Settings of Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, T. J.; Aragane, H.; Enokido, Y.; Brearley, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    Primary minerals in a type B CAI from Efremovka are partially altered to feldspathoids, Fe-spinel and secondary anorthite. The extent of recrystallization is not as great as in typical Allende CAIs, but metamorphism has affected Efremovka CAIs.

  12. Jurassic evolution of the Tien-Shan

    SciTech Connect

    Bebeshev, I.I.

    1994-09-01

    Complex studies led to identification of three stages in Jurassic deposits. The stages reflect development periods of the studied deposits. Each stage is represented by a paleogeographic map that indicates the evolution of ancient landforms in the Tien-Shan region in time and space.

  13. Creation and Distribution of CAIs in the Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Davis, S. S.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    CaAl rich refractory mineral inclusions (CAIs) found at 1 - 10% mass fraction in primitive chondrites appear to be several million years older than the dominant (chondrule) components in the same parent bodies. A prevalent concern is that it is difficult to retain CAIs for this long against gas-drag-induced radial drift into the sun. We assess a hot inner (turbulent) nebula context for CAI formation, using analytical models of nebula evolution and particle diffusion. We show that outward radial diffusion in a weakly turbulent nebula can prevent significant numbers of CAI-size particles from being lost into the sun for times of 1 - 3 x 10(exp 6) years. To match the CAI abundances quantitatively, we advocate an enhancement of the inner hot nebula in silicate-forming material, due to rapid inward migration of very primitive, silicate and carbon rich, meter-sized objects. 'Combustion' of the carbon into CO would make the CAI formation environment more reduced than solar, as certain observations imply. Abundant CO might also play a role in mass-independent chemical fractionation of oxygen isotopes as seen in CAIs and associated primitive, high-temperature condensates.

  14. New Titanium Isotope Data for Allende and Efremovka CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leya, Ingo; Schönbächler, Maria; Krähenbühl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-01

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., 50Ti/47Ti, 48Ti/47Ti, and 46Ti/47Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in 50Ti/47Ti and 46Ti/47Ti and are slightly depleted in 48Ti/47Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional 50Ti excess of ~8ɛ relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in 50Ti by ~2ɛ relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of ~10ɛ. This additional 50Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in 62Ni and 96Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., 10Be, 26Al, and 41Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the measured data.

  15. Astrophysics of CAI formation as revealed by silicon isotope LA-MC-ICPMS of an igneous CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, Anat; Young, Edward D.

    2007-05-01

    Silicon isotope ratios of a typical CAI from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite, obtained in situ by laser ablation MC-ICPMS, together with existing 25Mg/ 24Mg data, reveal a detailed picture of the astrophysical setting of CAI melting and subsequent heating. Models for the chemical and isotopic effects of evaporation of the molten CAI are used to produce a univariant relationship between PH 2 and time during melting. The result shows that this CAI was molten for a cumulative time of no more than 70 days and probably less than 15 days depending on temperature. The object could have been molten for an integrated time of just a few hours if isotope ratio zoning was eliminated after melting by high subsolidus temperatures (e.g., > 1300 K) for ˜ 500 yr. In all cases subsolidus heating sufficient to produce diffusion-limited isotope fractionation at the margin of the solidified CAI is required. These stable isotope data point to a two-stage history for this igneous CAI involving melting for a cumulative timescale of hours to months followed by subsolidus heating for years to hundreds of years. The thermobarometric history deduced from combining Si and Mg isotope ratio data implicates thermal processing in the disk, perhaps by passage through shockwaves, following melting. This study underscores the direct link between the meaning of stable isotope ratio zoning, or lack thereof, and the inferred astrophysical setting of melting and subsequent processing of CAIs.

  16. A CAI in the Ivuna CI1 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez, J.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Satake, W.; Le, L.; Ross, D.; Peslier, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered the first well-preserved calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in a CI1 chondrite (Ivuna). Previously, all CI1 chondrites were thought to be devoid of preserved CAI and chondrules due to the near total aqueous alteration to which their parent body (bodies) have been subjected. The CAI is roughly spherical, but with a slight teardrop geometry and a maximum diameter of 170 microns (fig. 1). It lacks any Wark-Lovering Rim. Incipient aqueous alteration, and probably shock, have rendered large portions of the CAI poorly crystalline. It is extremely fine-grained, with only a few grains exceeding 10 microns. We have performed electron microprobe analyses (EPMA), FEG-SEM imaging and element mapping, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) in order to determine the fundamental characteristics of this apparently unique object.

  17. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Earthquakes and landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, H. B.; Strom, A.; Torgoev, I.; Torgoev, A.; Lamair, L.; Ischuk, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magnitude) and the earthquake catalogue of Central Asia until 2009 that was now updated with USGS data (to May 2014). The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously mapped mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data. Considering presently available seismo-tectonic and landslide data, a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S) was defined for the production of more or less continuous geohazards information. This target region includes the entire Kyrgyz Tien Shan, the South-Western Tien Shan in Tajikistan, the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) as well as the Western part in Uzbekistan, the North-Easternmost part in Kazakhstan and a small part of the Eastern Chinese Tien Shan (for the zones outside Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, only limited information was available and compiled). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and the updated earthquake catalogue, the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. First, size-frequency relationships are studied for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. For several regions and major earthquake events, case histories are presented to outline further the close connection between earthquake and landslide hazards in the Tien Shan. From this study, we concluded first that a major hazard component is still now insufficiently known for both types of geohazards

  18. GPS survey of the western Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Peter H.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the background, field work, data collection and analysis, and future plans associated with a collaborative GPS experiment in the Tien Shan of the former Soviet Union. This project involves the amalgamation of two, separately funded projects, which were proposed separately by PIs Hamburger and Reilinger (NSF number EAR-9115159 and NASA number NAG5-1941) and Molnar and Hager (NSF number EAR9117889 and NASA number NAG5-1947). In addition, the work is being conducted under the auspices of the US-USSR Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection, with support from the United States Geological Survey.

  19. GPS survey of the western Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, Bradford H.; Molnar, Peter H.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Reilinger, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    There were two major developments in 1994 in our collaborative GPS experiment in the Tien Shan of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Both were motivated by our expectation that we will ultimately obtain better science at lower cost if we involve our colleagues in the FSU more deeply in (1) the collection and (2) the analysis of data. As an experimental test of the concept of having our local collaborators carry out the field work semi-autonomously, we sent 6 MIT receivers to the Tien Shan for a period of 3 months. To enable our collaborators to have the capability for data analysis, we provided computers for two data analysis centers and organized a two-week training session. This report emphasizes the rationale for deeper involvement of FSU scientists, describes the training sessions, discusses the data collection, and presents the results. We also discuss future plans. More detailed discussion of background, general scientific objectives, discussions with collaborators, and results for the campaigns in 1992 and 1993 have been given in previous reports.

  20. NEW TITANIUM ISOTOPE DATA FOR ALLENDE AND EFREMOVKA CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Leya, Ingo; Schoenbaechler, Maria; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-10

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and are slightly depleted in {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional {sup 50}Ti excess of {approx}8{epsilon} relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in {sup 50}Ti by {approx}2{epsilon} relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of {approx}10{epsilon}. This additional {sup 50}Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in {sup 62}Ni and {sup 96}Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 41}Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the

  1. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  2. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Landslide susceptibility analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, H. B.; Torgoev, A.; Schlögel, R.; Braun, A.; Torgoev, I.; Ischuk, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is the second part of a new geohazards analysis applied to a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia, focused on landslide susceptibility computations that are based on recently compiled geographic, geological and geomorphological data. The core data are a digital elevation model, an updated earthquake catalogue, an active fault map as well as a new landslide inventory. The most recently added digital data are a new simplified geological map, an annual precipitation map, as well as river and road network maps that were produced for the Kyrgyz and Tajik parts of the Tien Shan. On the basis of these records we determine landslide densities with respect to morphological (M), geological (G), river distance (R), precipitation (P), earthquake (E) and fault (F) distance factors. Correlations were also established between scarp locations and the slope angle, distance to rivers, curvature. These correlations show that scarps tend to be located on steeper slopes, farther from rivers and on more convex terrain than the entire landslides. On the basis of the landslide density values computed for each class of the aforementioned factors, two landslide susceptibility maps are created according to the Landslide Factor analysis: the first one considers correlations between the landslide occurrences and the first four factors (MGRP); the second one is based on the first map (MGRP) combined with the seismo-tectonic influence (+ E + F) on landslide distributions. From the comparison of these two maps with actual landslide distributions we infer that the distances to rivers as well as to faults and past earthquakes most strongly constrain the susceptibility of slopes to landslides. We highlight several zones where the landslide susceptibilities computed for the MGRP + E + F factors fit better the observed concentration of landslides than those computed for the MGRP factors alone. For a few zones, both maps produce high landslide susceptibilities that do not well reflect

  3. Use of Selected Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Health Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehler, David L.

    A pilot project examined the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in teaching selected concepts of health and fitness: coronary risk, lifestyle, and nutrition as related to weight control. A convenience sample of 58 students from two Concepts of Health and Fitness classes were randomly assigned to two groups, both of which used…

  4. Effects of Logo and CAI Environments on Cognition and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.

    1986-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of learning logo computer programing and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on specific cognitive skills, metacognitive skills, creativity, and achievement. The programing group scored significantly higher on measures of operational competence, two of three measures of metacognitive skills, and a measure of…

  5. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  6. Introductory CAI Dialogue in Differential Calculus for Freshman Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, C. S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A project on computer based dialogue for freshmen is described and evaluated. The dialogue utilizes a CAI language written in Fortran that allows a designer to easily write and edit questions at his own desk without the use of a terminal. (Author/DT)

  7. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; And Others

    Design techniques for generative computer-assisted-instructional (CAI) systems are described in this report. These are systems capable of generating problems for students and of deriving and monitoring solutions; problem difficulty, instructional pace, and depth of monitoring are all individually tailored and parts of the solution algorithms can…

  8. CAI for the Developmentally Handicapped: Nine Years of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    Initiated nine years ago by the University of Calgary Faculty of Education Computer Applications Unit in cooperation with the nearby Vocational and Rehabilitation Research Institute (VRRI), this project uses computer assisted instruction (CAI) to teach social and vocational skills to developmentally handicapped young adults, many of whom also have…

  9. Distribution and Origin of 36Cl In Allende CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Matzel, J P; Jacobsen, B; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Yin, Q; Ramon, E C; Weber, P; Wasserburg, G J

    2009-12-11

    The abundance of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in early solar system materials provide key information about their nucleosynthetic origin and can constrain the timing of early solar system events. Excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*) correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S ratios provide direct evidence for in situ decay of {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) and have been reported in sodalite (Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}Cl{sub 2}) and wadalite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 2}O{sub 16}Cl{sub 3}) in CAIs and chondrules from the Allende and Ningqiang CV carbonaceous chondrites. While previous studies demonstrate unequivocally that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system, no consensus on the origin or initial abundance of {sup 36}Cl has emerged. Understanding the origin of {sup 36}Cl, as well as the reported variation in the initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio, requires addressing when, where and how chlorine was incorporated into CAIs and chondrules. These factors are key to distinguishing between stellar nucleosynthesis or energetic particle irradiation for the origin of {sup 36}Cl. Wadalite is a chlorine-rich secondary mineral with structural and chemical affinities to grossular. The high chlorine ({approx}12 wt%) and very low sulfur content (<<0.01 wt%) make wadalite ideal for studies of the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S system. Wadalite is present in Allende CAIs exclusively in the interior regions either in veins crosscutting melilite or in zones between melilite and anorthite associated with intergrowths of grossular, monticellite, and wollastonite. Wadalite and sodalite most likely resulted from open-system alteration of primary minerals with a chlorine-rich fluid phase. We recently reported large {sup 36}S* correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S in wadalite in Allende Type B CAI AJEF, yielding a ({sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl){sub 0} ratio of (1.7 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}. This value is the highest reported {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio and is {approx}5 times

  10. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  11. Harvard University Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) Laboratory. Technical Report Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.; Peterson, Theodore I.

    This report is a detailed description of the Harvard CAI Laboratory, including its history, organization, functions, staffing, programs and support. Discussed are materials relating to CAI in general, such as psychological research, modes of instruction, advantages and implementation of CAI. Reviewed also are specific projects of this facility. A…

  12. Observations from a prototype implementation of the Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclimens, M.; Bowerman, R.; Howell, C.; Gill, H.; Hutchison, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS), its purpose, and its history. The paper describes an internal research and development effort at the Mitre Corporation to implement a prototype version of the current CAIS specification and to rehost existing Ada software development tools onto the CAIS prototype. Based on this effort, observations are made on the maturity and functionality of the CAIS. These observations support the government's current policy of publicizing the CAIS specification as a baseline for public review in support of its evolution into a standard which can be mandated for use as Ada is today.

  13. CAIs in CO3 Meteorites: Parent Body or Nebular Alteration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Hutchison, R.; Huss, G. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    1992-07-01

    It is widely held that alteration of Ca Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CV3 and CO3 meteorites occurred in the nebula (Hashimoto 1992). The CO3 chondrites, however, appear to define a metamorphic sequence dominated by parent body, and not nebular, metamorphic effects (Scott and Jones, 1990). To investigate the effects of metamorphism on CAIs we have studied inclusions from 4 CO chondrites: Colony (3.0), Felix (3.2), Lance (3.4), and Warrenton (3.6). In a section of Colony (74 mm^2) 81 CAIs, 30-870 micrometers long, comprise 52 nodular spinel-rich inclusions (fragments of Type-A CAI composed largely of spinel), 12 spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 10 melilite-rich inclusions, 2 hibonite-only inclusions, 2 CaAl4O7-bearing inclusions, and 3 spinel-pyroxene- olivine inclusions. Although a find, CAIs in Colony are relatively fresh, melilite in particular being little altered. In 79% of the spinel-bearing inclusions, spinel has <2wt% FeO, which otherwise ranges to 34.8%. Mg isotopic compositions were determined in 5 selected Colony inclusion; evidence of ^26Mg* from decay of ^26Al was found in 4 CAI. A hibonite-only inclusion has the largest ^26Mg* excess, delta^26Mg 32o/oo. Data show no evidence of isotopic disturbance and define a linear array with slope ^26Mg* /^27Al = (3.4+- 0.6) x 10^-5, like that obtained by Davis and Hinton (1986) in a hibonite-bearing spherule from Ornans. Despite Al/Mg ratios of up to 1500, CaAl4O7 in one inclusion shows no evidence of ^26Mg*; ^26Mg* < 4 x 10^-6. All three melilite-bearing inclusions from Colony C21 (angstrom k(sub)8.3-14.3), C56 (angstrom k(sub)10.5-16) and C62 (angstrom k(sub)15-21) show evidence of radiogenic ^26Mg*. Excess ^26Mg positively correlates with the Al/Mg ratios but the data do not define a unique initial value of ^26Al/^27Al. Data for melilite in C21, in particular, show evidence for disturbance of the Al-Mg system, as is common for Allende CAI (Podosek et al. 1991). Melilites in C56 in contrast show no evidence of

  14. Replacement textures in CAI and implications regarding planetary metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Armstrong, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Formation by a secondary metamorphic event, rather than primary crystallization from a melt or a sequential nebular condensation, is indicated by textural and chemical features of five coarse grained, Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from the Allende meteorite which contain embayed pyroxene surrounded by melilite. It is suggested that the most probable environment for a metamorphic process (requiring the addition of Ca derived from calcite or from the introduction of a fluid phase) is that of a small planetary body, rather than the solar nebula. These results are compatible with O isotopic heterogeneities within CAI, and offer a mechanism for the production of lower temperature alteration phases, together with the rim phases found in these inclusions.

  15. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  16. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

    2009-06-18

    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  17. Primary Reverse Oxygen-Isotope Evolution of Pyroxene in Compact Type A CAIs from the Efremovka and NWA-3118 CV3 Chondrites: Insights into Internal CAI Mixing Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, G. J.; Nagashima, K.; Ivanova, M. A.; Krot, A. N.

    2012-03-01

    ^1^6O-depleted Ti-Al-rich pyroxenes in compact Type A CAIs reflect the composition of the perovsites from which they first formed. Perovsite apparently exchanged oxygen very early, prior to melilite exchange and to initial melting of the CAIs.

  18. Oxygen Isotope Variations at the Margin of a CAI Records Circulation Within the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Simon, Steven B.; Matzel, Jennifer E. P.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2011-03-01

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of 16O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely 16O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  19. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  20. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  1. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  2. CAI-BASIC: A Program to Teach the Programming Language BASIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Thomas Anthony

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program was designed which fulfills the objectives of teaching a simple programing language, interpreting student responses, and executing and editing student programs. The CAI-BASIC program is written in FORTRAN IV and executes on IBM-2741 terminals while running under a time-sharing system on an IBM-360-70…

  3. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  4. Learning with Computers: Implementation of an Integrated Learning System for Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Criminal Justice, Huntsville. Windham School System.

    This publication provides information on implementation of an integrated learning system for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in adult learning environments. The first of the document's nine chapters is an introduction to computer-delivered instruction that addresses the appropriateness of computers in instruction and types of CAI activities.…

  5. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  6. An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

  7. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-03-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  8. CAI in New York City: Report on the First Year's Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Cornelius F.

    1969-01-01

    "The nation's largest CAI operation in a public school system concluded its first full year of operation in June, 1969. The results indicate a very definite success for education's most closely watched use of technology. Three major criteria for success of such a project are 1) acceptance of CAI by the schools and their pupils, 2) per pupil costs…

  9. The Graphics Terminal Display System; a Powerful General-Purpose CAI Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbeck, Frederick W., Brock, Lynn

    The Graphic Terminal Display System (GTDS) was created to support research and development in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The system uses an IBM 360/50 computer and interfaces with a large-screen graphics display terminal, a random-access slide projector, and a speech synthesizer. An authoring language, GRAIL, was developed for CAI, and…

  10. Knowledge-Based CAI: CINS for Individualized Curriculum Sequencing. Final Technical Report No. 290.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wescourt, Keith T.; And Others

    This report describes research on the Curriculum Information Network (CIN) paradigm for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in technical subjects. The CIN concept was first conceived and implemented in the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP). The primary objective of CIN-based CAI and the BIP project has been to develop procedures for providing each…

  11. Less Equals More: Coaching/Prompting CAI as a Tool Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Ted L.

    Recent reviews of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in various journals suggest that the technological and economic barriers to its adoption and use may be overcome in the very near future, and that CAI will be feasible in a number of educational settings. Computer hardware costs have dropped dramatically in recent years, and a variety of…

  12. Learner Control of Instructional Sequencing within an Adaptive Tutorial CAI Environment. Technical Report 75-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; And Others

    A study to test the effects of learner control of the sequencing of instructional tasks when using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems is described. Using a series of CAI modules to teach the COBOL programing language to military personnel, students were able to control various aspects of their learning environment. Among the research…

  13. Curricular and Computer System Compatibility of CAI Programs for Multi-University Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    A brief introduction to developmental efforts in computer assisted instruction (CAI) at Pennsylvania State University is followed by a description of a program of mobile CAI facilities inaugurated in 1970 as part of the inservice continuing education program for teachers. The paper includes very brief descriptions of the graduate level courses…

  14. Audio-Tutorial and CAI Aids for Problem Solving in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    1970-01-01

    Starting from a successful audio-tutorial program, the author initiated a computer assisted tutorial program in solving chemistry problems. Discusses the advantages of computer assisted instruction (CAI) over audiotapes and the advantages of both over conventional instructional methods. Presents a flow chart of a CAI program on a calorimetry…

  15. Computer-Aided Technical Training Using Electronic Equipment On-Line with the CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggett, Geoffrey; And Others

    This report describes an experimental course in the operation and troubleshooting of a communications transceiver, the AN/URC-32, in which the transceiver is used as part of an instructional station in a CAI system. The transceiver and the CAI system are hard-wired together to form a single training system. The system is presently operating in the…

  16. A Multi-Media CAI Terminal Based upon a Microprocessor with Applications for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebner, Ann; Hallworth, H. J.

    The design of the CAI interface described is based on the microprocessor in order to meet three basic requirements for providing appropriate instruction to the developmentally handicapped: (1) portability, so that CAI can be taken into the customary learning environment; (2) reliability; and (3) flexibility, to permit use of new input and output…

  17. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  18. Nebular History of the Allende FoB CAI SJ101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petaev, M. I.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-03-01

    We compare petrologic and chemical characteristics of a unique FoB CAI SJ101 with the results of thermodynamic modeling of condensation of its precursors in a system of solar composition and speculate about nebular formation history of this CAI.

  19. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  20. Compound CAIs Containing Zr-Y-Sc-Rich Inclusions from NWA 3118 and Efremovka CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.; Lorenz, C. A.; Logan, M. A. V.; Kononkova, N. N.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2011-03-01

    CAIs enriched in Zr, Sc and Y provide important records of the refractory element fractionation in the early solar nebula. We discribed mineralogy, petrology and oxygen isotopes of two Zr-rich CAIs from NWA 3118 and from Efremovka.

  1. Climatic and hydrologic changes in the Tien Shan, central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Dozier, J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors analyze climatic hydrologic data from 110 sites collected from the middle of the twentieth century to the present in the Tien Shan, one of the largest mountain systems of central Asia. In spite of a few confounding interregional variations in the temporal changes of surface air temperature, precipitation, runoff, glacier mass, and snow thickness in the Tien Shan, it has been possible to establish statistically significant long-range, with slightly lower values below 2000-m elevation. The precipitation in the Tien Shan increased 1.2 mm yr{sup -1} over the past half-century. The precipitation increase is larger at low altitudes in the northern and western regions than at altitudes above 2000 m. A decrease in snow resources occurred almost everywhere in the Tien Shan; the maximum snow thickness an snow duration have decreased on average 10 cm and 9 days, respectively. The annual runoff is the type of precipitation (liquid or solid). Over the last few decades, periods of glacier decline have coincided with declining river runoff. 45 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R J

    2011-02-25

    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  3. Two Generations of Sodic Metasomatism in an Allende Type B CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-Aluminum rich inclusions (CAI) in Allende, along with other chondritic compo-nents, experienced variable amounts and types of alter-ation of their mineralogy and chemistry. In CAIs, one of the principal types of alteration led to the depo-sition of nepheline and sodalite. Here we extend initial obervations of alteration in an Allende CAI, focus-ing on occurences of nepheline and a nepheline-like phase with unusally high Ca (referred to as "calcic nepheline" in this abstract). Detailed petrographic and microchemical observations of alteration phases in an Allende Type B CAI (TS4) show that two separate generations of "nepheline", with very distinct composi-tions, crystallized around the margins and in the interi-or of this CAI. We use observations of micro-faults as potential temporal markers, in order to place constraints on the timing of alteration events in Allende. These observa-tions of micro-faulting that truncate and offset one gen-eration of "nepheline" indicate that some "nepheline" crystallized before incorporation of the CAI into the Allende parent-body. Some of the sodic metasomatism in some Allende CAIs occurred prior to Allende par-ent-body assembly. The earlier generation of "calcic-nepheline" has a very distinctive, calcium-rich compo-sition, and the second generation is low in calcium, and matches the compositions of nephelines found in near-by altered chondrules, and in the Allende matrix.

  4. Effects of Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated whether the use of the combination of the lecture, discussion and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved the experimental students' attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. The sample comprised 77 Jamaican grade 11 female students from two traditional high schools in Kingston. Attitudes to a biology questionnaire, attitudes to the computer/CAI questionnaire and a biology achievement test (BAT) were used for data collection. The results indicated that the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI were significantly better than those of the control group subjects taught with the lecture and discussion methods; the experimental subjects significantly outscored the control group subjects on the post-test BAT; there were significant differences in their post-test BAT means based on their attitudes to biology in favour of experimental subjects with highly favourable attitudes to biology, but there were no significant differences in their means attributable to their post-test attitudes to the computer/CAI; there was a positive statistically significant but weak relationship between the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and their post-test BAT scores.

  5. Microstructural Investigation of a Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.; Simon, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi-layered mineral sequences that surround many CAIs. These rim layers consist of the primary minerals found in the CAI interiors, but vary in their mineralogy. Several models for their origin have been proposed including condensation, reaction with a nebular gas, evaporation, or combinations of these. However, there still is little consensus on how and when the rims formed. Here, we describe the microstructure and mineralogy of a WL rim on a type B CAI from the Vigarano CV(sub red) chondrite using FIB/TEM to better understand the astrophysical significance of WL rim formation.

  6. Late Quaternary glaciation in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppes, Michéle; Gillespie, Alan R.; Burke, Raymond M.; Thompson, Stephen C.; Stone, John

    2008-04-01

    The Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan contains multiple moraines and drift from late Quaternary glaciations. The spatial/temporal distribution of the glaciers inferred from the moraines suggests that the main factor controlling glacier advance here was the availability of moisture. The dominant modern climatic signatures in northern Central Asia include orographic thunderstorms in summer, cold and dry Siberian high-pressure cells in winter, and westerly cyclonic storms from the North Atlantic and eastern Mediterranean in spring and fall. Changes in any of these systems during the late Quaternary would have varied precipitation delivery to, and glacier growth in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan. Geomorphic mapping and reconnaissance-level 10Be cosmic-ray exposure dating of moraine sequences in six drainages indicate that there were multiple "maximum" advances of similar extents and equilibrium-line depressions across the range. Glaciers in the north and east of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan last advanced to their maximum positions during marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5 and again during MIS 4, while in the south and west of the range advance occurred during MIS 3. In contrast to maritime Europe and North America, there is no evidence of a major glacial advance during MIS 2. Glacier advances during MIS 2 and since were restricted to the vicinity of modern glaciers, allowing the older glacial record to be preserved well.

  7. Phanerozoic evolution of the North Tien Shan microcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grave, Johan; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail; Batalev, Vladislav; van den Haute, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The North Tien Shan microcontinent is the most prominent tectonic unit forming the basement of the northeastern Kyrgyz Tien Shan orogen. The microcontinent can be traced further north through Kazakhstan, to the Stepnyak terrane, and in fact seems to form a continuous continental fragment, the Stepnyak-North Tien Shan microcontinent (SNT). The SNT is underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, with a (meta)sedimentary - (meta)volcanic cover. The sequence is extensively intruded by several magmatic arcs and post-collisional plutons. In this study the NTS crystalline basement and intrusives were targeted for multi-method geochronologic investigation to constrain its Phanerozoic evolution. For this purpose we revisit several sample profiles in the northeastern Kyrgyz Tien Shan, in the broad vicinity of the Issyk-Kul basin. Similar rock-types from the bordering accretionary wedges and suture zone of the Kyrgyz-Terskey and the Dzhalair-Naiman terranes are involved in this study as well. Zircon U/Pb, several Ar systems, fission-track thermochronometers and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He are applied to single rock samples. These methods provide an age array that pinpoints several Phanerozoic thermo-tectonic events that affected the basement rocks in an absolute time-frame. The main regional intrusion phase (magmatic arc) is constrained by zircon U/Pb (SHRIMP) to be Late Ordovician - Early Silurian (447-432 Ma), with smaller post-collisional plutons of Late Permian age (around 290 Ma). Biotite 40Ar/39Ar dating shows rapid Devonian cooling of the rocks, followed by a Permian-Trassic cooling phase (K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar and titanite fission-track dating). There is clear evidence for protracted Mesozoic reactivation and further exhumation of the basement in the Triassic, Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous (apatite fission track - AFT, and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He - AHe, dating and modeling). In distinct areas, Neogene ages (AFT and AHe) constrain the Late Cenozoic cooling and associated

  8. Surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kriti; Bolch, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Surge-type glaciers in High Mountain Asia are mostly observed in Karakoram and Pamir. However, few surge-type glaciers also exist in the Tien Shan, but have not comprehensively studied in detail in the recent literature. We identified surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan either from available literature or by manual interpretation using available satellite images (such as Corona, Hexagon, Landsat, SPOT, IRS) for the period 1960 to 2014. We identified 39 possible surge-type glaciers, showing typical characteristics like looped moraines. Twenty-two of them rapidly advanced during different periods or a surge was clearly described in the literature. For the remaining possible surge-type glaciers either the advance, in terms of time and length, were not mentioned in detail in the literature, or the glaciers have remained either stable or retreated during the entire period of our study. Most of the surge-type glaciers cluster in the Inner Tien Shan (especially in the Ak-Shiirak rage) and the Central Tien Shan, are in size and are facing North, West or North West. Pronounced surge events were observed for North Inylchek and Samoilowitsch glaciers, both of which are located in the Central Tien Shan. Samoilowitsch Glacier retreated by more than 3 km between 1960 (length ~8.9 km) and 1992 (~5.8 km), advanced by almost 3 km until 2006 and slightly retreated thereafter. The most pronounced advance occurred between 2000 and 2002. DEM differencing (based on SRTM3 data and stereo Hexagon and Cartosat-1 data) revealed a significant thickening in the middle reaches (reservoir area) of the glacier between 1973 and 2000 while the surface significantly lowered in the middle and upper parts of the glacier between 2000 and 2006. Hence, the ice mass was transferred to the lower reaches (receiving area) and caused the advance with a maximum thickening of more than 80 m. The ~30 km long North Inylchek Glacier retreated since 1943 and showed a very rapid advance of ~3.5 km especially in

  9. Further Investigations of Minor Element Distributions in Spinels in Type B CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. J.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2004-03-01

    We have measured minor element concentrations in spinels from type B CAIs in Efremovka and Allende. We find a correlation of V and Ti that supports previous interpretations of additional remelting and crystallization events for these objects.

  10. Tungsten and hafnium distribution in calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs) from Allende and Efremovka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humayun, Munir; Simon, Steven B.; Grossman, Lawrence

    2007-09-01

    Recent 182Hf- 182W age determinations on Allende Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) and on iron meteorites indicate that CAIs have initial ɛ182W (-3.47 ± 0.20, 2 σ) identical to that of magmatic iron meteorites after correction of cosmogenic 182W burn-out (-3.47 ± 0.35, 2 σ). Either the Allende CAIs were isotopically disturbed or the differentiation of magmatic irons (groups IIAB, IID, IIIAB, and IVB) all occurred <1 m.y. after CAI formation. To assess the extent of isotopic disturbance, we have analyzed the elemental distribution of Hf and W in two CAIs, Ef2 from Efremovka (CV3 reduced), and Golfball from Allende (CV3 oxidized). Fassaite is the sole host of Hf (10-25 ppm) and, therefore, of radiogenic W in CAIs, with 180Hf/ 184W > 10 3, which is lowered by the ubiquitous presence of metal inclusions to 180Hf/ 184W > 10 in bulk fassaite. Metal alloy (Ni ˜ 50%) is the sole host of W (˜500 ppm) in Ef2, while opaque assemblages (OAs) and secondary veins are the hosts of W in Golfball. A large metal alloy grain from Ef2, EM2, has 180Hf/ 184W < 0.006. Melilite has both Hf and W below detection limits (<0.01 ppm), but the presence of numerous metallic inclusions or OAs makes melilite a carrier for W, with 180Hf/ 184W < 1 in bulk melilite. Secondary processes had little impact on the 182Hf- 182W systematics of Ef2, but a vein cross-cutting fassaite in Golfball has >100 ppm W with no detectable Pt or S. This vein provides evidence for transport of oxidized W in the CAI. Because of the ubiquitous distribution of OAs, interpretations of the 182Hf- 182W isochron reported for Allende CAIs include: (i) all W in the OAs was derived by alteration of CAI metal, or (ii) at least some of the W in OAs may have been equilibrated with radiogenic W during metamorphism of Allende. Since (ii) cannot be ruled out, new 182Hf- 182W determinations on CAIs from reduced CV3 chondrites are needed to firmly establish the initial W isotopic composition of the solar system.

  11. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  12. Correlates of aldosterone-induced increases in Cai2+ and Isc suggest that Cai2+ is the second messenger for stimulation of apical membrane conductance.

    PubMed Central

    Petzel, D; Ganz, M B; Nestler, E J; Lewis, J J; Goldenring, J; Akcicek, F; Hayslett, J P

    1992-01-01

    Studies were performed on monolayers of cultured A6 cells, grown on permeable filters, to determine the second messenger system involved in the aldosterone-induced increase in electrogenic sodium transport. Addition of aldosterone (1 microM) to the solution bathing the basal surface of cells caused both an increase in Isc and threefold transient rise in intracellular calcium Cai2+ after a delay of approximately 60 min. Because both events were inhibited by actinomycin D and cyclohexamide, they appeared to require transcriptional and translational processes. Addition of BAPTA to the bathing media to chelate Cai2+ reduced Isc and the delayed Cai2+ transient; 50 microM BAPTA inhibited Isc and the rise in Cai2+ by greater than 80%. Further studies suggested that the action of aldosterone to increase Isc may be dependent on a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, because W-7 and trifluoperazine reduced the aldosterone-induced Isc in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these observations suggest that calcium is a second messenger for the action of aldosterone on sodium transport, and suggest, for the first time, that agonists which bind to intracellular receptors can utilize, via delayed processes dependent on de novo transcription and translation, intracellular second messenger systems to regulate target cell function. PMID:1729267

  13. Search for extinct 36Cl: Vigarano CAIs, the Pink Angel from Allende, and a Ningqiang chondrule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Daisuke; Ott, Ulrich; Hoppe, Peter; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    We have searched for excesses of 36S derived from the decay of extinct 36Cl in sodalite, a secondary Cl-rich mineral, in Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Vigarano and Allende CV3 chondrites and in a chondrule from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. The presence of sodalite in two CAIs from Vigarano and its absence from surrounding CAI fragments suggests sodalite formation after CAI fragmentation. As for sodalite in the Allende Pink Angel CAI, oxygen isotopic compositions have been interpreted as indicative of high temperature interactions, thus suggesting formation prior to accretion to the parent body, probably in a nebular setting. Sodalite in the Ningqiang chondrule is considered to have formed via alkali-Ca exchange, which is believed to have occurred before accretion to the parent body. Sodalites in the Vigarano CAIs and in the Ningqiang chondrule show no clear evidence for the presence of radiogenic 36S. The inferred 2 σ upper limits for 36Cl/ 35Cl at the time of sodalite formation are 1.6 × 10 -6 (Vigarano CAIs) and 3.3 × 10 -6 (Ningqiang chondrule), respectively. In the Pink Angel CAI sodalite exhibits small 36S excesses which weakly correlate with 35Cl/ 34S ratios. The inferred 36Cl/ 35Cl ratio of (1.8 ± 2.2) × 10 -6 (2 σ error) is lower than that found by Hsu et al. [Hsu, W., Guan, Y., Leshin, L. A., Ushikubo, T. and Wasserburg, G. J. (2006) A late episode of irradiation in the early solar system: Evidence from extinct 36Cl and 26Al in meteorites. Astrophys. J. 640, 525-529], thus indicative of heterogeneous distribution of 36Cl in this CAI. Spallation reactions induced by energetic particles from the young Sun are suggested for the origin of 36Cl, similar to the case of 10Be. While 10Be appears to be present in roughly equal abundance in all studied CAIs, our study indicates the level of 36Cl abundances to be variable so that there seems to be no simple relationship between 10Be and 36Cl. This would be expected if trapped cosmic rays rather

  14. Experimental Determination of Li, Be and B Partitioning During CAI Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Brenan, J M; Phinney, D L

    2005-01-12

    The main focus of the work is to develop a better understanding of the distribution of the elements B, Be and Li in melilite, fassaitic clinop clinopy-roxene, anorthite and spinel, which are the primary constituents of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). These elements are the parent or decay products of short-lived nuclides (specifically, {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be) formed by cosmic ray spallation reactions on silicon and oxygen. Recent observations suggest that some CAIs contain ''fossil'' {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be in the form of ''excess'' amounts of their decay products (B and Li). The exact timing of {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be production is unknown, but if it occurred early in CAI history, it could constrain the birthplace of CAIs to be within a limited region near the infant sun. Other interpretations are possible, however, and bear little significance to early CAI genesis. In order to interpret the anomalies as being ''primary'', and thus originating at high temperature, information on the intermineral partitioning of both parent and daughter elements is required.

  15. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

  16. Mineralogy and Petrology of EK-459-5-1, A Type B1 CAI from Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are a type of coarse-grained clast composed of Ca-, Al-, and Mg-rich silicates and oxides found in chondrite meteorites. Type B (CAIs) are exclusively found in the CV chondrite meteorites and are the most well studied type of inclusion found in chondritic meteorites. Type B1 CAIs are distinguished by a nearly monomineralic rim of melilite that surrounds an interior predominantly composed of melilite, fassaite (Ti and Al-rich clinopyroxene), anorthite, and spinel with varying amounts of other minor primary and secondary phases. The formation of Type B CAIs has received considerable attention in the course of CAI research and quantitative models, experimental results and observations from Type B inclusions remain largely in disagreement. Recent experimental results and quantitative models have shown that the formation of B1 mantles could have occurred by the evaporative loss of Si and Mg during the crystallization of these objects. However, comparative studies suggest that the lower bulk SiO2 compositions in B1s result in more prior melilite crystallization before the onset of fassaite and anorthite crystallization leading to the formation of thick melilite rich rims in B1 inclusions. Detailed petrographic and cosmochemical studies of these inclusions will further our understanding of these complex objects.

  17. The Formation Of The First Solids In The Solar System: An Investigation Of CAI Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillifet, Esther; Baillié, K.; Charnoz, S.; Aléon, J.

    2012-10-01

    Chondritic meteorites are primitive bodies and therefore an important source of information on the first moments of planets formation. Chondrites contain several materials especially calcium and aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), known to be the oldest objects of the solar system (4.567 Gyr - Amelin et al., 2002; Connelly et al., 2008) and thus the first solids to be formed. CAIs appear in various textures, sizes and compositions in chondrites. Though, all of them should have formed at high temperature (1300-1800 K) in the same region of the solar nebula by condensation from the gas (e.g. Grossman, 1972; Yoneda & Grossman, 1995; Petaev & Wood, 1998; Ebel & Grossman 2000). To answer this problem we study the CAI formation within the solar nebula using numerical simulations. For this work we developed a self consistent thermodynamical model of the solar nebula (see associated talk from Baillié et. al ) based on previous works (Calvet et. al, 1991; Hueso & Guillot, 2005; Dullemond, Dominik and Natta, 2001). Using this model, we simulate the young system with Lagrangian Implicit Disk Transport code (LIDT - Charnoz et. al, 2010). We will focus on the very first instants of the CAIs within the few years following their condensation. We will report our first results in terms of thermal history and investigate if turbulence-driven transport may explain the CAI diversity.

  18. A FIB/TEM Study of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multilayered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Several processes have been proposed for WL rim formation, including condensation, flash-heating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these [e.g. 1-7], but no consensus exists. Our previous coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and NanoSIMS O isotopic measurements showed that a WL rim experienced flash heating events in a nebular environment with planetary O isotopic composition, distinct from the (16)O-rich formation environment [6]. Our efforts have focused on CAIs from the CV(sub red) chondrites, especially Vigarano, because these have escaped much of the parent body alteration effects that are common in CAIs from CV(sub ox) group.

  19. Verification of new cloud discrimination algorithm using GOSAT TANSO-CAI in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Y.; Ishida, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched in 2009 to measure the global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. GOSAT is equipped with two sensors: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The presence of clouds in the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) of the FTS leads to incorrect estimates of the concentrations. Thus, the FTS data which are suspected to be cloud-contaminated must be identified using a CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and rejected. Conversely, overestimation of clouds leads to reduce the amount of the FTS data which can be used to estimate the greenhouse gases concentrations. It becomes a serious problem in the region of tropical rainforest such as the Amazon, where there are very few remaining FTS data by cloud cover. The preparation for the launch of the GOSAT-2 in fiscal 2017 has been progressing. To improve the accuracy of estimates of the greenhouse gases concentrations, we need to refine the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm. For the reason, a new cloud discrimination algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was developed. Visual inspections can use the locally optimized thresholds, though the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm uses the common thresholds all over the world. Thus, it is certain that the accuracy of visual inspections is better than these algorithms in the limited region without areas such as ice and snow, where it is difficult to discriminate between clouds and ground surfaces. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of the new cloud discrimination algorithm by comparing with the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and visual inspections of the same CAI images in the Amazon. We will present our latest results.

  20. Deriving High Resolution UV Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia using CAI-OMI Joint Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring aerosols using near UV spectral region have been successfully performed over decades by Ozong Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with benefit of strong aerosol signal over continuous dark surface reflectance, both land and ocean. However, because of big foot print of OMI, the cloud contamination error was a big issue in the UV aerosol algorithm. In the present study, high resolution UV aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia was derived by collaborating the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (GOSAT/TANSO)-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) and OMI together. AOD of 0.1 degree grid resolution was retrieved using CAI band 1 (380nm) by bring OMI lv.2 aerosol type, single scattering albedo, and aerosol layer peak height in 1 degree grid resolution. Collocation of the two dataset within the 0.5 degree grid with time difference of OMI and CAI less than 5 minute was selected. Selected region becomes wider as it goes to the higher latitude. Also, calculated degradation factor of 1.57 was applied to CAI band1 (380nm) by comparing normalized radiance and Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of both sensors. The calculated degradation factor was reasonable over dark scene, but inconsistent over cirrus cloud and bright area. Then, surface reflectance was developed by compositing CAI LER minimum data over three month period, since the infrequent sampling rate associated with the three-day recursion period of GOSAT and the narrow CAI swath of 1000 km. To retrieve AOD, look up table (LUT) was generated using radiative transfer model VLIDORT NGST. Finally, the retrieved AOD was validated with AERONET ground based measurement data during the Dragon-NE Asia campaign in 2012.

  1. Arginine oscillation explains Na+ independence in the substrate/product antiporter CaiT

    PubMed Central

    Kalayil, Sissy; Schulze, Sabrina; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Most secondary-active transporters transport their substrates using an electrochemical ion gradient. In contrast, the carnitine transporter (CaiT) is an ion-independent, l-carnitine/γ-butyrobetaine antiporter belonging to the betaine/carnitine/choline transporter family of secondary transporters. Recently determined crystal structures of CaiT from Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis revealed an inverted five-transmembrane-helix repeat similar to that in the amino acid/Na+ symporter LeuT. The ion independence of CaiT makes it unique in this family. Here we show that mutations of arginine 262 (R262) make CaiT Na+-dependent. The transport activity of R262 mutants increased by 30–40% in the presence of a membrane potential, indicating substrate/Na+ cotransport. Structural and biochemical characterization revealed that R262 plays a crucial role in substrate binding by stabilizing the partly unwound TM1′ helix. Modeling CaiT from P. mirabilis in the outward-open and closed states on the corresponding structures of the related symporter BetP reveals alternating orientations of the buried R262 sidechain, which mimic sodium binding and unbinding in the Na+-coupled substrate symporters. We propose that a similar mechanism is operative in other Na+/H+-independent transporters, in which a positively charged amino acid replaces the cotransported cation. The oscillation of the R262 sidechain in CaiT indicates how a positive charge triggers the change between outward-open and inward-open conformations as a unifying critical step in LeuT-type transporters. PMID:24101465

  2. High expression of CAI2, a 9p21-embedded long non-coding RNA, contributes to advanced stage neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Barnhill, Lisa M.; Williams, Richard T.; Cohen, Olga; Kim, Youngjin; Batova, Ayse; Mielke, Jenna A.; Messer, Karen; Pu, Minya; Bao, Lei; Yu, Alice L.; Diccianni, Mitchell B.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer with significant genomic and biological heterogeneity. p16 and ARF, two important tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 9p21, are inactivated commonly in most cancers but paradoxically overexpressed in neuroblastoma. Here we report that exon γ in p16 is also part of an undescribed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that we have termed CAI2 (CDKN2A/ARF Intron 2 lncRNA). CAI2 is a single exon gene with a poly A signal located in but independent of the p16/ARF exon 3. CAI2 is expressed at very low levels in normal tissue but is highly expressed in most tumor cell lines with an intact 9p21 locus. Concordant expression of CAI2 with p16 and ARF in normal tissue along with the ability of CAI2 to induce p16 expression suggested that CAI2 may regulate p16 and/or ARF. In neuroblastoma cells transformed by serial passage in vitro, leading to more rapid proliferation, CAI2, p16 and ARF expression all increased dramatically. A similar relationship was also observed in primary neuroblastomas where CAI2 expression was significantly higher in advanced stage neuroblastoma, independently of MYCN amplification. Consistent with its association with high risk disease, CAI2 expression was also significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes, although this effect was reduced when adjusted for MYCN amplification. Taken together, our findings suggested that CAI2 contributes to the paradoxical overexpression of p16 in neuroblastoma, where CAI2 may offer a useful biomarker of high-risk disease. PMID:25028366

  3. The effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ching-Heng

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers, when the effects of computer ownership, prior computer instruction, previous software and programming experience were controlled. The participants were 155 undergraduates enrolled in introductory computer courses at two colleges in North Taiwan during the Fall 1996 semester. Before the treatment period, they were asked to fill out the Background Data Form, instructed with cooperative learning strategy, and trained on cooperative and individual learning with CAI. During the treatment period, they were randomly assigned to the treatment (78 students) or the control group (77 students). The treatment group students used a CAI program on computer numbering, encoding, and hardware systems with their partner throughout all six CAI sessions. The control group students used the same CAI program individually within the six CAI sessions. After the 6-week treatment period, both groups were posttested by a 40-item multiple-choice Computer Science Achievement Test (CSAT) and a 30-item Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). Data for both posttests were collected from 153 students (77 in the treatment, 76 in the control group; 62 males, 91 females) and analyzed by MANCOVA and follow-up univariate hierarchical MRC analyses for ANCOVAs. Based on the covariate-adjusted CSAT scores, the results indicated that students using CAI cooperatively had a significantly higher mean than those using CAI individually. Neither gender nor interaction effects were found. Regarding the covariate-adjusted CAS scores, the results showed that males had a significantly higher mean than females. No treatment or interaction effects were found. Due to the higher computer achievement resulted from cooperative learning with CAI, this study suggested that instructors apply cooperative learning strategy in CAI settings in computer courses

  4. Processing of refractory meteorite inclusions (CAIs) in parent-body atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolak, Morris; Bunch, T. E.; Cassen, Pat; Reynolds, Ray T.; Chang, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in refractory meteorites are shown to have been subject to partial melting during a suitably high gas density/small scale height regime arising during gasdynamic deceleration in a temporary atmosphere around an accreting parent body. The presence of dust in such an atmosphere would have increased the pressure gradient with height, lowering the boiloff rate, and permitting dust particles to become trapped in the partially melted material. CAIs may therefore be studied as probes of a primitive atmosphere.

  5. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS. PMID:26133743

  6. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  7. The Interplay between Different Forms of CAI and Students' Preferences of Learning Environment in the Secondary Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This evaluation study investigated the effects of a teacher-centered versus student-centered computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on 10th graders' earth science student learning outcomes. This study also explored whether the effects of different forms of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on student learning outcomes were influenced by student…

  8. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide above the northern Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefev, Vladimir N.; Volkovitsky, Oleg A.; Kamenogradsky, Nikita E.; Semyonov, Vladimir K.; Sinyakov, Valery P.

    1994-01-01

    The results of systematic perennial measurements of the total ozone (since 1979) and nitrogen dioxide column (since 1983) in the atmosphere in the European-Asian continent center above the mountainmass of the Tien Shan are given. This region is distinguished by a great number of sunny days during a year. The observation station is at the Northern shore of Issyk Kul Lake (42.56 N 77.04 E 1650 m above the sea level). The measurement results are presented as the monthly averaged atmospheric total ozone and NO2 stratospheric column abundances (morning and evening). The peculiarities of seasonal variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents, their regular variances with a quasi-biennial cycles and trends have been noticed. Irregular variances of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents, i.e. their positive and negative anomalies in the monthly averaged contents relative to the perennial averaged monthly means, have been analyzed. The synchronous and opposite in phase anomalies in variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents were explained by the transport and zonal circulation in the stratosphere (Kamenogradsky et al., 1990).

  9. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  10. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Engineering Dynamics. CAI-Systems Memo Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, John W.

    A 90-minute computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit course supplemented by a 1-hour lecture on the dynamic nature of three-dimensional rotations and Euler angles was given to 29 undergraduate engineering students. The area of Euler angles was selected because it is essential to problem-working in three-dimensional rotations of a rigid body, yet…

  11. On the Design and Development of Pedagogy-First CAI Tools for CS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadaparty, K.; And Others

    This paper presents the implications of an ongoing project on the design and development of multimedia instructional material for teaching and learning computer science topics at both graduate and undergraduate levels. Important pedagogical requirements that CAI software should satisfy include: (1) animation of the changes in tree topologies; (2)…

  12. C.A.I. as a Means for Educational Justice in Primary Schools: A Greek Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raptis, Nicos

    This study examines the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on the inequalities in education among children of less privileged backgrounds. A natural science lesson was taught to 116 children at the fifth level of the Greek primary school. Subjects went to two different public schools, one of which was in a privileged area, and the…

  13. A Pseudo-Language for Creating CAI Programs on APL Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucker, Edward J.

    1973-01-01

    Encourages the use of APL as a language for computer assisted instruction (CAI) instead of such languages as BASIC or COURSEWRITER. Describes a set of APL functions that can simulate to some extent the features of COURSEWRITER, while permitting a more experienced course author to use the full mathematical power of APL. (Author/JF)

  14. Learner Control of Instructional Sequencing Within an Adaptive Tutorial CAI Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study was designed to test effects of a specified degree of learner control over the sequencing of instructional materials in a self contained tutorial CAI course in COBOL programming. Findings describe contributions and interactions of learner controlled variables with respect to instructional effectiveness and efficiency. (RAO)

  15. Role of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in an Introductory Computer Concepts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in undergraduate education via a survey of related literature and specific applications. Describes an undergraduate computer concepts course and includes appendices of instructions, flowcharts, programs, sample student work in accounting, COBOL instructional model, decision logic in a…

  16. Implementing CAI at San Juan College: Toward the Campus of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, John B.

    In 1991, a study was conducted at San Juan College (SJC) to examine existing research, issues, and faculty attitudes and needs regarding computer-assisted instruction (CAI). A faculty needs assessment survey was prepared and conducted, a review of the research literature was undertaken, and initial guidelines were drafted for the utilization of…

  17. CAI for the Visually Handicapped: Promising Collaboration Between Two and Four-Year Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, William K.; And Others

    This report describes the efforts of the Office of Research and Extension of the North Carolina State University (NCSU) School of Education to develop vocal computer-assisted instruction (CAI) tutorials for blind junior college students, the rationale behind those efforts, the costs and means of funding for the project, and suggested ways in which…

  18. Evaluation of Title I CAI Programs at Minnesota State Correctional Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Richard S.; Welch, Wayne W.

    Three Minnesota correctional institutions used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on PLATO terminals to improve reading and mathematics skills: (1) the State Reformatory for Men, St. Cloud (males, ages 17-21); (2) the Minnesota Home School, Sauk Centre (males and females, ages 12-18); and (3) the State Training School, Red Wing (males, ages…

  19. 35 Secondary V Students Comment on Their Experience With C.A.I. (Preliminary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gateau, Bernard

    An instrument has been designed and used to quantify the degree of student dissatisfaction with computer-assisted instruction (CAI) experiences. The instrument, entitled PERPI-LPI, was derived from the service test Perceptions Etudiantes de la Relation Professeur-Etudiants (Student Observations on the Teacher-Student Relationship). It measures the…

  20. A Cross-National CAI Tool To Support Learning Operations Decision-Making and Market Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Robert J.; Afanasiev, Mikhail Y.; Dologite, Dorothy G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes bicultural (United States and Russia) development of a computer-aided instruction (CAI) tool to learn management decision-making using information systems technologies. The program has been used with undergraduate and graduate students in both countries; it integrates free and controlled market concepts and combines traditional computer…

  1. Performance assessment of the cellulose absorption index (CAI) method for estimating crop residue cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and quick field estimation of crop residues are important for carbon sequestration and biofuel production programs. Landscape-scale assessment of this vital information has promoted the use of remote sensing technology. The cellulose absorption index (CAI) technique has outperformed other ...

  2. Assessing the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Undergraduate Latin American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Jack

    This paper assesses the impact of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in three American University undergraduate classes, a General Education survey course on Latin America (taught in English), and two Spanish language courses. The courses utilized both commercial software programs and software programs authored by faculty using Macintosh…

  3. The Anatomy and Bulk Composition of CAI Rims in the Vigarano (CV3) Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

    1993-07-01

    A striking feature of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrites is the presence of mineralogical layers that typically form rim sequences up to 50 micrometers thick [1]. Many ideas regarding the origin of CAI rims have been proposed, but none are entirely satisfactory. The detailed mineralogy and bulk compositions of relatively unaltered CAI rims in the Vigarano (CV3) chondrite described here provide constraints on hypotheses of rim formation. Rim Mineralogy: CAIs in Vigarano consist of melilite (mel)- and spinel (sp)- rich varieties, both of which are rimmed [2]. Around mel-rich objects, the layer sequence is CAI interior --> sp-rich layer (sometimes absent) --> mel/anorthite (anor) layer --> Ti-Al-rich clinopyroxene (Tpx) layer --> Al- diopside (Al-diop) layer --> olivine (ol) +/- Al-diop layer --> host matrix. The sequence around sp-rich objects differs from this in that the mel/anor layer is absent. Both the sp-rich layer around mel-cored CAIs and the cores of sp-rich CAIs in Vigarano are largely comprised of a fine-grained (<=1 micrometer) intergrowth of sp, Tpx, and minor mel and perovskite. These intergrowths are typically so fine grained that little internal texture is discernible. Mixing calculations suggest the presence of ~10 vol% Tpx in the sp-rich layer of two mel-cored CAIs, and the presence of ~35 vol% Tpx within one sp-cored CAI. The mel/anor layer is sometimes monomineralic, consisting of mel alone, or bimineralic, consisting of both mel and anor. Where bimineralic, anor typically occurs in the outer part of the layer. In places, anor (An(sub)99-100) has partially altered to nepheline and voids. Rim mel is systematically less gehlenitic than mel in the CAI interiors, especially compared to mel in the interior adjacent to the rims. The Tpx layer (>2 and up to 15 wt% TiO2) and Al-diop layer (<2 wt% TiO2) are monomineralic and show chemical zoning trends radial to the CAIs. Moving outward, TiO2 and Al2O3 generally decrease, while SiO2 and Mg

  4. Hydrological regime of Lake Adygine, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falátková, Kristýna; Šobr, Miroslav; Kocum, Jan; Janský, Bohumír

    2014-05-01

    Glacier retreat in high mountain areas around the world is considered one of the major geosciences research topics of last decades. This process may result in formation and further development of glacial lakes that are often unstable and pose a threat to downstream valleys. The studied area is situated at the end of a tributary valley on the northern side of Kyrgyz range, about 40 km south of the capital - Bishkek. Glaciers of Central Tien Shan are considered very sensitive indicators of climate change. The studied lake is part of a system of young lakes situated near the front of a retreating glacier therefore it ranks among potentially dangerous ones. The area is closely observed, terrain research including bathymetric, geophysical, geodetic measurements was carried out during last ten years. The lake level and its dependence on the changing climatic conditions in the area have been monitored in detail at this location since August 2007. Data from two meteorological stations are used to explain lake water level fluctuations, especially during ablation season when the lake is drained by a surface channel. The hydrological regime of the lake is compared with a regime of glacial streams, individual factors that affect it are described and possible trends and uncertainties that arise from it are analysed. The lake is also drained by subsurface channels, and as the water level declines over the cold part of a year, their capacity is studied and compared among years. The main aim of the study is to explain any deviations or changes found in the hydrological regime of the lake and to decide whether their cause could mean a decreased stability of the lake dam. Part of the dam is made up of moraine with buried ice and as the lake is drained by subsurface channels, their capacity can be changed due to moraine subsidence when the ice melts. This may lead either to sudden enlargement of channels' capacity or to their blockage, both of which could cause lake outburst.

  5. Chronology of chrondrule and CAI formation: Mg-Al isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, G. J.; Davis, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Details of the chondrule and Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) formation during the earliest history of the solar system are imperfectly known. Because CAI's are more 'refractory' than ferromagnesian chondrules and have the lowest recorded initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of any solar system materials, the expectation is that CAI's formed earlier than chondrules. But it is not known, for example, if CAI formation had stopped by the time chondrule formation began. Conventional (absolute) age-dating techniques cannot adequately resolve small age differences (less than 10(exp 6) years) between objects of such antiquity. One approach has been to look at systematic differences in the daughter products of short-lived radionuclides such as Al-26 and I-129. Unfortunately, neither system appears to be 'well-behaved.' One possible reason for this circumstance is that later secondary events have partially reset the isotopic systems, but a viable alternative continues to be large-scale (nebular) heterogeneity in initial isotopic abundances, which would of course render the systems nearly useless as chronometers. In the past two years the nature of this problem has been redefined somewhat. Examination of the Al-Mg isotopic database for all CAI's suggests that the vast majority of inclusions originally had the same initial Al-26/Al-27 abundance ratio, and that the ill-behaved isotopic systematics now observed are the results of later partial reequilibration due to thermal processing. Isotopic heterogeneities did exist in the nebula, as demonstrated by the existence of so-called FUN inclusions in CV3 chondrites and isotopically anomalous hibonite grains in CM2 chondrites, which had little or no live Al-26 at the time of their formation. But, among the population of CV3 inclusions at least, FUN inclusions appear to have been a relatively minor nebular component.

  6. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  7. Synchronizing the Absolute and Relative Clocks: Pb-Pb and Al-Mg Systematics in CAIs from the Allende and NWA 2364 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2009-03-01

    A Pb-Pb internal isochron of a type-B CAI from the NWA 2364 CV3 chondrite gives an absolute age of 4568.6 ± 0.2 Ma which contrasts with previous internal Pb-Pb ages of CAIs from Allende and Efremovka. Al-Mg systematics are also reported for CV3 CAIs.

  8. Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), 3N from the oxidized CV chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced CV chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and UR <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB <span class="hlt">CAI</span> are 16O-rich (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and spinel (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (Δ17O approximately -7‰ to -19‰). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 °C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T53A1907S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T53A1907S"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Cenozoic Exhumation of the Terskey Range, Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sobel, E. R.; Macaulay, E. A.; Mikolaichuk, A.; Kohn, B. P.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The glaciated, granitic Terskey range and the associated foreland basin within the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is an ideal region to examine whether Plio-Pleistocene climate change has led to enhanced erosion. Three ca. 1000m vertical profiles were collected in the hanging wall of the main, north-vergent thrust, spaced 25 km apart along strike. AFT analysis have been conducted from the westernmost-transect; all profiles have been analyzed using apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis. AFT and Helium data from the Barskoon gorge profile define parallel trends on the age-elevation plot with apparent exhumation rates of ca. 0.08 km/Myr. The uppermost AFT sample resided for a long period within the partial annealing zone (PAZ); hence, the onset of rapid exhumation defined by the base of the exhumed PAZ appears to be 31±5 Ma. This is earlier than expected from the known regional geology. An alternative interpretation is that the next lowest sample has also been partially reset, such that the onset of exhumation is later and the initial exhumation is more rapid. Helium data from the Kichikyzulsu and Turgenaksu profiles define linear trends on age-elevation plots with apparent exhumation rates of 0.1-0.25 km/Myr and 0.2 km/Myr, respectively. Much older ages at high elevations along the former profile suggest that the base of the Helium partial retention zone (PRZ) has been sampled; the onset of exhumation is roughly constrained to be between 10 and 20 Ma. The onset of rapid exhumation at the latter profile can only be constrained as prior to 11 Ma. Combining the apparent exhumation rate with the age of the youngest samples from each transect provides an estimate of the amount of exhumation since that sample cooled through the PRZ. For the 3 profiles, this implies 1 to 1.2 km, 0.7 to 1.8 km, and 1.5 km of exhumation, assuming that the exhumation rate remained constant. The observed small magnitude and slow rate of exhumation suggests that there has been only limited advection and hence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15858367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15858367"><span id="translatedtitle">Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-<span class="hlt">cai</span> under low pressure in closed environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-<span class="hlt">cai</span> were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-<span class="hlt">cai</span>, it was different from buckwheat. PMID:15858367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Geokh.....1307F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Geokh.....1307F"><span id="translatedtitle">Metal phase in a B1-type <span class="hlt">CAI</span> fragment of the CV Efremovka chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisenko, A. V.; Ignatenko, K. I.; Lavrukhina, A. K.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>Results are presented from petrographical, mineralogical, and chemical analyses of metal particles in two B1-type <span class="hlt">CAI</span> fragments obtained from the Efremovka CV chondrite. The fragments were found to have a broken outer border consisting mainly of grains of Ca phosphates and a Fe/Ni phase. Both fragments are associated with V2O3-rich pyroxene. All individual particles and veins of the fragments are made up from high-Ni tenite, sometimes enriched in V. It is suggested that all features of the metal phase of this chondrite are a consequence of oxidation, or of partial evaporation of the metal followed by its oxidation, and that the characteristics of the metal phase of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> phase of the Efremovka chondrite may correspond to those of the protomatter of some fremdlings, such as the Allende chondrite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928"><span id="translatedtitle">Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007LPI....38.1781S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007LPI....38.1781S"><span id="translatedtitle">Al-26 and Be-10 in Efremovka and Acfer <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: Constraints on the Origin of Short-lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasan, G.; Chaussidon, M.; Bischoff, A.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>In this abstract we present aluminum-26 and beryllium-10 abundances in Efremovka and Acfer <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. These measurements help us to constrain the origin of short-lived radionuclides aluminum-26, beryllium-10.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186361"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. II. Water-rich calcium bromide and iodide hydrates: CaBr2 · 9H2O, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 8H2O, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 7H2O and <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 6.5H2O.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hennings, Erik; Schmidt, Horst; Voigt, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Single crystals of calcium bromide enneahydrate, CaBr(2) · 9H2O, calcium iodide octahydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 8H2O, calcium iodide heptahydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 7H2O, and calcium iodide 6.5-hydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 6.5H2O, were grown from their aqueous solutions at and below room temperature according to the solid-liquid phase diagram. The crystal structure of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 6.5H2O was redetermined. All four structures are built up from distorted Ca(H2O)8 antiprisms. The antiprisms of the iodide hydrate structures are connected either via trigonal-plane-sharing or edge-sharing, forming dimeric units. The antiprisms in calcium bromide enneahydrate are monomeric. PMID:25186361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotopes in the early protoplanetary disk inferred from pyroxene in a classical type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aléon, Jérôme</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A major unanswered question in solar system formation is the origin of the oxygen isotopic dichotomy between the Sun and the planets. Individual Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from CV chondrites exhibit almost the full isotopic range, but how their composition evolved is still unclear, which prevents robust astrochemical conclusions. A key issue is notably the yet unsolved origin of the 16O-rich isotopic composition of pyroxene in type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Here, I report an in-situ oxygen isotope study of the archetypal type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span> USNM-3529-Z from Allende with emphasis on the isotopic composition of pyroxene and its isotopic and petrographic relationships with other major minerals. The O isotopic composition of pyroxene is correlated with indicators of magmatic growth, indicating that the pyroxene evolved from a 16O-poor composition and became progressively enriched in 16O during its crystallization, contrary to the long held assumption that pyroxene was initially 16O-rich. This variation is well explained by isotopic exchange between a 16O-poor partial melt having the isotopic composition of melilite and a 16O-rich gas having the isotopic composition of spinel, during pyroxene crystallization. The isotopic evolution of 3529-Z is consistent with formation in an initially 16O-rich environment where spinel and gehlenitic melilite crystallized, followed by a 16O-depletion associated with melilite partial melting and recrystallization and finally a return to the initial 16O-rich environment before pyroxene crystallization. This strongly suggests that the environment of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation was globally 16O-rich, with local 16O-depletions systematically associated with high temperature events. The Al/Mg isotopic systematics of 3529-Z further indicates that this suite of isotopic changes occurred in the first 150 000 yr of the solar system, during the main <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation period. A new astrophysical setting is proposed, where the 16O-depletion occurs in an optically thin surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011oss..prop....6K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011oss..prop....6K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogy and isotope chemistry of FUN (fractionation and nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, Alexander</p> <p></p> <p>To understand the origin and formation conditions of FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), and their significance for constraining the origin of 26Al and O-isotopic compositions of the primordial dust and gas in the early Solar System, we propose to study mineralogy, petrology, oxidation state of Ti, trace element abundances, and O-, Mg-, Si-, Ca-, and Ti- isotope compositions of FUN and F <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> previously identified in CV and CR chondrites. Twelve out of ~20 FUN and F <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> known will be available for mineralogical study and isotope measurements; these include 1623-5, C1, EK1-4-1, CG-14, BG82DH8, B7F6, B7H10, BG82HB1, KT-1, AXCAI-2771, TE, and Gao-Guenie (b) #3. We will also search for additional FUN and F inclusions among Allende and Efremovka <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with large mass-dependent fractionation effects in Mg. This interdisciplinary research will be done in collaboration with I. Hutcheon (NanoSIMS), G. Huss (SIMS), S. Sutton (XANES), R. Mendybaev and A. Davis (evaporation experiments), F. Ciesla (modeling of evolution of O-isotope reservoirs in the solar nebula), and B. Meyer (modeling of Galactic chemical evolution of O-isotope compositions of dust and gas in the protosolar molecular cloud, and of stellar origin of short-lived radionuclides). The research proposed here is highly relevant to the Science Goals and Objectives of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems Program, specifically ascertain the content, origin, and history of the solar system, and the potential for life elsewhere and increase the understanding of the chemical origin of the Solar System and the processes by which its planets and small bodies have evolved to their present states¿. Our interdisciplinary research (mineralogical and isotopic studies of the earliest solar-system solids, and astrophysical modeling) is designed to understand the origin of 26Al-poor <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with large mass-dependent isotope fractionation effects, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011oss..prop.1106K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011oss..prop.1106K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogy and isotope chemistry of FUN (fractionation and nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, Alexander</p> <p></p> <p>To understand the origin and formation conditions of FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), and their significance for constraining the origin of 26Al and O-isotopic compositions of the primordial dust and gas in the early Solar System, we propose to study mineralogy, petrology, oxidation state of Ti, trace element abundances, and O-, Mg-, Si-, Ca-, and Ti- isotope compositions of FUN and F <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> previously identified in CV and CR chondrites. Twelve out of ~20 FUN and F <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> known will be available for mineralogical study and isotope measurements; these include 1623-5, C1, EK1-4-1, CG-14, BG82DH8, B7F6, B7H10, BG82HB1, KT-1, AXCAI-2771, TE, and Gao-Guenie (b) #3. We will also search for additional FUN and F inclusions among Allende and Efremovka <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with large mass-dependent fractionation effects in Mg. This interdisciplinary research will be done in collaboration with I. Hutcheon (NanoSIMS), G. Huss (SIMS), S. Sutton (XANES), R. Mendybaev and A. Davis (evaporation experiments), F. Ciesla (modeling of evolution of O-isotope reservoirs in the solar nebula), and B. Meyer (modeling of Galactic chemical evolution of O-isotope compositions of dust and gas in the protosolar molecular cloud, and of stellar origin of short-lived radionuclides). The research proposed here is highly relevant to the Science Goals and Objectives of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems Program, specifically ascertain the content, origin, and history of the solar system, and the potential for life elsewhere and increase the understanding of the chemical origin of the Solar System and the processes by which its planets and small bodies have evolved to their present states. Our interdisciplinary research (mineralogical and isotopic studies of the earliest solar-system solids, and astrophysical modeling) is designed to understand the origin of 26Al-poor <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with large mass-dependent isotope fractionation effects, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501"><span id="translatedtitle">Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende <span class="hlt">Cai</span> by Nanosims</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are important to understand processes of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.145..206K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.145..206K"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unknown nuclear effects (FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>): I. Mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wasserburg, Gerald J.; Huss, Gary R.; Papanastassiou, Dimitri; Davis, Andrew M.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We present a detailed characterization of the mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions of twelve FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, including C1 and EK1-4-1 from Allende (CV), that were previously shown to have large isotopic fractionation patterns for magnesium and oxygen, and large isotopic anomalies of several elements. The other samples show more modest patterns of isotopic fractionation and have smaller but significant isotopic anomalies. All FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied are coarse-grained igneous inclusions: Type B, forsterite-bearing Type B, compact Type A, and hibonite-rich. Some inclusions consist of two mineralogically distinct lithologies, forsterite-rich and forsterite-free/poor. All the CV FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> experienced postcrystallization open-system iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration resulting in the formation of secondary minerals commonly observed in non-FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV chondrites. The CR FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> GG#3 shows no evidence for alteration. In all samples, clear evidence of oxygen isotopic fractionation was found. Most samples were initially 16O-rich. On a three-oxygen isotope diagram, various minerals in each FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (spinel, forsterite, hibonite, dmisteinbergite, most fassaite grains, and melilite (only in GG#3)), define mass-dependent fractionation lines with a similar slope of ∼0.5. The different inclusions have different Δ17O values ranging from ∼-25‰ to ∼-16‰. Melilite and plagioclase in the CV FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have 16O-poor compositions (Δ17O ∼-3‰) and plot near the intercept of the Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span> line and the terrestrial fractionation line. We infer that mass-dependent fractionation effects of oxygen isotopes in FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> minerals are due to evaporation during melt crystallization. Differences in Δ17O values of mass-dependent fractionation lines defined by minerals in individual FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are inferred to reflect differences in Δ17O values of their precursors. Differences in δ18O values of minerals defining the mass-dependent fractionation lines in several FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372"><span id="translatedtitle">OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J</p> <p>2008-02-21</p> <p>Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3825W..94L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3825W..94L"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Gosat <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and SPOT Vgt Ndvi Data with Different Season and Land Cover in East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Guo, M.; Tani, H.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has become one of the most widely used indices in remote sensing applications in a variety of fields. Many studies have compared the NDVI values for different satellite sensors. Nowadays, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched on January 23, 2009. It is used to monitor greenhouse gases on the Earth's surface and also has a sensor, the Cloud Aerosol Imager (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>), that senses red and near infrared spectrums. It can also process NDVI data. Therefore, we are first compare GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and SPOT VGT NDVI data in different seasonal and land cover in East Asian, to explore the relationship between the two types of datasets, and to discuss the possibility of extending SPOT VGT data using GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> NDVI data for the same area. We used GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Level 3 data to derive 10-day composite NDVI values for the East Asia region for November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 using the maximum value composite (MVC) method. We compared these values with 10-day composite SPOT VGT NDVI data for the same period. The results show that the correlation coefficients of regression analysis generally revealed a strong correlation between NDVI from the two sensors in November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 (0.88, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively). The differences place may be affected by cloud cover. From the combined analysis of seasonal changes and land cover, we found that the correlations between the SPOT VGT and the GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> NDVI data are less affected by seasonal change and the SPOT VGT data is more sensitive to high vegetation coverage than the GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data. In the future, through continued monitoring and processing by cloud removal technology, the accuracy of GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> NDVI data will be further improved and thus be more widely used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43J..02O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43J..02O"><span id="translatedtitle">The isotopic homogeneity in the early solar system: Revisiting the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozima, M.; Yamada, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Since the first discovery of the mass-independently fractionated oxygen isotopes in anhydrous, high temperature Ca-Al rich inclusion minerals in carbonaceous meteorites (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) by Clayton et al. (1), their common occurrence in primitive meteorites has generally been regarded to reflect some fundamental process prevalent in the early solar nebula. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic composition is uniquely characterized by (i) large mass independent isotopic fractionation and (ii) their isotopic data in an oxygen three isotope plot (δ17O - δ18O (δ17O ≡ {(17O/16O)/(17O/16O)SMOW - 1} × 1000) yield nearly a straight line with a slope 1.0. In establishing these characteristics, ion microprobe analyses has played a central role, especially an isotopic mapping technique (isotopography) was crucial (e.g., 2). The extraordinary oxygen isotopic ratio in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is widely attributed to the self-shielding absorption of UV radiation in CO, one of the dominant chemical compounds in the early solar nebula (3). However, the self-shielding scenario necessarily leads to the unusual prediction that a mean solar oxygen isotopic composition differs from most of planetary bodies including Earth, Moon, and Mars. If the self-shielding process were indeed responsible to the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic anomaly, this would require a fundamental revision of the current theory of the origin of the solar system, which generally assumes the initial total vaporization of nebula material to give rise to isotopic homogenization. The GENESIS mission launched in 2001(4), which collected oxygen in the solar wind was hoped to resolve the isotopic composition of the Sun. However, because of difficulties in correcting for instrumental and more importantly for intrinsic isotopic fractionation between the SW and the Sun, a final answer is yet to be seen (5). Here, we show on the basis of the oxygen isotopic fractionation systematics that the self shielding hypothesis cannot explain the key characteristics of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Meteorites by Focused Ion Beam Sectioning: Recent Applications to <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Primitive Meteorite Matrices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christoffersen, Roy; Keller, Lindsay P.; Han, Jangmi; Rahman, Zia; Berger, Eve L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning has revolutionized preparation of meteorite samples for characterization by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and other techniques. Although FIB is not "non-destructive" in the purest sense, each extracted section amounts to no more than nanograms (approximately 500 cubic microns) removed intact from locations precisely controlled by SEM imaging and analysis. Physical alteration of surrounding material by ion damage, fracture or sputter contamination effects is localized to within a few micrometers around the lift-out point. This leaves adjacent material intact for coordinate geochemical analysis by SIMS, microdrill extraction/TIMS and other techniques. After lift out, FIB sections can be quantitatively analyzed by electron microprobe prior to final thinning, synchrotron x-ray techniques, and by the full range of state-of-the-art analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) techniques once thinning is complete. Multiple meteorite studies supported by FIB/FE-STEM are currently underway at NASA-JSC, including coordinated analysis of refractory phase assemblages in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and fine-grained matrices in carbonaceous chondrites. FIB sectioning of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> has uncovered epitaxial and other overgrowth relations between corundum-hibonite-spinel consistent with hibonite preceding corundum and/or spinel in non-equilibrium condensation sequences at combinations of higher gas pressures, dust-gas enrichments or significant nebular transport. For all of these cases, the ability of FIB to allow for coordination with spatially-associated isotopic data by SIMS provides immense value for constraining the formation scenarios of the particular <span class="hlt">CAI</span> assemblage. For carbonaceous chondrites matrix material, FIB has allowed us to obtain intact continuous sections of the immediate outer surface of Murchison (CM2) after it has been experimentally ion processed to simulate solar wind space weathering. The surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Histories of PGE-rich Metal Particles in a Vigarano <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Metal particles in Vigarano 1623-8, a Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> [1], underwent virtually no sulfidation, as is typical of opaque assemblages from Ca, Al-rich inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrites [2]. In this study, we have identified two large metal grains (M1 and M2) with chemical and mineralogical features that may indicate cooling under different conditions and are, therefore, difficult to understand in the environment of a single <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> thermal evolution. M1 is an almost spherical, kamacite+taenite-bearing particle included in a fassaite grain of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> host; a 17.5 micrometer-long (0.5 micrometer steps) microprobe traverse along M1 shows that Ni and Ru contents in the taenite (31.5 and 1.1 wt%, respectively) are uniform, and differ from those in the adjacent kamacite (Ni=4.5, Ru=0.7 wt%). M2 is a 20 micrometer, irregularly-shaped taenite particle, embedded in a fine-grained (spinel-rich) portion of 1623-8. It has a homogeneous composition with 10.5 wt% Ni, 0.4% Co, 0.7% Re, 0.6% Pt and high concentrations of Ru (6.5 wt%), Os (4.3 wt%) and Ir (8.2 wt%), as previously recognized by [1]. The composition of M2 is such that it should have undergone exsolution at 800 = T >= 600 degrees C (according to experimental data by [3]) to form at least two (alpha+gamma-NiFe), or probably three (+epsilon-RuFe) different phases. Lack of exsolution features in this large grain is therefore indicative of equilibration at relatively high temperatures (T>600 degrees C) followed by rapid cooling. Other metal particles of similar bulk compositions in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Leoville chondrite (also a reduced CV3) show extensive exsolution features that have been interpreted as the result of low- temperature equilibration of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and their constituents after incorporation into their parent body [4, 5]. The relatively high equilibration temperature of M2 is, however, inconsistent with the existence of kamacite in M1. From the phase relations in the Fe-Ni binary, a grain like M1, with 25 wt% bulk Ni</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009gdca.conf..321C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009gdca.conf..321C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo</p> <p></p> <p>It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633"><span id="translatedtitle">FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> or are a byproduct of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2500149','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2500149"><span id="translatedtitle">HIV-1 Capsid Assembly Inhibitor (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Peptide: Structural Preferences and Delivery into Human Embryonic Lung Cells and Lymphocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Braun, Klaus; Frank, Martin; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Reed, Jennifer; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Jürgen; Didinger, Bernd; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Human immunodeficiency virus 1 derived capsid assembly inhibitor peptide (HIV-1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-peptide) is a promising lead candidate for anti-HIV drug development. Its drawback, however, is that it cannot permeate cells directly. Here we report the transport of the pharmacologically active <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-peptide into human lymphocytes and Human Embryonic Lung cells (HEL) using the BioShuttle platform. Generally, the transfer of pharmacologically active substances across membranes, demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), could lead to a loss of function by changing the molecule's structure. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and circular dichroism (CD) studies suggest that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-peptide has an intrinsic capacity to form a helical structure, which seems to be critical for the pharmacological effect as revealed by intensive docking calculations and comparison with control peptides. This coupling of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-peptide to a BioShuttle-molecule additionally improved its solubility. Under the conditions described, the HIV-1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> peptide was transported into living cells and could be localized in the vicinity of the mitochondria. PMID:18695744</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D</p> <p>2005-10-24</p> <p>The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Time scales of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025390','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025390"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural framework of a major intracontinental orogenic termination zone: The easternmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cunningham, D.; Owen, L.A.; Snee, L.W.; Li, J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Barkol Tagh and Karlik Tagh ranges of the easternmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are a natural laboratory for studying the fault architecture of an active termination zone of a major intracontinental mountain range. Barkol and Karlik Tagh and lesser ranges to the north are bounded by active thrust faults that locally deform Quaternary sediments. Major thrusts in Karlik Tagh connect along strike to the east with the left-lateral Gobi-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Fault System in SW Mongolia. From a Mongolian perspective. Karlik Tagh represents a large restraining bend for this regional strike-slip fault system, and the entire system of thrusts and strike-slip faults in the Karlik Tagh region defines a horsetail splay fault geometry. Regionally, there appears to be a kinematic transition from thrust-dominated deformation in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan to left-lateral transpressional deformation in the easternmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. This transition correlates with a general eastward decrease in mountain belt width and average elevation and a change in the angular relationship between the NNE-directed maximum horizontal stress in the region and the pre-existing basement structural grain, which is northwesterly in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (orthogonal to SHmax) but more east-west in the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (acute angular relationship with SHmax . Ar-Ar ages indicate that major range-bounding thrusts in Barkol and Karlik Tagh are latest Permian-Triassic ductile thrust zones that underwent brittle reactivation in the Late Cenozoic. It is estimated that the modern mountain ranges of the extreme easternmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan could have been constructed by only 10-15 km of Late Cenozoic horizontal shortening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18822504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18822504"><span id="translatedtitle">[Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan: morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analysis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gordeev, M I; Zvantsov, A B; Goriacheva, I I; Shaĭkevich, E V; Ezhov, M N; Usenbaev, N T; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Zhakhongirov, Sh M</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic studies of the Anopheles fauna in the valley and foothills of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan identified 5 species of malaria mosquitoes: An. artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Fall, An. claviger Meigen, An. hyrcanus Pallas, An. pulcherrimus Theobald, and superpictus Grassi. An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, and An. messeae were prevalent in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, An. messeae, and An. superpictus were detected in the Western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. An. artemievi was first recorded in Kazakhstan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were noted in the Inferior <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. An. messeae was first observed in the Issyk Kul hollow. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were habitants of the foothills of the South-Western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. An. artemievi, An. hyrcanus, An. superpictus, and An. pulcherrimus were in the plain. An. pulcherrimus and An. superpicts mosquitoes are regarded as important vectors in the new malaria foci of the Fergana regions. The role of An. artemievi in the transmission of malaria is to be specified. PMID:18822504</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GPC...143...81J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GPC...143...81J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent glacier changes in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan observed by satellite gravity measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Shuanggen; Tian, X.; Feng, G.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The glaciers in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are extensive and play an important role in water cycle in central Asia. However, it is difficult to accurately monitor glacier variations in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan due to the lack of in situ widespread measurements. In this paper, glacier mass variations in the Tian Shan are obtained and investigated from 10 years of monthly GRACE gravity solutions (January 2003-December 2012) and the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), including seasonal, secular and interannual variations . Results show that significant seasonal variations of glacier mass are found with the maximum normally in April-June and the minimum around in November-December. The trends in all four regions are positive from 2002 to 2005 and negative from 2005 to 2012, indicating that the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan glaciers are increasing prior to 2005 and significantly melting after 2005. These changes are consistent with the temperature change in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. In addition, in the past decade the precipitation has decreased and evapotranspiration has increased, which have joint influences on glacier mass changes in different regions of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending the granularity of representation and control for the MIL-STD <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> 1.0 node model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, Kathy L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Common APSE (Ada 1 Program Support Environment) Interface Set (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) (DoD85) node model provides an excellent baseline for interfaces in a single-host development environment. To encompass the entire spectrum of computing, however, the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> model should be extended in four areas. It should provide the interface between the engineering workstation and the host system throughout the entire lifecycle of the system. It should provide a basis for communication and integration functions needed by distributed host environments. It should provide common interfaces for communications mechanisms to and among target processors. It should provide facilities for integration, validation, and verification of test beds extending to distributed systems on geographically separate processors with heterogeneous instruction set architectures (ISAS). Additions to the PROCESS NODE model to extend the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> into these four areas are proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21624269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21624269"><span id="translatedtitle">[Demotion and promotion of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Jing and the Medicine School's establishment and abolition three times in the North Song dynasty].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yu-Qing</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Jing was appointed the prime minister in the Chongning period of Song Hui-tsung. The Medical School was moved to the Imperial College from Taichang Temple. It used a 3-year education system and divided graduates into three grades. The preferential policies promised top students as 8 or 9-rank official position, which attracted a lot of intellectuals into the field of medicine. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Jing was demoted three times respectively in the fifth year of the Chongning period, the third year of the Daguan period and the second year of the Zhenghe period, and was promoted again after each demotion. Influenced by changes of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Jing's position and relative policies, the Medical School was also established and abolished three times. PMID:21624269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15746387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15746387"><span id="translatedtitle">Supra-canonical 26Al/27Al and the residence time of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in the solar protoplanetary disk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Young, Edward D; Simon, Justin I; Galy, Albert; Russell, Sara S; Tonui, Eric; Lovera, Oscar</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>The canonical initial 26Al/27Al ratio of 4.5 x 10(-5) has been a fiducial marker for the beginning of the solar system. Laser ablation and whole-rock multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometry magnesium isotope analyses of calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from CV3 meteorites demonstrate that some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> had initial 26Al/27Al values at least 25% greater than canonical and that the canonical initial 26Al/27Al cannot mark the beginning of solar system formation. Using rates of Mg diffusion in minerals, we find that the canonical initial 26Al/27Al is instead the culmination of thousands of brief high-temperature events incurred by <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> during a 10(5)-year residence time in the solar protoplanetary disk. PMID:15746387</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Trace Element Analysis of an Allende Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-5-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Variations in refractory major and trace element composition of calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) provide constraints on physical and chemical conditions and processes in the earliest stages of the Solar System. Previous work indicates that <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have experienced complex histories involving, in many cases, multiple episodes of condensation, evaporation, and partial melting. We have analyzed major and trace element abundances in two core to rim transects of the melilite mantle as well as interior major phases of a Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (EK-459-5-1) from Allende by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of key trace elements with a primary focus on the REEs Tm and Yb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=107209','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=107209"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of the Carnitine Pathway in Escherichia coli: Investigation of the <span class="hlt">cai</span>-fix Divergent Promoter Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buchet, Anne; Eichler, Knut; Mandrand-Berthelot, Marie-Andrée</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The divergent structural operons <span class="hlt">cai</span>TABCDE and fixABCX of Escherichia coli are required for anaerobic carnitine metabolism. Transcriptional monocopy lacZ fusion studies showed that both operons are coexpressed during anaerobic growth in the presence of carnitine, respond to common environmental stimuli (like glucose and nitrate), and are modulated positively by the same general regulators, CRP and FNR, and negatively by H-NS. Overproduction of the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>F specific regulatory protein mediating the carnitine signal restored induction in an fnr mutant, corresponding to its role as the primary target for anaerobiosis. Transcript analysis identified two divergent transcription start points initiating 289 bp apart. DNase I footprinting revealed three sites with various affinities for the binding of the cAMP-CRP complex inside this regulatory region. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that previously reported perfect CRP motif 1, centered at −41.5 of the <span class="hlt">cai</span> transcriptional start site, plays a direct role in the sole <span class="hlt">cai</span> activation. In contrast, mutation in CRP site 2, positioned at −69.5 of the fix promoter, caused only a threefold reduction in fix expression. Thus, the role of the third CRP site, located at −126.5 of fix, might be to reinforce the action of site 2. A critical 50-bp cis-acting sequence overlapping the fix mRNA start site was found, by deletion analysis, to be necessary for <span class="hlt">cai</span> transcription. This region is thought to be involved in transduction of the signal mediated by the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>F regulator. PMID:9573142</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852"><span id="translatedtitle">Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but also penetrates more deeply into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> have been extensively metasomatized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15236483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15236483"><span id="translatedtitle">Neogene coupling between Kuqa Basin and Southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Orogen, Northwestern China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>He, Guang-Yu; Chen, Han-Lin</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Based on the sedimentary and subsiding features of Kuqa foreland basin, this paper presents the following characteristics of Neogene coupling relationship between Kuqa Basin and Southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Orogen, Northwestern China: (1) The Southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Orogen underwent Neogene uplifting of 4 km in height and the Kuqa Basin underwent Neogene subsidence of 4-6 km in depth accordingly beginning in 25 Ma; (2) The Southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Orogen moved continuously toward the Kuqa Basin, with largest structural shortening rate of greater than 53.7%, and the north boundary of the Kuqa Basin retreated continuously southward accordingly since the Miocene; (3) There are two subsidence centers with high subsiding rates and large subsiding extent, located in the eastern and western Kuqa Basin respectively, with the subsiding maximizing in the deposition period of Kuqa Formation. PMID:15236483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructures of Hibonite From an ALH A77307 (CO3.0) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence for Evaporative Loss of Calcium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Keller, Lindsay P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hibonite is a comparatively rare, primary phase found in some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from different chondrite groups and is also common in Wark-Lovering rims [1]. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest refractory phases to form by equilibrium condensation from a cooling gas of solar composition [2] and, therefore, can be a potential recorder of very early solar system processes. In this study, we describe the microstructures of hibonite from one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in ALH A77307 (CO3.0) using FIB/TEM techniques in order to reconstruct its formational history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (RL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (CRL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exercise+AND+weight+AND+loss&pg=5&id=EJ528590','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exercise+AND+weight+AND+loss&pg=5&id=EJ528590"><span id="translatedtitle">A One Year Post-program Assessment of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Weight Management Program for Industrial Employees: Lessons Learned.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dennison, Kathryn F.; And Others</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This study examined whether a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) nutrition program would help employees maintain weight loss and dietary intake improvements over time. Subjects received either no nutrition education, education with microcomputer use, or education without microcomputers. Posttesting found greater weight loss for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> participants,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652"><span id="translatedtitle">A FIB/TEM/Nanosims Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim on an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ca- Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are commonly surrounded by Wark-Lovering (WL) rims - thin (approx. 50 micrometers) multilayered sequences - whose mineralogy is dominated by high temperature minerals similar to those that occur in the cores of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> [1]. The origins of these WL rims involved high temperature events in the early nebula such as condensation, flashheating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these processes. These rims formed after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation but prior to accretion into their parent bodies. We have undertaken a coordinated mineralogical and isotopic study of WL rims to determine the formation conditions of the individual layers and to constrain the isotopic reservoirs they interacted with during their history. We focus here on the spinel layer, the first-formed highest- temperature layer in the WL rim sequence. Results and Discussion: We have performed mineralogical, chemical and isotopic analyses of an unusual ultrarefractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) consisting of an approx. 500 micrometers long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarsegrained perovskite. SHAL is partially surrounded by WL rim. We previously reported on the mineralogy, isotopic compositions and trace elements in SHAL [2-4]. The spinel layer in the WL rim is present only on the hibonite and terminates abruptly at the contact with the coarse perovskite. This simple observation shows that the spinel layer is not a condensate in this case (otherwise spinel would have condensed on the perovskite as well). The spinel layer appears to have formed by gas-phase corrosion of the hibonite by Mg-rich vapors such that the spinel layer grew at the expense of the hibonite. We also found that the spinel layer has the same 16Orich composition as the hibonite. The spinel layer is polycrystalline and individual crystals do not show a crystallographic relationship with the hibonite. An Al-diopside layer overlies the spinel layer, and is present on both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Geote..44..388B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Geote..44..388B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Pamir, and Tibet: History and geodynamics of phanerozoic oceanic basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burtman, V. S.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Geological and biogeographical data on the paleooceanic basins of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and High Asia are summarized. The oceanic crustal rocks in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Pamir, and Tibet belong to the Tethian and Turkestan-Paleoasian systems of paleooceanic basins. The tectonic evolution of these systems in the Phanerozoic was not coeval and unidirectional. The sialic blocks of the future <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Pamir, and Tibet were incorporated into the Eurasian continent during several stages. In the Late Ordovician and Silurian several microcontinents were preliminarily combined into the Kazakh-Kyrgyz continent as a composite aggregation. The territories of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Tarim became a part of Eurasia after the closure of the Turkestan, Ural, and Paleotethian oceans in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian. The territories of the Pamir, Karakorum, Kunlun, and most of Tibet attached to the Eurasian continent in the Triassic. The Lhasa and Kohistan blocks were incorporated into Eurasia in the Cretaceous, whereas Hindustan was docked to Eurasia in the Paleogene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=256253&keyword=clouds&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77956987&CFTOKEN=79541490','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=256253&keyword=clouds&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77956987&CFTOKEN=79541490"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, John S.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433"><span id="translatedtitle">Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae). Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited. PMID:19930595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LPI....41.2255N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LPI....41.2255N"><span id="translatedtitle">Micron Scale Oxygen Isotope Heterogeneity in Anorthite of A Forsterite-bearing Type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span> E60 from Efremovka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagashima, K.; Krot, A. N.; Huss, G. R.; Yurimoto, H.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Oxygen isotope imaging with UH Cameca ims 1280+SCAPS isotope microscope of a Fo-B <span class="hlt">CAI</span> E60 from Efremovka revealed complex distributions of O-isotopes in anorthite supporting isotopic exchange with 16O-poor gas during remelting and recrystallization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505173.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505173.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in Language Arts: Investigating the Influence of Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes on the Learning Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davis, Jamie M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The integration of Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) into the language arts classroom can greatly assist teachers meet the needs of diverse literacy learners. However, this new technology does not come without some concerns, including but not limited to ease of implementation, funding for new hardware and software, appropriate teacher support,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>, a traditional food made in Northeast China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum. PMID:26159472</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:26832141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22knowledge+management%22&pg=6&id=EJ1062828','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22knowledge+management%22&pg=6&id=EJ1062828"><span id="translatedtitle">From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tuan, Luu Trong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532902.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532902.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating Learning Achievements of Thai High School Students in a Sequences and Series Lesson Delivered on <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Based Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chundang, Ungsana; Singhaprink, Wipawaan; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Tantipisalkul, Tasanee; Praekhaow, Puchong</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The current experimental research aims to investigate students' learning outcomes in classes in which the interactive <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (computer-assisted instruction)-based materials were implemented. It also aims to compare the learning outcomes of the students based on regions in which their school is located. The participants were 326 Matthayom-4 students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SciEd..89..707C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SciEd..89..707C"><span id="translatedtitle">The interplay between different forms of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and students' preferences of learning environment in the secondary science class</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Chin-Chung</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>This evaluation study investigated the effects of a teacher-centered versus student-centered computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) on 10th graders' earth science student learning outcomes. This study also explored whether the effects of different forms of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) on student learning outcomes were influenced by student preferences of learning environment (PLE). A total of 347 10th-grade senior high school students participated in this nonequivalent control group quasiexperiment. During a one-week period, one group of students (n = 216) were taught by a teacher-centered <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (TCCAI) model whereas the other group of students (n = 131) were subject to a student-centered <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (SCCAI) method. Results showed that (a) no statistically significant difference on students' earth science achievement was found for either group; (b) TCCAI group had significantly better attitudes toward earth science than did the SCCAI group; furthermore (c) a significant PLE-treatment interaction was found on student attitudes toward the subject matter, where the teacher-centered instructional approach seemed to enhance more positive attitudes of less constructivist-oriented learning preferences students, whereas the student-centered method was more beneficial to more constructivist-oriented learning preferences students on their attitudes toward earth science in a computer-assisted learning environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41I0176K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41I0176K"><span id="translatedtitle">GOSAT CO2 retrieval results using TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> aerosol information over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, M.; Kim, W.; Jung, Y.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Boesch, H.; Goo, T. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the satellite remote sensing of CO2, incorrect aerosol information could induce large errors as previous studies suggested. Many factors, such as, aerosol type, wavelength dependency of AOD, aerosol polarization effect and etc. have been main error sources. Due to these aerosol effects, large number of data retrieved are screened out in quality control, or retrieval errors tend to increase if not screened out, especially in East Asia where aerosol concentrations are fairly high. To reduce these aerosol induced errors, a CO2 retrieval algorithm using the simultaneous TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> aerosol information is developed. This algorithm adopts AOD and aerosol type information as a priori information from the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> aerosol retrieval algorithm. The CO2 retrieval algorithm based on optimal estimation method and VLIDORT, a vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. The CO2 algorithm, developed with various state vectors to find accurate CO2 concentration, shows reasonable results when compared with other dataset. This study concentrates on the validation of retrieved results with the ground-based TCCON measurements in East Asia and the comparison with the previous retrieval from ACOS, NIES, and UoL. Although, the retrieved CO2 concentration is lower than previous results by ppm's, it shows similar trend and high correlation with previous results. Retrieved data and TCCON measurements data are compared at three stations of Tsukuba, Saga, Anmyeondo in East Asia, with the collocation criteria of ±2°in latitude/longitude and ±1 hours of GOSAT passing time. Compared results also show similar trend with good correlation. Based on the TCCON comparison results, bias correction equation is calculated and applied to the East Asia data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T43A2162H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T43A2162H"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake source parameters in the western Tarim basin and the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, G.; Levin, V. L.; Roecker, S. W.; Li, Z.; Wang, H.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Distribution of the continental lithospheric strength is currently debated (e.g., “jelly sandwich” vs. “crème brulee” models). A key argument in this debate is the presence (or absence) of earthquakes in the lower crust and the upper mantle. The Tarim basin is commonly regarded as a relatively rigid block that lies between two actively deformed regions (the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan in the north, and the Tibetan plateau in the south). However, earthquake catalogs suggest intense seismicity in some parts of the basin (e.g., the Jiashi earthquake sequence). Using regional moment tensor inversion and data from temporary/permanent seismic networks, we investigate earthquake source parameters along the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan orogenic belt and the western Tarim basin. Selection of seismic events was made using earthquake catalogs of the China Earthquake Administration. We search for earthquakes with local magnitude over 4 to ensure reasonable signal-to-noise ratios. Preliminary results show that thrust-faulting focal mechanisms with nearly vertical T-axes dominate along the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan, implying uplift and possibly crustal thickening of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan. Within the Tarim basin focal mechanisms show a combination of strike-slip and thrust faulting, suggesting a more complex deformation regime. While most events we investigated are in the upper crust, we found two earthquakes at unusual depths. One, an oblique thrust mechanism with Mw=4.8, is located at 44 km depth beneath the Tarim basin. Active source studies and our own work on receiver function analysis suggest crustal thickness on the order of 50 km in the focal area, placing this earthquake near the bottom of the Tarim-basin crust. Another event, a 37-km deep oblique strike-slip with Mw=4.4, is at the southwestern end of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan, close to the surface trace of the Talas-Fergana fault. This event is also in the lower crust. One nodal plane of the best fitting focal mechanism is nearly parallel to the fault trace, suggesting that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.T41D2931L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.T41D2931L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Controls of Lithospheric Mechanical Strength on the Deformation Pattern of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Y.; Xiong, X.; Zheng, Y.; Hu, X.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is an outstanding example of intracontinental mountain belt, which was built rapidly and formed far away from plate boundaries. It exhibits 300~500 km in width and extends ~2000 km EW, located in central Asia. The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is a key area for solution of the problems relating to intracontinental geodynamics. During last decades, despite a large amount of results based on various geological, geophysical and geodetic data about the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, however, deformation mechanism remains controversial and other several principal problems related to its structure and evolution also have not been completely resolved. As for patterns of continental deformation, they are always controlled by both the forces applied to the lithosphere and by lithospheric resistance to the forces. The latter is often measured by the mechanical strength of lithosphere. The lateral variation of strength of lithosphere has been recognized to be an important factor controlling the spatial construction and temporal evolution of continent. In this study, we investigate the mechanical strength (Te) of lithosphere in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan using wavelet coherency between Bouguer anomaly and topography. The patterns of Te variations are closely related to major tectonic boundaries and blocks. Mechanical strength exhibits a weak zone (Te~5-20km) beneath the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan while its surrounding blocks including Tarim Basin, Junggar Basin and Kazakh platform are characterized by a strong lithosphere (Te>40km). The lateral variations in mechanical strength and velocity field of horizontal movement with GPS demonstrate that strain localization appears at the margins of Tarim Basin, which is also the strong lithospheric domain. It is suggested that the weak lithosphere allows the crustal stress accumulation and the strong lithosphere helps to stress transfer. There is also a good agreement between mechanical strength and shear wave velocity structure in upper mantle. It indicates a strong domain located in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015M%26PS...50.1512I&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015M%26PS...50.1512I&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A compound Ca-, Al-rich inclusion from CV3 chondrite Northwest Africa 3118: Implications for understanding processes during <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyril A.; Krot, Alexander N.; MacPherson, Glenn J.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 3N from the Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 CV3 carbonaceous chondrite is a unique cm-sized compound object, primarily a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, that encloses at least 26 smaller <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> of different types, including compact type A (CTA), B, C, and an ultra-refractory inclusion. Relative to typical type A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> found elsewhere, the bulk compositions of the types A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> within 3N more closely match the bulk compositions predicted by equilibrium condensation of a gas of solar composition. Being trapped within the FoB melt may have protected them from melt evaporation that affected most "stand-alone" <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. 3N originated either as an aggregate of many smaller (mostly types A, B, C) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> plus accreted Fo-bearing material (like an amoeboid olivine aggregate) which experienced partial melting of the whole, or else as a FoB melt droplet that collided with and trapped many smaller solid <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In the former case, 3N recorded the earliest accretion of pebble-sized bodies known. In the latter case, the presence of a large number of individual refractory inclusions within 3N suggests a very high local density of refractory solids in the immediate region of the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> during the brief time while it was melted. Collisions would have occurred on time scales of hours at most, assuming a melt solidification interval for the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 300-400 °C (maximum) and a cooling rate of ~10 °C/h.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980004627','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980004627"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Global Positioning Measurements to Continental Collision in the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Region, Central Asia and GPS Survey of the Western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamburger, Michael W.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Hager, Bradford H.; Molnar, Peter</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>In this report, we summarize what we have accomplished with five years of funding from NASA under its DOSE program, and with a comparable level of funding from NSF. We describe the development of a GPS network in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan of the former Soviet Union, the analysis of data, and the main results. This discussion presents the state of the current network, which has grown significantly since the termination of our DOSE grants, with continued support both from NSF through its continental dynamics program and from NASA's SENH program. Although grants from NASA's DOSE program did not support this growth not directly, it did so indirectly by building the infrastructure that has enabled further expansion in an area where otherwise there would be only a small GPS presence. We note how the network has grown over time, but the emphasis of this discussion is on the quantity and quality of measurements that we have made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geote..49..219S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geote..49..219S"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic evolution of Kazakhstan and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in Neoproterozoic and Early-Middle Paleozoic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samygin, S. G.; Kheraskova, T. N.; Kurchavov, A. M.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Geological information on Kazakhstan and the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan obtained up to the present time has been considered and integrated in order to demonstrate the main features of continental massifs, basins with oceanic crust, island arcs, marginal volcanic-plutonic belts, and transform fault zones differing in type and age. We ascertained the character and probable causes of their evolution and transformations resulting in the origination and development of mosaic structural assembly at margin of the Paleoasian ocean that existed from Neoproterozoic. The main stages of the geodynamic history of Paleozoides in Kazakhstan and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are characterized, and a model of the probable course of regional tectonic events has been proposed. This model is illustrated by published paleomagnetic data and a series of paleotectonic reconstructions for time intervals 950-900, 850-800, 750-700, 650-630, 570-550, 530-515, 500-470, 460-440, and 390-380 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35..283Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35..283Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic interaction between the Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan observed by GPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zubovich, A.; Schöne, T.; Metzger, S.; Mosienko, O.; Mukhamediev, Sh.; Sharshebaev, A.; Zech, C.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The complex tectonic interplay between the Central Asian Southwest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and the north advancing Pamir as well as the role of the Pamir Frontal Thrust (PFT) separating these two orogens along the intervening Alai Valley is yet unclear. In this paper we present data of the newly installed Western Alai GPS profile (WAGP), capturing the deformation signal of both mountain ranges. The 20 km long WAGP records a maximum displacement rate of 9.3 ± 0.8 mm yr-1. The lion's share of displacement (6.0 ± 0.8 mm yr-1) is accommodated between the two stations located directly north and south of the PFT in 5 km distance. The WAGP data nicely complement the existing South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and the Pamir GPS network data, which we present here in a combined reference frame and use it as input for horizontal block rotation/strain models. The model results show that both the Southwest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and the Pamir behave as uniformly strained blocks and rotate counterclockwise (with respect to Eurasia) by 0.93 ± 0.11° Myr-1 and 0.62 ± 0.05° Myr-1, respectively. The Southwest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan undergoes NNE-SSW shortening of -22.1 ± 1.5 × 10-9 year-1 with an insignificant perpendicular extension. The Pamir is shortening with a rate of -10.2 ± 3.8 × 10-9 year-1 in a NNE-SSW direction, which is nearly 2.5 times less than its lateral extension rate. A band of increased deformation along the PFT is bounded to the north by the northern rim of the Alai Valley and extends up to 30-50 km south into the Pamir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T14C..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T14C..07L"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy variations beneath the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lisi, A.; Li, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The goal of this study is to construct 3-D shear-wave structure from surface waves beneath the central part of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, the world’s largest and most active intracontinental orogen. We have analyzed fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave data recorded at the CHENGIS and KNET local seismic networks, which consist of 41 broadband seismic stations. Two different methods, the two-plane-wave inversion technique and the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise, have been adopted to solve for phase velocities. We have applied the first method on fundamental mode Rayleigh wave trains that are extracted from 52 teleseismic events at central frequencies from 7.5 mHz to 50 mHz with a 10 mHz frequency interval. Rayleigh waves at short periods from 10 to 30 s have been determined by stacking two years ambient seismic noise at pairs of seismic stations. Combining the two techniques we are able to generate phase velocity maps at the periods of 10-133 s, which reflect structure from middle crust to about 200 km depth. A clear low velocity zone is imaged beneath the western part of the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan range at short periods, indicating a thick and /or slow crust. The slow anomaly region shifts to north at intermediate periods of 50 to 100 s, which are most sensitive to the shallow upper mantle. On the other hand, fast anomaly is observed in the eastern part of the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan at the same depth range. At long periods of 100 to 133 s, a slow anomaly is imaged in southwest of the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and a fast anomaly is present beneath the Tarim Basin. We have also estimated the azimuthal anisotropy from Rayleigh wave data and found an ENE-WSW fast direction at 20-50 s and WNW-ESE direction at long periods of 60 to 110 s. We will solve for 3-D shear wave structure from the phase velocity maps and discuss the important features of the results and their implications to the formation and evolution of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.C51B0426M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.C51B0426M"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and Spatial Changes of Permafrost in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains Since the Little Ice Age.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marchenko, S.; Romanovsky, V.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>During the Late Holocene there were numerous periods of warming and cooling in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains, Central Asia. Ground temperatures and permafrost area in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan have been subjected to repeated fluctuations during the last millennia brought about by the general planetary changes in climate. The altitudinal oscillations of the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) zero Centigrade isotherm had a range of about 300 m during that time. Air temperature in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains has increased at a higher rate than the global mean during the 20th century. Climate warming in the high-mountains regions could induce the further near-surface permafrost degradation, which may lead to slope instability and permafrost-related hazards. The main objectives of the modeling process were to estimate the permafrost thermal regime and assess the area where permafrost disappeared since the second part of the nineteenth century. To estimate the effect of climate change on permafrost a one-dimensional process-based model was used to simulate the ground thermal regime of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan at a resolution of a half-degree latitude-longitude since the Little Ice Age up to present. The results of numerical simulation show that at an altitude of 2500 m a.s.l. the permafrost temporary formed at least three times during the last 500 years. At the lover altitudinal boundary of permafrost distribution the permafrost temperatures now are close to 0°C and at some sites permafrost degradation has already started. Analysis of measured active layer and permafrost temperatures coupled with numerical thermal modeling (permafrost temperature reanalysis) shows that most of the recently thawed permafrost was formed during the Little Ice Age. The modeling of alpine permafrost dynamics shows that the altitudinal lower boundary of permafrost distribution has shifted by about 150-200 m upward since the end of the Little Ice Age (circa 1850). During the same period, the area of permafrost distribution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009GeCoA..73.5100P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009GeCoA..73.5100P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrologic study of SJ101, a new forsterite-bearing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Allende CV3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petaev, Michail I.; Jacobsen, Stein B.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The forsterite-bearing Type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> SJ101 consists of three major structural units: (1) light patches of sector-zoned, poikilitic Al-rich clinopyroxene (Cpx) with numerous inclusions of small spinel grains and aggregates and subordinate amounts of Mg-rich melilite (Mel) and anorthite (An) (Sp-Cpx lithology), (2) dark sinuous bands of Al-rich clinopyroxene with large (up to ˜300 × 60 μm) poikilitically enclosed euhedral forsterite (Fo) crystals (Fo-Cpx lithology), and (3) the external Cpx-Sp-An rim overlying the entire inclusion. The two major lithologies are always separated by a transition zone of clinopyroxene poikilitically enclosing both forsterite and spinel. The patches of the Sp-Cpx lithology exhibit significant textural and mineralogical variability that is size-dependent. Small patches typically consist of Cpx and spinel with minor remnants of melilite and/or its alteration products. Large patches contain Mel-An-rich cores with either equigranular-ophitic-subophitic or 'lacy' textures reminiscent of those in Types B or C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, respectively. All silicates poikilitically enclose numerous spinel grains of identical habit. Both melilite and anorthite gradually disappear toward the boundary with the Fo-Cpx lithology. Neither the evaporation mantle of Al-rich melilite typical of other FoBs nor the Wark-Lovering rim is present. Secondary minerals include grossular, monticellite, magnetite, and a few grains of wollastonite, andradite, and nepheline. Being a rather typical FoB mineralogically and chemically, texturally SJ101 differs from other FoBs in displaying the nearly complete segregation of forsterite from spinel which occur only in the Fo-Cpx and Sp-Cpx lithologies, respectively. The complex, convoluted internal structure of SJ101 suggests that the coarse-grained Sp-An-Mel-Cpx cores and Fo-Cpx lithology represent the precursor materials of FoBs, proto-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Fo-rich accretionary rims. While the inferred chemistry and mineralogy of the Fo-rich rims</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Fractionation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DFractionation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Fractionation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DFractionation"><span id="translatedtitle">Heating during solar nebula formation and Mg isotopic fractionation in precursor grains of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, S.; Nagahara, H.; Kitagami, K.; Nakagawa, Y.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In some Ca-Al-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) grains, mass-dependent isotopic fractionations of Mg, Si, and O are observed and large Mg isotopic fractionation is interpreted to have been produced by cosmochemical processes such as evaporation and condensation. Mass-dependent Mg isotopic fractionation was found in olivine chondrules of Allende meteorites. Presented is an approximate formula for the temperature of the solar nebula that depends on heliocentric distance and the initial gas distribution. Shock heating during solar nebula formation can cause evaporative fractionation within interstellar grains involved in a gas at the inner zone (a less than 3 AU) of the disk. Alternatively collision of late-accreting gas blobs might cause similar heating if Sigma(sub s) and Sigma are large enough. Since the grain size is small, the solid/gas mass ratio is low and solar (low P(sub O2)), and the ambient gas pressure is low, this heating event could not produce chondrules themselves. Chondrule formation should proceed around the disk midplane after dust grains would grow and sediment to increase the solid/gas ratio there. The heating source there is uncertain, but transient rapid accretion through the disk could release a large amount of heat, which would be observed as FU Orionis events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16929642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16929642"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic pollution and salt intrusion in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Nuoc District, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tho, Nguyen; Vromant, Nico; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Hens, Luc</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>In Ca Mau, Vietnam, farmers converted from rice to shrimp farming, while ignoring the degradation of the aquatic environment. We assessed the seasonal variations in organic pollution of the surface water and salt intrusion in one district and assessed the difference in chemical characteristics of the surface water of shrimp ponds and canals. Several variables reflecting salinity and organic pollution were measured in the wet and dry season. The results show that in the dry season salinity increased to 37.36-42.73 g l(-1) and COD and suspended solids increased to a maximum of 268.7 mg l(-1) and 1312.0 mg l(-1), respectively. In the wet season salinity values of 8.16 to 10.60 g l(-1) were recorded, indicating that salinity could no longer be washed out completely in this season. It is concluded that salinity and suspended solids in the aquatic environment in the <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Nuoc district are increased by shrimp monoculture, whereas organic pollution is contributed by human population pressure. PMID:16929642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38...53K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38...53K"><span id="translatedtitle">Instrument Status and Level 1 Data Processing of TANSO-FTS and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> on GOSAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuze, Akihiko; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei</p> <p></p> <p>The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observes carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) globally from space. It was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Cen-ter. Since February 7, 2009, the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) have been continuously operated. They acquire global data every three days. For the first six months after the launch, on-orbit function, performance, calibration, and validation have been checked-out. The brief summary of instrument design, pre-launch test results, observation plan (grid and sun glint observation and special target mode), onboard calibration schemes, and the initial on-orbit results of radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic performances are presented. TANSO-FTS Level 1A and 1B data processing algorithm and its updates on the ground are also presented. In addition we will show recent on-orbit instrument status such as pointing accuracy, interferogram quality, and radiometric accuracy and vicarious calibration results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..461E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..461E"><span id="translatedtitle">Efremovka E49: A compact type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> containing a partially molten spinel-melilite-diopside xenolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Eframovka E49 is a triangular 2-mm segment from a Compact Type A (CTA) inclusion with large portions of intact core and rim sequence. It is probably a fragment from an originally round approximately equal to 4-mm Ca-Al rich Inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). The core consists of two lithologically different assemblages: (1) The major portion of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains melilite sprinkled with rare spinel, perovskite, and the new Ca-Ti silicate. It is covered by a six-layer rim consisting of (from the interior outward): two layers of Zr- and Y-rich perovskite, spinel, Al-diopside, diopside, and forsteritic olivine. (2) A 650-micron wide complex xenolith contains coarse spinel, melilite, perovskite, and metal in its interior, surrounded by a broad shell of Al-diopside, diopside, and minor fassaite and anorthite, and in the rim fassaite yields Al-diopside yields diopside. Coarse spinels abundantly display resorbtion outlines and some of the grains have been broken down to several amoeboid fragments floating in the eutectic assemblage. All these textures are evidence of local melting of the xenolith followed by fast cooling. No such features are observed in the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Since melting is confined to the xenolith, the melt event must have predated its capture into the core of E49. Ion microprobe trace-element studies reveal distinct differences between Rare Earth Element (REE) abundances in perovskites in the xenolith and the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Perovskites in the xenolith display REE patterns with prominent Yb and small Ce excesses and large Eu depletions. Perovskites in the xenolith show higher abundances of Nb, Zr, and V. Magnesium in xenolith and the host is almost unfractionated. Excesses of Mg-26 are found both in the xenolith and the host with data points plotting along a line with a slope of 4 x 105. This is in accord with the petrographic interpretation and indicates that the melting of the xenolith and its capture in E49 took place early.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Plus+prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPlus%2Bprizes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Plus+prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPlus%2Bprizes"><span id="translatedtitle">Willy: A prize noble Ur-Fremdling - Its history and implications for the formation of Fremdlinge and <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, J. T.; El Goresy, A.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The structure and composition of Willy, a 150-micron-diameter Fremdling in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 5241 from the Allende meteorite, are investigated using optical, secondary-electron, and electron-backscatter microscopy and electron-microprobe analysis. The results are presented in diagrams, maps, tables, graphs, and micrographs and compared with those for other Allende Fremdlinge. Willy is found to have a concentric-zone structure comprising a complex porous core of magnetite, metal, sulfide, scheelite, and other minor phases; a compact magnetite-apatite mantle; a thin (20 microns or less) reaction-assemblage zone; and a dense outer rim of fassaite with minor spinel. A multistage formation sequence involving changes in T and fO2 and preceding the introduction of Willy into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (which itself preceded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> spinel and silicate formation) is postulated, and it is inferred from the apparent lack of post-capture recrystallization that Willy has not been subjected to temperatures in excess of 600 C and may represent the precursor material for many other Fremdlinge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJCEM...7...41C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJCEM...7...41C"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Investigation Into Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on <span class="hlt">CAI</span>/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Li; Zhao, Hua; Jiang, Xi; Kalian, Navin</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The Controlled Auto-Ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. The analyses show that the injection timing plays an important role in affecting the in-cylinder air/fuel mixing and mixture temperature, which in turn affects the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion and engine performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7646E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7646E"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineral chemistry and thermobarometry of peridotite xenoliths from Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan basalts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Egorova, V.; Batalev, V.; Simonov, V.; Bagdassarov, N.; Litasov, Yu.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Meso-Cenozoic basaltoids were revealed in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan on a vast area (>285.000 km2), from the mountainous framing of the Fergana basin in the west to the Dzhungar Alatau spurs in the east. They occur as dikes and stocks among the Paleozoic <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan complexes. Basaltic flows and sills were found among the deposits of the Suluterek Formation localized in the basement of the section of continental sediments filling the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan neotectonic depressions. In the Toyun basin in China and in the Fergana valley, basaltic flows and sills occur among Cretaceous-Paleogene marine deposits. Meso-Cenozoic effusive bodies are mainly olivine and plagioclase basalts. The trace- and rare-earth-element compositions of rocks show that most of the studied basaltic series in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan formed in within-plate magmatic systems related to mantle plume sources. Spinel lherzolite xenoliths were found in basalts from Ortosuu sites located in Kyrgyzstan. New basalt sites with ultramafic xenoliths have high significance for reconstruction of the composition, structure and evolution of the upper mantle of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and geodynamic processes in Central Asia. Spinel lherzolite xenoliths are characterized by an anhydrous four-phase mineral assemblage: olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and brown Cr-spinel. Peridotite textures are largely protogranular. Rock forming minerals have high Mg# = 0.87-0.91 in Ol, 0.87-0.91 in Opx, 0.88-0.91 in Cpx, and 0.75-0.77 in Sp. NiO content in olivine reaches 0.4 wt.%. Clinopyroxenes are Cr-diopside and characterized by high Al2O3 (4.6-7.5 wt%), Cr2O3 (0.7 - 1.11 wt%), Na2O (1.4-1.7 wt%) contents and 0.44-0.5 Ca/(Ca+Mg) ratio. Cr/(Cr+Al) ratio in spinel is equal to 0.09-0.18. Temperatures of equilibration for spinel lherzolites range from 920 to 1150C for Opx-Cpx thermometer and from 920 to 1070C for Ca-in-opx thermometer of Brey, Kohler (1990) and 912-1080C for Opx-Cpx thermometer of Wells (1977). Pressures calculated from Cpx barometer of Nimis (1999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......394B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......394B"><span id="translatedtitle">2.5d teleseismic waveform tomography with application to the <span class="hlt">tien</span> shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Benjamin Ian</p> <p></p> <p>The analysis of passive source seismic data recorded by quasi-linear deployments of broadband stations at teleseismic distances has proven to be an effective means of probing the subsurface of the Earth. However, current methodologies are far from being able to exploit all the interpretable signal in these data sets. In this thesis, I describe a 2.5D, frequency domain, visco-elastic waveform tomography algorithm for imaging with this type of data. To compute synthetic seismograms (the forward problem), the general equations of motion are discretized with p-adaptive finite elements. This approach allows for geometric flexibility and accurate solutions as a function of wavelength. Artificial force distributions manifesting Huygen's principle for the teleseismic events are introduced locally through a Bielak layer. Because of the relatively low frequency content of teleseismic data, regional scale tectonic settings can be parameterized with a modest number of variables and perturbations can be determined directly from a regularized Gauss-Newton system of equations. Waveforms generated by the forward problem compare well with analytic solutions for simple 1D media and with those generated in heterogeneous structures by a finite difference technique. It is demonstrated through examples that the regularized approximate Hessian is particularly effective at focusing backpropagated residuals to their true location. It is observed that full waveform inversion can provide significantly better vertical resolution than arrival time tomography and significantly better lateral resolution than standard surface wave tomography. Used in tandem in a multi-scale approach, surface wave tomography followed by joint surface wave/body wave tomography is shown to be an effective strategy for image reconstruction from a simple starting model. This inversion strategy is then applied to body and surface wave teleseismic waves recorded in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The work of previous investigators is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2493R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2493R"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate- vs. Earthquake-induced Rock-Glacier Advances in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan: Insights from Lichenometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Landgraf, Angela; Korup, Oliver; Sorg, Annina</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Rock glaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of sporadic alpine permafrost. In the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan, most distinct lobes of >200 rock glaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at two major elevation levels. However, a number of particularly low-lying lobes seem difficult to reconcile with palaeoclimatic fluctuations and commensurate changes of permafrost patterns: The minimum elevation of the majority of rock-glacier snouts lies between ~2500 up to ~3700 m a.s.l., but some 10% of rock-glaciers extend down to well below 3000 m a.s.l. We hypothesize that some of the rock glaciers in this area may have formed following strong earthquakes that could have triggered massive supraglacial rock-slope failures, which would have subsequently created sediment-rich rock glaciers from clear-ice glaciers. Our hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, e.g. in 1885 (Ms 6.9), 1887 (Ms 7.3), 1889 (Ms 8.3), and 1911 (Ms 8.1). All of these earthquakes had triggered numerous landslides in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. It is also likely that similarly strong earthquakes had happened before, but their recurrence intervals are long and more palaeoseismological work is in progress. We test whether lichenometry of rock-glacier surfaces together with morphometric analysis are suitable methods to testing our hypothesis. We focus on assessing the possibility of earthquake-triggered rock-glacier advances, and use lichenometry to resolve age patterns of different rock-glacier lobes. We use a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements encompassing seven different species calibrated by gravestones and dated mass-movement deposits. Data on four single and two merging rock glaciers in four selected valleys in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan support the notion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4459365','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4459365"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystal structures of coordination polymers from <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 and proline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lamberts, Kevin; Englert, Ulli</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Completing our reports concerning the reaction products from calcium halides and the amino acid proline, two different solids were found for the reaction of l- and dl-proline with <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2. The enanti­opure amino acid yields the one-dimensional coordination polymer catena-poly[[aqua-μ3-l-proline-tetra-μ2-l-proline-dicalcium] tetra­iodide 1.7-hydrate], {[Ca2(C5H9NO2)5(H2O)]I4·1.7H2O}n, (1), with two independent Ca2+ cations in characteristic seven- and eightfold coordination. Five symmetry-independent zwitterionic l-proline mol­ecules bridge the metal sites into a cationic polymer. Racemic proline forms with Ca2+ cations heterochiral chains of the one-dimensional polymer catena-poly[[di­aquadi-μ2-dl-proline-calcium] diiodide], {[Ca(C5H9NO2)2(H2O)2]I2}n, (2). The centrosymmetric structure is built by one Ca2+ cation that is bridged towards its symmetry equivalents by two zwitterionic proline mol­ecules. In both structures, the iodide ions remain non-coordinating and hydrogen bonds are formed between these counter-anions, the amino groups, coordinating and co-crystallized water mol­ecules. While the overall composition of (1) and (2) is in line with other structures from calcium halides and amino acids, the diversity of the carboxyl­ate coordination geometry is quite surprising. PMID:26090148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611347K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611347K"><span id="translatedtitle">Developments of global greenhouse gas retrieval algorithm using Aerosol information from GOSAT-<span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Woogyung; kim, Jhoon; Jung, Yeonjin; lee, Hanlim; Boesch, Hartmut</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Human activities have resulted in increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration since the beginning of Industrial Revolution to reaching CO2 concentration over 400 ppm at Mauna Loa observatory for the first time. (IPCC, 2007). However, our current knowledge of carbon cycle is still insufficient due to lack of observations. Satellite measurement is one of the most effective approaches to improve the accuracy of carbon source and sink estimates by monitoring the global CO2 distributions with high spatio-temporal resolutions (Rayner and O'Brien, 2001; Houweling et al., 2004). Currently, GOSAT has provided valuable information to observe global CO2 trend, enables our extended understanding of CO2 and preparation for future satellite plan. However, due to its physical limitation, GOSAT CO2 retrieval results have low spatial resolution and cannot cover wide area. Another obstruction of GOSAT CO2 retrieval is low data availability mainly due to contamination by clouds and aerosols. Especially, in East Asia, one of the most important aerosol source areas, it is hard to have successful retrieval result due to high aerosol concentration. The main purpose of this study is to improve data availability of GOSAT CO2 retrieval. In this study, current state of CO2 retrieval algorithm development is introduced and preliminary results are shown. This algorithm is based on optimal estimation method and utilized VLIDORT the vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. This proto type algorithm, developed from various combinations of state vectors to find accurate CO2 concentration, shows reasonable result. Especially the aerosol retrieval algorithm using GOSAT-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> measurements, which provide aerosol information for the same area with GOSAT-FTS measurements, are utilized as input data of CO2 retrieval. Other CO2 retrieval algorithms use chemical transport model result or climatologically expected values as aerosol information which is the main reason of low data availability. With</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880032802&hterms=Cretaceous+Period&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528Cretaceous%2BPeriod%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880032802&hterms=Cretaceous+Period&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528Cretaceous%2BPeriod%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Source parameters for 11 earthquakes in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, central Asia, determined by P and SH waveform inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, Michael R.; Mccaffrey, Robert; Molnar, Peter</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The style and the distribution of faulting occurring today in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan region were studied, by digitizing long-period World-Wide Standard Seismograph Network P and SH waveforms of 11 of the largest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan earthquakes between 1965 and 1982 and then using a least squares inversion routine to constrain their fault plane solutions and depths. The results of the examination indicate that north-south shortening is presently occurring in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, with the formation of basement uplifts flanked by moderately dipping thrust faults. The present-day tectonics of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan seem to be analogous to those of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah during the Laramide orogeny in Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..716F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..716F"><span id="translatedtitle">Substantial glacier mass loss in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan over the past 50 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farinotti, Daniel; Longuevergne, Laurent; Moholdt, Geir; Duethmann, Doris; Mölg, Thomas; Bolch, Tobias; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Güntner, Andreas</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Populations in Central Asia are heavily dependent on snow and glacier melt for their water supplies. Changes to the glaciers in the main mountain range in this region, the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, have been reported over the past decade. However, reconstructions over longer, multi-decadal timescales and the mechanisms underlying these variations--both required for reliable future projections--are not well constrained. Here we use three ensembles of independent approaches based on satellite gravimetry, laser altimetry, and glaciological modelling to estimate the total glacier mass change in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Results from the three approaches agree well, and allow us to reconstruct a consistent time series of annual mass changes for the past 50 years at the resolution of individual glaciers. We detect marked spatial and temporal variability in mass changes. We estimate the overall decrease in total glacier area and mass from 1961 to 2012 to be 18 +/- 6% and 27 +/- 15%, respectively. These values correspond to a total area loss of 2,960 +/- 1,030 km2, and an average glacier mass-change rate of -5.4 +/- 2.8 Gt yr-1. We suggest that the decline is driven primarily by summer melt and, possibly, linked to the combined effects of general climatic warming and circulation variability over the north Atlantic and north Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B"><span id="translatedtitle">An investigative study into the effectiveness of using computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) as a laboratory component of college-level biology: A case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrett, Joan Beverly</p> <p></p> <p>Community colleges serve the most diverse student populations in higher education. They consist of non-traditional, part-time, older, intermittent, and mobile students of different races, ethnic backgrounds, language preferences, physical and mental abilities, and learning style preferences. Students who are academically challenged may have diverse learning characteristics that are not compatible with the more traditional approaches to the delivery of instruction. With this need come new ways of solving the dilemma, such as Computer-aided Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). This case study investigated the use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a laboratory component of college-level biology in a small, rural community college setting. The intent was to begin to fill a void that seems to exist in the literature regarding the role of the faculty in the development and use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. In particular, the investigator was seeking to understand the practice and its effectiveness, especially in helping the under prepared student. The case study approach was chosen to examine a specific phenomenon within a single institution. Ethnographic techniques, such as interviewing, documentary analysis, life's experiences, and participant observations were used to collect data about the phenomena being studied. Results showed that the faculty was primarily self-motivated and self-taught in their use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a teaching and learning tool. The importance of faculty leadership and collegiality was evident. Findings showed the faculty confident that expectations of helping students who have difficulties with mathematical concepts have been met and that <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is becoming the most valuable of learning tools. In a traditional college classroom, or practice, time is the constant (semesters) and competence is the variable. In the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> laboratory time became the variable and competence the constant. The use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also eliminated hazardous chemicals that were routinely used in the more traditional lab. Outcomes showed that annual savings</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12....5K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12....5K"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal block structure by GPS data using neural network in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostuk, A.; Carmenate, D.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>For over ten years regular GPS measurements have been carried out by Research Station RAS in the Central Asia. The results of these measurements have not only proved the conclusion that the Earth's crust meridional compression equals in total about 17 mm/year from the Tarim massif to the Kazakh shield, but have also allowed estimating deformation behavior in the region. As is known, deformation behavior of continental crust is an actively discussed issue. On the one hand, the Earth's crust is presented as a set of microplates (blocks) and deformation here is a result of shifting along the blocks boundaries, on the other hand, lithospheric deformation is distributed by volume and meets the rheological model of nonlinear viscous fluid. This work represents an attempt to detect the block structure of the surface of the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan using GPS velocity fields. As a significant difference from analogous works, appears the vector field clustering with the help of neural network used as a classifier by many criteria that allows dividing input space into areas and using of all three components of GPS velocity. In this case, we use such a feature of neural networks as self-organization. Among the mechanisms of self-organization there are two main classes: self-organization based on the Hebb associative rule and the mechanism of neuronal competition based on the generalized Kohonen rule. In this case, we use an approach of self-organizing networks in which we take neuronal competition as an algorithm for their training. As a rule, these are single-layer networks where each neuron is connected to all components of m-dimensional input vector. GPS vectors of the Central Asian velocity field located within the territory of the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan were used as input patterns. Measurements at GPS sites were fulfilled in 36 hour-long sessions by double-frequency receivers Trimble and Topcon. In so doing, measurement discreteness equaled 30 seconds; the data were processed by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C41B0355R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C41B0355R"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatic vs. Seismic Controlled Rockglacier Advances in Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan - Insights from Lichenometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenwinkel, S.; Korup, O.; Landgraf, A.; Dzhumabaeva, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Glaciers and permafrost landforms in high mountain areas are of major importance for storing and providing fresh water for the surroundings, especially in arid or semi-arid areas as Central Asia. Rockglaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of alpine permafrost. In the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains, the most distinct lobes of >200 rockglaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at minimum elevations between 2500 and 3700 m. However, individual and particularly low-lying lobes extend down to well below 3000 m, and seem difficult to reconcile with regional paleoclimatic fluctuations. To support ground based and satellite imagery estimates on rockglacier advances (1 to 10 m/yr) and to gain information on their morphological characteristics, we present results of terrestrial LiDAR measurements on six rockglaciers in four steep mountain valleys in the Kyrgyz and Kazakh <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Having the ability to destabilize, and thus provide massive sediment input from hillslopes, we hypothesize that strong earthquakes may also have influenced the formation or advance of some of the region's rockglaciers. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active area was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, which have subsequently triggered numerous landslides and rock falls. Using lichenometry, we aim to resolve age patterns on lobes of different rockglaciers located both, in the vicinity and distal from large young historic earthquakes. This method has been used successfully to reconstruct glaciation histories, and paleoseismicity. To gain information about and to compare advance histories of the rockglaciers from the relative ages of their lobes, we compiled a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements of different species (e.g., Rhizocarpon geographicum, Aspicilia tianshanica, Lecanora muralis, and Xanthoria elegans). Results show that lichen age</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JSeis..10..431K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JSeis..10..431K"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismogenic destruction of the Kamenka medieval fortress, northern Issyk-Kul region, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Kyrgyzstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korjenkov, Andrey M.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Crosby, Christopher; Mamyrov, Ernes; Orlova, Lyubov A.; Povolotskaya, Irina E.; Tabaldiev, Kubatbek</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>A paleoseismological study of the medieval Kamenka fortress in the northern part of the Issyk-Kul Lake depression, northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in Kyrgyzstan, revealed an oblique slip thrust fault scarp offsetting the fortification walls. This 700 m long scarp is not related to the 1911 Kebin Earthquake (Ms 8.2) fault scarps which are widespread in the region. As analysis of stratigraphy in a paleoseismic trench and archaeological evidence reveal, it can be assigned to a major twelfth century a.d. earthquake which produced up to 4 m of oblique slip thrusting antithetic to that of the nearby dominant faults. The inferred surface rupturing earthquake apparently caused the fortress destruction and was likely the primary reason for its abandonment, not the Mongolian Tatar invasions as previously thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.C42A..02S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.C42A..02S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Glacial Retreat and Associated Glacial Lake Hazards in the High <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, T. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A number of studies have identified glacial retreat throughout the greater Himalayan region over the past few decades, but the Karakorum region remains an anomaly with large stagnating or advancing glaciers. The glacial behavior in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is still unclear, as few studies have investigated mass balances in the region. This study focuses on the highest peaks of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain range, in the region of Jengish Chokusu along the Kyrgyzstan-China-Kazakhstan border. In a first step, a 30-year time series of Landsat imagery (n=27) and ASTER imagery (n=10) was developed to track glacial growth and retreat in the region. Using a combination of spectral and topographic information, glacial outlines are automatically delineated. As several important glaciers in the study region contain medium to high levels of debris cover, our algorithm also improves upon current methods of detecting debris-covered glaciers by using topography, distance weighting methods, river networks, and additional spectral data. Linked to glacial retreat are glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that have become increasingly common in High Mountain Asia over the last few decades. As glaciers retreat, their melt water is often trapped by weakly bonded moraines. These moraines have been known to fail due to overtopping caused by surge waves created by avalanches, rockslides, or glacial calving. A suite of studies throughout High Mountain Asia have used remotely-sensed data to monitor the formation and growth of glacial lakes. In a second step of the work, lake-area changes over the past 15 years were tracked monthly and seasonally using dense Landsat/ASTER coverage (n=30) with an automatic procedure based on spectral and topographic information. Previous work has identified GLOFs as a significant process for infrastructural damage in the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan/northern Pamir, as well as in the better studied Himalaya region. Lake identification and quantification of lake-growth rates is a valuable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP53D1064S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP53D1064S"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change impacts on glaciers and runoff in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Central Asia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sorg, A. F.; Bolch, T.; Stoffel, M.; Solomina, O.; Beniston, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Climate-driven changes in glacier-fed streamflow regimes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. Reliable information about current and future glaciation and runoff is crucial for water allocation and, hence, for social and ecological stability. Although the impacts of climate change on glaciation and runoff have been addressed in previous work undertaken in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (known as the 'water tower of Central Asia'), a coherent, regional perspective of these findings has not been presented until now. In our study, we explore the range of changes in glaciation in different climatic regions of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan based on existing data. We show that the majority of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan glaciers experienced accelerated glacier wasting since the mid-1970s and that glacier shrinkage is most pronounced in peripheral, lower-elevation ranges near the densely populated forelands, where summers are dry and where snow and glacial meltwater is essential for water availability. The annual glacier area shrinkage rates since the middle of the twentieth century are 0.38-0.76% per year in the outer ranges, 0.15-0.40% per year in the inner ranges and 0.05-0.31% per year in the eastern ranges. This regionally non-uniform response to climate change implies that glacier shrinkage is less severe in the continental inner ranges than in the more humid outer ranges. Glaciers in the inner ranges react with larger time lags to climate change, because accumulation and thus mass turnover of the mainly cold glaciers are relatively small. Moreover, shrinkage is especially pronounced on small or fragmented glaciers, which are widely represented in the outer regions. The relative insensitivity of glaciers in the inner ranges is further accentuated by the higher average altitude, as the equilibrium line altitude ranges from 3'500 to 3'600 masl in the outer ranges to 4'400 masl in the inner ranges. For our study, we used glacier change assessments based both on direct data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for an early nitrogen isotopic evolution in the solar nebula from volatile analyses of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Füri, Evelyn; Chaussidon, Marc; Marty, Bernard</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by CO2 laser extraction static mass spectrometry analysis, as well as Al-Mg and O isotope data from secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses, are reported for a type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616. The high (26Al/27Al)i ratio of (5.06 ± 0.50) × 10-5 dates the last melting event of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> at 39-99+109ka after "time zero", limiting the period during which high-temperature exchanges between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the nebular gas could have occurred to a very short time interval. Partial isotopic exchange with a 16O-poor reservoir resulted in Δ17O > -5‰ for melilite and anorthite, whereas spinel and Al-Ti-pyroxene retain the inferred original 16O-rich signature of the solar nebula (Δ17O ⩽ -20‰). The low 20Ne/22Ne (⩽0.83) and 36Ar/38Ar (⩽0.75) ratios of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> rule out the presence of any trapped planetary or solar noble gases. Cosmogenic 21Ne and 38Ar abundances are consistent with a cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age of ∼14 to 20 Ma, assuming CR fluxes similar to modern ones, without any evidence for pre-irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> before incorporation into the meteorite parent body. Strikingly, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains 1.4-3.4 ppm N with a δ15N value of +8‰ to +30‰. Even after correcting the measured δ15N values for cosmogenic 15N produced in situ, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is highly enriched in 15N compared to the protosolar nebula (δ15NPSN = -383 ± 8‰; Marty et al., 2011), implying that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-forming region was contaminated by 15N-rich material within the first 0.15 Ma of Solar System history, or, alternatively, that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was ejected into the outer Solar System where it interacted with a 15N-rich reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.374...11S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.374...11S"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on 10Be and 41Ca distribution in the early solar system from 26Al and 10Be studies of Efremovka <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasan, Gopalan; Chaussidon, Marc</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Three refractory coarse grained <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite, one (E65) previously shown to have formed with live 41Ca, were studied by ion microprobe for their 26Al-26Mg and 10Be-10B systematic in order to better understand the origin of 10Be. The high precision Al-Mg data and the inferred 26Al/27Al values attest that the precursors of the three <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> evolved in the solar nebula over a period of few hundred thousand years before last melting-crystallization events. The initial 10Be/9Be ratios and δ10B values defined by the 10Be isochrons for the three Efremovka <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are similar within errors. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 10Be abundance in published data underscores the large range for initial 10Be/9Be ratios. This is contrary to the relatively small range of 26Al/27Al variations in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> around the canonical ratio. Two models that could explain the origin of this large 10Be/9Be range are assessed from the collateral variations predicted for the initial δ10B values: (i) closed system decay of 10Be from a "canonical" 10Be/9Be ratio and (ii) formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from a mixture of solid precursors and nebula gas irradiated during up to a few hundred thousand years. The second scenario is shown to be the most consistent with the data. This shows that the major fraction of 10Be in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> was produced by irradiation of refractory grains, while contributions of galactic cosmic rays trapping and early solar wind irradiation are less dominant. The case for 10Be production by solar cosmic rays irradiation of solid refractory precursors poses a conundrum for 41Ca because the latter is easily produced by irradiation and should be more abundant than what is observed in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. 10Be production by irradiation from solar energetic particles requires high 41Ca abundance in early solar system, however, this is not observed in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.3803E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.3803E"><span id="translatedtitle">Rheology of the lithosphere beneath the central and western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>England, Philip; Molnar, Peter</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The distribution of crustal velocity over a 800 by 400 km region of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan shows strain rates with principal contractional axes aligned perpendicular to the mountain chain and with negligible velocity gradients in the along-strike direction. This configuration allows us to describe the dynamics by a force balance along profiles perpendicular to the chain. The velocities on each of these profiles fit, with root-mean-square misfits of ˜1 mm/yr, a constant rate of contractional strain. Gravitational potential energy per unit area varies along these profiles by at least 3 and maybe 5 TN m-1; the insensitivity of contractional strain rates to those variations implies a lower bound of ˜1022 Pa s on the effective viscosity of the lithosphere. Seismic tomography shows variations in P and S wave speeds that imply large lateral temperature variations in crust and upper mantle of the region. If the ductile portion of the lithosphere were deforming by the mechanisms of high-temperature creep, such temperature variations would be accompanied by variations in strength of 1 or 2 orders of magnitude. The observed velocity profiles allow variations in lithospheric strength by no more than a factor of 2 to 4, implying that the strength-controlling portion of the lithosphere cannot be strongly sensitive to temperature. Lithospheric strength profiles that incorporate flow laws for low-temperature plasticity of olivine reproduce both the effective viscosity and the insensitivity to lateral temperature variation that are observed in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Plastic deformation of dry, pyroxene-rich lower crust may also contribute to such a temperature-insensitive strength profile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15473646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15473646"><span id="translatedtitle">Genotypic differences in effects of cadmium exposure on plant growth and contents of cadmium and elements in 14 cultivars of bai <span class="hlt">cai</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Zhu-Jun; Sun, Guang-Wen; Fang, Xue-Zhi; Qian, Qiong-Qiu; Yang, Xiao-E</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Fourteen cultivars of bai <span class="hlt">cai</span> (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) were grown in the nutrient solutions containing 0-0.5 microg mL(-1) of cadmium (Cd) to investigate genotypic differences in the effects of Cd exposure on the plant growth and uptake and distribution of Cd in bai <span class="hlt">cai</span> plants. The Cd exposure significantly reduced the dry and fresh weights of roots and shoots, the dry weight ratio of shoot/root (S/R), total biomass, and chlorophyll content (SPAD value). Cd concentrations in bai <span class="hlt">cai</span> ranged from 13.3 to 74.9 microg g(-1) DW in shoots and from 163.1 to 574.7 microg g(-1) DW in roots under Cd exposure, respectively. The considerable genotypic differences of Cd concentrations and accumulations in both shoots and roots were observed among 14 bai <span class="hlt">cai</span> cultivars. Moreover, Cd mainly accumulated in the roots. Cd also caused the changes of uptake and distribution of nutrients in bai <span class="hlt">cai</span> and under the influence of cadmium, the concentration of potassium (K) decreased in shoot and increased in root. However, the concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), manganese (Mn), boron (B), and iron (Fe) increased in shoots and decreased in roots. In addition, Cd exposure resulted in an increase in calcium (Ca), sulphur (S), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in both shoots and roots but had no significant effects on the whole uptake of the examined mineral nutrients except for S. PMID:15473646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %Ro) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in West Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Avary, Katharine Lee; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in West Virginia by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geote..47..291B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geote..47..291B"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamics of late Paleozoic magmatism in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and its framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biske, Yu. S.; Konopelko, D. L.; Seltmann, R.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The Devonian-Permian history of magmatic activity in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and its framework has been considered using new isotopic datings. It has been shown that the intensity of magmatism and composition of igneous rocks are controlled by interaction of the local thermal upper mantle state (plumes) and dynamics of the lithosphere on a broader regional scale (plate motion). The Kazakhstan paleocontinent, which partly included the present-day <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Kyzylkum, was formed in the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian as a result of amalgamation of ancient continental masses and island arcs. In the Early Devonian, heating of the mantle resulted in the within-plate basaltic volcanism in the southern framework of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent (Turkestan paleoocean) and development of suprasubduction magmatism over an extensive area at its margin. In the Middle-Late Devonian, the margins of the Turkestan paleoocean were passive; the area of within-plate oceanic magmatism shifted eastward, and the active margin was retained at the junction with the Balkhash-Junggar paleoocean. A new period of active magmatism was induced by an overall shortening of the region under the settings of plate convergence. The process started in the Early Carboniferous at the Junggar-Balkhash margin of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent and the southern (Paleotethian) margin of the Karakum-Tajik paleocontinent. In the Late Carboniferous, magmatism developed along the northern boundary of the Turkestan paleoocean, which was closing between them. The disappearance of deepwater oceanic basins by the end of the Carboniferous was accompanied by collisional granitic magmatism, which inherited the paleolocations of subduction zones. Postcollision magmatism fell in the Early Permian with a peak at 280 Ma ago. In contrast to Late Carboniferous granitic rocks, the localization of Early Permian granitoids is more independent of collision sutures. The magmatism of this time comprises: (1) continuation of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100016"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated glacier shrinkage in the Ak-Shyirak massif, Inner <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, during 2003-2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petrakov, Dmitry; Shpuntova, Alyona; Aleinikov, Alexandr; Kääb, Andreas; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Stoffel, Markus; Tutubalina, Olga; Usubaliev, Ryskul</p> <p>2016-08-15</p> <p>The observed increase in summer temperatures and the related glacier downwasting has led to a noticeable decrease of frozen water resources in Central Asia, with possible future impacts on the economy of all downstream countries in the region. Glaciers in the Ak-Shyirak massif, located in the Inner <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, are not only affected by climate change, but also impacted by the open pit gold mining of the Kumtor Gold Company. In this study, glacier inventories referring to the years 2003 and 2013 were created for the Ak-Shyirak massif based on satellite imagery. The 193 glaciers had a total area of 351.2±5.6km(2) in 2013. Compared to 2003, the total glacier area decreased by 5.9±3.4%. During 2003-2013, the shrinkage rate of Ak-Shyirak glaciers was twice than that in 1977-2003 and similar to shrinkage rates in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan frontier ranges. We assessed glacier volume in 2013 using volume-area (VA) scaling and GlabTop modelling approaches. Resulting values for the whole massif differ strongly, the VA scaling derived volume is 30.0-26.4km(3) whereas the GlabTop derived volume accounts for 18.8-13.2km(3). Ice losses obtained from both approaches were compared to geodetically-derived volume change. VA scaling underestimates ice losses between 1943 and 2003 whereas GlabTop reveals a good match for eight glaciers for the period 2003-2012. In comparison to radio-echo soundings from three glaciers, the GlabTop model reveals a systematic underestimation of glacier thickness with a mean deviation of 16%. GlabTop tends to significantly underestimate ice thickness in accumulation areas, but tends to overestimate ice thickness in the lowermost parts of glacier snouts. Direct technogenic impact is responsible for about 7% of area and 5% of mass loss for glaciers in the Ak-Shyirak massif during 2003-2013. Therefore the increase of summer temperature seems to be the main driver of accelerated glacier shrinkage in the area. PMID:27100016</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Geomo.269...75Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Geomo.269...75Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of glacial lake outburst floods in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan: Implications for hazard assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaginaev, V.; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J. A.; Erokhin, S.; Matov, E.; Petrakov, D.; Stoffel, M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows are among the most significant natural threats in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and have even caused the loss of life and damage to infrastructure in its capital Bishkek. An improved understanding of the occurrence of this process is essential so as to be able to design reliable disaster risk reduction strategies, even more so in view of ongoing climate change and scenarios of future evolutions. Here, we apply a dendrogeomorphic approach to reconstruct past debris-flow activity on the Aksay cone (Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz range), where outbursting glacier lakes and intense rainfalls have triggered huge debris flows over the past decades. A total of 96 Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing on the cone and along the main channel have been selected based on the evidence of past debris-flow damage in their trunks; these trees were then sampled using increment borers. The dating of past events was based on the assessment of growth disturbances (GD) in the tree-ring records and included the detection of injuries, tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts, reaction wood, and abrupt growth changes. In total, 320 GD were identified in the tree-ring samples. In combination with aerial imagery and geomorphic recognition in the field, reactions in trees and their position on the cone have allowed reconstruction of the main spatial patterns of past events on the Aksay cone. Our findings suggest that at least 27 debris flows have occurred on the site between 1877 and 2015 and point to the occurrence of at least 17 events that were not documented prior to this study. We also observe high process activity during the 1950s and 1960s, with major events on the cone in 1950, 1966, and 1968, coinciding with phases of slight glacier advance. The spatial analyses of events also point to two different spatial patterns, suggesting that quite dissimilar magnitudes probably occurred during glacier lake outburst floods and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.7384K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.7384K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt: structure, magmatism and gold mineralization (Uzbekistan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koneev, Rustam; Seltmann, Reimer</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan represents one of the key units of the Central Asian orogenic belt in Uzbekistan. Together with the Beltau-Kurama volcano-plutonic arc it formed as a result of subduction of the crust under the Turkistan paleoocean and the Kazakhstan continent, followed by collision and post-collisional strike-slip processes. The Southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is of particular interest due to its gold mineralisation. It hosts the giant Muruntau gold deposit and the large gold deposits of Amantaitau, Daugyztau, Myutenbay (Kyzylkum ore district) and Charmitan, Guzhumsay, Urtalik (Nurata ore district). The Middle Tienshan hosts within the Beltau-Kurama volcano-plutonic arc the Kurama ore district with the giant Kalmakyr Cu-Au porphyry and large epithermal Au-Ag deposits of Kochbulak and Kyzylalma. Yakubchuk et al. (2005) and others stress that the largest ore clusters are confined by the intersections of volcano-plutonic belts and transform faults in result of sinistral strike slip dislocations during the Permo-Carboniferous. Others believe that the ore giants are in addition controlled by hot spots - a mantle plume, superimposed on the crust architecture shaped by the subduction processes. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of main intrusive massifs of Uzbekistan (CERCAMS data) showed that granitoid magmatism is predominantly of postcollisional age, manifested in the accretionary units at 270-290 Ma, whereas subduction magmatism prevails as characteristic in the volcano-plutonic arc at 300-320 Ma. Determination of sulphide mineralization ages using Os-Re method (CERCAMS data), are respectively 283-289 Ma and 298-314 Ma. The studies were performed in the framework of IGCP- 592. References 1. Yakubchuk A.S., Shatov V.V., Kirwin D. et al., (2005) Gold and base metal metallogeny of the Central Asian Orogenic supercollage: Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. Economic Geology, 100th, Anniversary Volume, 1035-1068. 2. Groves, D.I., Goldfarb, R.J., Gebre-Mariam, M., Hagemann, S.G. and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.590..196M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.590..196M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ordovician-Carboniferous tectono-sedimentary evolution of the North Nuratau region, Uzbekistan (Westernmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCann, T.; Nurtaev, B.; Kharin, V.; Valdivia-Manchego, M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is a c. 2500 km long orogenic belt of which the Nuratau region of eastern Uzbekistan forms the western part. Petrographical and field analysis of the Ordovician-Carboniferous succession in the North Nuratau region provided the basis for a reconstruction of the depositional settings along part of the northern margin of the Alai continent and their evolution during the period of closure of the Turkestan Ocean, which separated the Alai and the Kazakh-Kyrgyz continents. Initial sedimentation (Ordovician) was broadly carbonate dominated, although by Mid-Late Ordovician times siliciclastic input predominated in some areas. These variations, between clastic- and carbonate-dominated regions may have been related to tectonic activity within the Alai continent. Carbonate sedimentation was reestablished in the ?Wenlock, with broad shelf systems forming along the continental margin. Volcanic activity in the Early Devonian records a period of tectonic instability, and this was followed by the reestablishment of the carbonate mosaic, albeit with a greater degree of instability (as indicated by stratigraphic gaps) than in the Silurian. This pattern extended up into the Carboniferous culminating in backarc-related magmatic activity. Final closure of the Turkestan Ocean involved significant folding and thrusting, as well as a major change from compressional to strike-slip movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13A4439G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13A4439G"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Microzoning of Cap-Haï<span class="hlt">tien</span>: Effects of Lithological Site and Liquefaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilles, R.; Jeudy, B.; Prepetit, C.; Bertil, D.; Roulle, A.; Noury, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>After the earthquake of January 12, 2010 in Haiti, the Haitian Government has resolved to implement a program of seismic microzonation for most vulnerable cities in the country by the way of prevention. Metropolitan Port-au-Prince and five cities in the North of Haiti including Cap-Haitien were included in this program. The seismic microzonation is an important tool for the knowledge of the seismic risk. It is based on the collection of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data. It describes a specific class of soil associated with each type of soil. Its goal is to map the homogenous zones of soil to effects of site lithology, topographic site effects, liquefaction and ground movements. This work is based on two aspects of the studies of microzoning for the city of Cap-Haï<span class="hlt">tien</span>: effects of lithological site and Liquefaction. The zoning of site effects is to identify and map the areas with consistent geological and geomechanical characteristics and homogeneous seismic response; the objective is to provide, in each zone, seismic movements adapted. Five classes of soil at site effects were distinguished. Associated responses spectra were obtained by a 1D nonlinear analysis using CyberQuake software (Modaressi et al. 1997 BRGM). The zoning of the liquefaction present the liquefaction potential of different areas. Three levels of risk of liquefaction were found during this study that a large part of the city is strongly liquefiable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IzPSE..50..415S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IzPSE..50..415S"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress drop in the sources of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sycheva, N. A.; Bogomolov, L. M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The paper is devoted to estimating the dynamical parameters of 14 earthquakes with intermediate magnitudes (energy class 11 to 14), which occurred in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. For obtaining the estimates of these parameters, including the stress drop, which could be then applied in crustal stress reconstruction by the technique suggested by Yu.L. Rebetsky (Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences), we have improved the algorithms and programs for calculating the spectra of the seismograms. The updated products allow for the site responses and spectral transformations during the propagation of seismic waves through the medium (the effect of finite Q-factor). By applying the new approach to the analysis of seismograms recorded by the seismic KNET network, we calculated the radii of the sources (Brune radius), scalar seismic moment, and stress drop (release) for the studied 14 earthquakes. The analysis revealed a scatter in the source radii and stress drop even among the earthquakes that have almost identical energy classes. The stress drop by different earthquakes ranges from one to 75 bar. We have also determined the focal mechanisms and stress regime of the Earth's crust. It is worth noting that during the considered period, strong seismic events with energy class above 14 were absent within the segment covered by the KNET stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Geote..50..366L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Geote..50..366L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Alpine tectonics of granites in basement of Ysyk-Köl Basin, northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leonov, M. G.; Przhiyalgovsky, E. S.; Lavrushina, E. V.; Poleshchuk, A. V.; Rybin, A. K.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Ysyk-Köl Basin filled with Lower Jurassic-Quaternary sedimentary rocks is the largest intermontane negative structural unit of the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The basement of this basin is composed of Precambrian-Paleozoic rocks, largely of Ordovician and Silurian granitoids exposed in mountain ranges of the basin framework and as separate anticlinal domes situated in areas occupied by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The postmagmatic tectonic internalstructure of the Chonkurchak (Chunkurchak), Kyzyl-Choku, Kyzyl-Bulak, and Prishib massifs emplaced in the basement, as well as their relationships to the sedimentary cover, are described in the paper. The study was carried out using the morphostructural method, detailed geological mapping, structural kinematic analysis, and petrographic examination of rocks. The internalstructure of Paleozoic granites in the basement and indications of their 3D tectonic flow are characterized. It is shown that granites underwent 3D deformation after their emplacement in the consolidated crust, and this process had a substantial influence on tectonic processes at the plate and orogenic stages of regional evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026913','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026913"><span id="translatedtitle">Association between atmospheric circulation patterns and firn-ice core records from the Inilchek glacierized area, central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Kreutz, K.J.; Cecil, L.D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Glacioclimatological research in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan was performed in the summers of 1998 and 1999 on the South Inilchek Glacier at 5100-5460 m. A 14.36 m firn-ice core and snow samples were collected and used for stratigraphic, isotopic, and chemical analyses. The firn-ice core and snow records were related to snow pit measurements at an event scale and to meteorological data and synoptic indices of atmospheric circulation at annual and seasonal scales. Linear relationships between the seasonal air temperature and seasonal isotopic composition in accumulated precipitation were established. Changes in the ??18O air temperature relationship, in major ion concentration and in the ratios between chemical species, were used to identify different sources of moisture and investigate changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Precipitation over the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is characterized by the lowest ionic content among the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan glaciers and indicates its mainly marine origin. In seasons of minimum precipitation, autumn and winter, water vapor was derived from the and and semiarid regions in central Eurasia and contributed annual maximal solute content to snow accumulation in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The lowest content of major ions was observed in spring and summer layers, which represent maximum seasonal accumulation when moisture originates over the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean and Black Seas. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ocgy...55..339L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ocgy...55..339L"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissolved, particulate, and sedimentary organic matter in the <span class="hlt">Cai</span> River basin (Nha Trang Bay of the South China Sea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Shulga, N. A.; Drozdova, A. N.; Gusev, E. S.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The data were obtained on the content of organic carbon in the water, particulate matter, and bottom sediments of the <span class="hlt">Cai</span> River and its tributaries (the basin of Nha Trang Bay). The surface waters of the considered basin contained OM mainly in a dissolved form (DOC/POC = 3). The fraction of Corg in particulate matter amounted to 4.9% on average. Based on the analysis of n-alkanes in bottom sediments, three OM types—autochthonous, mixed, and mainly terrigenous genesis—were distinguished. These types are alternated in series in the lengthwise profile of the river. All the OM types are in close relation to the peculiarities of sedimentation and hydrodynamics of the waters in the treated aquatic area. The geochemical indices (Pr/Ph, OEP17-19, and CPI values) represent the influence of oxidative conditions on OM formation and the intense microbiological transformation of its autochthonous component.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610487B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610487B"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards an improved glacier monitoring program in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Pamir Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barandun, Martina; Huss, Matthias; Azisov, Erlan; Gafurov, Abror; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Usubaliev, Ryskul; Kronenberg, Marlene; Hoelzle, Martin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The monitoring of glacier mass balance in remote regions is important to understand the response of glaciers to climate change. The coverage of monitored glaciers in Central Asia has been very limited for the past 15 years; however the necessity of enhanced understanding regarding glacier dynamics and long term evolution in this particular region is crucial. Moisture availability importantly determines glacier response. Glaciers located in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Pamir Mountains are likely not to be directly influenced by monsoon such as most monitored Peri-Himalayan glaciers. However, not only scientific reasons make glacier monitoring to be of great relevance, also the link to political and socio-economic constraints on water scarcity carries high importance. First steps towards the establishment of a new glacier monitoring network were performed in 2010/2011 and since then modernization and extension of the monitoring strategies are continuously aspired. Close cooperation of international and local scientists build the basis of the program. Today four glaciers located in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Golubin Glacier, Suek Zapadniy Glacier, Glacier No. 354) and the North-Western Pamir (Abramov Glacier) are regularly monitored. The network is planned to be extended in the next years to cover selected glaciers in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Further, we intend to develop new approaches to remotely monitor sub-seasonal glacier mass balance at a regional scale. In-situ mass balance measurements are taken at all four glaciers continuously in late summer. Automatic weather stations installed at Abramov Glacier in 2011 and at Golubin Glacier in 2013 deliver daily meteorological data allowing the application of a simple mass balance model driven with local precipitation and temperature data. Model calibration is performed using glaciological measurements and results are validated with snowline observations based on remote imagery. Automatic cameras at Abramov Glacier take</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522496"><span id="translatedtitle">The contribution of the androgen receptor (AR) in human spatial learning and memory: A study in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mueller, S C; Verwilst, T; Van Branteghem, A; T'Sjoen, G; Cools, M</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Few studies have examined the impact of androgen insensitivity on human spatial learning and memory. In the present study, we tested 11 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>), a rare genetic disorder characterized by complete absence of AR activity, and compared their performance against 20 comparison males and 19 comparison females on a virtual analog of the Morris Water Maze task. The results replicated a main sex effect showing that men relative to women were faster in finding the hidden platform and had reduced heading error. Furthermore, findings indicated that mean performance of women with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> was between control women and control men, though the differences were not statistically significant. Effect size estimates (and corresponding confidence intervals) of spatial learning trials showed little difference between women with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> and control women but <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> women differed from men, but not women, on two variables, latency to find the platform and first-move latency. No differences between groups were present during visible platform trials or the probe trial, a measure of spatial memory. Moreover, groups also did not differ on estimates of IQ and variability of performance. The findings are discussed in relation to androgen insensitivity in human spatial learning and memory. PMID:26522496</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LPI....40.2495W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LPI....40.2495W"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of Disturbance in the 26Al-26Mg Systematics of the Efremovka E60 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Implications for the High-Resolution Chronology of the Early Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wadhwa, M.; Janney, P. E.; Krot, A. N.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>We report results of a laser ablation MC-ICPMS study of the Efremovka E60 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Our data indicate that the 26Al-26Mg systematics in E60 are disturbed and we present the chronological implications of this finding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008LPI....39.2486D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008LPI....39.2486D"><span id="translatedtitle">In-Situ UV-Laser Fluorination Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of an Efremovka <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and Matrix: Implications for Oxygen Isotopic Exchange in the Solar Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyl, K. A.; Young, E. D.; Krot, A. N.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Using a UV-laser ablation fluorination system, we obtained high-precision in situ data for E44 and surrounding matrix. The 16O-rich anorthite and solid-state diffusion calculations indicate that this process may be important to the evolution of oxygen in this <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED267762.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED267762.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Video-Only, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Only, and Interactive Video Instructional Systems on Learner Performance and Attitude: An Exploratory Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dalton, David W.; Hannafin, Michael J.</p> <p></p> <p>This study compared the effects of interactive video instruction on learner performance and attitude with the effects of conventional computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and stand-alone video. Based on pretest scores, 134 junior high industrial arts students designated as relatively high or low in prior achievement were randomly assigned to one of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43F2439K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43F2439K"><span id="translatedtitle">Thick-Skinned Tectonics In The Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Foreland, Kazakhstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kober, M.; Kley, J.; Seib, N.; Voigt, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The northern front of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains in Kazakhstan comprises an array of thrust-related basement uplifts of varying size and orientation. Many of these uplifts are asymmetric anticlines with long, gently dipping backlimbs, rounded hinges and more steeply dipping, short frontlimbs, suggesting they may overlie listric thrust faults. Where exposed, the bounding reverse faults dip steeply at 45-70°. The pre-Cenozoic basement consists of volcanic, (meta-)sedimentary and granitic rocks. It contains a variety of older structures of different orientation such as folds, slaty cleavage or steeply dipping faults and dykes. The relations of the Cenozoic structures with these older basement fabrics are highly variable. Some young faults truncate all earlier structures, just as some Cenozoic folds appear largely independent of the attitudes of underlying stratified basement rocks. Reactivation of dipping bedding planes as thrust faults is not uncommon but always localized and of small scale. The strongest control on the Cenozoic structure is exerted by steep, NW-trending faults which were reactivated as dextrally transpressive faults and induced along-strike segmentation and lateral terminations of some basement ridges. The same faults were locally reactivated as normal faults during a Cenozoic phase of roughly E-W extension that preceded folding and thrusting. Some of the normal faults show evidence of mild reactivation as strike-slip faults during the contractional phase which is still active today. The geometries of the thick-skinned structures reflect the slightly fanning modern shortening direction modulated by pre-existing basement faults and a Cenozoic phase of extension. Instead of an arcuate thrust belt with continuously changing strike, interfingering structures following two discrete, ENE and ESE structural trends are developed. The ESE trend coincides with a prominent set of steep faults present in the Permo-Carboniferous basement. The ENE trend has no</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812287L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812287L"><span id="translatedtitle">Segmented ruptures during intracontinental earthquakes: Kyrgyz Range, N-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landgraf, Angela; Patyniak, Magda; Dzhumabaeva, Atyrgul; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Strecker, Manfred R.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major M 6.9 to ~8 earthquakes. Ruptures affected either range fronts or range interiors. During these events (AD1885 Belovodskoe; AD1887 Verny; AD1889 Chilik; AD1911 Chon-Kemin; and AD1938 Kemino-Chu), neighboring faults ruptured and caused severe damage in the area of the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek and the former Kazakh capital Almaty (previously also called Alma-Ata or Verny), which were located in the epicentral areas. As recurrence intervals along single faults in this region are on the order of hundreds to thousands of years, such a sequence of earthquakes is not known in the remaining historic record. Earlier events may thus be recorded in long-term geomorphic archives. Through a combination of high-resolution offset measurements in the field, cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence dating of Quaternary landforms, stratigraphic analysis, and paleoseismological trenching, we evaluate the Quaternary deformation and analyze the paleoseismic history of neighboring fault systems along the Kyrgyz range mountain front. Our study sites are located close to the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek and include the epicentral area of the M6.9 Belovodskoe event of AD1885, but also the region west of it, which was not affected by this remarkable earthquake sequence. To date, the paleoseismic and historical seismic records for the Kyrgyz range indicate segmented ruptures that hardly exceed magnitude seven. Based on scaling relationships, however, the linked fault systems would be capable of generating M 8-events, similar to the long segmented ruptures observed in the mountain interior farther east during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The available observations, thus, point to incomplete fault ruptures along the mountain front, rather than earthquakes failing along a full rupture length.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.2323H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.2323H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan geohazards database: earthquake and landslide size-frequency statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Havenith, Hans-Balder</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recently compiled landslide and earthquake data covering a large part of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Central Asia, are analysed with respect to their size-frequency behaviour. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions had been presented previously. They were combined and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously identified mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data mapped over a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and an updated earthquake catalogue (> 10000 records), the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. Here we focus on the size-frequency relationships developed for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. Some similarities can be found in the spatially changing b-value of earthquake events and the power law exponent of the landslide data - lowest values are found in mountain areas where very large mass movements had occurred near major fault zones. The supra-regional landslide inventory will also be compared with sub-regional ones. For one of them, we also possess a multi-temporal landslide inventory and assessed landslide size-frequency relationships for each time period. Those show a decreasing power law exponent with time - due to the coalescence of smaller landslides to form fewer larger ones. However, at (supra-)regional scale, temporal data are very scarce; thus, a major hazard component is still insufficiently known and scaling in time is almost impossible. We may only counteract this problem by dating rockslides and any large mass movement. Finally, we would like to emphasize the role of coupling effects related to various types of geohazards that may also be expressed by similarities between size-frequency relationships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C"><span id="translatedtitle">B and Mg isotopic variations in Leoville mrs-06 type B1 <span class="hlt">cai</span>:origin of 10Be and 26Al</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaussidon, M.; Robert, F.; Russel, S. S.; Gounelle, M.; Ash, R. D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The finding [1-3] in Ca-Al-rich refractory inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) of primitive chondrites of traces of the in situ decay of radioactive 10Be (half-life 1.5Myr) indicates that irradiation of the protosolar nebula by the young Sun in its T-Tauri phase has produced significant amounts of the Li-Be-B elements. This irradiation may have produced also some or all of the short-lived 26Al (half-life 0.7Myr) and 41Ca (half-life 0.1Myr) previously detected in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. To constrain the origin of 10Be and 10Al it is important to look for coupled variations in the 10Be/9Be and 26Al/27Al ratios in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and to understand the processes responsible for these variations (e.g. variations in the fluences of irradiation, secondary perturbations of the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, ...) We have thus studied the Li and B isotopic compositions and the Be/Li and Be/B concentration ratios in one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (MRS-06) from the Leoville CV3 chondrite in which large variations of the Mg isotopic compositions showing both the in situ decay of 26Al and the secondary redistribution of Mg isotopes have been observed [4]. The results show large variations for the Li and B isotopic compositions (^7Li/^6Li ranging from 11.02±0.21 to 11.82±0.07, and 10B/11B ratios ranging from 0.2457±0.0053 to 0.2980±0.0085). The ^7Li/^6Li ratio tend to decrease towards the rim of the inclusion. The 10B/11B ratios are positively correlated with the ^9Be/11B ratios indicating the in situ decay of 10Be. However perturbations of the 10Be/B system are observed. They would correspond to an event which occurred approximately 2Myr after the formation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> precursors which is responsible for the 10Be observed in the core of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. These perturbations seem compatible with those observed for the 26Al/Mg system but they might be due to an irradiation of the already-formed, isolated <span class="hlt">CAI</span> which would have resulted in increased 10Be/^9Be ratios and low ^7Li/^6Li ratios in the margin of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. [1] McKeegan K. D. et al. (2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotopic Measurements in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the Nanosims: Implications to the understanding of the Formation process of Ca, Al-Rich Inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, S.; Walker, Robert M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Ca, Al-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) preserve evidence of thermal events that they experienced during their formation in the early solar system. Most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV and CO chondrites are characterized by large variations in O-isotopic compositions of primary minerals, with spinel, hibonite, and pyroxene being more O-16-rich than melilite and anorthite, with delta 17, O-18 = approx. -40%o (DELTA O-17 = delta O-17 - 0.52 x delta O-18 = approx. - 20%o ). These anomalous compositions cannot be accounted for by standard mass dependent fractionation and diffusive process of those minerals. It requires the presence of an anomalous oxygen reservoir of nucleosynthetic origin or mass independent fractionations before the formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in the early solar system. The CAMECA NanoSIMS is a new generation ion microprobe that offers high sensitivity isotopic measurements with sub 100 nm spatial resolution. The NanoSIMS has significantly improved abilities in the study of presolar grains in various kind of meteorites and the decay products of extinct nuclides in ancient solar system matter. This instrument promises significant improvements over other conventional ion probes in the precision isotopic characterization of sub-micron scales. We report the results of our first O isotopic measurements of various <span class="hlt">CAI</span> minerals from EK1-6-3 and 7R19-1(a) utilizing the JSC NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe. We evaluate the measurement conditions, the instrumental mass fractionation factor (IMF) for O isotopic measurement and the accuracy of the isotopic ratio through the analysis of a San Carlos olivine standard and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> sample of 7R19-1(a).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IzPSE..51..859L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IzPSE..51..859L"><span id="translatedtitle">Autonomous geodynamics of the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan junction zone from seismology data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lukk, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Leonova, V. G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The geodynamics of the Tajik Depression, the junction zone of the Pamirs and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, is typically considered in the context of plate tectonic concept, which implies intense subhorizontal compression of the zone resulting from the subduction of the Indian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. This convergence has been reliably confirmed by the GPS measurements. However, the joint analysis of the geological structure, seismicity, and geodimeter measurements conducted during a few years at the Garm geodynamical testing site of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrates a widening of the Tajik Depression instead of its shortening, as should be expected from the subhorizontal compression predominant in the present-day stress-state of this region. This conclusion, together with the data from the other regions, suggests that, along with the plate tectonic mechanisms, there are also other, local, autonomous drivers that contribute to the tectogenesis of this region. Besides, the probable existence of these autonomous sources within the Tajik Depression directly follows from the seismology data. Among them is the crustal spreading within the depression suggested by the seismotectonic displacements in the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. These displacements are directed in different azimuths off the axial's most subsided part of the depression at a depth of 20-30 km. Above this region the distribution of seismotectonic deformations (STD) is chaotic. This pattern of deformation is barely accounted for by a simple model of subhorizontal compression of the Earth's crust in the region. In our opinion, these features of the seismotectonic deformation in the crust within the studied part of the Tajik Depression is probably associated with the gain in the volume of the rocks due to the inflow of the additional material, which is supplied from the bottom crust or upper mantle by the deep fluids. This increase in the rock volume</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S11B0571E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S11B0571E"><span id="translatedtitle">A Central Asian Seismic Bulletin: Utilizing the KNET, Kaznet, and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Data Sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eakins, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Pavlis, G.; Roecker, S.; Wallace, T. C.; Martynov, V.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>A crucial goal of seismic monitoring for a nuclear weapons treaty is the detection and determination of accurate locations for both man-made and natural seismic events. Global catalogs such as the PDE and REB are often incomplete with large regional variations in coverage. Furthermore, event parameters (location, origin time, and magnitudes) often vary from catalog to catalog. Catalogs based on local analog networks tend to focus only on events located within the political borders of the reporting country and are not always available to all researchers. In order to facilitate research into seismic hazards, crustal and regional tectonic studies, as well as to provide a seismicity baseline for seismic monitoring goals, we are building a complete catalog of events from all available broadband data sources in the region. During the past decade, there has been a marked increase in cooperation with Central Asian research institutes in addition to an increased pool of high quality calibrated broadband instruments available for deployment. The current project involves merging the continuous data sets from the KNET and Kaznet permanent regional networks and from a temporary PASSCAL deployment in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Data from the GSN and Geoscope stations in the area will also be included. Analysts review the combined data and associate events against global or regional catalogs when possible, or determine locations for events not found in published bulletins. All arrival and origin information as well as waveform data for each event is extracted and is accessible through a relational database. During initial review of the first 20 months when all three networks were operational (9/1997 - 5/1999), 9,965 events were located or associated for the combined data sets. Of these events 5,460 were within 3 degrees of at least one station and 2,789 events were at a distance greater than 25 degrees from the center of the combined network. As a comparison, for KNET alone during the same</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2880989','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2880989"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liquid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.8125A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.8125A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of thunderstorm activity in data of neutron monitoring at <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Antonova, Valentina; Kryukov, Sergey; Lutsenko, Vadim</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We present results of the study of data of the monitoring of high-energy and thermal neutrons at <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan at different stages of thunderstorm activity. The data of the neutron monitoring were used taking into account the barometric effect. The intensity of the neutron component of cosmic rays is recorded in seven energy ranges. The electric field has values of ~ 100 V/m under fair weather conditions. Standard deviation of minute values of the neutron monitor data at the high altitude station does not exceed 0.5-0.6 %. Found that the standard deviation of the data during thunderstorms always exceeds these values. We selected events during the passage of thunderstorm clouds over the high altitude station without lightning discharges or with a small number of them. It was found that the particle rate of the neutron monitor changes in antiphase with the electric field changes. Atmospheric electric field of positive polarity decreases the count rate of the neutron monitor, and negative polarity - increases. Change of the count rate occurs at values of electric field ≥ 10-15 kV/m and reaches 2 %. The neutron monitor at the high-altitude station has the ability to measure the energy of recorded particles through determination of their multiplicity. We experimentally established that the sensitivity of the detected particles to change in Ez increases with decreasing their energy. The upper energy threshold of sensitivity of neutrons to change electric field is ~10 GeV. The physical mechanism of effect is based on lead nucleus capture of soft negative muons with the subsequent generation of neutrons. It is known that 7% of the neutron monitor count rate caused by negative muons. Absence of this effect in thermal neutrons data confirms the conclusion since the main difference of the thermal neutrons detector from the neutron monitor is the absence of the lead. In the active phase of a thunderstorm in the formed thundercloud the picture of distribution of charges is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeCoA..66.1459E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeCoA..66.1459E"><span id="translatedtitle">Efremovka 101.1: a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with ultrarefractory REE patterns and enormous enrichments of Sc, Zr, and Y in Fassaite and Perovskite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E.; Matsunami, S.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Lin, Y.; Nazarov, M.</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>Inclusion 101.1 from the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Efremovka is a compact Type A Ca-Al-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) highly enriched in ultrarefractory (UR) oxides. It is the first complete <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with a UR rare earth element (REE) pattern found in a CV3 chondrite. The inclusion is petrographically complex and was formed in a multistage process. It consists of several lithologically unrelated units. The core contains abundant Y- and Zr-perovskite, Sc- and Zr-rich fassaite, and metallic FeNi enclosed in melilite. All mineral species (except spinel) in all lithological units exhibit the same basic UR REE pattern. Four different populations of perovskites are distinguished by different Y/Zr ratios. A few of the perovskites have Y/Zr ratios similar to those obtained from crystal/liquid fractionation experiments. Perovskites from the other three populations have either chondritic, lower than chondritic Y/Zr ratios or extremely low Zr contents. Ca isotopic ratios differ among three perovskites from different populations, demonstrating a variety of sources and formational processes. Most fassaites crystallized in situ through reaction between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> liquid and preexisting perovskites. This process induced redistribution of Zr, Y, Sc, and V between perovskite and fassaite, thus overprinting the original abundances in perovskite. Fassaite reaction rims around FeNi metals are also encountered. They are enriched in V, which was gained from the metal through oxidation of V in metal during fassaite crystallization. The relative abundances of Zr, Y, and Sc in perovskites are complementary to the abundances of these elements in Sc- and Zr-fassaite, indicating subsolidus partitioning of these elements between the two phases. Perovskites are enriched in Y and depleted in Sc and Zr in comparison to fassaites. The core contains two complete captured <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, several sinuous fragments, and fine-grained polygonal refractory fragments. An assemblage of andradite-wollastonite-hedenbergite and pure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11386057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11386057"><span id="translatedtitle">[Molecular-genetic analysis of the yeast Komagataea (williopsis) pratensis populations from Caucasian and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan regions].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naumova, E S; Tokareva, N G; Bab'eva, I P; Naumov, G I</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The analysis of sixteen Komagataea (Williopsis) pratensis from the Caucasian and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan soils by the PCR, blot hybridization, and isoenzyme electrophoresis techniques showed that fifteen of them do belong to the species K. pratensis. The isolates from the two geographic areas differed in some physiological characteristics and in the PCR product profiles obtained with the microsatellite primers (CAC)5 and (GACA)4. PMID:11386057</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3660H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3660H"><span id="translatedtitle">Results from the 2009 Investigations at the Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher" (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyz Republic)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Häusler, Hermann; Leber, Diethard; Scheibz, Jürgen; Kopecny, Alexander; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Echtler, Helmut; Moldobekov, Bolot</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher", which was installed near the former confluence of the Southern and Northern Inylchek Glacier, served as a platform for intensive field work in August 2009. "Peremitschka" (meaning "the area between") is a test site in front of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier, which regularly is flooded by the increasing glacier-dammed Lake Merzbacher, before it bursts out. Mapping the micro-geomorphology and conducting electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles resulted in a sound interpretation of the surface morphology and of subsurface layers of the Peremitschka plain, which probably is underlain by both, permafrost and dead ice of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier. The flat 780 meters long high resolution ERT-profile reveals an undulated multilayer resistivity distribution. The uppermost 3-5 m of the profile show low resistivities ranging from 10 to about 200 ohm.m, indicating fine clastic sediments. In this area the surface of the whole test area is covered by silt and sand, the weathered material from the surrounding hills, which mainly consist of shists and calcareous shists of Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian age (Jamansu-Formation). The second "layer" below this low resistivity zone is characterized by resistivities up to 30.000 ohm.m to the final depth of the profile in approximately 45 m, and probably portraits permafrost overlying dead ice of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier. The geophysical measurements enable sound interpretations of the local geomorphology which consequently can be mapped in remote sensing images as flooded plain directly underlain by melting permafrost. Time series analysis of oblique aerial photos and remote sensing images allowed for a detailed reconstruction of the glacier retreat from 1943 to nowadays. It is still under discussion, however, if the Northern Inylchek Glacier surged in the late 1990ies. Compared to other regions in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan range the youngest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2233515','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2233515"><span id="translatedtitle">The development and evaluation of an adaptable computer aided instruction(<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) program for acquiring problem solving skills in biochemistry on the WWW: The "BioChem Thinker".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hershkovitz, B.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>BioChem Thinker is a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> program that was developed to enhance problem solving skills and ability to integrate knowledge in biochemistry for medical and dental students. The program runs on a WWW browser. BioChem Thinker is adaptable, it enables the teacher to create a new problem solving assignment, or edit existing assignments without in-depth knowledge of computer programming. This provides teachers with greater independence and flexibility so as to be able to adapt the program to their own course requirements. The program was implemented and evaluated in the 3rd year biochemistry course of The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School. The tool used to develop Biochem Thinker can be utilized to develop similar <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in other biomedical areas. PMID:9357717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232"><span id="translatedtitle">New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-7-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7474E..0IK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7474E..0IK"><span id="translatedtitle">On-orbit performance and level 1 data processing of TANSO-FTS and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> on GOSAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Hamazaki, Takashi</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) monitors carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT is placed in a sun-synchronous orbit of 666km and 12:48 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. It was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center. There are two instruments on GOSAT. The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier- Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects the Short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage; three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 μm) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 μm) with 0.27 cm-1 spectral resolution. The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. For three months after the launch, the on-orbit function and performance have been checked out. Now level 1A (raw interferogram) and level 2B (spectra) are now being processed and provided regularly with calibration data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.344E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.344E"><span id="translatedtitle">Efremovka 101.1: A Primitive <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with Superrefractory REE Patterns and Enormous Enrichments of Sc, Zr, and Y in Fassaite and Perovskite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.; Matsunami, S.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Lin, Y.; Nazarov, M.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>A fragment (30 mg) consisting of two inclusions (101.1 and 101.2) was separated from the Efremovka (CV3) meteorite. 101.1 is an unusual Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, whereas 101.2 consists of Cr-spinel and fassaite. INAA of the whole fragment revealed 16% MgO reflecting significant contributions from 101.2. Refractory lithophile elements in the bulk fragment have CI-enrichment factors of ~14 with two times enrichment factors for Ca, Eu, and Yb. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 101.1 (1.6 mm) contains more than 90% gehlenitic melilite (Ak(sub)1- Ak(sub)32) in its core. It is surrounded by a 5 layer rim sequence (~40 micrometers thick) consisting of spinel -->Al- diopside + fassaite (<= 0.7% Sc2O3) -->forsterite (Fo(sub)97- Fo(sub)100) --> diopside --> forsterite. Two small complete <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with a two layer sequence (diopside + anorthite) are contained within the core. Numerous layered sinuous inclusions presumably rim sequence fragments also consisting of diopside + anorthite, are locally crowded in the core. The melilite core is sprinkled with fassaite, perovskite, FeNi, and OsRu-rich metal blebs. Fassaite grains (<= 30 micrometers) contain enormous concentrations in Sc (up to 12.9% Sc2O3) and Zr (up to 5.4% ZrO2). Fassaite rims around FeNi blebs are rich in V (up to 5.4% V2O3) and are zoned with decreasing Sc-, Zr-, and V-concents from the metal cores to the outer fassaite rims. Sc2O3 and ZrO2 concentrations in fassaite display a positive correlation with a correlation coeffient of 0.88. This coherent behavior is a result of a complex cation substitution involving Mg, Ti, Sc, Zr, and V. A coupled substitution is demonstrated by the excellent linear correlation between Mg^2++Ti^4+(y) and Sc^3++Zr^4++Ti^3++V^3+(x) satisfying the equation y = 0.70-0.66x and having a linear regression coefficient of 0.84. Ti^3+/Ti^tot varies between 0.27 and 1. In contrast to fassaites, perovskites are generally depleted in Sc and Zr and enriched in Y (<=1.4% Y2O3). The assemblage andradite+wollastonite+ Fe^degree/or FeNi metal was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26171543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26171543"><span id="translatedtitle">Taxonomic study of Central Asian species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae). I: Redescriptions of willow-dwelling species from West <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Macropsis abdullaevi Dubovskiy, 1966 = M. arslanbobica Dlabola, 1967 syn. nov., M. ibragimovi Dubovskiy, 1966 and M. asiatica Dubovskiy, 1966 from West <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mts. (Kyrgyzstan) are redescribed and illustrated based on material from type localities or/and adjacent territories. M. tarbagataica Mityaev, 1971 from Kazakhstan is recorded from West <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan for the first time. Data on host plants and male vibrational calling signals for all species considered are provided. PMID:26171543</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ability+AND+burn&pg=3&id=ED229789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ability+AND+burn&pg=3&id=ED229789"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Invention Strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Raymond J.; Rodrigues, Dawn</p> <p></p> <p>Prewriting programs using computers fall into two broad categories: interactive and noninteractive. An early example of a noninteractive program is that of Ellen Nold, called "Cinnamon." Its purpose was to present the student with a series of content questions. In answering such questions, the student would be accumulating a set of data that could…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED087423.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED087423.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> In Chicago.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Litman, George H.</p> <p></p> <p>A computer-assisted instructional system has been implemented in 21 elementary schools in Chicago. The system runs on a UNIVAC 418-III computer which processes concurrently the reading, language arts, and mathematics drill and practice strand programs of the Computer Curriculum Corporation. All students participating qualified under the Elementary…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzPSE..52..218K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzPSE..52..218K"><span id="translatedtitle">Archaeoseismological studies and structural position of the medieval earthquakes in the South of the Issyk-Kul depression (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korzhenkov, A. M.; Kol'chenko, V. A.; Luzhanskii, D. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Deev, E. V.; Mazeika, J. V.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodina, S. N.; Rodkin, M. V.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Yudakhin, A. S.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We carried out archaeoseismological studies in the Southern Issyk-Kul region (Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan) and obtained radiocarbon datings of the collected samples. These data suggest that the sources of strong earthquakes have occurred in this territory in the 11th and (probably) 16th centuries. These earthquakes had magnitude M ≥ 7 and seismic intensity of at least I ≥ 9. The sources of these earthquakes were associated with the local adyr (piedmont) faults—components of the Pre-Terskei border fault. Our results demonstrate considerable underestimation of the seismic hazard for the South Issyk-Kul region in the latest Seismic Zoning Map of Kyrgyz Republic (2012), which should be taken into account in the construction of the new seismic zoning map for Kyrgyzstan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26146721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26146721"><span id="translatedtitle">A new species of Kukri Snake (Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826; Squamata: Colubridae) from the Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park, southern Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vassilieva, Anna B; Geissler, Peter; Galoyan, Eduard A; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Van Devender, Robert Wayne; Böhme, Wolfgang</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We describe a new species of the genus Oligodon from the lowland forests of Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park, Dong Nai Province, in southern Vietnam. Oligodon cattienensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining Southeast Asian kukri snakes by the combination of the following characters: medium-sized, deeply forked hemipenes without spines, 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows, nasal entire, 2 small postoculars, almost equal in size, 167-178 ventrals, 31-35 subcaudals, 24-35 + 5 large dark-edged vertebral blotches in combination with a yellow-orange or red vertebral stripe between blotches, head pattern including ocular band, temporal bands and elongated chevron, ventrals pink or whitish (reddish in juveniles) in life, some bearing a quadrangular dark blotch on each lateral side, or ventrals being entirely dark. Based on the hemipenial morphology the new species is assigned to the Oligodon cyclurus species group. A comparison table for all Indochinese Oligodon is provided. PMID:26146721</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRB..121.3888L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRB..121.3888L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Repeated large-magnitude earthquakes in a tectonically active, low-strain continental interior: The northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landgraf, A.; Dzhumabaeva, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K. E.; Strecker, M. R.; Macaulay, E. A.; Arrowsmith, Jr.; Sudhaus, H.; Preusser, F.; Rugel, G.; Merchel, S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan has been affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. To assess the significance of such a pulse of strain release in a continental interior, it is important to analyze and quantify strain release over multiple time scales. We have undertaken paleoseismological investigations at two geomorphically distinct sites (Panfilovkoe and Rot Front) near the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek. Although located near the historic epicenters, both sites were not affected by these earthquakes. Trenching was accompanied by dating stratigraphy and offset surfaces using luminescence, radiocarbon, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide methods. At Rot Front, trenching of a small scarp did not reveal evidence for surface rupture during the last 5000 years. The scarp rather resembles an extensive debris-flow lobe. At Panfilovkoe, we estimate a Late Pleistocene minimum slip rate of 0.2 ± 0.1 mm/a, averaged over at least two, probably three earthquake cycles. Dip-slip reverse motion along segmented, moderately steep faults resulted in hanging wall collapse scarps during different events. The most recent earthquake occurred around 3.6 ± 1.3 kyr ago (1σ), with dip-slip offsets between 1.2 and 1.4 m. We calculate a probabilistic paleomagnitude to be between 6.7 and 7.2, which is in agreement with regional data from the Kyrgyz range. The morphotectonic signals in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are a prime example of deformation in a tectonically active intracontinental mountain belt and as such can help understand the longer-term coevolution of topography and seismogenic processes in similar structural settings worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS...51..818I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS...51..818I"><span id="translatedtitle">Rare earth element measurements and mapping of minerals in the Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, 7R19-1, by NanoSIMS ion microprobe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ito, Motoo; Messenger, Scott</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We have established analytical procedures for quantitative rare earth element (REE) measurements by NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe with 2-10 μm spatial resolution. Measurements are performed by multidetection using energy filtering under several static magnetic field settings. Relative sensitivity factors and REE oxide/REE element secondary ion ratios that we determined for the NanoSIMS match values previously determined for other ion microprobes. REE measurements of 100 ppm REE glass standards yielded reproducibility and accuracy of 0.5-2.5% and 5-15%, respectively. REE measurements of minerals of an Allende type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, 7R19-1, were performed using three different methods: spot analysis, line profile, and imaging. These data are in excellent agreement with previous REE measurements of this inclusion by IMS-3f ion microprobe. The higher spatial resolution NanoSIMS measurements provide additional insight into the formation process of this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and offer a promising new tool for analysis of fine-grained and complexly zoned materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7659J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7659J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper Paleozoic tectonics in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): insight from new structural data (Kyrgyzstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Due to successive block accretions, the polarity of structures and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are several conflicting models about the polarity of subduction during the Paleozoic, the number of microplates and oceanic basins and the timing of tectonic events in Kyrgyz and Chinese <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. In this study, we propose new structural maps and cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (MTS and STS respectively). These cross-sections highlight an overall dextral strike-slip shear zone in the MTS and a north verging structure related to south-dipping subduction in the STS. These structures are Carboniferous in age and sealed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. In detail, the STS exhibits two deformation phases. The first one is characterized by coeval top-to-the north thrusting and top-to-the-South normal shearing at the boundaries of large continental unit that underwent High-Pressure (Eclogite facies) metamorphism. We ascribe this phase to the exhumation of underthrusted passive margin units of the MTS. The second one corresponds to a top to the North nappe stacking that we link to the last collisional events between the MTS and the Tarim block. Later on, during the Late Carboniferous, a major deformation stage is characterized by the deformation of the MTS and its thrusting over the NTS. This deformation occurred on a large dextral shear zone between the NTS and the MTS known as Song-Kul Zone or Nikolaiev Line as a "side effect" of the Tarim/MTS collision. Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the CAOB. The resulting model comprises the underthrusting of the MTS-Kazakh platform beneath the Tarim and its exhumation followed by the folding, shortening and thickening of the internal metamorphic units during the last collisional events which partitioned the deformation between the STS and the MTS. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeCoA.189...70K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeCoA.189...70K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A link between oxygen, calcium and titanium isotopes in 26Al-poor hibonite-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Murchison and implications for the heterogeneity of dust reservoirs in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Park, Changkun; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Tenner, Travis J.; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>PLACs (platy hibonite crystals) and related hibonite-rich calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>; hereafter collectively referred to as PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) have the largest nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of all materials believed to have formed in the solar system. Most PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have low inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios and could have formed prior to injection or widespread distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula. In this study, we report 26Al-26Mg systematics combined with oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions for a large number of newly separated PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Murchison CM2 chondrite (32 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied for oxygen, 26 of these also for 26Al-26Mg, calcium and titanium). Our results confirm (1) the large range of nucleosynthetic anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca (our data range from -70‰ to +170‰ and -60‰ to +80‰, respectively), (2) the substantial range of Δ17O values (-28‰ to -17‰, with Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O), and (3) general 26Al-depletion in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The multielement approach reveals a relationship between Δ17O and the degree of variability in 50Ti and 48Ca: PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the highest Δ17O (∼-17‰) show large positive and negative 50Ti and 48Ca anomalies, while those with the lowest Δ17O (∼-28‰) have small to no anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca. These observations could suggest a physical link between anomalous 48Ca and 50Ti carriers and an 16O-poor reservoir. We suggest that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous shortly after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud, and that the primordial dust reservoir, in which anomalous carrier phases were heterogeneously distributed, was 16O-poor (Δ17O ⩾ -17‰) relative to the primordial gaseous (CO + H2O) reservoir (Δ17O < -35‰). However, other models such as CO self-shielding in the protoplanetary disk are also considered to explain the link between oxygen and calcium and titanium isotopes in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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