Note: This page contains sample records for the topic cajanus cajan para from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.

Genome size variation in Cajanus cajan ( Fabaceae ): A reconsideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent investigation of genome size in certain samples of the pigeonpea,Cajanus cajan, indicates values from 1.55 pg to 1.99 pg (1C level), which is 1.29-fold variation between accessions. In the present analysis those of these accessions which had particularly high or low DNA contents in that study were subjected to a reanalysis using propidium iodide and DAPI flow cytometry

J. Greilhuber; R. Obermayer



Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.  

PubMed Central

Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur) (family: Fabaceae) is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

Pal, Dilipkumar; Mishra, Pragya; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, Ashoke K.



Cr (VI) and Fe (III) removal using Cajanus cajan husk.  


Husk of tur dal (Cajanus cajan) was investigated as a new biosorbent for the removal of Fe (III) and Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions. Parameters like agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH were studied at different initial Fe (III) and Cr (VI) concentrations. The biosorptive capacity of the Tur dal husk was dependent on the pH of the chromium and iron solution, with pH 2 and 2.5 respectively being optimal. The adsorption data fit well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The practical limiting adsorption capacity (qmax) calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was 96.05 mg of Cr(VI)/ g of the biosorbent at an initial pH of 2.0 and 66.65 mg/g at pH 2.5. The infrared spectra of the biomass revealed that hydroxyl, carboxyl and amide bonds are involved in the uptake of Cr (VI) and Fe (III) ions. Characterisation of tur dal husk has revealed that it is an excellent material for treating wastewaters containing low concentration of metal ions. PMID:18405110

Ahalya, N; Kanamadi, R D; Ramachandra, T V



Aluminum-induced abiotic stress counteracts Fusarium infection in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction between Al and fungal pathogen Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti was investigated in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Germinating seeds of C. cajan conditioned by treating presoaked seeds with Al at concentrations 0, 10, 50, and 100 µM, pH 4.5, for 24 h were subjected to fungal infection. Subsequently, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2 and H2O2), cell death, and activity of

Prakasini Satapathy; V. Mohan Murali Achary; Brahma B. Panda



Aluminum-induced abiotic stress counteracts Fusarium infection in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction between Al and fungal pathogen Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti was investigated in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Germinating seeds of C. cajan conditioned by treating presoaked seeds with Al at concentrations 0, 10, 50, and 100 µM, pH 4.5, for 24 h were subjected to fungal infection. Subsequently, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2 and H2O2), cell death, and activity of

Prakasini Satapathy; V. Mohan Murali Achary; Brahma B. Panda



Influence of germination on the nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cajanus cajan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination is a method that can modify the presence of nutrients and antinutrients in legume seeds. In this study, the changes in trypsin inhibitors activity (TIA), phytic acid, tannins, ascorbic acid, thiamine, protein digestibility and minerals in germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and pigeon beans (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) were evaluated. The ungerminated grains

E. Sangronis; C. J. Machado



Genetic variation of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors in pigeonpea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] and its wild relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the trypsin inhibitors (TIs) and the chymotrypsin inhibitors (CIs) among 69 pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] strains from a wide geographical distribution and among 17 accessions representing seven wild Cajanus species was studied by electrophoretic banding pattern comparisons and by spectrophotometric activity assays. The TI and CI electrophoretic migration patterns among the pigeonpea strains were highly uniform but

K. P. Kollipara; L. Singh; T. Hymowitz



Sustainable Approaches for Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt in Pigeon Pea ( Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea) is an important crop of Indian subcontinent and African countries, cultivated in the tropics and subtropics.\\u000a Fusarium wilt is one of the major yield and growth-limiting factors of pigeon pea. Along with nematodes such as Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera cajani, F. udum result in highly destructive wilt disease complex, which is a major constraint for the

Piyush Pandey; Abhinav Aeron; D. K. Maheshwari


Germinated Cajanus cajan seeds as ingredients in pasta products: Chemical, biological and sensory evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan) seeds were germinated for 4 days at 20°C in darkness in order to improve the nutritional quality of seeds. Germination brought about a sharp reduction of ?-galactosides, phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor activity (83%, 61% and 36%, respectively) and an increment of vitamin B2 (145%), vitamin C (from negligible amounts to 14mg\\/100g d.m.), vitamin E (108%)

Alexia Torres; Juana Frias; Marisela Granito; Concepción Vidal-Valverde



Response surface analysis of nano-ureases from Canavalia ensiformis and Cajanus cajan.  


Ureases isolated from leguminous sources, Canavalia ensiformis and Cajanus cajan were immobilized onto gold nanoparticles (nano-ureases). Optimization of the urease immobilization was carried using response surface methodology based on Central Composite Design. Immobilization efficiency of nano-urease from C. ensiformis and C. cajan were found to be 215.10% and 255.92%, respectively. The methodology adopted has deviation of 2.56% and 3.01% with respect to experimental values in case of C. ensiformis and C. cajan, respectively. Nano-urease from C. cajan has broad physico-chemical parameters with pH optimum from 7.1 to 7.3 and temperature optimum from 50 to 70°C. Nano-urease from C. ensiformis has sharp pH and temperature optima at 7.3 and 70°C, respectively. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy has revealed involvement of groups viz. amino, glycosyl moiety, etc. in urease immobilization onto gold nano-particles. Transmission and scanning electron micrographs revealed that arrangement of urease onto gold nano-particles from C. ensiformis was uniform while it was localized in case of C. cajan. Nano-urease from C. ensiformis has higher specificity and catalysis toward urea as compared to nano-urease from C. cajan. Nano-ureases from both sources are equally stable for 6 months under dried conditions and can be used for 10 washes. PMID:21762723

Dwevedi, Alka; Routh, Satya Brata; Yadav, Amit Singh; Singh, Ashwani Kumar; Srivastava, Onkar Nath; Kayastha, Arvind M




PubMed Central

The antidiabetic activity of methanol leaves extract of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (Fabaceae) was studied in alloxan-diabetic and in oral glucose loaded rats. The acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) and the phytochemical analysis of the extract were also evaluated. The results showed that the extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced fasting blood sugar of alloxan diabetic rats in a dose-related manner, with maximum hypoglycemic effect at 4 – 6 h. The extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) also significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the peak postprandial rise in blood glucose of normal rats by 101.8 and 57.40% respectively. Acute toxicity and lethality test of the extract in rats gave an oral LD50 greater than 5 g/kg. The findings indicate that the leaves of C. cajan may be beneficial as an antidiabetic therapy.

Ezike, Adaobi C.; Akah, Peter A.; Okoli, Charles C.; Okpala, Chinwe B.



HCH, endosulfan, and fluvalinate residue behavior in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp)  

SciTech Connect

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) is one of the major pulse crop of India. The loss of pigeonpea crop due to pod and foliage pests is significant, the major pests being pod fly, hairy caterpillar, aphids, white fly, plume moth borer, leaf caterpillar and jassids. It is imperative to save every grain by chemical control methods but these toxicants should not leave unusually high residues on the edible parts. In this paper the authors report the residue behavior of three different insecticides namely, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan and fluvalinate on this crop.

Mukherjee, I.; Gopal, M.; Yaduraju, N.T. (Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi (India))



Antioxidant status of pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan in the presence of endosulfan stress.  


Antioxidative status study was made in cotyledons of 7days old as well as in leaf and stem tissues of 30 and 60 days old pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) namely Asha and Maruti subjected to different doses of endosulfan in the range 0.1-1.0%. The results revealed that the activities of the antioxidative enzymes and the antioxidant contents such as the super oxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), reducing power (RP), ascorbic acid (AsA) and total phenols (TP) increased with increase in the concentrations of endosulfan in different parts of the plants in both the varieties. It was interesting to note that the increase in the antioxidative enzymes and the antioxidant contents were higher in leaves than in stem and cotyledons in both the plant varieties. The Asha showed lower activity of SOD and higher activity of POD than the Maruti. The RP and AsA contents were higher whereas the TP content was lower in Asha than Maruti. The observed variations in the activities of the oxidative enzymes and the antioxidant contents of the plants treated with the varying concentration of endosulfan indicated that the antioxidative system in the plants plays a fundamental role in minimizing the deleterious effects of the oxidative stress in the two varieties of Cajanus cajan. PMID:20120477

Mathad, Pratima; Siddaling, N C



Pinostrobin and Cajanus lactone isolated from Cajanus cajan (L.) leaves inhibits TNF-? and IL-1? production: In vitro and in vivo experimentation.  


The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) inhibitory activities of Cajanus cajan (leaves) crude methanolic extract, its fractions and its phytochemical constituents were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Phytochemical investigation of the active ethyl acetate (CCE) and n-butanol (CCB) fractions of C. cajan L. leaves yielded 14 compounds. It was observed that both pinostrobin (9) and cajanus lactone (4) were found to be most active in inhibiting TNF-? (IC50<22?M) and IL-1? (IC50<40?M) whereas compounds 2, 3, 5-8, 10 and 14 showed moderate and mild effects (IC50=35.50-81.22?M for TNF-? and 38.23-89.10?M for IL-1?) in both the cell lines. Furthermore, at dose of 20mg/kg, both pinostrobin (9) and cajanus lactone (4) were found to reduce LPS-induced TNF-? levels by 48.6% and 55.0% respectively and IL-1? levels by 53.1% and 41.8% respectively in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. These findings suggest that C. cajan L. leaves can be developed as an effective herbal remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammation or associated ailments. PMID:24680612

Patel, Neeraj K; Bhutani, Kamlesh K



Antifungal potential of some higher plants against Fusarium udum causing wilt disease of Cajanus cajan.  


The fungitoxic effects of different plant extracts on Fusarium udum, which causes wilt disease of Cajanus cajan in vitro and in vivo, were examined. The complete arrest of the radial growth of the pathogen occurred at a 10% concentration of leaf extract from Adenocallyma alliaceum. A leaf extract of Citrus medica, a root extract of Asparagus adscendens, rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale, and a bulb extract of Allium sativum inhibited up to 100% growth at higher concentrations. A. alliaceum controlled the disease up to 100% by amending its 4% powder in unsterilized soil and 2% in sterilized soil. The population of F. udum was found to be markedly reduced following treatments with plant powders. PMID:10955831

Singh, R; Rai, B



Increased effectiveness of competitive rhizobium strains upon inoculation of Cajanus cajan  

SciTech Connect

A field study was conducted in lysimeters containing /sup 15/N-enriched soil to determine the effects of four competitive rhizobium strains upon yield parameters of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan). The greatest differences observed were in seed yields; strain P132 effected the highest seed yield (121 +/- 20 g per plant), and the control strain (indigenous rhizobia) effected the lowest yield (43.9 +/- 8 g per plant). With the exception of seeds and pods, the dry matter weights were not different. Although there appeared to be no effect by inoculum strains on the fractional content of N derived from biological nitrogen fixation when the total plant biomass was considered, strains P132 and 401 partitioned more of the N derived from fixation into seeds and leaves than did the other strains. Because the seeds comprised the major portion of plant N, more total N and more N derived from biological nitrogen fixation (about half of total N) were found in plants inoculated with P132, whereas the smallest amount was found in the uninoculated controls. P132 was also the best competitor with respect to indigenous rhizobia and accounted for all of the nodules found on the plants in which it was inoculated.

Hernandez, B.S.; Poth, M.; Focht, D.D.



Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.  

PubMed Central

Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and ?-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA.

Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas



Influence of cadmium stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.  


Cadmium (Cd) causes oxidative damage and affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation process of legumes. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been demonstrated to alleviate heavy metal stress of plants. The present study was conducted to assess role of AM in alleviating negative effects of Cd on nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan genotypes differing in their metal tolerance. Fifteen day-old plants were subjected to Cd treatments--25 mg and 50 mg Cd per kg dry soil and were grown with and without Glomus mosseae. Cd treatments led to a decline in mycorrhizal infection (MI), nodule number and dry weights which was accompanied by reductions in leghemoglobin content, nitrogenase activity, organic acid contents. Cd supply caused a marked decrease in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) contents. Conversely, Cd increased membrane permeability, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Cd contents in nodules. AM inoculations were beneficial in reducing the above mentioned harmful effects of Cd and significantly improved nodule functioning. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) increased markedly in nodules of mycorrhizal-stressed plants. The negative effects of Cd were genotype and concentration dependent. PMID:22567695

Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima



Determination by flow cytometry polyploidy inducing-capacity of colchicine in Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp.  


The need to optimize flow cytometric analysis for the determination of ploidy level is a worthwhile venture to precisely know at what concentration of a mutagen and at what time of exposure polyploidy could be induced. Flow cytometry was used to determine the polyploidy inducing-capacity of colchicine in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp). Seeds of pigeon pea were soaked in three different concentrations of colchicine-5 mg, 10 and 15 mg L(-1) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, while the control group was soaked in water. Treated seeds and those from the control were planted in a greenhouse using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results show that colchicine induced tetraploids (4n) and mixoploids (2n+ 4n) as the concentration of colchicine increased and soaking duration. Days to seedling emergence increased as concentration of colchicine and duration of soaking increased while germination rate decreased proportionately with the increase in colchicine concentration and soaking duration but did not significantly affect percentage seedling survival. Explicitly, colchicine has the capacity of inducing polyploidy; especially tetraploids on the seeds of pigeon pea, which obviously could be harnessed for further breeding and improvement of the pigeon pea. PMID:24505986

Udensi, O U; Ontui, V



Endophytic fungi from pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] produce antioxidant Cajaninstilbene acid.  


In this study, novel endophytic fungi producing cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) from pigeon pea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] were investigated and screened. CSA has prominent pharmacological activities. A total of 110 endophytic fungi isolates were grouped into 8 genera on the basis of morphological characteristics, and CSA-producing fungi were screened by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). According to ITS-rDNA sequences analysis, the CSA-producing fungi were identified as Fusarium solani (ERP-07), Fusarium oxysporum (ERP-10), and Fusarium proliferatum (ERP-13), respectively. The amount of CSA produced by the ERP-13 reached 504.8 ± 20.1 ?g/L or 100.5 ± 9.4 ?g/g dry weight of mycelium. In a DPPH radical-scavenging assay, when the concentration of fungal CSA was 500 ?g/mL, inhibition percentage could reach 80%, which was almost the same as that of standard CSA. This study first reported the natural antioxidant CSA from endophytic fungi F. solani and F. proliferatum isolated from pigeon pea. PMID:22494407

Zhao, JinTong; Fu, YuJie; Luo, Meng; Zu, YuanGang; Wang, Wei; Zhao, ChunJian; Gu, ChengBo



Identification and Validation of Expressed Sequence Tags from Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) Root  

PubMed Central

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.) is an important food legume crop of rain fed agriculture in the arid and semiarid tropics of the world. It has deep and extensive root system which serves a number of important physiological and metabolic functions in plant development and growth. In order to identify genes associated with pigeonpea root, ESTs were generated from the root tissues of pigeonpea (GRG-295 genotype) by normalized cDNA library. A total of 105 high quality ESTs were generated by sequencing of 250 random clones which resulted in 72 unigenes comprising 25 contigs and 47 singlets. The ESTs were assigned to 9 functional categories on the basis of their putative function. In order to validate the possible expression of transcripts, four genes, namely, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, phosphoglycerate kinase, serine carboxypeptidase, and methionine aminopeptidase, were further analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR. The possible role of the identified transcripts and their functions associated with root will also be a valuable resource for the functional genomics study in legume crop.

Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Yadav, Shailesh; Joshi, Shourabh; Bhandare, Prithviraj P.; Patil, Vinod Kumar; Kulkarni, Pramod B.; Sonkawade, Swati; Naik, G. R.



Pigeonpea genomics initiative (PGI): an international effort to improve crop productivity of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)  

PubMed Central

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an important food legume crop in the semi-arid regions of the world and the second most important pulse crop in India, has an average crop productivity of 780 kg/ha. The relatively low crop yields may be attributed to non-availability of improved cultivars, poor crop husbandry and exposure to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses in pigeonpea growing regions. Narrow genetic diversity in cultivated germplasm has further hampered the effective utilization of conventional breeding as well as development and utilization of genomic tools, resulting in pigeonpea being often referred to as an ‘orphan crop legume’. To enable genomics-assisted breeding in this crop, the pigeonpea genomics initiative (PGI) was initiated in late 2006 with funding from Indian Council of Agricultural Research under the umbrella of Indo-US agricultural knowledge initiative, which was further expanded with financial support from the US National Science Foundation’s Plant Genome Research Program and the Generation Challenge Program. As a result of the PGI, the last 3 years have witnessed significant progress in development of both genetic as well as genomic resources in this crop through effective collaborations and coordination of genomics activities across several institutes and countries. For instance, 25 mapping populations segregating for a number of biotic and abiotic stresses have been developed or are under development. An 11X-genome coverage bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library comprising of 69,120 clones have been developed of which 50,000 clones were end sequenced to generate 87,590 BAC-end sequences (BESs). About 10,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Sanger sequencing and ca. 2 million short ESTs by 454/FLX sequencing have been generated. A variety of molecular markers have been developed from BESs, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR)-enriched libraries and mining of ESTs and genomic amplicon sequencing. Of about 21,000 SSRs identified, 6,698 SSRs are under analysis along with 670 orthologous genes using a GoldenGate SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotyping platform, with large scale SNP discovery using Solexa, a next generation sequencing technology, is in progress. Similarly a diversity array technology array comprising of ca. 15,000 features has been developed. In addition, >600 unique nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain containing members of the NBS-leucine rich repeat disease resistance homologs were cloned in pigeonpea; 960 BACs containing these sequences were identified by filter hybridization, BES physical maps developed using high information content fingerprinting. To enrich the genomic resources further, sequenced soybean genome is being analyzed to establish the anchor points between pigeonpea and soybean genomes. In addition, Solexa sequencing is being used to explore the feasibility of generating whole genome sequence. In summary, the collaborative efforts of several research groups under the umbrella of PGI are making significant progress in improving molecular tools in pigeonpea and should significantly benefit pigeonpea genetics and breeding. As these efforts come to fruition, and expanded (depending on funding), pigeonpea would move from an ‘orphan legume crop’ to one where genomics-assisted breeding approaches for a sustainable crop improvement are routine.

Penmetsa, R. V.; Dutta, S.; Kulwal, P. L.; Saxena, R. K.; Datta, S.; Sharma, T. R.; Rosen, B.; Carrasquilla-Garcia, N.; Farmer, A. D.; Dubey, A.; Saxena, K. B.; Gao, J.; Fakrudin, B.; Singh, M. N.; Singh, B. P.; Wanjari, K. B.; Yuan, M.; Srivastava, R. K.; Kilian, A.; Upadhyaya, H. D.; Mallikarjuna, N.; Town, C. D.; Bruening, G. E.; He, G.; May, G. D.; McCombie, R.; Jackson, S. A.; Singh, N. K.; Cook, D. R.



[Evaluation of traditional medicine: effects of Cajanus cajan L. and of Cassia fistula L. on carbohydrate metabolism in mice].  


The authors report the results of pharmacologic evaluation of two medicinal plants: Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp and Cassia fistula, which are used in Panamanian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. It was found that the aqueous fraction of the leaves and stems of C. cajan did not produce any hypo blood sugar effect in normoglycemic mice; instead, it produced a hyperglycemia with doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg (p less than 0.001). Only with a dose of 300 mg/kg a short lived decrease in the glycemia was seen at one hour. On the contrary, the folk use of the leaves of C. fistula for diabetes seems to have some correlation with the popular frek use. The aqueous fraction produced a significant decrease in the glycemia (p less than 0.001) at 4 and 24 hours with doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg, and at one and four hours after the dose of 1000 mg/kg (p less than 0.001). In the glucose tolerance test, the aqueous fraction of C. cajan produced a significant and short lasting decrease (p less than 0.05) with the dose of 300 mg/kg, while the dose of 500 mg/kg did at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 hour (p less than 0.01). The 1000 mg/kg dose produced a significant increase in glucose tolerance at 1 and 2 hours (p less than 0.05). The aqueous fraction of C. fistula produced a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) with the dose of 500 mg/kg at 0.25 and 0.5 hours. The 1000 mg/kg dose produced a significant increase (p less than 0.001) at 0.25 and 2 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2024054

Espósito Avella, M; Díaz, A; de Gracia, I; de Tello, R; Gupta, M P



Negative-pressure cavitation extraction of cajaninstilbene acid and pinostrobin from pigeon pea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves and evaluation of antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an efficient negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE) technique was developed to extract cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) and pinostrobin (PI) from pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves. The operating parameters were optimised using single-factor experiment and central composite design combined with response surface methodology. Well-fitting models for the extraction of CSA and PI were successfully established. From the economic

Yu Kong; Zuo-Fu Wei; Yu-Jie Fu; Cheng-Bo Gu; Chun-Jian Zhao; Xiao-Hui Yao; Thomas Efferth



Effect of cadmium and nickel on photosynthesis and the enzymes of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Cd2+ and Ni2+ on the rate of photosynthesis and activities of key enzymes of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle was examined in leaves from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L., cv. UPAS-120) grown in nitrogen free sand culture. Two different concentrations of Cd2+ and Ni2+ were applied through the rooting medium at two growth stages. The application of Cd2+

I. S. Sheoran; H. R. Singal; Randhir Singh



[Hypocholesterolemic effect of stilbene extract from Cajanus cajan L. on serum and hepatic lipid in diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice].  


Cajanus cajan L. is a natural plant, which contains a lot of potential active components. In the present study, we identified the effects of the stilbene extract from Cajanus cajan L. (sECC) on hepatic cholesterol metabolism in diet-induced (for 4 weeks) hyperlipidemic Kunming mice. All experimental mice were divided into 5 groups: control group, high lipid model group, sECC-treated with 200 or 100 mg kg(-1), and simvastatin (Sim, 12 mg kg(-1)) treated group. The mice were fed with fat and cholesterol-enriched chow except control mice that were fed with standard diet. The effects of sECC were investigated by monitoring serum and liver lipid profile (i. e. cholesterol homeostasis) in mice. To further explore the mechanism of sECC, hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expressions in cholesterol homeostasis were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR. After 4 weeks pretreatment, the mice in the high lipid model group showed markedly higher serum and hepatic lipid contents than control group (P< 0.01). Compared with high lipid model group, the increased serum and hepatic lipid contents were markedly attenuated by sECC (200 mg kg(-1)), the serum and hepatic total cholesterol were reduced by 31.5% and 22.7% (P<0.05), respectively. The triglyceride contents of serum and liver were also lowered by 23.0% and 14.4%, respectively. At the same times, serum LDL cholesterol decreased by 53.0% (P<0.01). The mRNA expressions of hepatic CYP7A1 and LDL-receptor were significantly enhanced in the mice administered with sECC (200 mg kg(-1)), whereas those expressions were suppressed by the fat and cholesterol-enriched diet. These data indicate that sECC reduces the atherogenic properties of dietary cholesterol in mice. It is indicated that expression enhancement of hepatic LDL-receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase may be responsible for the hypercholesterolemic effect. PMID:18507340

Luo, Qing-Feng; Sun, Lan; Si, Jian-Yong; Chen, Di-Hua; Du, Guan-Hua



Biological control of Fusarium wilt of pigeonpea Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp with chitinolytic Alcaligenes xylosoxydans.  


Alcaligenes xylosoxydans protected pigeonpea from Fusarium wilt in a pot experiment and field trials. When seeds of pigeonpea (C. cajan) were treated with A. xylosoxydans and sown in soil infested with Fusarium, the incidence of wilt was reduced by 43.5% and resulted in 58% higher grain yield. The antifungal activity of A. xylosoxydans was based on chitinase production and was comparable in efficacy to commercial antifungal agents such as benlate, monitor WP, thiram and bavistin. PMID:15320506

Vaidya, R J; Macmil, S L A; Vyas, P R; Ghetiya, L V; Thakor, K J; Chhatpar, H S



Infectivity and efficacy of Glomus aggregatum and growth response of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. in flyash amended sterile soil.  


In the present investigation a pot culture experiment was conducted using sterile, phosphorus deficient soil to study the effect of flyash at 3 different concentrations (10g, 20g and 30g flyash/kg soil) on the infectivity and effectiveness of VAM fungus Glomus aggregatum in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) cv Maruti. The flyash amendment in soil at all the 3 different concentrations was found to affect significantly the intensity of VAM fungal colonization inside the plant roots and also suppressed the formation of VAM fungal structure (vesicles and arbuscules) completely at higher concentration (30g flyash/kg soil). The response of the pigeonpea plants, as judged by their higher and dry weight, under the influence of flyash amendment in VAM fungus infested soils was found to be considerably less (though not significant enough) when compared to the control plants (without flyash) that have otherwise shown significant increase in growth over the plants without Glomus aggregatum inoculation. However, flyash amendment without VAM inoculation was also found to enhance the growth of plants as compared to control plants (without flyash and VAM inoculum). PMID:16459561

Garampalli, Rajkumar H; Deene, Sunanda; Reddy, C Narayana



Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.  


The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations. PMID:19476009

Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A



Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Kids Fed Expander-extruded Complete Feed Pellets Containing Red Gram (Cajanus cajan) Straw  

PubMed Central

A growth and digestibility study was conducted using Osmanabadi goat male kids by feeding complete diets in the form of mash or expander extruded pellets containing different levels of red gram (Cajanus cajan) straw (RGS). Two iso-nitrogenous complete diets were prepared by incorporating RGS at 35% and 50% levels. Half the quantity of each complete mash feed was then converted into pellets through expander extruder processing. Thirty two kids of 4 to 5 months age were divided into four groups of eight each and were fed for 150 d with four experimental diets (T1: mash with 35% RGS, T2: mash with 50% RGS, T3: pellets with 35% RGS and T4: pellets with 50% RGS). Pelleting of complete diets significantly (p<0.001) increased the voluntary feed intake (671.45 vs 426.28 g/d) at both levels of RGS in the feeds. Average daily gain (ADG, g/d) also increased significantly (p<0.001) from 48.79 in kids fed mash diet to 71.29 in those fed with pelleted diets. Feed conversion efficiency (dry matter (DM) intake: weight gain) was comparable among all the treatment groups. Digestibility of nutrients was not affected by pelleting of the feeds whereas, increasing the level of inclusion of RGS in feeds from 35% to 50% decreased (p<0.05) the digestibility of DM and crude protein (CP) resulting in lower (p<0.001) metabolizable energy (ME) content (MJ/kg DM) in feeds with 50% RGS (7.93 vs 8.75). Daily intake (MJ/kg BW?0.75) of ME decreased (p<0.05) in feeds containing 50% RGS while pelleting of feeds increased (p<0.05) the intake of DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP) and ME. It is inferred that expander extruder pelleting can efficiently utilize RGS up to 50% level in complete diets for growing goat kids.

Reddy, P. B.; Reddy, T. J.; Reddy, Y. R.



The first set of EST resource for gene discovery and marker development in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp) is one of the major grain legume crops of the tropics and subtropics, but biotic stresses [Fusarium wilt (FW), sterility mosaic disease (SMD), etc.] are serious challenges for sustainable crop production. Modern genomic tools such as molecular markers and candidate genes associated with resistance to these stresses offer the possibility of facilitating pigeonpea breeding for improving biotic stress resistance. Availability of limited genomic resources, however, is a serious bottleneck to undertake molecular breeding in pigeonpea to develop superior genotypes with enhanced resistance to above mentioned biotic stresses. With an objective of enhancing genomic resources in pigeonpea, this study reports generation and analysis of comprehensive resource of FW- and SMD- responsive expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Results A total of 16 cDNA libraries were constructed from four pigeonpea genotypes that are resistant and susceptible to FW ('ICPL 20102' and 'ICP 2376') and SMD ('ICP 7035' and 'TTB 7') and a total of 9,888 (9,468 high quality) ESTs were generated and deposited in dbEST of GenBank under accession numbers GR463974 to GR473857 and GR958228 to GR958231. Clustering and assembly analyses of these ESTs resulted into 4,557 unique sequences (unigenes) including 697 contigs and 3,860 singletons. BLASTN analysis of 4,557 unigenes showed a significant identity with ESTs of different legumes (23.2-60.3%), rice (28.3%), Arabidopsis (33.7%) and poplar (35.4%). As expected, pigeonpea ESTs are more closely related to soybean (60.3%) and cowpea ESTs (43.6%) than other plant ESTs. Similarly, BLASTX similarity results showed that only 1,603 (35.1%) out of 4,557 total unigenes correspond to known proteins in the UniProt database (? 1E-08). Functional categorization of the annotated unigenes sequences showed that 153 (3.3%) genes were assigned to cellular component category, 132 (2.8%) to biological process, and 132 (2.8%) in molecular function. Further, 19 genes were identified differentially expressed between FW- responsive genotypes and 20 between SMD- responsive genotypes. Generated ESTs were compiled together with 908 ESTs available in public domain, at the time of analysis, and a set of 5,085 unigenes were defined that were used for identification of molecular markers in pigeonpea. For instance, 3,583 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified in 1,365 unigenes and 383 primer pairs were designed. Assessment of a set of 84 primer pairs on 40 elite pigeonpea lines showed polymorphism with 15 (28.8%) markers with an average of four alleles per marker and an average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of 0.40. Similarly, in silico mining of 133 contigs with ? 5 sequences detected 102 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 37 contigs. As an example, a set of 10 contigs were used for confirming in silico predicted SNPs in a set of four genotypes using wet lab experiments. Occurrence of SNPs were confirmed for all the 6 contigs for which scorable and sequenceable amplicons were generated. PCR amplicons were not obtained in case of 4 contigs. Recognition sites for restriction enzymes were identified for 102 SNPs in 37 contigs that indicates possibility of assaying SNPs in 37 genes using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) assay. Conclusion The pigeonpea EST dataset generated here provides a transcriptomic resource for gene discovery and development of functional markers associated with biotic stress resistance. Sequence analyses of this dataset have showed conservation of a considerable number of pigeonpea transcripts across legume and model plant species analysed as well as some putative pigeonpea specific genes. Validation of identified biotic stress responsive genes should provide candidate genes for allele mining as well as candidate markers for molecular breeding.



Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity  

PubMed Central

Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2) but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC) and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI). Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg). In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001), reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001) in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress.

Nahar, Laizuman; Nasrin, Fatema; Zahan, Ronok; Haque, Anamul; Haque, Ekramul; Mosaddik, Ashik



Comparison of N2 Fixation and Yields in Cajanus cajan between Hydrogenase-Positive and Hydrogenase-Negative Rhizobia by In Situ Acetylene Reduction Assays and Direct 15N Partitioning 1  

PubMed Central

Pigeon peas [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] were grown in soil columns containing 15N-enriched organic matter. Seasonal N2 fixation activity was determined by periodically assaying plants for reduction of C2H2. N2 fixation rose sharply from the first assay period at 51 days after planting to a peak of activity between floral initiation and fruit set. N2 fixation (acetylene reduction) activity dropped concomitantly with pod maturation but recovered after pod harvests. Analysis of 15N content of plant shoots revealed that approximately 91 to 94% of plant N was derived from N2 fixation. The effect of inoculation with hydrogenase-positive and hydrogenase-negative rhizobia was examined. Pigeon peas inoculated with strain P132 (hydrogenase-positive) yielded significantly more total shoot N than other inoculated or uninoculated treatments. However, two other hydrogenase-positive strains did not yield significantly more total shoot N than a hydrogenase-negative strain. The extent of nodulation by inoculum strains compared to indigenous rhizobia was determined by typing nodules according to intrinsic antibiotic resistance of the inoculum strains. The inoculum strains were detected in almost all typed nodules of inoculated plants. Gas samples were taken from soil columns several times during the growth cycle of the plants. H2 was never detected, even in columns containing pigeon peas inoculated with hydrogenase-negative rhizobia. This was attributed to H2 consumption by soil bacteria. Estimation of N2 fixation by acetylene reduction activity was closest to the direct 15N method when ethylene concentrations in the gas headspace (between the column lid and soil surface) were extrapolated to include the soil pore space as opposed solely to measurement in the headspace. There was an 8-fold difference between the two acetylene reduction assay methods of estimation. Based on a planting density of 15,000 plants per hectare, the direct 15N fixation rates ranged from 67 (noninoculated) to 134 kilograms per hectare, while grain yields ranged from 540 to 825 kilograms per hectare. Grain yields were not increased with N fertilizer.

La Favre, Jeffrey S.; Focht, Dennis D.



Increasing lysine levels in pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp) seeds through genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher plants the essential amino acids lysine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine are synthesised through a branched\\u000a pathway starting from aspartate. The key enzyme of lysine biosynthesis in this pathway—dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS)—is\\u000a feedback-inhibited by lysine. The dhdps-r1 gene from a mutant Nicotiana sylvestris, which encodes a DHDPS enzyme insensitive to feedback inhibition, was used to improve the lysine content in

Tran Thanh Thu; Eric Dewaele; Le Quang Trung; Martine Claeys; Michel Jacobs; Geert Angenon



Studies on dhal recovery from pre-treated pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan L .) cultivars.  


Dhal recovery from three popular varieties of North Karnataka was studied using CFTRI mini dhal mill with five different treatments at three different levels. It was observed that Gulyal variety treated with mustard oil recorded maximum hulling efficiency (79.4%) and finished product (68.8%) when compared to a Maruti and Asha variety. However, acetic acid treatment recorded higher hulling efficiency (76.5%) for Maruti followed by Asha (56.9%). The plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatment yielded minimum hulling efficiency and finished product recovery for all the varieties. PMID:24803699

Hiregoudar, Sharanagouda; Sandeep, T N; Nidoni, Udaykumar; Shrestha, Bijay; Meda, Venkatesh



Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).  


Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 A resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 A. PMID:18607103

Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe



Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)  

PubMed Central

Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5?Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44?Å.

Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe



Molecular mapping of QTLs for plant type and earliness traits in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.)  

PubMed Central

Background Pigeonpea is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics and sub-tropical regions where it plays a crucial role in the food and nutritional security of the people. The average productivity of pigeonpea has remained very low and stagnant for over five decades due to lack of genomic information and intensive breeding efforts. Previous SSR-based linkage maps of pigeonpea used inter-specific crosses due to low inter-varietal polymorphism. Here our aim was to construct a high density intra-specific linkage map using genic-SNP markers for mapping of major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for key agronomic traits, including plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, number of pods, days to flowering and days to maturity in pigeonpea. Results A population of 186 F2:3 lines derived from an intra-specific cross between inbred lines ‘Pusa Dwarf’ and ‘HDM04-1’ was used to construct a dense molecular linkage map of 296 genic SNP and SSR markers covering a total adjusted map length of 1520.22 cM for the 11 chromosomes of the pigeonpea genome. This is the first dense intra-specific linkage map of pigeonpea with the highest genome length coverage. Phenotypic data from the F2:3 families were used to identify thirteen QTLs for the six agronomic traits. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the individual QTLs ranged from 3.18% to 51.4%. Ten of these QTLs were clustered in just two genomic regions, indicating pleiotropic effects or close genetic linkage. In addition to the main effects, significant epistatic interaction effects were detected between the QTLs for number of pods per plant. Conclusions A large amount of information on transcript sequences, SSR markers and draft genome sequence is now available for pigeonpea. However, there is need to develop high density linkage maps and identify genes/QTLs for important agronomic traits for practical breeding applications. This is the first report on identification of QTLs for plant type and maturity traits in pigeonpea. The QTLs identified in this study provide a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in the pigeonpea improvement.



Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour  

PubMed Central

The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) value of protein and little or no effect on moisture content. There were slight decreases in crude fiber and ash content of the irradiated samples compared with the control sample. The result of functional properties of the irradiated flours showed slight increase in water absorption capacity, swelling capacity and bulk density. The peroxide value of crude oil increased significantly with dose increases for the period of storage. The sensory evaluation of moinmoin samples prepared from irradiated pigeon pea flour showed no significant difference from the moinmoin sample prepared from nonirradiated flour. It can be concluded that gamma irradiation can extend the shelf life of pigeon pea flour.

Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T



Phenotypic diversity and amylolytic activity of fast growing rhizobia from pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated 26 pigeonpea rhizobial isolates according to their cultural characteristics, intrinsic antibiotic resistance, salt and temperature tolerance, carbon source utilization and amylolytic activity. The cultural characterization showed that the majority of them presented the ability to acidify the YMA. Among the 27 isolates evaluated, 25 were able to grow when incubated at 42° C and 11 showed tolerance to 3% (w/v) of NaCl in YMA medium. The patterns of carbon sources utilization was very diverse among the isolates. It was observed the capacity of three strains to metabolize all the carbon sources evaluated and a total of 42% of the bacterial isolates was able to grow in the culture medium supplemented with at least, six carbon sources. The carbon sources mannitol (control) and sucrose were metabilized by all isolates evaluated. The profile of intrinsic resistance to antibiotics showed that the isolates were mostly resistant to streptomycin and ampicillin, but susceptible to kanamycin and chloranphenicol. High amylolytic activity of, at least, four isolates was also demonstrated, especially for isolated 47.3b, which showed the highest enzymatic index. These results indicate the metabolic versatility of the pigeonpea rhizobia, and indicates the isolate 47.3b to further studies regarding the amylase production and characterization.

Junior, Paulo Ivan Fernandes; de Lima, Andrea Aparecida; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Tuao Gava, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Paulo Jansen; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvea; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro



Draft genome sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an orphan legume crop of resource-poor farmers.  


Pigeonpea is an important legume food crop grown primarily by smallholder farmers in many semi-arid tropical regions of the world. We used the Illumina next-generation sequencing platform to generate 237.2 Gb of sequence, which along with Sanger-based bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences and a genetic map, we assembled into scaffolds representing 72.7% (605.78 Mb) of the 833.07 Mb pigeonpea genome. Genome analysis predicted 48,680 genes for pigeonpea and also showed the potential role that certain gene families, for example, drought tolerance-related genes, have played throughout the domestication of pigeonpea and the evolution of its ancestors. Although we found a few segmental duplication events, we did not observe the recent genome-wide duplication events observed in soybean. This reference genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of agronomically important traits, and accelerate the development of improved pigeonpea varieties that could improve food security in many developing countries. PMID:22057054

Varshney, Rajeev K; Chen, Wenbin; Li, Yupeng; Bharti, Arvind K; Saxena, Rachit K; Schlueter, Jessica A; Donoghue, Mark T A; Azam, Sarwar; Fan, Guangyi; Whaley, Adam M; Farmer, Andrew D; Sheridan, Jaime; Iwata, Aiko; Tuteja, Reetu; Penmetsa, R Varma; Wu, Wei; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Shah, Trushar; Saxena, K B; Michael, Todd; McCombie, W Richard; Yang, Bicheng; Zhang, Gengyun; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Spillane, Charles; Cook, Douglas R; May, Gregory D; Xu, Xun; Jackson, Scott A



Poly-?-hydroxybutyrate and Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis by Bacterial Isolates from Pigeonpea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] Root Nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial strains that are able to produce biopolymers that are applied in industrial sectors present a source of renewable\\u000a resources. Some microorganisms are already applied at several industrial sectors, but the prospecting of new microbes must\\u000a bring microorganisms that are feasible to produce interesting biopolymers more efficiently and in cheaper conditions. Among\\u000a the biopolymers applied industrially, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and

Paulo Ivan Fernandes Júnior; Paulo Jansen de Oliveira; Norma Gouvêa Rumjanek; Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier



Protein quality of some Nigerian traditional diets based on the African yambean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).  


The protein quality of Nigerian traditional diets based on the African yambean (AYB) and pigeon pea (PP) were performed by in vivo and in vitro bioassays. The individual foods were processed, cooked, dried and mixed to resemble the traditional diets. Weanling male Wistar rats (45-55 g) were used for the bioassay. The rats were fed ad libitum for 35 days of which 28 days were for growth and 7 days for N-balance. All the eleven diets including casein (control) provided 1.6 g N/100 g diet. The parameters tested include PER, growth, N-balance, BV, NPU and apparent digestibility (AD). The rats fed the AYB diets, except AYB: Agidi (Ag), showed superiority in most of the parameters tested. There were significant positive correlations between PER and NPU (r = 0.925; p < 0.001); PER and AD (r = 0.908; p < 0.001); PER and body weight gain (r = 0.969; p < 0.001). The in vitro protein digestibility of the diets was significantly correlated (r = 0.80; p < 0.01) with the in vivo apparent digestibility. These parameters were used to rank the various diets. Crayfish protein was a better supplement to legume/cereal or legume starchy staple mixtures than leguminous oil seed. However, supplementation of PP: steamed corn (SC) diet with crayfish did not prove beneficial. The result showed that diets based on the African yambean, an under-exploited legume, are nutritious. The need for its reintroduction into the fare of the populace through increased production and appropriate processing technology is stressed. The results of this study can form a base for the standardization of Nigerian diets based on these legumes. PMID:8882368

Ene-Obong, H N; Obizoba, I C



Effect of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) on high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in hamsters.  


Obesity is associated with increased systemic and airway oxidative stress, which may result from a combination of adipokine imbalance and antioxidant defenses reduction. Obesity-mediated oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia, vascular disease, and nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. The antidyslipidemic activity of pigeon pea were evaluated by high-fat diet (HFD) hamsters model, in which the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and total triglyceride (TG) were examined. We found that pigeon pea administration promoted cholesterol converting to bile acid in HFD-induced hamsters, thereby exerting hypolipidemic activity. In the statistical results, pigeon pea significantly increased hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), LDL receptor, and cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (also known as cytochrome P450 7A1, CYP7A1) expression to attenuate dyslipidemia in HFD-fed hamsters; and markedly elevated antioxidant enzymes in the liver of HFD-induced hamsters, further alleviating lipid peroxidation. These effects may attribute to pigeon pea contained large of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; C18:2) and phytosterol (?-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol). Moreover, the effects of pigeon pea on dyslipidemia were greater than ?-sitosterol administration (4%), suggesting that phytosterone in pigeon pea could prevent metabolic syndrome. PMID:23287313

Dai, Fan-Jhen; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Huang, Jan-Jeng; Wu, She-Ching



UV-induced changes of active components and antioxidant activity in postharvest pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves.  


In this study, the effect of UV irradiation (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C) on phytochemicals, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of postharvest pigeon pea leaves was evaluated. The response of pigeon pea leaves to UV irradiation was phytochemical specific. UV-B and UV-C induced higher levels of phytochemicals, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity in pigeon pea leaves compared with UV-A. Furthermore, UV-B irradiation proved to possess a long-lasting effect on the levels of phenolics and antioxidant activity. After adapting for 48 h at 4 °C following 4 h UV-B irradiation, total phenolics and antioxidant activity were approximately 1.5-fold and 2.2-fold increased from 39.4 mg GAE/g DM and 15.0 ?mol GAE/g DM to 59.1 mg GAE/g DM and 32.5 ?mol GAE/g DM, respectively. These results indicate that UV irradiation of pigeon pea leaves can be beneficial in terms of increasing active components and antioxidant activity. PMID:23320913

Wei, Zuo-Fu; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Li, Chun-Ying; Gu, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Fu, Yu-Jie



Cajanuslactone, a new coumarin with anti-bacterial activity from pigeon pea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioassay-guided fractionation of the CHCl3 extract from pigeon pea leaves led to the isolation of a new natural coumarin, named as cajanuslactone (1), together with two known phytoalexins, pinostrobin (2) and cajaninstilbene acid (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by interpreting spectroscopic data of UV, IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR. It was determined as 7-hydroxy-5-O-methyl-8-(3-methyl-2-butylene)-4-phenyl-9,10-dihydro-benzopyran-2-one. The anti-bacterial

Yu Kong; Yu-Jie Fu; Yuan-Gang Zu; Fang-Rong Chang; Yung-Husan Chen; Xiao-Lei Liu; Johannes Stelten; Hans-Martin Schiebel



Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Seed Meal in Layer Diets: 1. Performance of Point of Lay Pullets Fed Raw or Processed Pigeon Pea Seed Meal Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Performance of point of lay black Bovan Nera pullets fed raw or processed pigeon pea seed meal (PSM) diets was determined with 150 (20 week old) pullets. They have not been fed any PSM diet before the study. The seeds (brown colored) were used as raw or processed (toasted for 30 minutes, boiled for 30 minutes, or soaked



Moisture sorption isotherms and modeling for pre-cooked flours of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajans L millsp) and lima bean ( Canavalia ensiformis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moisture sorption isotherms for pre-cooked flours of pigeon pea and lima bean were determined using the static method of saturated salt solution in a range of water activity from 0.20 to 0.97 at 18, 28, 38, and 48 °C and fitted by the Henderson, Chung and Pfost, and Ratti, Crapiste and Rotstein models. The moisture content of the material

Otoniel Corzo; Al?? Fuentes



Effect of storage on redgram [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] and greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] varieties with particular reference to carbohydrate composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of storage on carbohydrate composition of three redgram (TTB-7, BRG-1 and ICP-8863) and three greengram (Pusa Bisaki, KDM-1 and China Moong) varieties during storage was studied. The total free sugars, starch and dietary fibre were evaluated both in control and in samples stored for six months. Decrease in percentage of (a) free non-reducing sugars, (b) starch and (c)

M. R. Gopinath; G. Muralikrishana; S. R. Niranjana



Negative pressure cavitation extraction and antioxidant activity of genistein and genistin from the roots of pigeon pea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method—negative pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE) was proposed and investigated for the extraction of the main isoflavonoids, namely genistein and genistin from pigeon pea roots. The effects of extraction time and particle size on the extraction yields were firstly optimized, then a central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of

Dong-Yang Zhang; Su Zhang; Yuan-Gang Zu; Yu-Jie Fu; Yu Kong; Yuan Gao; Jin-Tong Zhao; Thomas Efferth



Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) extracts on hydrogen peroxide- and lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages.  


Chronic inflammation has been linked to a wide range of progressive diseases, including cancer, neurological disease, metabolic disorder, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have provided convincing evidence that natural dietary compounds, which humans consume as food, possess many biological activities, including chemopreventative activities against various chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea, as well as its major component, cyanidin-3-monoglucoside, an anthocyanin, on DNA damage, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and free radical scavenging capacity in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. High-pressure liquid chromatography results indicated that 2 mg of the 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea contained 45 ?g of cyanidin-3-monoglucoside. A comet assay indicated that 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea (2 mg mL(-1)) and of cyanidin-3-monoglucoside (10 ?M) protected RAW264.7 cells from DNA damage induced by a 24 h H(2)O(2) treatment. These results can be attributed to the prevention of reduction in antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in H(2)O(2)-treated murine RAW264.7 macrophages by the 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea. Moreover, as there is an active interplay between oxidative stress and inflammation, we also evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of the 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea and cyanidin-3-monoglucoside in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that the 50% ethanol extracts of pigeon pea and of cyanidin-3-monoglucoside suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6, in these macrophages. These results imply that pigeon pea could be developed as a functional food by the food industry, or could be utilized for the commercial production of anthocyanins as antioxidants. PMID:22914868

Lai, Yi-Syuan; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Huang, Jan-Jeng; Wu, She-Ching



In vitro antioxidant properties, DNA damage protective activity, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of cajaninstilbene acid, a stilbene compound derived from pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves.  


The antioxidant properties, DNA damage protective activities, and xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory effect of cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) derived from pigeon pea leaves were studied in the present work. Compared with resveratrol, CSA showed stronger antioxidant properties, DNA damage protective activity, and XOD inhibition activity. The IC(50) values of CSA for superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, reducing power, lipid peroxidation, and XOD inhibition were 19.03, 6.36, 39.65, 20.41, 20.58, and 3.62 ?M, respectively. CSA possessed good protective activity from oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, molecular docking indicated that CSA was more potent than resveratrol or allopurinol to interact with the active site of XOD (calculated free binding energy: -229.71 kcal mol(-1)). On the basis of the results, we conclude that CSA represents a valuable natural antioxidant source and may potentially be applicable in health food industry. PMID:21128613

Wu, Nan; Kong, Yu; Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Zhiwei; Yang, Mei; Peng, Xiao; Efferth, Thomas



Nutrients and certain lipid soluble bioactive components in dehusked whole grains (gota) and dehusked splits (dhal) from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and their cooking characteristics.  


The nutritional quality of dehusked whole grains (gota) and dehusked splits (dhal) in red and white varieties of pigeon pea regarding proximate composition and certain lipid-soluble bioactive components was investigated. A decrease in fat and crude fiber was noticed when gota was converted to dhal. The lipid profile of gota and dhal from red and white husk pigeon pea types indicated that essential fatty acids were greater in gota than in their respective dhals. Gota from white husk variety contained more tocopherols than the red variety. Dhal contained less tocopherols than gota. A decrease in the content of gamma and alpha tocopherols, vitamin E activity and total antioxidant activity also indicates loss of bioactive components on splitting gota into dhal. Cooking time and dispersed solids on cooking indicated good cooking quality of gotta. The results indicated the nutritional superiority of gota over dhal and its similarity with dhal in cooking characteristics. PMID:19657849

Jayadeep, Padmanabhan A; Sashikala, Vadakkoot B; Pratape, Vishwas M



Cajan leaf combined with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to observe the curative effect of traditional Chinese cajan leaves, combined with administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), on osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in rats and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. A total of 40 rat ONFH models were established through liquid nitrogen freezing and were subsequently divided into groups: A, control; B, treated with cajan leaf; C, treated with BMSCs and D, treated with cajan leaf combined with BMSCs. Samples were obtained 30 days following treatment, and immunohistochemical staining of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and image analysis were performed. Chondrocytes and vascular endothelial cells were stained as a result of immunohistochemical staining and group D exhibited markedly deeper staining, and a significantly larger number of stained cells, compared with group A. Thus, in the present study, cajan leaf combined with BMSCs was shown to promote VEGF expression and improve ONFH repair.




Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Seed Meal in Layer Diets: 3. Effect of Higher Inclusion Level and Prolonged Feeding of Raw or Processed Pigeon Pea Seed Meal Diets from Pullet Chick Stage on the Laying Performance of Pullets  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Black Bovan Nera pullets at point of lay (19 weeks old) that were fed pigeon Pea Seed Meal (PSM) diets during the pullet chick and grower stages of life were used to determine the effect of higher inclusion level and prolonged feeding of raw or processed PSM diets from the pullet chick stage on the laying performance of

K. U. Amaefule; M. A. Oguike; M. O. Ironkwe; F. C. Obioha



Cajanus indicus leaf protein: Beneficial role in experimental organ pathophysiology. A review.  


The herb, Cajanus indicus L, has been and is popular for its medicinal value in India and other countries for long. The herb is mainly cultivated for the seeds which are used as pulses and are rich in proteins. People of rural India and some neighboring countries use the aqueous extract of the leaves of the herb against poor liver function and recently it has been found that the extract is not only useful against liver damage but also beneficial for renal failure and a number of other pathophysiological conditions. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous protein fraction of the leaves has shown hepatoprotective activity in mice. The protein fraction revealed the presence of a 43kDa protein having antioxidant and other protective properties in organ pathophysiology. The purified protein, CI-protein, scavenges free radicals generated by different free radical inducers and helps providing cytoprotection. Amino acid sequence of CI-protein has some structural similarity with plastocyanin, an electron carrier protein in photosynthesis. The protein has also been found to be active against a number of organ dysfunction inducer chemicals and drugs, like carbon tetrachloride, thioacetamide and acetaminophen. Signal transduction studies suggest that CI-protein exerts its protective action by free radical scavenging and antioxidative properties; it activates NF-?B and Akt without any involvement of ERK1/ERK2 and STAT-3 in acetaminophen induced hepatic pathophysiology. Besides, it reduces both drug and toxin induced cytotoxicity by decreasing the formation and/or scavenging of free radicals involving cytochrome P450, taking part in detoxification of xenobiotics. PMID:21628093

Sarkar, Kasturi; Sil, Parames C



Chickpea and Pigeonpea Diseases: Resistance-Screening Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 50 diseases have been reported to affect pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) a widely grown tropical legume crop. Economically important diseases are wilt, Phytophthora blight, sterility mosaic, witches' broom and rust. To assist plant breeders develop disease...

Y. L. Nene M. P. Haware M. V. Reddy J. Kannaiyan



Purification and characterization of a 43 kD hepatoprotective protein from the herb Cajanus indicus L.  


Cajanus indicus L, a herb, is popularly known for its hepatoprotective activity. Aqueous extract of the leaves of this plant contains hepatoprotective and hepatostimulatory molecule(s). Present study was aimed to isolate, purify and characterize the active principle(s) responsible for that activity. A hepatoprotective protein molecule has been purified to homogeneity (approximately 300 fold). Homogeneous preparation of the protein was achieved by homogenization, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography. The protein purified is composed of a single polypeptide chain having an apparent molecular mass of 43 kD as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration through sephadex G-75 column. The isoelectric point of the protein determined was 4.8. Loss of biological activity after heat and protease treatment confirmed that the active molecule is a protein. Peptide fragments of the protein generated by trypsin cleavage were subjected to MALDI-TOF as well as LC-MS analyses and among the various fragments, four were very prominent and used for the determination of the amino acid sequence of the hepatoprotective protein. While one of the peptide fragment revealed strong sequence homology with plastocyanin, another fragment showed some similarity with a tomato protein present in the NCBI non-redundant database. The third peptide, on the other hand, is unique as it did not show any sequence homology with any known protein in the database. The protein showed maximum hepatoprotective activity when administered at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight for five days after CCl(4 )administration. Histopathological studies also supported the hepatoprotective nature of the protein. Along with its curative property, the protein also possesses preventive role against a number of toxin induced hepatic damages. PMID:17091391

Sarkar, Kasturi; Ghosh, Ayantika; Kinter, Michael; Mazumder, Barsanjit; Sil, Parames C



A protein from Cajanus indicus Spreng protects liver and kidney against mercuric chloride-induced oxidative stress.  


Mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) is a widespread environmental toxin that affects mainly liver and kidney. The present study has been carried out to investigate the protective action of a protein (the CI protein) isolated from the herb, Cajanus indicus Spreng against HgCl(2) induced renal and hepatic toxicities in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of HgCl(2) at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight for 1 d significantly reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Moreover, it also depleted the glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. In addition, HgCl(2) increased the activities of serum marker enzymes (namely, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, GPT and alkaline phosphatase, ALP), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) level along with hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation. Besides, application of HgCl(2) to hepatocytes increased reactive oxygen species production and reduced the total antioxidant activity of the treated hepatocytes. Treatment with the CI protein intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight before or after HgCl(2) administration showed that it could scavenge free radicals in vitro and protect the alterations of the antioxidant molecules and the other parameters used in this particular study. Histological studies also revealed a milder lesion in kidney and liver samples of the CI protein treated mice compared to mice treated with HgCl(2) alone. Effects of a known antioxidant N-acetylcysteine have been used to compare its action to that of the CI protein. PMID:18758054

Ghosh, Ayantika; Sil, Parames Chandra



Characteristics, Residue Decomposition, and Carbon Mineralization of Leguminous and Spontaneous Plants in Coffee Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the chemical and biochemical composition, residue decomposition, and mineralization rate of leguminous (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Lablab purpureus) and spontaneous vegetation in two experimental coffee systems in southeast Brazil. The nitrogen (N) content of the shoot biomass varied from 19.3 to 45.7 g kg, and phosphorus (P) content ranged from 1.6 to 3.8 g kg. C. cajan

Eduardo da Silva Matos; Irene Maria Cardoso; Renata Lúcia Souto; Paulo César de Lima; Eduardo de Sá Mendonça



Detection of Legume Protease Inhibitors by the Gel-X-ray Film Contact Print Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Redgram (Cajanus cajan L.) extracts have been analyzed for the protease inhibitors using a new, sensitive, simple, and rapid method for detection of electrophoretically separated protease inhibitors. The detection involves equilibrating the gel successively in the protease assay buffer and protease solution, rinsing the gel in assay buffer, and…

Mulimani, Veerappa H.; Sudheendra, Kulkarni; Giri, Ashok P.



Effect of cover crop on soil physical and chemical properties of an alfisol in the Sudan savannah of Burkina faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of several leguminous and graminaceous cover crops on soil physical and chemical properties was studied on a moderately eroded Alfisol in the Sudan savannah of Burkina Faso during the growing seasons of 1986 and 1987. Cover crops sown in 1986 were Macroptilium artropurpureum, M. lathyroides, Vigna radiata var. radiata, Cajanus cajan, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Lablab purpureus, Psophocarpus palustris, Digitaria

N. R. Hulugalle



Response of the pigeonpea- Rhizobium symbiosis to salinity stress: variation among Rhizobium strains in symbiotic ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were significant differences among pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] Rhizobium sp. strains (IC 3506, IC 3484, IC 3195, and IC 3087) in their ability to nodulate and fix N2 under saline conditions. Pigeonpea plants inoculated with IC 3087 and IC 3506 were less affected in growth by salinity levels of 6 and 8 dS m-1 than plants inoculated with

G. V. Subbarao; C. Johansen; J. V. D. K. Kumar Rao; M. K. Jana



Indices of root and canopy growth of leguminous cover crops in the savanna zone of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out in 1994 in the derived (DS) and northern Guinean savanna (NGS) zones of Nigeria at about 17-18 weeks after planting forage legumes. The forage legumes, which included Cajanus cajan , Crotalaria ochroleuca , Stylosanthes hamata , Centrosema pascuorum , Lablab purpureus , Mucuna pruriens (black and white) and Pueraria phaseoloides, were treat- ments in the




Farmer participatory research to minimize soil erosion on steepland vegetable systems in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion coupled with productivity decline is considered a major constraint to sustainable vegetable production in Southeast Asian steeplands, yet soil conservation technologies acceptable to vegetable growers have not been developed. Effectiveness of high-value contour hedgerows species [(Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats.),

D. D Poudel; D. J Midmore; L. T West



Changes in Polyphenols Distribution and Antioxidant Activity during Fermentation of Some Underutilized Legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fermentation on the polyphenol distribution and antioxidant activity of four underutilized legumes [Cajanus cajan L. Millsp (Pigeon pea), Vigna subterranea L. Verdc (Bambara groundnut), Sphenostylis stenocarpa Harms (African yam bean), and Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Kidney bean)] were investigated. The beans were cooked (12 h), soaked in boiled water (12 h), dehulled, and then cooked again (2 h).

G. Oboh; A. O. Ademiluyi; A. A. Akindahunsi



Antioxidant properties of some commonly consumed and underutilized tropical legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties of some commonly consumed [cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)] and underutilized [pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and African yam bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa)] legumes were assessed with regard to their Vitamin C, total phenol, and phytate content, as well as antioxidant activity as typified by their reducing power and free radical scavenging ability. The Vitamin C content of the cowpeas ranged

Ganiyu Oboh



Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of legume hulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of aqueous hull extracts of commonly consumed legumes in India namely Vigna radiata (mung bean), Cicer arietinum (Bengal gram) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) was studied by several in vitro assays. The extracts showed high phenolic content and excellent DPPH scavenging activity (75–85%) at very low concentration. The IC50 values for superoxide radical scavenging activity was also low

Sweetie R. Kanatt; Arun Sharma



Water acquisition from rainfall and groundwater by legume crops developing deep rooting systems determined with stable hydrogen isotope compositions of xylem waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deuterium\\/hydrogen isotope ratios (?D) of xylem waters from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and sesbania (Sesbania sesban) plants grown in semi-arid Zambia were investigated to know the seasonal variation in water sources for those crops. The study was conducted at a field site in the Zambia National Irrigation Research Station from November 2000 until April 2001. We measured the ?D

N. Sekiya; K. Yano



Does application of cement kiln exhausts affect root nodule biochemistry and soil N 2 -fixing microbes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work carried out on cement exhausts centers mostly around vegetation and crop productivity (1-3) with little\\u000a or no work on root nodulation. Soil plus foliar application of exhaust dusts did not affect soil\\/nodule rhizobial population,\\u000a nodule initiation, and possible N2-fixing capacity inCajanus cajan, Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo,Vigna catjung, andGlycine max. The nodular biochemistry was investigated in detail. The

V. C. Saralabai; M. Vivekanandan



Influence of P Fertilization on Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Herbaceous Legumes Grown in Acid Savannah Soils from the Tabasco State, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

gThe use of leguminous plants in the agricultural systems of the humid tropics is an alternative means for providing N to soils considered unfertile and marginal. The objective of this study was to assess the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in the symbiosis Rhizobia-herbaceous legumes (Mucuna deeringiana, Canavalia ensiformis, Vigna umbellata, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Arachis pintoi and Crotala-riajuncea) grown in

J. A. Vera-Nunez; J. P. Infante-Santiago; V. Velasco Velasco; S. Salgado Garcia; D. J. Palma-Lopez; O. A. Grageda-Cabrera; R. Cardenas; J. J. Pena-Cabriales



Carbon and nitrogen mineralization dynamics in different soils of the tropics amended with legume residues and contrasting soil moisture contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal drought in tropical agroecosystems may affect C and N mineralization of organic residues. To understand this effect,\\u000a C and N mineralization dynamics in three tropical soils (Af, An1, and An2) amended with haricot bean (HB; Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and pigeon pea (PP; Cajanus cajan L.) residues (each at 5 mg g?1 dry soil) at two contrasting soil moisture contents (pF2.5 and

Girma Abera; Endalkachew Wolde-meskel; Lars R. Bakken


Natural occurrence of Bacillus thuringiensis in leguminous phylloplanes in the New Delhi region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates were present on the phylloplanes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), pea (Pisum sativum) and mung bean (Vigna radiata). Bt index (ratio of the number of Bt colonies to the total number of spore-forming colonies per g of leaves) differed significantly\\u000a among these plants, with the highest (0.20) in the chickpea phylloplane, followed by

Sarvjeet Kaur; Aqbal Singh



Zinc-Induced Changes in Growth Characters, Foliar Properties, and Zn-Accumulation Capacity of Pigeon Pea at Different Stages of Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of zinc (Zn) [50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 ? g zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)\\/g of soil] reduced the foliage and the total growth of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Huth]. The root-shoot length ratio, varying little with age, was relatively low in the treated plants. Decrease in dry weights of stem and root was more pronounced in the late

Tarannum Khudsar; Anjum Arshi; Tariq O. Siddiqi; Mahmooduzzafar; Muhammad Iqbal



Waterlogging induced oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in pigeon pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted with two contrasting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) genotypes, ICPL 84023 (tolerant) and ICP 7035 (susceptible), to study the physiological and molecular basis of waterlogging\\u000a tolerance in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities. Waterlogging resulted in visible yellowing and\\u000a premature senescence of leaves, and greater decline in relative water content, chlorophyll content, and membrane

R. K. Sairam; D. Kumutha; K. Ezhilmathi; V. Chinnusamy; R. C. Meena



Removal of toluene vapour using agro-waste as biofilter media.  


Biodegradation of toluene vapour was investigated in a laboratory scale biofilter packed with cylindrical pieces of yellow-gram (Cajanus cajan) stalk. Inlet concentrations and volumetric flow rates of toluene were varied from 2.56 to 34.73 g/m3 and 0.18 to 0.24 m3/h, respectively. The steady state was achieved within seven days and the degradation of toluene followed an exponential behaviour with time. Elimination capacity increased and tended towards a constant value but removal efficiency decreased with increase in inlet toluene loading. Depending upon loading rate, the process was either mass transfer or reaction-controlled. PMID:16516463

Singh, R S; Agnihotri, S S; Upadhyay, S N



Mensaje para alumnos y padres  

NASA Video Gallery

El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...


Tomografía computarizada (TC) y exploraciones para cáncer

Hoja informativa que describe el procedimiento y la tecnología de exploraciones con tomografía computarizada así como sus usos para el diagnóstico, para exámenes de detección y para tratamiento del cáncer.


Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI

El Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para entender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.


The first genetic map of pigeon pea based on diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers.  


With an objective to develop a genetic map in pigeon pea (Cajanus spp.), a total of 554 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers showed polymorphism in a pigeon pea F(2) mapping population of 72 progenies derived from an interspecific cross of ICP 28 (Cajanus cajan) and ICPW 94 (Cajanus scarabaeoides). Approximately 13% of markers did not conform to expected segregation ratio. The total number of DArT marker loci segregating in Mendelian manner was 405 with 73.1% (P > 0.001) of DArT markers having unique segregation patterns. Two groups of genetic maps were generated using DArT markers. While the maternal genetic linkage map had 122 unique DArT maternal marker loci, the paternal genetic linkage map has a total of 172 unique DArT paternal marker loci. The length of these two maps covered 270.0 cM and 451.6 cM, respectively. These are the first genetic linkage maps developed for pigeon pea, and this is the first report of genetic mapping in any grain legume using diversity arrays technology. PMID:21677394

Yang, Shi Ying; Saxena, Rachit K; Kulwal, Pawan L; Ash, Gavin J; Dubey, Anuja; Harper, John D I; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Gothalwal, Ragini; Kilian, Andrzej; Varshney, Rajeev K



?-Cyclodextrin- para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex formation of ?-cyclodextrin with para-aminosalicylic acid in buffer solutions is studied by UV spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric proportion of the components in the ?-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is 1:1. The Ketelar equation is used to calculate the stability constants of the inclusion complexes at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of the complex formation process (?G, ?H, ?S) are calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The 1:1 ?-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is prepared in solid form and its characteristics are determined by IR spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction techniques.

Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.; Oranskaya, E. I.



Preguntas para el doctor sobre el cáncer

Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacerle al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.


Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

Ostrov, P. G.


The ParaScope parallel programming environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.




Microsoft Academic Search

1 - INTRODUÇÃO A densidade da madeira é uma característica complexa resultante da combinação de diversos fatôres. Existem inúmeros trabalhos mostrando sua relação com as dimensões das fibras, particularmente espessura da parede, volume dos vasos e parênquimas, proporção entre madeira primaveril e outonal, e arranjo dos elementos anatômicos. Êste assunto tem sido intensivamente estudado para as coníferas, porém para as

Celso Edmundo; Bochetti Foelkel; Maria Aparecida Mourão Brasil; Luiz Ernesto; George Barrichelo


Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil.  


The antileishmanial and antifungal activity of 24 methanol extracts from 20 plants, all of them used in the Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, were evaluated against promastigotes forms of two species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and L. chagasi) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Among the 20 tested methanolic extracts, those of Vernonia polyanthes was the most active against L. amazonensis (IC(50) of 4 microg/ml), those of Ocimum gratissimum exhibited the best activity against L. chagasi (IC(50) of 71 microg/ml). Concerning antifungical activity, Schinus terebintifolius, O. gratissimum, Cajanus cajan, and Piper aduncum extracts were the most active against C. albicans (MIC of 1.25 mg/ml) whereas Bixa orellana, O. gratissimum and Syzygium cumini exhibited the best activity against C. neoformans (MIC of 0.078 mg/ml). PMID:17234373

Braga, Fernanda G; Bouzada, Maria Lúcia M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; de O Matos, Magnum; Moreira, Francis O; Scio, Elita; Coimbra, Elaine S



Insect pests of pigeonpea and their management.  


Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an important crop in semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming systems, providing high quality vegetable protein, animal feed, and firewood. Insect pests feeding on flowers, pods, and seeds are the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeonpea yields. This review summarizes the biology and ecology of the three most important groups of pests: flower- and pod-feeding Lepidoptera, pod-sucking Hemiptera, and seed-feeding Diptera and Hymenoptera. Recent research investigating the complex interactions among pigeonpea, its key pests, and their natural enemies is also reviewed. These relationships have implications on the pest status of individual species and on possible control strategies. Pigeonpea pest management research has focused until recently on the identification and development of resistant cultivars and on chemical control. Future research must focus on environmentally sound pest management strategies that are compatible with the needs and limitations of pigeonpea farmers. Several priority areas for research are suggested. PMID:15012370

Shanower, T G; Romeis, J; Minja, E M



Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.  


The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath




Microsoft Academic Search

Nuevos equipos, materiales, herramientas y operaciones se han desarrollado con el objetivo de reducir los tiempos de ejecución y\\/o de completación de los pozos y por lo tanto el costo operativo y de materiales. En este trabajo nos ocuparemos de mencionar algunos de los métodos y materiales alternativos para llevar a cabo estas operaciones, especialmente en los que están involucradas

Daniel Ghidina; Fabián Benedetto


Sistema de Web Mapping para Geologia Médica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - Este trabalho apresenta um sistema de Web Mapping para pesquisa em Geologia Médica, no qual, por meio de uma navegação em mapas interativos, epidemiologistas visualizam as distribuições espaciais de teores de elementos químicos em águas não tratadas (bacias hidrográficas) e dos coeficientes de morbi-mortalidade por doenças nos municípios. A sobreposição desses temas compõe um mapa onde se podem

Humberto Cereser Ibañez; Marilea Vieira de Camargo; Hélio Pedrini


Genome Duplication and Gene Loss Affect the Evolution of Heat Shock Transcription Factor Genes in Legumes  

PubMed Central

Whole-genome duplication events (polyploidy events) and gene loss events have played important roles in the evolution of legumes. Here we show that the vast majority of Hsf gene duplications resulted from whole genome duplication events rather than tandem duplication, and significant differences in gene retention exist between species. By searching for intraspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) and dating the age distributions of duplicated genes, we found that genome duplications accounted for 42 of 46 Hsf-containing segments in Glycine max, while paired segments were rarely identified in Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula and Cajanus cajan. However, by comparing interspecies microsynteny, we determined that the great majority of Hsf-containing segments in Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula and Cajanus cajan show extensive conservation with the duplicated regions of Glycine max. These segments formed 17 groups of orthologous segments. These results suggest that these regions shared ancient genome duplication with Hsf genes in Glycine max, but more than half of the copies of these genes were lost. On the other hand, the Glycine max Hsf gene family retained approximately 75% and 84% of duplicated genes produced from the ancient genome duplication and recent Glycine-specific genome duplication, respectively. Continuous purifying selection has played a key role in the maintenance of Hsf genes in Glycine max. Expression analysis of the Hsf genes in Lotus japonicus revealed their putative involvement in multiple tissue-/developmental stages and responses to various abiotic stimuli. This study traces the evolution of Hsf genes in legume species and demonstrates that the rates of gene gain and loss are far from equilibrium in different species.

Jin, Jing; Jin, Xiaolei; Jiang, Haiyang; Yan, Hanwei; Cheng, Beijiu



[Baked product development based fermented legumes and cereals for schoolchildren snack].  


The objective of this work was to develop three foodstuffs based on mixes of wheat and fermented and non-fermented legumes, for the purpose of contributing with a healthy alternative for school snacks. To this aim, refined wheat flour was partially substituted with whole legume flours for the preparation of cakes, brownies and cookies, foodstuffs traditionally consumed by school age children. Cakes were formulated substituting 20% of wheat flour with Phaseolus vulgaris flour, brownies with 30% of Cajanus cajan flour and cookies with 30% of Vigna sinensis flour, using fermented and non-fermented legumes in the three products. When these products were subjected to sensorial evaluation through a test of degree of acceptability and using a hedonic scale of 7 points, values higher than 5 in the attributes taste, color and overall appraisal were found for all the products. In addition, the preference was measured with a group of 90 school children, corroborating the results obtained at laboratory level. Chemical characterization showed protein contents between 12 and 13% for the cake, 10 and 11% for the brownies and 10% for the cookies and protein digestibilities in vitro of 91%, 87% and 93%, respectively. The calorie supply, calculated per portion was of 199 kcal, 246 kcal and 237 kcal, for cakes, brownies and cookies, respectively. It was concluded that it is technically possible to incorporate fermented and non-fermented Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna sinensis and Cajanus cajan, to highly consumed products such as cakes, brownies and cookies with a higher nutritional content and well-accepted by school-age children. PMID:21090280

Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar; Zambrano, Rosaura



Para-hydrogen perspectives in hyperpolarized NMR.  


The first instance of para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) in an NMR experiment was serendipitously observed in the 1980s while investigating a hydrogenation reaction (Seldler et al., 1983; Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986, 1987; Eisenschmid et al., 1987) [1-4]. Remarkably a theoretical investigation of the applicability of para-hydrogen as a hyperpolarization agent was being performed in the 1980's thereby quickly providing a theoretical basis for the PHIP-effect (Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986) [2]. The discovery of signal amplification by a non-hydrogenating interaction with para-hydrogen has recently extended the interest to exploit the PHIP effect, as it enables investigation of compounds without structural alteration while retaining the advantages of spectroscopy with hyperpolarized compounds [5]. In this article we will place more emphasis of the future applications of the method while only briefly discussing the efforts that have been made in the understanding of the phenomenon and the development of the method so far. PMID:23932399

Glöggler, Stefan; Colell, Johannes; Appelt, Stephan



Structural quality of on Oxisol in recovery for 18 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorrect use of soil and large buildings construction in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In this sense we investigated the positive changes in the structural quality of a soil that was beheaded in human intervention techniques for recovery for 18 years, having been used green manures, gypsum and pasture. The studied area is located in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was a completely randomized with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments were: control (tilled soil without culture); Stizolobium aterrium; Cajanus cajan; lime+S. aterrimum; lime+C. cajan; lime+gypsum+S. aterrimum; lime+gypsum+C. cajan. In 1994, all treatments with C. cajan were replaced by Canavalia ensiformis and in 1999, Brachiaria decumbens was implanted in all treatments. Data from vegetated treatments were compared with the control bare soil and native vegetation (savannah). We evaluated the distribution and aggregate stability in water, soil samples were collected in 2010 in the depths: 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0,20-0.40 m. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance, following Scott-Knott test (5%) of probability to compare averages. Evaluating the results is noted that in the depth of 0.00-0.10 m, the control bare soil and savannah soil had lower and higher DMP, respectively. All recovery treatments were DMP greater than found for the bare soil control. Treatments: S. aterrimum, lime + gypsum + C. cajan and lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum and the savannah control were similar in the depth of 0.00-0.10 m. All of the recovery treatment in the depth from 0.00-0.10 m with values is close to the native vegetation of the savannah. Depths of 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m results obtained for DMP treatments in recovery are similar to the bare soil, except for treatments with S. aterrimum and lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum that had values were similar to the savannah control. This behavior shows that the recovery of soil treatments were eficient only the superficial layer soil and other depths in the structure is still in recovery. It is concluded that the recovery treatment have positively influenced the structure quality in the 0.00-0.10 m depth : the recovery treatment with S. aterrimum and lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum were the most promising in the recovery structural quality.

dos Santos Batista Bonini, C.; Alves, M. C.; Marchini, D. C.; Garcia de Arruda, O.; Nilce Souto Filho, S.



Planificación para la etapa final de la vida

Información para pacientes, sus familiares y amigos sobre el cuidado del paciente terminal, la planificación para el final de la vida, y la aflicción, el duelo y manejo de la pérdida de un ser querido.


Production of L-asparaginase, an anticancer agent, from Aspergillus niger using agricultural waste in solid state fermentation.  


This article reports the production of high levels of L-asparaginase from a new isolate of Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation (SSF) using agro-wastes from three leguminous crops (bran of Cajanus cajan, Phaseolus mungo, and Glycine max). When used as the sole source for growth in SSF, bran of G. max showed maximum enzyme production followed by that of P. mungo and C. cajan. A 96-h fermentation time under aerobic condition with moisture content of 70%, 30 min of cooking time and 1205-1405 micro range of particle size in SSF appeared optimal for enzyme production. Enzyme yield was maximum (40.9 +/- 3.35 U/g of dry substrate) at pH 6.5 and temperature 30 +/- 2 degrees C. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity were 40 degrees C and 6.5, respectively. The study suggests that choosing an appropriate substrate when coupled with process level optimization improves enzyme production markedly. Developing an asparaginase production process based on bran of G. max as a substrate in SSF is economically attractive as it is a cheap and readily available raw material in agriculture-based countries. PMID:17057254

Mishra, Abha



Mining functional microsatellites in legume unigenes  

PubMed Central

Highly polymorphic and transferable microsatellites (SSRs) are important for comparative genomics, genome analysis and phylogenetic studies. Development of novel species-specific microsatellite markers remains a costly and labor-intensive project. Therefore, interest has been shifted from genomic to genic markers owing to their high inter-species transferability as they are developed from conserved coding regions of the genome. This study concentrates on comparative analysis of genic microsatellites in nine important legume (Arachis hypogaea, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum and Vigna unguiculata) and two model plant species (Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana). Screening of a total of 228090 putative unique sequences spanning 219610522 bp using a microsatellite search tool, MISA, identified 12.18% of the unigenes containing 36248 microsatellite motifs excluding mononucleotide repeats. Frequency of legume unigene-derived SSRs was one SSR in every 6.0 kb of analyzed sequences. The trinucleotide repeats were predominant in all the unigenes with the exception of C. cajan, which showed prevalence of dinucleotide repeats over trinucleotide repeats. Dinucleotide repeats along with trinucleotides counted for more than 90% of the total microsatellites. Among dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, AG and AAG motifs, respectively, were the most frequent. Microsatellite positive chickpea unigenes were assigned Gene Ontology (GO) terms to identify the possible role of unigenes in various molecular and biological functions. These unigene based microsatellite markers will prove valuable for recording allelic variance across germplasm collections, gene tagging and searching for putative candidate genes.

Roorkiwal, Manish; Sharma, Prakash Chand




Microsoft Academic Search

Como primera actividad se observó al operario trabajando, anotando cualquier detalle que fuera relevante para la investigación, posteriormente se evaluó con el método “e-RULA” el uso de las mochilas para fumigar cuando se encuentran con el liquido para fumigar y cuando se encuentran vacías. Adicionalmente se aplicaron encuestas a 30 empleados campesinos (hombres) que laboran en ranchos y tienen por

Karla CeliaVázquez Arroyo; Hugo Cesar Ramos Herrera; Dulce María García Gómez; Juan Luis Hernández Arellano



The para radiation effects current simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Parametric Analysis of Radiation effects software development is given the general title PARA. This report describes the development of algorithms and source codes for the simulation of radiation effects on CMOS ICs. The project concentrated on the simulation of total dose effects and the ways to establish/predict the operational lifetime and radiation tolerance of ICs. The switch level simulator incorporates the capability to assign bias dependent post-irradiation drive parameters to transistors within a microcircuit and to calculate propagation delays based on those parameters. This permits test vectors to be assigned based on worst case post-irradiation propagation delays.

Bhuva, Bharat; Kerns, Sherra



On q-DEFORMED Para Oscillators and PARA-q Oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three generalized commutation relations for a single mode of the harmonic oscillator which contains para-bose and q oscillator commutation relations are constructed. These are shown to be inequivalent. The coherent states of the annihilation operator for these three cases are also constructed.

Kumari, M. Krishna; Shanta, P.; Chaturvedi, S.; Srinivasan, V.


Tributación Simplificada para Pequeñas y Microempresas: Análisis y Propuesta de Reforma para el Caso Chileno  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo analiza las principales debilidades de los actuales regímenes simplificados de tributación a la renta en Chile y propone un nuevo modelo para la tributación dirigido a la pequeña y microempresa (PYME). El diagnóstico indica que los actuales regímenes simplificados son, en general, efectivos en reducir los costos de cumplimiento. No obstante, detecta tres deficiencias que perjudican fuertemente su

Patricio Barra



ParaView for climate scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ParaView is an immensely popular scientific visualization framework that provides a variety of tools necessary for scientific visualization especially dealing with large data that ultimately leads to better understanding of simulation and non simulation data. The Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT), is a powerful and complete front-end to a rich set of visual-data exploration and analysis capabilities well suited for climate-data analysis problems. This talk describes integration of Paraview within UV-CDAT framework by leveraging python interface of Paraview and various new features added to uvcdat and Paraview specifically targeting climate data such as new readers, filters and parallel spatiotemporal capabilities.

Chaudhary, A.



On Lightlike Geometry of Para-Sasakian Manifolds  

PubMed Central

We study lightlike hypersurfaces of para-Sasakian manifolds tangent to the characteristic vector field. In particular, we define invariant lightlike hypersurfaces and screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurfaces, respectively, and give examples. Integrability conditions for the distributions on a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface of para-Sasakian manifolds are investigated. We obtain a para-Sasakian structure on the leaves of an integrable distribution of a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface.

Acet, Bilal Eftal; K?l?c, Erol



Benchmarking para Investimentos socialmente Responsáveis: ISE a experiência brasileira  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo apresenta os desafios da criação e o desenvolvimento de uma nova ferramenta para o mercado de ações - o Índice de Sustentabilidade Empresarial (ISE) da Bovespa. Pretende-se demonstrar como o ISE tem se tornado uma ferramenta para destacar as empresas com estratégia de geração de valor por meio da sustentabilidade através da melhora contínua da metodologia. Os índices



Ortho/Para Ratio of Water Vapor in Comet Halley.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ortho/para ratio of H2O is shown to be an invariant in the cometary coma. The dependence of ortho-para ratio on temperature in thermal equilibrium is given, and the nuclear-spin-temperature is defined. Its relation to the physical temperature of the c...

M. J. Mumma H. P. Larson H. A. Weaver



Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

Vaisman, Izu [Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel)] [Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel)



Properties of Armos Para-Aramid Fibres in Conditions of Use. Comparison with Other Para-Aramids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical, thermal, and hygroscopic properties of Armos fibres and thread and their resistance to active media and other effects during use were analyzed. In comparing the structure and properties of Armos with other types of para-aramid fibres and thread, it was found that in the para-aramid series, Armos is distinguished by a unique combination of strength and flame resistance.

K. E. Perepelkin; N. N. Machalaba; V. A. Kvartskheliya



¿Son las políticas locales una buena estrategia para dinamizar el mercado de trabajo? Algunos elementos para el caso colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: En períodos de bajo crecimiento económico, tiempos de recesión o crisis económica, implementar una política fiscal contra-cíclica puede ser una herramienta fundamental para crear empleo y dinamizar la economía. En Colombia, específicamente en las principales ciudades del país existe una posibilidad concreta para que los gobiernos locales, a través de incrementos del gasto de inversión, impacten positivamente en la

Diana Galvis G; Mauricio López Gonzalez



A Model of the Para-Terphenyl Dye Laser (Un Modele du Laser a Colorant Para-Terphenyl).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical model for a Para-Terphenyl dye laser pumped by an excimer laser has been developed. A new set of reaction-rate coefficients for Para-Terphenyl has been established. The problem of spontaneous emission in a dye has been solved analytically. T...

G. Fournier



Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.


Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Libro sobre el control del dolor en pacientes con cáncer. Cubre los métodos y medicinas, así como los efectos físicos y emocionales del dolor. Es una adaptación cultural para el público de habla hispana del libro en inglés Pain Control.


Confocal Interferometer Without the Para-Axial Approximation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The perturbed eigenfunctions of the confocal cavity without the para-axial condition are obtained. It is shown that in spite of the perturbation being small, the eigenfunctions change appreciably. (Atomindex citation 10:459675)

E. Gerck O. Andrade



La quimioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Publicación para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo quimioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la quimioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


La radioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

E-book para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo radioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la radioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


Preguntas para el doctor si tiene un cáncer avanzado

Serie de preguntas que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacerle al médico sobre las opciones de tratamiento si el cáncer es avanzado, las formas de controlar los síntomas y cómo prepararse para la etapa final de la vida.


La terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.


40 CFR 721.9520 - Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye...9520 Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye...generically as methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane...



Chylous ascites following para-aortic lymphadenectomy: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chylous ascites is an uncommon complication following para-aortic lymph node dissection in the management of gynecologic malignancies. Treatment options are serial paracentesis, medium-chain triglyceride diet, total parenteral nutrition and somatostatin as conservative management and peritoneovenous shunting, and surgical exploration for refractory cases.Case. A 31-year-old female patient developed chylous ascites following para-aortic lymph node dissection for borderline mucinous tumor of

Nurettin Boran; Aylin Pelin Cil; Gokhan Tulunay; Nejat Ozgul; M. Faruk Kose



Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

Sherman, A. (inventor)



ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.



Direct His bundle and paraHisian cardiac pacing.  


The success rate of direct His bundle pacing (DHBP) and paraHisian pacing has improved remarkably in the last 3-5 years with the advent of dedicated fixation systems that have reduced procedural duration, dislodgement rate, and fluoroscopy time. The methodology of DBHP remains still more complex than paraHisian pacing and is associated with high-pacing thresholds. Thus, DHBP entails greater battery current drain and reduced device longevity. A shift toward paraHisian pacing (which is fusion pacing of myocardium and His bundle) has occurred because its implementation is easier and the electrical parameters are superior to those of DBHP. Currently, an additional safety lead is inserted at the RV apex or outflow tract to prevent asystole, especially in patients with pure DHBP. It is often possible to avoid a safety lead with paraHisian pacing because ventricular pacing is virtually assured on a long-term basis via myocardial capture. DBHP and paraHisian pacing can be achieved in a substantial proportion of patients with varying grades of narrow QRS AV block or after AV junctional ablation and in some patients with the ECG manifestation of bundle branch block caused by an intraHisian lesion. Preliminary observations suggest that DHBP may be useful in some patients requiring cardiac resynchronization if it produces a narrow QRS complex because the site of an intraHisian lesion responsible for left bundle branch block is above the site of DHBP. PMID:22537323

Zanon, Francesco; Barold, S S



El diseño final del espectrógrafo de banco (EBASIM) para CASLEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizando el código de óptica ACCOS V se ha finalizado el diseño del espectrógrafo de banco para CASLEO. En una comunicación anterior habíamos indicado que utilizaríamos un colimador de 150 mm de diámetro con un radio de curvatura de 1540 mm. Para el espejo cámara, que tiene un diámetro de 200 mm, el radio de curvatura es de 1200 mm, ambos radios con una tolerancia no mayor a los 3 mm. En la presente, se informa sobre los detalles finales del cálculo del espectrógrafo que incluye el cómputo para 5 longitudes de onda diferentes y alrededor de 100 rayos. En todos los casos el 75 % de energía está dentro de un diámetro de 13 micrones. El diseño ha sido probado entre 3500 Å hasta 9000 Å con resultados satisfactorios.

Simmons, J.; Levato, H.


Laparoscopic repair of a right para duodenal hernia.  


Para duodenal hernia is among the uncommon and rare causes of intestinal obstruction, but it is the most common type of internal hernia in abdomen and accounts for more than half of cases that do occur. Here, we are reporting a case of right Para duodenal hernia, reduced and repaired laparoscopically. This thirteen year old girl presented to us with features of small bowel obstruction of two days duration. Plain abdominal X-ray showed multiple fluid levels confined to right side of abdomen. A diagnostic laparoscopy was done under General Anaesthesia. Right Para duodenal hernia was found with small bowel confined to the right side between the ascending colon and hepatic flexure of colon. Laparoscopic reduction of contents of the hernia was done starting from the Ileocaecal junction. Hernial opening was closed laparoscopically with nonabsorbable suture. Patient is quite well till date and has had no recurrence of symptoms. PMID:20407574

Bhartia, Vishnu; Kumar, Anil; Khedkar, Indira; Savita, K S; Goel, N



Laparoscopic repair of a right para duodenal hernia  

PubMed Central

Para duodenal hernia is among the uncommon and rare causes of intestinal obstruction, but it is the most common type of internal hernia in abdomen and accounts for more than half of cases that do occur. Here, we are reporting a case of right Para duodenal hernia, reduced and repaired laparoscopically. This thirteen year old girl presented to us with features of small bowel obstruction of two days duration. Plain abdominal X-ray showed multiple fluid levels confined to right side of abdomen. A diagnostic laparoscopy was done under General Anaesthesia. Right Para duodenal hernia was found with small bowel confined to the right side between the ascending colon and hepatic flexure of colon. Laparoscopic reduction of contents of the hernia was done starting from the Ileocaecal junction. Hernial opening was closed laparoscopically with nonabsorbable suture. Patient is quite well till date and has had no recurrence of symptoms

Bhartia, Vishnu; Kumar, Anil; Khedkar, Indira; Savita, K S; Goel, N



Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do público em questão.

Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.



Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.



Instrumentos económicos para la gestión de residuos sólidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta presentación discute industria del reciclaje, incluye el caso de botellas PET en Río de Janeiro y el caso de sistema reciclaje de la Municipalidad de La Reina, Santiago; mercado de servicios, incluye el caso de apertura del mercado para usuarios no residenciales en Río de Janeiro y el caso de participación privada en Santiago; gestión integral, incluye el caso

Jorge Ducci



Para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea: Its radiographic manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

On retrospective reviews of radiographs, periarthritis calcarea was distinguished from os acetabula by interval radiographic progression and regression. Among 59 men and 51 women, there were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications and ossifications, which were morphologically classified as 58 discrete, 58 amorphous, and 21 segmented types. Correlations with other radiographic abnormalities, symptoms, signs, and laboratory abnormalities were sought, but not

Akira Kawashima; Sadayuki Murayama; Toshiyuki Ohuchida; Walter J. Russell



Notas para la Regulación Eficiente de la Transmisión Eléctrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

El proyecto de “ley corta” de electricidad propone importantes modificaciones a la actual regulación de la transmisión eléctrica en Chile. En este artículo desarrollamos un modelo simple para analizar dos de las propuestas centrales del proyecto: (i) el traspaso directo de parte de los costos de transmisión a los consumidores, y (ii) la planificación centralizada de la expansión de la

Juan Pablo Montero; Salvador Valdés



Tumours Linked to Para-Occupational Exposure to Airborne Asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the households of former asbestos workers are at a higher risk of dying from mesothelioma resulting from asbestos exposure from cleaning asbestos-contaminated working clothes of their relatives at home. The lung fibre burdens of some of those who develop mesothelioma are similar even to those of former asbestos workers. Such people are said to be para-occupation- ally exposed.

Joachim Schneider; Hans-Joachim Woitowitz



Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend\\

J. C. Olalde; D. Perilli; J. J. Larrarte



Fungi associated with leaf litter of para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study the diversity of fungi associated with the degradation of para rubber leaf litter. Samples were collected at three periods in 2010: January (during the late rainy season), April (during the dry season) and July (early in the rainy season) in Nakhon Si Thammarat and Songkhla Provinces, both in southern Thailand. Each sample

P. Seephueak; V. Petcharat; S. Phongpaichit



Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView  

SciTech Connect

The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

Woodring, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Heitmann, Katrin [ORNL; Ahrens, James P [ORNL; Fasel, Patricia [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hsu, Chung-Hsing [ORNL; Habib, Salman [ORNL; Pope, Adrian [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)



Do lar para as ruas: capitalismo, trabalho e feminismo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neste artigo, busca-se discutir as influências sociais, culturais e econômicas que contribuíram para a formulação de um discurso e práticas coletivas feministas 1 . Com efeito, esse discurso passou a se manifestar na Europa e nos Estados Unidos ainda no século XIX, sendo que, no caso do Brasil, o mesmo fenômeno ocorreu nas últimas décadas deste e nos primórdios do

Natalia Pietra Méndez


Ambiente para la Captura y Administración de Versiones de Modelos  

Microsoft Academic Search

El proceso de desarrollo de modelos para la gestión, investigación, producción, etc., en general involucra actividades creativas, que frecuentemente son poco estructuradas, es decir, no existe un flujo de trabajo definido previamente. Durante este proceso se genera un gran número de modelos de distinto nivel de abstracción del objeto que se desarrolla, el cual puede consistir en un sistema de

Diego Sánchez Schenone; Silvio Gonnet; Horacio Leone



EPA Science Inventory

?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...


Terapias adyuvantes y neoadyuvantes para el cáncer de seno

Hoja informativa que explica las terapias adyuvantes (tratamiento que se administra además de la terapia primaria para aumentar la posibilidad de supervivencia a largo plazo) y las neoadyuvantes (terapia que se administra antes de la terapia principal). Contiene información sobre los efectos secundarios y sobre los riesgos y beneficios de estas terapias.


ParaView and visualization on the TeraGrid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview on starting and running ParaView on the TeraGrid. With provided data, the tutorial instructs how to load the data, change the display mode, and edit the color map. It also shows how to add isosurfaces and cutting planes.



Comparison of dissociation tendencies of meta- & para- trifluorotolylglycine methyl esters and meta- & para- tolylglycine methyl esters in ESI-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptide fragmentation is an integral part of an evolving field commonly referred to as proteomics. Understanding of peptide fragmentation is vital to continued proteomic research. The frame work of this study was the benzylglycine methyl ester with either a methyl or trifluoromethyl constituent in the para- and meta-positions of the benzyl ring. The glycine methyl ester was coupled to the

Dale Kerstetter; Anthony Vu; Adam Graichen; Richard Vachet; Idia Tokunboh; Mike Van Stipdonk


NCI Anuncia Contribuciones para Incrementar Acceso de Minorías a Información sobre el Cáncer

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) anunció este mes una variedad de contribuciones que totalizan casi 1 millón de dólares para ayudar a desarrollar la investigación y programas para comprender y finalmente romper la División Digital que existe en muchas poblaciones minoritarias para el acceso y uso de la información sobre el cáncer disponible en la Internet. Las contribuciones son un esfuerzo del Servicio de Información sobre el Cáncer (CIS), dependiente de la NCI, para trabajar con grupos y organizaciones regionales para el control del cáncer para probar estrategias destinadas a aumentar las comunicaciones sobre el cáncer en comunidades deficientemente atendidas


Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits.  


Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping. PMID:23993015

Lawrance Jesuraj, M; Sharada, K; Sridevi, C; Narasimhan, C



Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits  

PubMed Central

Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping.

Lawrance Jesuraj, M.; Sharada, K.; Sridevi, C.; Narasimhan, C.



Validation of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler Para Adultos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the comparability between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and its Spanish-language adaptation the Escala De Inteligencia Para Adultos (EIWA). Fifty Puerto Rican, bilingual examinees who showed equal language proficiency in English and Spanish using the Bilingual Syntax Measure II (BSM-II) were administered both intelligence tests.^ Results of this study showed a mean difference between the EIWA

Carlos Y Maldonado



DYNA3D\\/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in




On Linear Differential Equations Involving a Para-Grassmann Variable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a first step towards a theory of differential equations involving para-Grassmann variables the linear equations with constant coefficients are discussed and solutions for equations of low order are given explicitly. A connection to n-generalized Fibonacci numbers is established. Several other classes of differential equations (systems of first order, equations with variable coefficients, nonlinear equations) are also considered and the analogies or differences to the usual (''bosonic'') differential equations discussed.

Mansour, Toufik; Schork, Matthias



Utilização de hardware reconfigurável para acelerar a satisfação booleana  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Trabalho financiado com a bolsa da FCT-PRAXIS XXI\\/BD\\/21353\\/99 Resumo - Este artigo apresenta um estudo de possibilidade de aceleração da satisfação booleana com a ajuda do hardware reconfigurável. A satisfação booleana (SAT) é um problema importante que tem muitas aplicações em CAD e outras áreas. Neste artigo propomos uma técnica de desenvolvimento orientada a problema em geral para acelerar

Iouliia Skliarova; António B. Ferrari



Microbial conversion of glucose to para-hydroxystyrene  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An in vivo method for the production of pHS via a recombinant host cell is disclosed. The host cell expresses at least one gene encoding a polypeptide having para-hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase activity in combination with either at least one gene encoding a polypeptide having tyrosine ammonia lyase activity or at least one gene encoding a polypeptide having phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity.



Edukalibre: una herramienta para la creacion colaborativa de material didactico  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Software Libre, con sus caracter¶‡sticas y su particular modelo de desarrollo, ha permitido la creacion de un conjunto de metodolog¶‡as de trabajo en grupo que han resultado satisfactorias en gran cantidad diferentesambitos. En este sentido, el proyecto Edukalibre importa y adapta estas metodolog¶‡as para ser aplicadas en la creacion y man- tenimiento de documentacion en elambito de la educacion.

Diego Chaparro; Teofllo Romera



EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic phenol transformation was studied using a consortium which transformed phenol to benzoate without complete mineralization of benzoate. Products of monofluorophenol transformation indicate para-carboxylation. henol and benzoate were detected during para-hydroxybenzoate (...


A study of the valence shell electronic structure and photoionisation dynamics of para-dichlorobenzene and para-bromochlorobenzene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The valence shell electronic structure and photoionisation dynamics of para-dichlorobenzene and para-bromochlorobenzene have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. High resolution photoelectron spectra of the outer valence orbitals have been recorded with HeI radiation and the observed structure has been interpreted using calculated ionisation energies and spectral intensities. The theoretical predictions for the single-hole ionic states due to outer valence ionisation agree satisfactorily with the experimental results. Ionisation from the inner valence orbitals is strongly influenced by many-body effects and the with a particular orbital is spread amongst numerous satellites. Some of the photoelectron bands exhibit vibrational progressions and tentative assignments have been proposed. The photoionisation dynamics of the outer valence orbitals of para-dichlorobenzene have been investigated theoretically by using the continuum multiple scattering approach to calculate photoionisation partial cross-sections and photoelectron anisotropy parameters. The results show that ionisation from some of the orbitals is affected by the Cooper minimum associated with the chlorine atom. Synchrotron radiation has been used to record angle resolved photoelectron spectra of the entire valence shell, for photon energies between threshold and ˜100 eV, and these have allowed the corresponding experimental data to be derived. A comparison between the predicted and measured anisotropy parameters confirms the influence of the Cooper minimum in those orbitals related to the chlorine lone-pairs.

Powis, I.; Trofimov, A. B.; Bodzuk, I. L.; Holland, D. M. P.; Potts, A. W.; Karlsson, L.



Opciones de cirugía para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno

Folleto para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno que pueden operarse con cirugía. Esta guía explica los tipos de cirugía de seno, como la operación para preservar el seno y la mastectomía, y ayuda a las mujeres a decidir cuál cirugía es la mejor opción para ellas.


Consideraciones para el desarrollo de la creatividad y la enseñanza problémica en el aula  

Microsoft Academic Search

La “Metodología para estimular y desarrollar la creatividad técnica a través de la enseñanza del dibujo básico” ofrece un material docente contentivo con un conjunto de orientaciones e indicaciones que contribuya a estimular la creatividad técnica en la solución de problemas técnicos para los estudiantes que cursan carreras técnicas y como vía para la capacitación de los docentes. La misma

Angel Carvajal Castillo; María Elena Sierra Sandoval



Opciones de cirugía para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno

E-book para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno que pueden operarse con cirugía. Esta guía explica los tipos de cirugía de seno, como la operación para preservar el seno y la mastectomía, y ayuda a las mujeres a decidir cuál cirugía es la mejor opción para ellas.



Microsoft Academic Search

El aprendizaje efectivo del lenguaje de programación para robots necesita de una constante realización de prácticas. Este trabajo describe la metodología llevada a cabo para conseguir el aprendizaje del lenguaje RAPID. Se ha desarrollado un sistema de aprendizaje para prácticas remotas y presenciales que emplea un robot IRB140 de ABB, un PLC con tarjeta Ethernet y servidor web, una cámara



Ortho-to-para ratio of interstellar heavy water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Despite the low elemental deuterium abundance in the Galaxy, enhanced molecular D/H ratios have been found in the environments of low-mass star-forming regions, and in particular the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Aims: The CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) key program aims to study the molecular complexity of the interstellar medium. The high sensitivity and spectral resolution of the Herschel/HIFI instrument provide a unique opportunity to observe the fundamental 11,1-00,0 transition of the ortho-D2O molecule, which is inaccessible from the ground, and determine the ortho-to-para D2O ratio. Methods: We detected the fundamental transition of the ortho-D2O molecule at 607.35 GHz towards IRAS 16293-2422. The line is seen in absorption with a line opacity of 0.62 ± 0.11 (1?). From the previous ground-based observations of the fundamental 11,0-10,1 transition of para-D2O seen in absorption at 316.80 GHz, we estimate a line opacity of 0.26 ± 0.05 (1?). Results: We show that the observed absorption is caused by the cold gas in the envelope of the protostar. Using these new observations, we estimate for the first time the ortho-to-para D2O ratio to be lower than 2.6 at a 3? level of uncertainty, which should be compared with the thermal equilibrium value of 2:1. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Vastel, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caux, E.; Coutens, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Bottinelli, S.; Demyk, K.; Faure, A.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Scribano, Y.; Bacmann, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Maret, S.; Walters, A.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G. A.; Castets, A.; Crimier, N.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Gérin, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Kahane, C.; Klotz, A.; Melnick, G.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Wakelam, V.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Benedettini, M.; Boogert, A.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Comito, C.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Helmich, F.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Jacq, T.; Kama, M.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, X.; van der Tak, F.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Viti, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Cais, P.; Krieg, J. M.; Olberg, M.; Ravera, L.



Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.




SciTech Connect

The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble F-38041 (France); Pineau des Forets, G., E-mail: [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris-Orsay and CNRS, Orsay (France)



Transformation of pWWO in Rhizobium leguminosarum DPT to Engineer Toluene Degrading Ability for Rhizoremediation.  


Rhizoremediation of organic xenobiotics is based on interactions between plants and their associated micro-organisms. The present work was designed to engineer a bacterial system having toluene degradation ability along with plant growth promoting characteristics for effective rhizoremediation. pWWO harboring the genes responsible for toluene breakdown was isolated from Pseudomonas putida MTCC 979 and successfully transformed in Rhizobium DPT. This resulted in a bacterial strain (DPT(T)) which had the ability to degrade toluene as well as enhance growth of host plant. The frequency of transformation was recorded 5.7 × 10(-6). DPT produced IAA, siderophore, chitinase, HCN, ACC deaminase, solubilized inorganic phosphate, fixed atmospheric nitrogen and inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. During pot assay, 50 ppm toluene in soil was found to inhibit the germination of Cajanus cajan seeds. However when the seeds bacterized with toluene degrading P. putida or R. leguminosarum DPT were sown in pots, again no germination was observed. Non-bacterized as well as bacterized seeds germinated successfully in toluene free soil as control. The results forced for an alternative mode of application of bacteria for rhizoremediation purpose. Hence bacterial suspension was mixed with soil having 50 ppm of toluene. Germination index in DPT treated soil was 100% while in P. putida it was 50%. Untreated soil with toluene restricted the seeds to germinate. PMID:23729882

Goel, Garima; Pandey, Piyush; Sood, Anchal; Bisht, Sandeep; Maheshwari, D K; Sharma, G D



Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity.  


Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others. PMID:22895104

Goud, Prashanth B; Kachole, Manvendra S



Molecular evolution of the HD-ZIP I gene family in legume genomes.  


Homeodomain leucine zipper I (HD-ZIP I) genes were used to increase the plasticity of plants by mediating external signals and regulating growth in response to environmental conditions. The way genomic histories drove the evolution of the HD-ZIP I family in legume species was described; HD-ZIP I genes were searched in Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus vulgaris, and then divided into five clades through phylogenetic analysis. Microsynteny analysis was made based on genomic segments containing the HD-ZIP I genes. Some pairs turned out to conform with syntenic genome regions, while others corresponded to those that were inverted, expanded, or contracted after the divergence of legumes. Besides, we dated their duplications by Ks analysis and demonstrated that all the blocks were formed after the monocot-dicot split; we observed Ka/Ks ratios representing strong purifying selections in the four legume species which might have been followed by gene loss and rearrangement. PMID:24095777

Li, Zhen; Jiang, Haiyang; Zhou, Lingyan; Deng, Lin; Lin, Yongxiang; Peng, Xiaojian; Yan, Hanwei; Cheng, Beijiu



Cover crops and natural vegetation mulch effect achieved by mechanical management with lateral rotary mower in weed population dynamics in citrus.  


The aim of this study was to obtain information on practical weed management in order to reduce the use of herbicides thereby contributing to the sustainable development of citrus crop. The experiment was carried out under field conditions at the experimental area of the Department of Vegetal Production at the College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz," Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, during the season 2002-2003. Influence of mulches produced by four types of vegetations on the dynamic population of weeds in the line of citrus crop (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) was evaluated. The experimental design was of factorial randomized blocks (4 x 2), where the treatments were: (i) four types of vegetation: Dolichos lablab L., Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp, Penisetum glaucum (L.) Leeke, and the natural infestation composed basically by Panicum maximum Jacq.; and (ii) two types of fertilization: directed under canopy and broadcast. Mechanical management of the different vegetations was accomplished using a lateral rotary mower, KAMAQ, I model NINJA MAC 260, projected to release the green cut material under crop canopy, forming a mulch layer. The studied parameters were: (i) counting of weeds per m2 in the crop line after 30, 60, 90, 180, and 210 days following the cutting of existing vegetation; (ii) percentage of covered area by weeds; and (iii) some chemical properties of the soil. It was observed that the natural infestation showed a better weed control when compared with the other treatments, and that the broadcast fertilization, regardless of coverage used, presented a lower number of weeds. PMID:15656179

Matheis, Héctor Alonso San Martín; Filho, Ricardo Victoria



[Soil microbial diversity in typical Karst peak-cluster depression under effects of different de-farming patterns].  


By using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog_Eco micro-plate technique, this paper studied the soil microbial genetic taxonomic and bacterial metabolic functional diversities under four de-farming patterns, i. e., natural restoration (NT, dominant plant species Neyraudia reynaudiana and Miscanthus floridulus), economic plantation (CM, Cajanus cajan and Castanea mollissima), zero-tillage (PI, Pennisetum purpureum and Zenia insign), and conventional tillage (MB, maize-soybean intercropping), in a typical Karst peak-cluster depression. All test de-farming patterns had significant effects on the soil microbial community structure and bacterial metabolic pattern. The community structure of soil fungi was more affected by the de-farming patterns than that of soil bacteria, while the later was more affected by seasonal variation. After 6-7 years of de-farming, soil bacterial taxonomic Shannon diversity indices had no significant differences under the four de-farming patterns, while soil fungal taxonomic Shannon diversity indices were significantly higher under CM and PI than under NT and MB. The soil bacterial metabolic functional diversity under PI was obviously lower than those under other de-farming patterns. Therefore, soil fungal genetic and bacterial metabolic diversities were more sensitive to de-farming patterns than soil bacterial genetic diversity did. Among the four de-farming patterns, economic plantation had the superiority in maintaining soil microbial genetic and bacterial metabolic functional diversities, being a better de-farming pattern. PMID:20462000

He, Xun-Yang; Su, Yi-Rong; Liang, Yue-Ming; Yang, Shan; Wang, Ke-Lin



Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.  


Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V



Insect odour perception: recognition of odour components by flower foraging moths  

PubMed Central

Odours emitted by flowers are complex blends of volatile compounds. These odours are learnt by flower-visiting insect species, improving their recognition of rewarding flowers and thus foraging efficiency. We investigated the flexibility of floral odour learning by testing whether adult moths recognize single compounds common to flowers on which they forage. Dual choice preference tests on Helicoverpa armigera moths allowed free flying moths to forage on one of three flower species; Argyranthemum frutescens (federation daisy), Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) or Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Results showed that, (i) a benzenoid (phenylacetaldehyde) and a monoterpene (linalool) were subsequently recognized after visits to flowers that emitted these volatile constituents, (ii) in a preference test, other monoterpenes in the flowers' odour did not affect the moths' ability to recognize the monoterpene linalool and (iii) relative preferences for two volatiles changed after foraging experience on a single flower species that emitted both volatiles. The importance of using free flying insects and real flowers to understand the mechanisms involved in floral odour learning in nature are discussed in the context of our findings.

Cunningham, John Paul; Moore, Chris J; Zalucki, Myron P; Cribb, Bronwen W



Deep sequencing of pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus discloses five RNA segments related to emaraviruses.  


The sequences of five viral RNA segments of pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV), the agent of sterility mosaic disease (SMD) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan, Fabaceae), were determined using the deep sequencing technology. Each of the five RNAs encodes a single protein on the negative-sense strand with an open reading frame (ORF) of 6885, 1947, 927, 1086, and 1422nts, respectively. In order, from RNA1 to RNA5, these ORFs encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (p1, 267.9kDa), a putative glycoprotein precursor (p2, 74.3kDa), a putative nucleocapsid protein (p3, 34.6kDa), a putative movement protein (p4, 40.8kDa), while p5 (55kDa) has an unknown function. All RNA segments of PPSMV showed the highest identity with orthologs of fig mosaic virus (FMV) and Rose rosette virus (RRV). In phylogenetic trees constructed with the amino acid sequences of p1, p2 and p3, PPSMV clustered consistently with other emaraviruses, close to clades comprising members of other genera of the family Bunyaviridae. Based on the molecular characteristics unveiled in this study and the morphological and epidemiological features similar to other emaraviruses, PPSMV seems to be the seventh species to join the list of emaraviruses known to date and accordingly, its classification in the genus Emaravirus seems now legitimate. PMID:24685674

Elbeaino, Toufic; Digiaro, Michele; Uppala, Mangala; Sudini, Harikishan



Ethnomedical study and iron content of some medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine in Cote d'Ivoire for the treatment of anaemia.  


Medicinal plants have been a source of succour in the control of many diseases in developing countries and anaemia is no exception. In this study, ethnomedical survey was carried out for recording medicinal plants used in Northern and South-Eastern Côte d'Ivoire against anaemia. Also iron content was determined for some of the recorded plants using phenanthroline method. Thirty (30) medicinal plants, covering 28 genera and 22 families were recorded. These plants were used to prepare 30 receipts for the treatment of anaemia and aggravating factors such as malaria and gastro-intestinal helminthes. Eleven (11) of these medicinal plants showed presence of iron in various quantities. The most promising were Tectona grandis, Amaranthus spinosus and Stylosanthes erecta which contained the highest iron contents viz; 266.6, 236.6 and 206.6 mg/100 g respectively. They were followed by Hoslundia opposita, Imperata cylindrica, Cajanus cajan, Thalia geniculata and Milicia excelsa. These results lend credence to the traditional use of these plants in Cote d'Ivoire's ethnomedicine for the treatment of anaemia. PMID:23983324

Koné, W Mamidou; Koffi, A G; Bomisso, E L; Tra Bi, F H



Persistent molecular superfluid response in doped para-hydrogen clusters.  


Direct observation of superfluid response in para-hydrogen (p-H(2)) remains a challenge because of the need for a probe that would not induce localization and a resultant reduction in superfluid fraction. Earlier work [H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, P.-N. Roy, and A. R. W. McKellar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133401 (2010)] has shown that carbon dioxide can probe the effective inertia of p-H(2) although larger clusters show a lower superfluid response due to localization. It is shown here that the lighter carbon monoxide probe molecule allows one to measure the effective inertia of p-H(2) clusters while maintaining a maximum superfluid response with respect to dopant rotation. Microwave spectroscopy and a theoretical analysis based on Feynman path-integral simulations are used to support this conclusion. PMID:23004599

Raston, P L; Jäger, W; Li, H; Le Roy, R J; Roy, P-N



Persistent Molecular Superfluid Response in Doped Para-Hydrogen Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct observation of superfluid response in para-hydrogen (p-H2) remains a challenge because of the need for a probe that would not induce localization and a resultant reduction in superfluid fraction. Earlier work [H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, P.-N. Roy, and A. R. W. McKellar, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 105, 133401 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.133401] has shown that carbon dioxide can probe the effective inertia of p-H2 although larger clusters show a lower superfluid response due to localization. It is shown here that the lighter carbon monoxide probe molecule allows one to measure the effective inertia of p-H2 clusters while maintaining a maximum superfluid response with respect to dopant rotation. Microwave spectroscopy and a theoretical analysis based on Feynman path-integral simulations are used to support this conclusion.

Raston, P. L.; Jäger, W.; Li, H.; Le Roy, R. J.; Roy, P.-N.



ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.  

SciTech Connect

Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.



Technique to match mantle and para-aortic fields  

SciTech Connect

A technique is described to match the mantle and para-aortic fields used in treatment of Hodgkin's disease, when the patient is treated alternately in supine and prone position. The approach is based on referencing the field edges to a point close to the vertebral column, where uncontrolled motion is minimal and where accurate matching is particularly important. Fiducial surface points are established in the simulation process to accomplish the objective. Dose distributions have been measured to study the combined effect of divergence differences, changes in body angulation and setup errors. Even with the most careful technique, the use of small cord blocks of 50% transmission is an advisable precaution for the posterior fields.

Lutz, W.R.; Larsen, R.D.



Sponges, Tubules and Modulated Phases of Para-Antinematic Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically analyze the behavior of membranes presenting a nematic susceptibility, induced by the presence of anisotropic phospholipids having a quadrupolar nematic symmetry. This kind of anisotropic phospholipids is either naturally found in some biological membranes, or can be chemically tailored by linking pairs of single surfactants at the level of their polar heads, giving rise to so-called “gemini” surfactants. We predict that such membranes can acquire a non-zero paranematic order induced by the membrane curvature, which in turn produces curvature instabilities. We call the resulting paranematic order para-antinematic, since it is opposite on opposite sides of the membrane. We find phase transitions toward sponges (L3), tubules, or modulated “egg-carton” phases.

Fournier, J. B.; Galatola, P.



Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.



A conversation robot using head gesture recognition as para-linguistic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conversation robot that recognizes user's head gestures and uses its results as para-linguistic information is developed. In the conversation, humans exchange linguistic information, which can be obtained by transcription of the utterance, and para-linguistic information, which helps the transmission of linguistic information. Para-linguistic information brings a nuance that cannot be transmitted by linguistic information, and the natural and effective

Shinya Fujie; Yasushi Ejiri; Kei Nakajima; Yosuke Matsusaka; Tetsunori Kobayashi



Ammonium-excreting Azospirillum sp. become intracellularly established in maize ( Zea mays ) para-nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize seedlings develop nodule-like tumour knots (para-nodules) along primary roots when treated with the auxin 2,4-dichlor-phenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D). Inoculated NH4+-excreting Azospirillum brasilense cells were shown to colonize these tumours, mostly intracellularly, promoting a high level of N2 fixation when microaerophilic conditions were imposed. The nitrogenase activity inside the para-nodules was less sensitive to free O2 than in non-para-nodulating roots. Both

C. Christiansen-Weniger; Jos Vanderleyden



EQUAÇÕES DE VOLUME PARA A FLORESTA NACIONAL DO TAPAJÓS (Volume equations for the Tapajós National Forest)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Com o objetivo de atender a demanda de informações acerca de relações quantitativas para a Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Estado do Pará, selecionaram-se equações de volume para andiroba (Carapa guianensis), abiurana (diversos gêneros), jutaí-açu (Hymenaea courbaril), jarana (Holopyxidium jarana), ucuuba- da-terra-firme (Virola sp), taxi-vermelho (Sclerolobium chrysophyllum), maçaranduba (Manilkara huberi), além de equações abrangentes, para qualquer espécie. Testaram-se 16 equações, nove

José Natalino Macedo Silva



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A avaliação dos genótipos de milho disponíveis no mercado é de grande interesse tanto para produtores como para pesquisadores da área de produção animal e vegetal. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial produtivo e qualitativo de híbri- dos de milho para a produção de silagem. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por seis híbridos de milho: DKB-215, DKB-344, C-747, AS-32,



Nueva opción de tratamiento para mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno sensible a las hormonas

Un fármaco usado para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno (mama), conocido como exemestano, es más eficaz que tamoxifeno, un fármaco preventivo de uso común para el cáncer de seno, en la prevención de la recidiva del cáncer de seno en mujeres jóvenes que también reciben tratamiento posoperativo para suprimir el funcionamiento ovárico. Los resultados de este estudio se presentaron en mujeres que tenían un tipo de cáncer de seno en estadio inicial sensible al tratamiento hormonal.


The Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2 in Photodissociation Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We draw attention to an apparent confusion in the literature between the ortho-to-para ratio of molecules in FUV-pumped vibrationally excited states and the total H2 ortho-to-para abundance ratio. These ratios are not the same because the process of FUV pumping of fluorescent H2 emission in PDRs occurs via optically thick absorption lines. Thus gas with an equilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 equal to 3 will yield FUV-pumped vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios smaller than 3, because the ortho-H2 pumping rates are preferentially reduced by optical depth effects. Indeed, if the ortho and para pumping lines are on the "square root" part of the curve of growth, then the expected ratio of ortho and para vibrational line strengths is 3(sup 1/2) approximately 1.7, close to the typically observed value. Thus, contrary to what has sometimes been stated in the literature, most previous measurements of the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in vibrationally excited states are entirely consistent with a total ortho-to-para ratio of 3, the equilibrium value for temperatures greater than 200 K. We present an analysis and several detailed models that illustrate the relationship between the total ratios of ortho- to para-H2 and the vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios in PDRs. Recent Infrared Space Observatory measurements of pure rotational and vibrational H2 emissions from the PDR in the star-forming region S140 provide strong observational support for our conclusions.

Sternberg, Amiel; Neufeld, David A.



Uninfected Para-Anastomotic Aneurysms after Infrarenal Aortic Grafting  

PubMed Central

Purpose This single-institution retrospective review examines the management of uninfected para-anastomotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (PAAA), developed after infrarenal grafting. Materials and Methods From October 1979 to November 2005, 31 PAAA were observed in our Department. Twenty-six uninfected PAAA of degenerative etiology, including 24 false and 2 true aneurysms, were candidates for intervention and retrospectively included in our database for management and outcome evaluation. Six (23%) patients were treated as emergencies. Surgery included tube graft interposition (n = 12), new reconstruction (n = 8), and graft removal with extra-anatomic bypass (n = 3). Endovascular management (n = 3) consisted of free-flow tube endografts. Results The mortality rate among the elective and emergency cases was 5% and 66.6%, respectively (p = 0.005). The morbidity rate in elective cases was 57.8%, whereas 75% in emergency cases (p = 0.99). The survival rate during the follow-up was significantly higher for elective cases than for emergency cases. Conclusion Uninfected PAAA is a late complication of aortic grafting, tends to evolve silently and is difficult to diagnose. The prevalence is underestimated and increases with time since surgery. The mortality rate is higher among patients treated as an emergency than among patients who undergo elective surgery, therefore, elective treatment and aggressive management in the case of pseudoaneurysm are the keys to obtain a good outcome. Endovascular treatment could reduce mortality. Patients who undergo infrarenal aortic grafting require life-long surveillance after surgery.

Nano, Giovanni; Cusmai, Francesco; Ramponi, Fabio; Stegher, Silvia; Dell'Aglio, Daniela; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G.



Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others



A Para-Canalicular Abscess Resembling an Inflamed Chalazion  

PubMed Central

Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis). When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed.

Almaliotis, Diamantis; Nakos, Elias; Siempis, Thomas; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Chatzipantazi, Maria; Karampatakis, Vasileios



New gene responsible for para-aminobenzoate biosynthesis.  


Folate is an essential cofactor in all living cells for one-carbon transfer reactions. para-Aminobenzoate (pABA), a building block of folate, is usually derived from chorismate in the shikimate pathway by reactions of aminodeoxychorismate synthase (PabA and -B) and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase (PabC). We previously suggested that an alternative pathway for pABA biosynthesis would operate in some microorganisms such as Lactobacillus fermentum and Nitrosomonas europaea since these bacteria showed a prototrophic phenotype to pABA despite the fact that there are no orthologs of pabA, -B, and -C in their genome databases. In this study, a gene of unknown function, NE1434, was obtained from N. europaea by shotgun cloning using a pABA-auxotrophic Escherichia coli mutant (?pabABC) as a host. A tracer experiment using [U-(13)C6]glucose suggested that pABA was de novo synthesized in the transformant. An E. coli ?pabABC?aroB mutant carrying the NE1434 gene exhibited a prototrophic phenotype to pABA, suggesting that compounds in the shikimate pathway including chorismate were not utilized as substrates by NE1434. Moreover, the CT610 gene, an ortholog of NE1434 located in the folate biosynthetic gene cluster in Chlamydia trachomatis, also complemented pABA-auxotrophic E. coli mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that NE1434 and CT610 participate in pABA biosynthesis. PMID:23972426

Satoh, Yasuharu; Kuratsu, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Daiki; Dairi, Tohru



Para-dichlorobenzene toxicity - a review of potential neurotoxic manifestations  

PubMed Central

Background: Para-dichlorobenzene (PDCB) is an active ingredient of mothballs, deodorizers and fumigants. Due to the easy availability of this chemical, there is a considerable risk for accidental or intentional toxic exposure. Recently, multiple cases of PDCB toxicity due to mothball ingestion were reported. PDCB toxicity can affect multiple organ systems including liver, kidneys, skin, lung and the central nervous system (CNS). CNS toxicity often results in leukoencephalopathy and heterogeneous neurological manifestations. Objectives: The objective of this study was to illustrate the clinical presentation, imaging findings, diagnosis and management of PDCB toxicity. Methods: We carried out a literature review of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of PDCB. Conclusions: PDCB and other aromatic hydrocarbons are capable of CNS tissue damage and in promoting functional neurological decline. While very little is currently known about prevalence of PDCB addiction, it cannot be ruled out that its illicit use among young people is under-recognized. The number of cases of PDCB toxicity might also rise due to the increasing industrial and domestic use of this chemical.

Dubey, Divyanshu; Sharma, Vibhash D.; Pass, Steven E.; Sawhney, Anshudha



Anise oil as para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) precursor.  


These days, MDMA is one of the most popular drugs of abuse. Due to its illegality, MDMA and its chemical precursors are watched by governmental organizations in many countries. To avoid conflicts with legal instances, underground chemists have tried to market several new unregulated amphetamine analogues, such as 4-MTA. Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), on the other hand, is regulated by law but its precursors are easily obtained since they are cheap and unwatched. This article presents such a case, namely the large scale synthesis of PMA using anethole, a main constituent of anise oil, as precursor. Anethole has been converted to its phenyl acetone analogue via peracid oxidation, while PMA itself has been synthesized using this ketone as precursor in the Leuckart synthesis. The synthesis of PMA using anethole as starting product has been investigated applying GC/MS and GC-HSPME/MS techniques, hereby discovering new specific (4-methoxyphenol) and already identified synthesis impurities (4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine, N-(beta-4-methoxyphenylisopropyl)-4-methoxybenzyl methyl ketimine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-2-propanamine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-2-propanamine, N-(beta-4-methoxyphenylisopropyl)-4-methoxybenzaldimine). The new impurity 4-methoxyphenol is specific for the application of a peracid oxidation method where anethole is used as precursor. PMID:12742705

Waumans, Dieter; Bruneel, Noël; Tytgat, Jan



Effect of thermal aging on the defectiveness of ultrastrong para-aromatic armos and SVM fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change in the defectiveness of ultrastrong para-aromatic Armos and SVM fibres during thermal aging in air was investigated based on the scale dependences and coefficients of variation of the breaking characteristics: strength, elongation, and strain energy at break. The increase in the defectiveness of ultrastrong para-aromatic fibres during thermal aging can be more objectively assessed by the change in

K. E. Perepelkin; S. A. Baranova; E. Yu. Gurova



Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the livebearing fish Poecilia parae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed 16 novel polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers for Poecilia parae, a livebearing fish used in evolutionary studies because of its Y-linked colour and size polymorphism. A set of 199 clones was sequenced out of an enriched genomic library, and we achieved an enrichment efficiency of nearly 80%. Primers were designed for 16 pure repeats, and 59 P. parae were




WebAPSEE: Um Ambiente Livre e Flexível Para Gerência de Processos de Software1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an open-source Flexible Environment for Software Development Process Management. Thus, it presents a process enactment scenario used by the NetBeans project in order show the main functionalities provided by the cited environment. Resumo. Este artigo descreve um Ambiente Flexível para Gerência de Processos de desenvolvimento de Software baseado em Software Livre. Para ilustrar as funcionalidades fornecidas pelo

Adailton Lima; Breno França; Heribert Schlebbe; Rodrigo Quites Reis; Carla Lima Reis


Thermal Structure and Para Hydrogen Fraction on the Outer Planets from VoyagerIRIS Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voyagerinfrared spectra from Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are used to infer latitude-height cross sections of temperature and para hydrogen fraction. A new inversion algorithm is developed that simultaneously retrieves both quantities. It uses all portions of the spectra containing information about temperature and para fraction and not influenced by other properties, such as cloud opacity. The sensitivity of spectra

Barney J. Conrath; Peter J. Gierasch; Eugene A. Ustinov



Sudan azo dyes and Para Red degradation by prevalent bacteria of the human gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan azo dyes have genotoxic effects and ingestion of food products contaminated with Sudan I, II, III, IV, and Para Red could lead to exposure in the human gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we examined thirty-five prevalent species of human intestinal bacteria to evaluate their capacity to degrade Sudan dyes and Para Red. Among these tested bacterial strains, 23, 13,

Haiyan Xu; Thomas M. Heinze; Donald D. Paine; Carl E. Cerniglia; Huizhong Chen




Microsoft Academic Search

Dicen Larsen- Freeman y Long (1991) que las premisas básicas para un experimento son que todos los factores excepto uno sean constantes para poder comprobar el efecto de ese factor sobre el fenómeno que se inves- tiga, y que se cuente con dos criterios esenciales: primero, que haya al me- nos dos grupos incluidos en el estudio, uno de control

Guadalupe Ruiz Fajardo



[The place of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in gynaecological malignancies. An old debate].  


There is a lack of prospective randomized trial and scientific evidence for the use of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in gynaecological malignancies. This results in variations between countries for its utility. Based on the recommandations of the French Institute of Cancer (INCa), we open the debate of the place of para-aortic lymphadenectomy. PMID:24793624

Philippe, Anne-Cécile; Dauplat, Jacques; Martinez, Alejandra; Canis, Michel; Bourdel, Nicolas; Ferron, Gwenaël; Pomel, Christophe



Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media  


A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.



Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media  


A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.



Sudan azo dyes and Para Red degradation by prevalent bacteria of the human gastrointestinal tract.  


Sudan azo dyes have genotoxic effects and ingestion of food products contaminated with Sudan I, II, III, IV, and Para Red could lead to exposure in the human gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we examined thirty-five prevalent species of human intestinal bacteria to evaluate their capacity to degrade Sudan dyes and Para Red. Among these tested bacterial strains, 23, 13, 33, 30, and 29 out of 35 species tested were able to reduce Sudan I, II, III, IV, and Para Red, respectively, to some extent. Bifidobacterium infantis, Clostridium indolis, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Ruminococcus obeum were able to reduce completely all four tested Sudan dyes and Para Red. Escherichia coli and Peptostreptococcus magnus were the only two strains that were not able to reduce any of the tested Sudan dyes and Para Red to any significant extent. Metabolites of the reduction of the tested Sudan dyes and Para Red by E. faecalis were isolated and identified by HPLC and LC/ESI-MS analyses and compared with authentic standards. Thus it appears that the ability to reduce Sudan dyes and Para Red except Sudan II is common among bacteria in the human colon. PMID:19580882

Xu, Haiyan; Heinze, Thomas M; Paine, Donald D; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong



Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.



Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.


Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.



Triebel-Lizorkin Spaces of Para-Accretive Type and a  Tb Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we use a discrete Calderón-type reproducing formula and Plancherel-Pôlya-type inequality associated to a\\u000a para-accretive function to characterize the Triebel-Lizorkin spaces of para-accretive type \\u000a \\u000a , which reduces to the classical Triebel-Lizorkin spaces when the para-accretive function is constant. Moreover, we give a\\u000a necessary and sufficient condition for the \\u000a \\u000a boundedness of paraproduct operators. From this, we show that a

Chin-Cheng Lin; Kunchuan Wang



Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos, E-mail:; Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris [Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Department of Vascular Surgery (Greece); Pomoni, Maria [Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Department of Radiology (Greece); Andrikopoulos, Vassilios [Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Department of Vascular Surgery (Greece)



Contextual Factors that Foster or Inhibit Para-Teacher Professional Development: The Case of an Indian, Non-Governmental Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The appointment of para-professionals to overcome skill shortages and/or make efficient use of expensive resources is well established in both developing and developed countries. The present research concerns para-teachers in India. The literature on para-teachers is dominated by training for special needs settings, largely in developed societies.…

Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules



Investigation of para-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes [n = 6, 8] as potential chelates for (230)U.  


Literature reports of the efficacy of para-sulfonatocalix[6]- and calix[8]-arenes as U(vi) complexants indicated that they might be useful for in vivo chelation of the novel therapeutic alpha-emitter (230)U. We have studied the complexation of U(vi) with para-sulfonatocalix[6]arene and para-sulfonatocalix[8]arene by time resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy and using competition methods with Chelex resin and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol in simplified and in biological media. New thermodynamic parameters describing the stability of U(vi)-para-sulfonatocalix[n]arene [n = 6, 8] complexes were obtained. Although the interactions are strong, the complexes do not exhibit sufficient stability to compete with carbonate ions and serum proteins for complexation of U(vi) under physiological conditions. PMID:20104364

Montavon, Gilles; Repinc, Urska; Apostolidis, Christos; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Abbas, Kamel; Morgenstern, Alfred



Potential Demand for Ecotourism in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sustainable forest management is a global issue of increasing importance. As part of an effort to evaluate sustainable forest management alternatives for the Tapajos National Forest (TNF) in Para, Brazil, IBAMA (The Brazilian Institute for Environment and...



Cold-plasma assisted hydrophobisation of cellulose fibres with styrene and para-halogenated homologues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-plasma-assisted treatment of additive-free hand sheet paper samples with styrene (ST), para-fluorostyrene (FST), para-fluoro-?-methylstyrene (FMST) and para-chloro-?-methylstyrene (ClMST) and para-bromostyrene (BrST) was studied and found that the grafting has occurred efficiently, as established by contact angle measurement. Thus, after solvent extraction of the modified substrates, in order to remove unbounded grafts, the contact angle value of a drop of water deposited at the surface of paper increased from 40° for unmodified substrate to 102, 99, 116, 100 and 107°, for ST-, FST- FMST-, ClMST- and BrST-treated samples, respectively, indicating that the surface has became totally hydrophobic. In fact, the polar component of the surface energy of treated samples decreased from 25 mJ/m2 to practically zero, indicating that treated surfaces were rendered totally non polar.

Gaiolas, C.; Costa, A. P.; Santos Silva, M. J.; Belgacem, M. N.



Contribuições para o projeto da câmara infravermelha Spartan do telescópio SOAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Como parte de uma colaboração entre a Divisão de Astrofísica do INPE, IAG-USP, Instituto do Milênio MEGALIT e a Michigan State University, trabalhamos durante um ano junto ao grupo do Dr. Edwin Loh (MSU) no projeto e detalhamento de diversos subsistemas para a câmara infravermelho Spartan do telescópio SOAR. Trata-se de um imageador para as bandas J, H e K que explora todo o potencial, em termos de qualidade de imagem e campo de visada, fornecido pelo sistema de óptica adaptativa de primeira ordem do telescópio SOAR. Projetamos soluções detalhadas para os subsistemas de rodas de filtros/grismas/máscaras de Lyot; subsistema de compactação do mosaico de detectores em duas versões distintas; subsistema de alimentação de Nitrogênio líquido. Mantivemos sempre uma supervisão geral sobre todas as partes restantes e os respectivos envelopes volumétricos produzindo soluções para a integração de todos os componentes. Neste trabalho, ilustramos as principais contribuições e fornecemos um resumo do estado atual do instrumento.

Laporte, R.; Jablonski, F.; Loh, E.



Path Integral Monte Carlo Studies of molecular para-hydrogen clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have extensively studied para-hydrogen clusters, (pH_2)_N, with 6<= N <= 35 as a function of temperature. Small molecular para-hydrogen clusters are predicted to be superfluid at temperatures below about 2K. In view of recent experiments, we characterize the structual and energetic properties over the temperature range T = 1 - 10K using

Kwangsik Nho; Doerte Blume



Thermal characterization of para- tert-butylphenol formaldehyde epoxy-acrylic resin cured with reactive diluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal decomposition of para-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde epoxy-acrylic resin as such or in the presence of reactive diluents based on glycidyl ethers of phenol and para-alkyl substituted phenols has been studied using pyrolysis in combination with gas chromatography and thermogravimetric techniques. The samples analysed in the range of temperatures between 200 and 600°C degrade statistically by a radical mechanism. The decomposition

C. N. Ca?caval; D. Ro?u; A. Stoleriu



Observation of Ortho-Para H+3 Selection Rules in Plasma Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensity ratios of infrared spectral lines of ortho- and para- H+3 have been measured in hydrogen plasmas using normal and para- H2. Large dependences of the intensity ratios on the parent gases have been observed, indicating the spin memory of protons even after chemical reactions. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of selection rules on nuclear spin modifications in chemical reactions theoretically anticipated by M. Quack [Mol. Phys. 34, 477 (1977)].

Uy, Dairene; Cordonnier, Michel; Oka, Takeshi



Blurring the boundaries between professional and para-professional catalogers at California State University, Northridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

What used to be a clear-cut division between the duties of professional and para-professional catalogers has become blurred in many libraries. The authors will illustrate this point by discussing the evolution of responsibilities held by para-professional and professional catalogers over the course of a 10-year period in the Cataloging Department at California State University, Northridge (CSUN). Comparisons will be made

Jina Choi Wakimoto; Gina R Hsiung



ParaDIS: A relational database for the consistent documentation and analysis of metamorphic mineral assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of integrated computer programs has been developed to optimize documentation, storage, and analysis of petrological data. Primary petrographic and mineral chemistry data, as well as petrological results (such as stability diagrams) derived from these data, are documented by a relational database named ParaDIS (Paragenetic Data Inventory System).ParaDIS is implemented using INGRES™, a commercial relational database-management system running under

D. R. Schmatz; M. Engi; J. E. Lieberman



Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in a child with para-influenza type 1 infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a rare case of para-influenza type 1 virus-induced rhabdomyolysis, complicated by acute renal failure (ARF). The\\u000a child underwent continuous venovenous haemofiltration and has shown full clinical and biochemical recovery. ARF due to rhabdomyolysis\\u000a in para-influenza type 1 infection in a child has, to the best of our knowledge, not been previously reported.

Renata Vrsalovic; Goran Tesovic; Branko Mise



Synthesis and biological activity of Para-substituted 3?-phenyl docetaxel analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expedient route for semisynthetic para-modified 3?-phenyl docetaxel analogs is described using the initial regioselective iodination of the oxazolidinecarboxylate 3. Palladium catalyzed coupling reactions of the iodo intermediate 4 with alkenyl and aryl boronic acids and alkynes led after alkaline hydrolysis to a series of N,O-protected para-substituted phenylisoserines 6. Coupling with 10-deacetyl-7, 10-O-diTroc-baccatin III followed by standard deprotections and acylation

Jean-Dominique Bourzat; François Lavelle; Alain Commerçon



ParA ATPases can move and position DNA and subcellular structures.  


Prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids can be actively segregated by partitioning (par) loci. The common ParA-encoding par loci segregate plasmids by arranging them in regular arrays over the nucleoid by an unknown mechanism. Recent observations indicate that ParA moves plasmids and chromosomes by a pulling mechanism. Even though ParAs form filaments in vitro it is not known whether similar structures are present in vivo. ParA of P1 forms filaments in vitro at very high concentrations only and filament-like structures have not been observed in vivo. Consequently, a 'diffusion-ratchet' mechanism was suggested to explain plasmid movement by ParA of P1. We compare this mechanism with our previously proposed filament model for plasmid movement by ParA. Remarkably, ParA homologues have been discovered to arrange subcellular structures such as carboxysomes and chemotaxis sensory receptors in a regular manner very similar to those of the plasmid arrays. PMID:21963112

Szardenings, Florian; Guymer, David; Gerdes, Kenn



Ghost loci imply Hox and ParaHox existence in the last common ancestor of animals.  


Hox genes are renowned for patterning animal development, with widespread roles in developmental gene regulation. Despite this importance, their evolutionary origin remains obscure, due to absence of Hox genes (and their evolutionary sisters, the ParaHox genes) from basal lineages and because the phylogenies of these genes are poorly resolved. This has led to debate about whether Hox and ParaHox genes originated coincidently with the origin of animals or instead evolved after the divergence of the earliest animal lineages. Here we use genomic synteny and Monte Carlo-based simulations to resolve Hox/ParaHox origins, our approach being independent of poorly resolved homeodomain phylogenies and better able to accommodate gene loss. We show Trox-2 of placozoans occupies a ParaHox locus. In addition, a separate locus sharing synteny and hence homology with human Hox loci exists in the placozoan genome, but without a Hox-like gene in it. We call this second locus a "ghost" Hox locus, because it is homologous to the human Hox loci, but does not itself contain a Hox gene. Extending our approach to sponges, we discover distinct ghost Hox and ParaHox loci. Thus, distinct Hox and ParaHox loci were present in the last common ancestor of all living animal lineages. PMID:23022064

Mendivil Ramos, Olivia; Barker, Daniel; Ferrier, David E K



Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy Versus Para-aortic Field Radiotherapy to Treat Para-aortic Lymph Node Metastasis in Cervical Cancer: Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To compare dosimetry, efficacy, and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with para-aortic field radiotherapy in patients with para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis of cervical cancer. Methods This prospective study examined 60 patients with cervical cancer with PALN metastasis who underwent whole-pelvis radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy between November 1, 2004 and May 31, 2008. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, patients were serially allocated into two groups and treated with IMRT or para-aortic field RT at doses of 58-68 Gy and 45-50 Gy, respectively. Treatment response was evaluated and toxicities were assessed. Patients in the IMRT group were treated with both para-aortic field RT and IMRT in order to compare the exposure dose of organs at risk. Results In the IMRT group, the mean dose delivered to the planning target volume was 67.5 Gy. At least 99% of the gross tumor volume received effective coverage and radical dose (median, 63.5 Gy; range, 54.5-66) during treatment. IMRT plans yielded better dose conformity to the target and better sparing of the spinal cord and small intestine than para-aortic field RT. The IMRT patients experienced less acute and chronic toxicities. The IMRT group also had higher 2- and 3-year survival rates than the para-aortic RT group (2-year, 58.8% vs 25.0%, P = 0.019; 3-year, 36.4% vs 15.6%, P = 0.016). However, no significant difference was found in 1-year survival (67.7% vs 51.3%, P =0.201). The median survival in the IMRT group was 25 months (range, 3 to 37 months). The actuarial overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates at 2 years were 67%, 77%, and 88%, respectively. Conclusions IMRT provides better clinical outcomes than para-aortic field radiotherapy in patients with PALN metastasis. However, cervical local and distal recurrence remain a problem. Long-term follow-up and studies involving more patients are needed to confirm our results.

Du, Xue-lian; Sheng, Xiu-gui; Jiang, Tao; Yu, Hao; Yan, Yu-feng; Gao, Rong; Lu, Chun-hua; Li, Qing-shui



Spontaneous Emission Between - and Para-Levels of Water-Ion H_2O^+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear spin conversion interaction of water ion, H_2O^+, has been studied to derive spontaneous emission lifetime between ortho- and para-levels. H_2O^+ is a radical ion with the ^2B_1 electronic ground state. Its off-diagonal electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(S_a? I_b + S_b? I_a), connects para and ortho levels, because ? I = I_1 - I_2 has nonvanishing matrix elements between I = 0 and 1. The mixing by this term with Tab = 72 MHz predicted by ab initio theory in the MRD-CI/Bk level, is many orders of magnitude larger than for closed shell molecules because of the large magnetic interaction due to the un-paired electron. Using the molecular constants reported by Mürtz et al. by FIR-LMR, we searched for ortho and para coupling channels below 1000 cm-1 with accidental near degeneracy between para and ortho levels. For example, hyperfine components of the 42,2(ortho) and 33,0(para) levels mix by 1.2 × 10-3 due to their near degeneracy (? E = 0.417 cm-1), and give the ortho-para spontaneous emission lifetime of about 0.63 year. The most significant low lying 10,1(para) and 11,1(ortho) levels, on the contrary, mix only by 8.7 × 10-5 because of their large separation (? E = 16.267 cm-1) and give the spontaneous emission lifetime from 10,1(para) to 00,0(ortho) of about 100 year.These results qualitatively help to understand the observed high ortho- to para- H_2O^+ ratio of 4.8 ± 0.5 toward Sgr B2 but they are too slow to compete with the conversion by collision unless the number density of the region is very low (n ˜1 cm-3) or radiative temperature is very high (T_r > 100 K). M. Staikova, B. Engels, M. Peric, and S.D. Peyerimhoff, Mol. Phys. 80, 1485 (1993) P. Mürtz, L.R. Zink, K.M. Evenson, and J.M. Brown J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9744 (1998). LP. Schilke, et al., A&A 521, L11 (2010).

Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Oka, Takeshi



The Formaldehyde Ortho/Para Ratio as a Probe of Dark Cloud Chemistry and Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with subsequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H2 to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.



ParaPep: a web resource for experimentally validated antiparasitic peptide sequences and their structures.  


ParaPep is a repository of antiparasitic peptides, which provides comprehensive information related to experimentally validated antiparasitic peptide sequences and their structures. The data were collected and compiled from published research papers, patents and from various databases. The current release of ParaPep holds 863 entries among which 519 are unique peptides. In addition to peptides having natural amino acids, ParaPep also consists of peptides having d-amino acids and chemically modified residues. In ParaPep, most of the peptides have been evaluated for growth inhibition of various species of Plasmodium, Leishmania and Trypanosoma. We have provided comprehensive information about these peptides that include peptide sequence, chemical modifications, stereochemistry, antiparasitic activity, origin, nature of peptide, assay types, type of parasite, mode of action and hemolytic activity. Structures of peptides consisting of natural, as well as modified amino acids have been determined using state-of-the-art software, PEPstr. To facilitate users, various user-friendly web tools, for data fetching, analysis and browsing, have been integrated. We hope that ParaPep will be advantageous in designing therapeutic peptides against parasitic diseases. Database URL: PMID:24923818

Mehta, Divya; Anand, Priya; Kumar, Vineet; Joshi, Anshika; Mathur, Deepika; Singh, Sandeep; Tuknait, Abhishek; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gautam, Shailendra K; Gautam, Ankur; Varshney, Grish C; Raghava, Gajendra P S



The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.



Rotational excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H2.  


Rotational excitation of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule by collisions with para-H2(?j = 0,?2) and ortho-H2(?j = 1) is investigated at low temperatures using a quantum time independent approach. Both molecules are treated as rigid rotors. The scattering calculations are based on a highly correlated ab initio 4-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface recently published. Rotationally inelastic cross sections among the 13 first rotational levels of HCN were obtained using a pure quantum close coupling approach for total energies up to 1200 cm(-1). The corresponding thermal rate coefficients were computed for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The HCN rate coefficients are strongly dependent on the rotational level of the H2 molecule. In particular, the rate coefficients for collisions with para-H2(?j = 0) are significantly lower than those for collisions with ortho-H2(?j = 1) and para-H2(?j = 2). Propensity rules in favor of even ?j transitions were found for HCN in collisions with para-H2(?j = 0) whereas propensity rules in favor of odd ?j transitions were found for HCN in collisions with H2(?j ? 1). The new rate coefficients were compared with previously published HCN-para-H2(?j = 0) rate coefficients. Significant differences were found due the inclusion of the H2 rotational structure in the scattering calculations. These new rate coefficients will be crucial to improve the estimation of the HCN abundance in the interstellar medium. PMID:24929383

Vera, Mario Hernández; Kalugina, Yulia; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Lique, François



ParaDIS: A relational database for the consistent documentation and analysis of metamorphic mineral assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of integrated computer programs has been developed to optimize documentation, storage, and analysis of petrological data. Primary petrographic and mineral chemistry data, as well as petrological results (such as stability diagrams) derived from these data, are documented by a relational database named ParaDIS (Paragenetic Data Inventory System). ParaDIS is implemented using INGRES ™, a commercial relational database-management system running under UNIX on Sun computers. Two user-friendly applications, forms-based and menu-operated, allow for entry, retrieval, and various manipulations of any amount of petrological data. In the current version, ParaDIS is interfaced with external thermobarometric programs (e.g. TWEEQU, PTAX) based on consistent thermodynamic models, allowing for coherent interpretation of metamorphic assemblages. The results (e.g. P-T- or T-X-graphs) can be directed back into ParaDIS for further analysis and to document the interpretations. P-T-data derived for particular field areas also can be fed into graphics programs or Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for further manipulation, such as P-T-contouring, and display. Data architecture and storage structure of ParaDIS are presented in detail.

Schmatz, D. R.; Engi, M.; Lieberman, J. E.



Estimation of Carbon Storage in Para Rubber Plantation in Eastern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to estimate the carbon stock and sequestration in Para rubber plantation of East Thailand using the THAICHOTE (Thailand Earth Observation System data). For that purpose we identify the area of every stage class Para rubber plantation by the analysis of different image objects (i.e., rule base and multiple regression classifications) and we map the carbon stock and sequestration of each Para rubber class using biomass allometric regressions and carbon content equations. THAICHOTE data include Multispectral image (4 bands at 15x15 m spatial resolution), Panchromatic image (2x2 m spatial resolution) and Stereo image, data acquisition from December 2011-April 2012. The preliminary investigated area is located in Wangchun, (Eastern, Thailand) and covers about 20 Km2. Calibrating the class stage, by image analysis that integrated edge-based segmentation, reflectance, remote sensing indices, texture analysis and canopy height model (CHM), we found that best classification was obtained by multiple regression (accuracy of 80%) compared to rule base logical operation (accuracy 70%) suggesting that manual 3D stereo measurements or Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) both are able to construct the CHM. The results of this study indicate that for a total Para rubber biomass of 14,651 tons, the amount of stored carbon is of 7,326 tons. Mature stage of Para rubber plantations exhibits the highest capacity of sequestering with a global flux of 0.21 tons C/ Km2/year.

Charoenjit, K.; Zuddas, P.; Allemand, P.



ParaPep: a web resource for experimentally validated antiparasitic peptide sequences and their structures  

PubMed Central

ParaPep is a repository of antiparasitic peptides, which provides comprehensive information related to experimentally validated antiparasitic peptide sequences and their structures. The data were collected and compiled from published research papers, patents and from various databases. The current release of ParaPep holds 863 entries among which 519 are unique peptides. In addition to peptides having natural amino acids, ParaPep also consists of peptides having d-amino acids and chemically modified residues. In ParaPep, most of the peptides have been evaluated for growth inhibition of various species of Plasmodium, Leishmania and Trypanosoma. We have provided comprehensive information about these peptides that include peptide sequence, chemical modifications, stereochemistry, antiparasitic activity, origin, nature of peptide, assay types, type of parasite, mode of action and hemolytic activity. Structures of peptides consisting of natural, as well as modified amino acids have been determined using state-of-the-art software, PEPstr. To facilitate users, various user-friendly web tools, for data fetching, analysis and browsing, have been integrated. We hope that ParaPep will be advantageous in designing therapeutic peptides against parasitic diseases. Database URL:

Mehta, Divya; Anand, Priya; Kumar, Vineet; Joshi, Anshika; Mathur, Deepika; Singh, Sandeep; Tuknait, Abhishek; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gautam, Shailendra K.; Gautam, Ankur; Varshney, Grish C.; Raghava, Gajendra P.S.



Identification and Characterization of Catabolic para-Nitrophenol 4Monooxygenase and para-Benzoquinone Reductase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain WBC3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In order to identify the genes involved in this utilization, we cloned and sequenced a 12.7-kb fragment containing a conserved region of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase genes. Of the products of the 13 open reading frames deduced from this fragment, PnpA shares 24% identity to the

Jun-Jie Zhang; Hong Liu; Yi Xiao; Xian-En Zhang; Ning-Yi Zhou



MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA ESTIMAR EL ESPACIAMIENTO ENTRE DRENES SUBTERRÁNEOS EN RÉGIMEN TRANSITORIO Mathematical Model for Estimating Spacing Between Subterranean Drains in Transitory Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Para el diseño de sistemas de drenaje subterráneo existen diferentes modelos, tanto para régimen permanente, como transitorio; sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos no se han obtenido para condiciones de suelo y clima semiáridas. Por lo tanto, este trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar una ecuación empírica para régimen transitorio que permitiera determinar el espaciamiento entre drenes paralelos, considerando los intervalos

Pablo Miguel Coras-Merino



Ortho-para-H2 conversion by hydrogen exchange: Comparison of theory and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report fully-quantum time-independent calculations of cross sections and rate coefficients for the collisional (de)excitation of H2 by H. Our calculations are based on the H3 global potential energy surface of Mielke et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 4142 (2002)]. The reactive hydrogen exchange channels are taken into account. We show that the ortho-para and para-ortho conversion of H2 are significant processes at temperatures above ~300 K and for the last process we provide the first comparison with available experimental rate coefficients between 300 and 444 K. The good agreement between theory and experiment is a new illustration of our detailed understanding of the simplest chemical reaction. The importance of the ortho-para-H2 conversion by hydrogen exchange in astrophysics is discussed.

Lique, François; Honvault, Pascal; Faure, Alexandre



Irritant contact dermatitis from a black henna tattoo without sensitization to para-phenylendiamine.  


Allergic contact dermatitis from nonpermanent black henna tattoos has been frequently reported, particularly in children. Contamination or adulteration of the dyes with para-phenylendiamine has been identified as major cause of active sensitization and elicitation of severe allergic contact dermatitis. Sequelae include permanent sensitization, hyper- or hypopigmentation, scarring, keloids, and hypertrichosis. We report a rare case of irritant dermatitis to an unknown ingredient in a black henna tattoo with consecutive hypopigmentation. Sensitization to para-phenylendiamine and other para-compounds was excluded by patch test evaluation. This is relevant for future exposure to consumer products such as hair dyes or in occupational settings. Generally, black henna tattoos, particularly if done with dyes of unknown composition, should be strongly discouraged. PMID:23690526

Kind, Fabiola; Hofmeier, Kathrin Scherer; Bircher, Andreas J



Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor in 0.2-2.4 THz range from low to high humidity at room temperature. The observed absorption lines are due to the water molecular rotations in the ground vibrational state. We find that the absorption strength of para transitions increases as humidity increases, while the absorption strength of ortho transitions increases and then decreases in intensity with increasing humidity. We explain this difference based on the nuclear spin statistics based ratio of ortho to para water monomer populations at room temperature. The preferential adsorption on the solid surfaces of para water leads to an ortho dominated vapor cloud whose monomer rotational absorption intensity decreases due to the effects of dimerization, molecular collisions, clustering, and interactions with liquid droplets at high concentrations.

Xin, X.; Altan, H.; Saint, A.; Matten, D.; Alfano, R. R.



Superfluid Effects in PARA-H_2 Clusters Probed by CO_2 Rotation-Vibration Transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospect of directly observing superfluidity in para-H_2 is a tantalizing but elusive goal. Like ^4He, para-H_2 is a light zero-spin boson. However, H_2-H_2 intermolecular interactions, though weak, are stronger than He-He interactions, and hydrogen is a solid below about 14 K. This makes detection of superfluidity in bulk hydrogen problematical, to say the least. But there are still possibilities for para-H_2 in the form of clusters or in nano-confined environments, and superfluid transition temperatures as high as ˜6 K have been predicted. Spectroscopic observations of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters were at first very difficult to interpret for N > 5. However, with the help of path integral Monte Carlo simulations and an accurate new H_2-CO_2 intermolecular potential surface which explicitly incorporates dependence on the CO_2 ?b{3} asymmetric stretch, it is now possible to achieve a remarkably consistent picture of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters in the size range N = 1 ˜ 20. By combining the experimental spectroscopic measurements and theoretical simulations, we determine the size evolution of the superfluid response of the CO_2-doped para-H_2 clusters, which peaks for the "magic" number N = 12. V. L. Ginzburg and A. A. Sobyanin, JETP Lett. 15, 343 (1972). A. R. W. McKellar, Paper WH04, 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, June 16-20, 2008. H. Li, P.-N. Roy, and R. J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys., submitted.

Li, Hui; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas; McKellar, A. R. W.



Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.



Large scale visualization on the Cray XT3 using ParaView.  

SciTech Connect

Post-processing and visualization are key components to understanding any simulation. Porting ParaView, a scalable visualization tool, to the Cray XT3 allows our analysts to leverage the same supercomputer they use for simulation to perform post-processing. Visualization tools traditionally rely on a variety of rendering, scripting, and networking resources; the challenge of running ParaView on the Lightweight Kernel is to provide and use the visualization and post-processing features in the absence of many OS resources. We have successfully accomplished this at Sandia National Laboratories and the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center.

Rogers, David; Geveci, Berk (Kitware, Inc.); Eschenbert, Kent (Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center); Neundorf, Alexander (Technical University of Kaiserslautern); Marion, Patrick (Kitware, Inc.); Moreland, Kenneth D.; Greenfield, John



Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the livebearing fish Poecilia parae.  


We developed 16 novel polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers for Poecilia parae, a livebearing fish used in evolutionary studies because of its Y-linked colour and size polymorphism. A set of 199 clones was sequenced out of an enriched genomic library, and we achieved an enrichment efficiency of nearly 80%. Primers were designed for 16 pure repeats, and 59 P. parae were screened for polymorphism. Cross-amplification was tested on Poecilia picta and Poecilia reticulata, the guppy. The new microsatellite markers showed an exceptionally high allelic diversity and low stutter formation, proving their suitability for a broad range of applications in these species. PMID:21585912

Nater, Alexander; Krützen, Michael; Lindholm, Anna K



Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage  

PubMed Central

Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment.

Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistre, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stephane; Room, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng



An excellent Pd-based nanocomposite catalyst for the selective hydrogenation of para-chloronitrobenzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partially reduced Pd\\/?-Fe2O3 nanocomposite catalyst (Pd\\/?-Fe2O3-PR) was prepared using PdO and ferric hydroxide colloidal particles as starting materials. This catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic properties for the selective hydrogenation of para-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) to para-chloroaniline (p-CAN). The selectivity to p-CAN reached 99.2% at complete conversion of the substrate and intermediates, and the hydrodechlorination of p-CAN was fully suppressed over Pd\\/?-Fe2O3-PR. The

Hongquan Liu; Minghui Liang; Chao Xiao; Ning Zheng; Xuhui Feng; Yan Liu; Jinglin Xie; Yuan Wang



Performance characteristics of magnesium/para-nitrophenol cells in 2:1 magnesium electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

1 V/1 Ah magnesium/para-nitrophenol (PNP) reserve cells were fabricated and their performance was evaluated in different electrolytes [2M aqueous solutions of Mg(C1O[sub 4])[sub 2], MgCl[sub 2], and MgBr[sub 2

Kumar, G.; Sivashanugam, A.; Sridharan, R. (Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India))




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En el presente estudio se evalúa la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae de forma desintegrada (LD) y tres fracciones celulares obtenidas de ella: complejo pared-membrana (FP), núcleo-proteínas (FN) y citoplasma (FC) como aditivo alimentario utilizando al crustáceo Artemia franciscana como modelo de experimentación. Se realizaron dos bioensayos para determinar el efecto que ejercían dichos aditivos en el crecimiento, biomasa seca, supervivencia

Yamilé Comabella; Tsai García-Galano; Olimpia Carrillo; Yadir Mauri


Cuadro de mando y sistemas de información: herramientas estratégicas para la gestión medioambiental corporativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad protección del ambiente es un nuevo e importante objetivo estratégico de las empresas cubanas y del mundo. La información medioambiental se vuelve cada vez más relevante para las decisiones económicas, por lo que es necesario manejarla de manera oportuna. Muchas entidades presentan Sistemas de Gestión Medioambientales según NC ISO 14000 que se quedan en fases meramente declarativas

Frank Medel; Lourdes García; Liesby Gómez; Rebeca Pentón



A Compendium of Provisions for a Model Ordinance for the Regulation of Public Para-Transit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report comprises a complete set of provisions for the regulation of various types of public para-transit transportation. Its preparation consisted for five stages: Collection and analysis of the statutes of every state, the ordinances of some 600 mun...

R. E. Samuels




Microsoft Academic Search

En el Archivo General de Indias de Sevilla se conserva el expediente de un pleito que enfrentó a Alonso Pérez, copista y clérigo de Medina del Campo, y a Francisco Fernández de Córdoba, conocido impresor de Valladolid, en activo entre 1541 y 1570. Cada uno de los litigantes pretendía los derechos de publicación de los cantorales para las Indias, en

Emilio Ros-Fábregas



Computer-controlled radiation therapy machine for pelvic and para-aortic nodal areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-controlled radiation therapy technique has been developed to treat cancer of the uterine cervix that has extended to the pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. During five longitudinal scans with a 4 cm wide 8 MV X ray beam, conformation of the high dose region to the target volume was achieved primarily by varying the other field dimensions. Treatment planning

Lee M. Chin; Peter K. Kijewski; Göran K. Svensson; John T. Chaffey; Martin B. Levene; B. E. Bjaerngard



Factor Structure of the Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresión en Adolescentes (EADA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresión en Adolescentes (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to assess this construct as experienced by this population. Participants were 116

Mirella Díaz-Santos; Eduardo Cumba-Avilés; Guillermo Bernal; Carmen Rivera-Medina



Hacia un framework Orientado a Objetos para Bills of Materials Complejos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las empresas de producción industrial se enfrentan por un lado, a los cambios constantes de las condiciones del mercado, como po r ejemplo, los patrones de demanda, ciclo de vida de los productos mucho más cortos, etc. Por otro, a un mercado global, que requiere que la cadena de suministros, alcance muy altos niveles de eficiencia. Para mantener la competitividad

Marcela Vegetti; Gabriela Henning; Horacio Leone


Un Juego de Gravedad con Reconocimiento de Voz para Niños con Problemas de Lenguaje  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo presentamos un juego electrónico (Gravedad) con reconocimiento de voz para estimular a niños en edad escolar con problemas del lenguaje dislalia. Se presenta las características y elementos del juego electrónico, así como su integración con el sistema de reconocimiento de voz y los resultados de unas pruebas de usabilidad. El juego de Gravedad se desarrolló utilizando el

Carlos Miranda-Palm; Reyna Camal-U; José Cen-Magaña; Cinhtia Gonzalez-Segura; Sergio Gonzalez-Segura; Michel García; Lizzie Narvaez-Díaz


Estados Unidos y cuatro países de América Latina se unen para combatir el cáncer

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) de Estados Unidos formalizó esta semana alianzas bilaterales con los gobiernos de Argentina, Brasil, México y Uruguay, para acelerar el avance contra el cáncer en la población hispana de Estados Unidos y de América Latina y mejorar la investigación del cáncer.


Aprovechamiento de los mercados financieros internacionales para gestionar el riesgo de amenazas naturales en América Latina  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente informe técnico analiza la potencial aplicación práctica de los instrumentos financieros diseñados para el financiamiento y la transferencia del riesgo de las amenazas naturales en América Latina. En primer lugar, se presenta, en términos generales, el papel del financiamiento y de la transferencia de los riesgos en la gestión del riesgo de desastres. Luego se analiza las fuentes

Ivar Pettersen; John Magne Skjelvik; Nils Atle Krokeide



Caracterización del mercado de energía elétrica para usuarios no regulados en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se presenta un análisis sobre las características del mercado de energía para usuarios no regulados en Colombia, el cual puede ser considerado como un sub-mercado dentro del mercado global de energía eléctrica en Colombia. En este análisis se incluye un indicador de concentración de mercado (Herfindahl-Hirschman), así como los porcentajes de participación en cubrimiento de demanda y

Ana Cecilia Escudero; Sergio Botero Botero



Sindicalismo docente, gobiernos y reformas educativas en América Latina y el Caribe: Condiciones para el diálogo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento fue comisionado por la Red de Educación del Diálogo Regional de Política para la 9a Reunión Hemisférica celebrada entre los días 8 y 10 de noviembre de 2006. El trabajo está dividido en cuatro partes: se presenta una breve y esquemática caracterización del contexto y de las reformas educativas; se desarrolla un panorama general de las características de

Mariano Palamidessi; Martín Legarralde




Microsoft Academic Search

El uso de las TIC cambia radicalmente la forma en que los gobiernos administran y ejecutan sus procesos internos, y abre la posibilidad de mejorar e incrementar los canales de comunicación con los ciudadanos. Así, el gobierno electrónico se observa como un medio para que los gobiernos modernicen sus procesos, mejoren sus interacciones con los ciudadanos y disminuyan la fractura

Roberto de Armas Urquiza; Alejandro de Armas Suárez



EL TLC CA-EE.UU.: ¿Una Oportunidad de Crecimiento para los Paises Centroamericanos¿  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta presentación fue comisionado por la Red de Integración y Comercio del Diálogo Regional de Política para la V Reunión Hemisférica celebrada los días 14 y 15 de agosto de 2003. Antecedentes Motivos y Razones de la Negociación Objetivos Generales de la Negociación Características y Estructura de la Negociación Contenido del TLC Agenda Integral de Cooperación Avances de la negociación

Gabriela Llobet



Carencia de hierro en la infancia: Causas y consecuencias para el desarrollo infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenSe comentan brevemente las causas principales de la carencia de hierro (CH), seguido de un examen de los estudios sobre la CH y el desarrollo y comportamiento cognitivos y motores del niño para probar un vínculo causal, clasificando dichos estudios por su diseño. La anemia por carencia de hierro (ACH) se asocia a numerosos inconvenientes psicosociales y económicos que pueden

Sally Grantham-McGregor; Helen Baker-Henningham



La actuación pública para el fomento de nuevas empresas Hacia un enfoque de política económica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lo largo de este trabajo abordaremos la tarea de analizar el perfil de las distintas actuaciones y la potencial existencia de una política econó- mica específica de creación de empresas, tras lo que trataremos de esta- blecer, en su caso, una posible estructura de la misma. Para alcanzar sen- dos propósitos intentaremos: revisar las líneas generales de los diferentes

José Antonio; Belso Martínez


30 anos de investigação sobre externalidades do IDE para as empresas nacionais: que conclusões?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Durante as últimas três décadas, surgiu uma vasta literatura sobre a existência potencial de externalidades do IDE para as empresas domésticas traduzidas em ganhos de produtividade. Esta ocorrência relaciona-se com o facto de as empresas multinacionais possuírem activos intangíveis que podem ser transmitidos às empresas domésticas. A análise empírica não dá, contudo, indicações claras sobre o fenómeno. Neste artigo,

Nuno Crespo; Maria Paula Fontoura



Sugestões para o uso do mini-exame do estado mental no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Modificações no mini-exame do estado mental (MEM) foram sugeridas anteriormente em nosso meio. Neste artigo relatamos sugestões para aplicação uniforme deste instrumento. Método: Avaliamos 433 indivíduos saudáveis sem queixas de memória através do MEM tendo seu desempenho sido avaliado quanto às variáveis demográficas. As modificações propostas foram detalhadamente descritas. Resultados: A escolaridade foi o principal fator que influenciou

Sonia M. D. Brucki; Ricardo Nitrini; Paulo Caramelli; Paulo H. F. Bertolucci; Ivan H. Okamoto




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Este artículo propone el diseño de un sistema de adquisición de datos con componentes digitales y analógicos microelectrónicos reconfigurables, como son el FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) y el FPAA (Field Programmable Analog Array), para monitorear y analizar la contaminación por ruido ambiental. Este prototipo obtiene los datos del ruido de una zona vial (zona centro de una ciudad)

A. Castillo Atoche; J. Vázquez Castillo; V. Sanchez Huerta; P. Del Río Dawn


Nivelación interterritorial e ineficiencia de las decisiones presupuestarias: reflexiones para el caso español  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se estudian los efectos negativos de los esquemas de nivelación horizontal sobre la eficiencia en las elecciones fiscales de los gobiernos regionales. Partiendo de unos resultados teóricos básicos, se examinan los aspectos dinámicos del problema, se ofrece alguna evidencia empírica para el caso español y se presenta una solución que combina los criterios de eficiencia y equidad.

Santiago Lago Peñas




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El suelo es un sistema abierto que tiende hacia un equilibrio dinámico acumulando y reciclando materia y energía a través del tiempo. Mediante un balance energético es posible evaluar la energía acumulada o la que circula a través de su masa. Esta miscelánea tiene por objetivo presentar aspectos teóricos y metodológicos para cuantificar la energía dinamizada durante la formación




Fondo de Compensación Regional: Igualdad de oportunidades para la periferia colombiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente documento se propone la creación de un Fondo de Compensación Regional (FCR) para impulsar el desarrollo de la periferia de Colombia, la cual concentra más del 44% de la población total y el 60% de los habitantes con Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas (NBI). Es importante resaltar que el principio que debe orientar la política del FCR es el

Luis Armando Galvis Aponte; Adolfo meisel R



Programa em Educação a Distância para a Melhoria das Condições de Aprendizagem da Matemática  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A fim de fundamentar uma ação pedagógica diferenciada, frente ao elevado número de reprovações e desistências que ocorrem em disciplinas iniciais de Matemática na Universidade de Caxias do Sul, apresentamos um programa através do qual investigamos as reais possibilidades de constituir nova opção para alunos reprovados em Cálculo Diferencial e Integral I. Num ambiente virtual de aprendizagem os

Isolda G. De Lima; Laurete Z. Sauer


Convection in the Outer Planet Atmospheres Including ortho-para Hydrogen Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective adjustment and diffusive schemes based on terrestrial methods are extended to outer planet applications in order to develop an algorithm that can be used in dynamical modeling of outer planetary flows. Over the temperature range between 50 K and 250 K the delayed conversion of ortho- hydrogen to para-hydrogen can have large effects on stratification. One-dimensional modeling of atmospheric

Michael D. Smith; Peter J. Gierasch



Para-Professionals in Further Education: Changing Roles in Vocational Delivery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roles and structures within further education colleges seem to be in constant change and development; roles are becoming blurred, and lecturers are taking on more management tasks. Alongside this has been the development of para-professional roles, using non-lecturers to undertake teaching tasks. This can allow for the greater involvement of…

Scott, Gill




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. En este artículo se analiza el comportamiento del hormigón a un nivel mesomecánico de observación bajo cargas de tracción uniaxial dependientes del tiempo. Como punto de partida se ha empleado un modelo mesoestructural en 2D para materiales heterogéneos basado en elementos junta de espesor nulo, desarrollado dentro del grupo de investigación de la ETSECCPB-UPC. En este modelo, la estructura

Ricardo Lorefice; Guillermo Etse; Carlos M. López; Ignacio Carol


Desafíos en la gestión de tecnologías de información y comunicación para Colombia: caso de internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Actualmente Colombia alcanza el 5,4% en el nivel de penetración de internet, mientras que en economías desarrolladas se observan niveles superiores al 40%. Con el objetivo de establecer los retos que el país debe superar para reducir la amplia brecha que estas cifras evidencian, se revisó el fenómeno de internet en diferentes ámbitos, identificándose nueve factores clave que influyen

Juan Camilo Uribe Véleza; Claudia Nelcy Jiménez Hernándezb; María Elena García Vergarac



Indicadores de gestión urbana. Los observatorios urbano-territoriales para el desarrollo sostenible. Manizales, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Observatorios para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Municipio de Manizales en Colombia, hacen parte del Sistema de Monitoreo diseñado por el Municipio como apoyo a la gestión urbana local. A partir de los resultados de indicadores económicos, sociales y ambientales, los ciudadanos podrán evaluar de forma permanente el desempeño de programas y proyectos del Plan de Desarrollo Municipal y participar

Luz Stella Velásquez



UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of Sudan dyes and Para Red in food.  


An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes (Sudan Red G, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan Red 7B and Sudan IV) and Para Red in food by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and water added into the extract. The supernatant was analysed by UPLC-MS/MS after refrigeration and centrifugation. The sample was separated on an Acquity BEH C(18) column, and detected by MS/MS with the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Matrix calibration was used for quantitative testing of the method. The linear matrix calibrations of Sudan dyes and Para Red were 2-50 and 10-250 ng g(-1), respectively, and the regression coefficients were >0.9945. The recoveries were 83.4-112.3% with good coefficients of variation of 2.0-10.8%. The limits of detection were between 0.3 and 1.4 ng g(-1) for the six Sudan dyes, and between 3.7 and 6.0 ng g(-1) for Para Red. The limits of quantification were between 0.9 and 4.8 ng g(-1) for the six Sudan dyes, and between 12.2 and 19.8 ng g(-1) for Para Red. PMID:20582780

Li, C; Wu, Y L; Shen, J Z



Salud Para Su Corazón: A Community-Based Latino Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Outreach Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Latinos living in the United States. This population is generally unaware of important lifestyle or behavioral changes that can prevent CVD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) designed and implemented Salud para su Corazón (Health for Your Heart), a culturally appropriate, community-based, theory-driven intervention model. NHLBI's goals were:

Rina Alcalay; Matilde Alvarado; Hector Balcazar; Eileen Newman; Elmer Huerta




Microsoft Academic Search

El sistema para gestionar la actividad científica del Departamento de Informática de la Universidad de Guantánamo surge debido a la necesidad de gestionar de manera más rápida, segura y eficaz los procesos que se desarrollan actualmente en dicho centro. Fue desarrollado utilizando los lenguajes PHP del lado del servidor con CodeIgniter como framework y JavaScript del lado del cliente. Se

Denis Boizan Romero



Montagem e Resultados Preliminares de Aparato Experimental para Estudo Térmico de Materiais Ablativos  

Microsoft Academic Search

O estudo do fenômeno físico de ablação, que ocorre em determinados materiais usados em sistemas de proteção térmica de satélites, bem como a caracterização das propriedades térmicas dos mesmos são considerados de grande importância, por representar um ponto estratégico para a tecnologia espacial. No Brasil, os estudos de materiais ablativos têm sido realizados dentro da perspectiva do Programa Nacional de

Gabriel Antônio de Souza Júnior; Lucas Mello de Campos Arruda; Walber Ferreira Braga; Márcia Barbosa; Henriques Mantelli


Bacterial Inoculum Density and Probability of para-Nitrophenol Biodegradability Test Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out to establish a model linking probability of positive response in para-nitrophenol biodegradability test to controlled variables of the test (suspended solids, SS; total bacteria, AODC; cultivable bacteria, CFU; specific biodegraders, MPN). Series of dilution of 11 raw inocula (6 activated sludges, 5 river waters) were tested. They reveal very dispersed values of biomass measured

G. Thouand; P. Friant; F. Bois; A. Cartier; A. Maul; J. C. Block



Lenguajes de libre distribución para la gestión de redes basada en políticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La gestión basada en políticas es uno de los últimos desarrollos en el área de gestión de redes y sistemas distribuidos. Este artículo presenta una propuesta del uso de lenguajes de libre distribución para la definición, edición y almacenamiento de políticas aplicables a la gestión de redes. 1 Introducción Las redes del mundo de las telecomunicaciones de hoy en día

Angélica Reyes; Antoni Barba; Ingeniería Telemática


Moléculas que marcam o tempo: implicações para os fenótipos circadianos Timekeeping molecules: implications for circadian phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Objetivo: Revisar resumidamente a literatura dos últimos 36 anos de pesquisa em cronobiologia molecular a fim de informar aos profissionais de saúde os avanços obtidos nesta área e os potenciais para aplicação na clínica médica. Método: Buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando as bases de dados PubMed e Scopus usando como palavras-chave \\

Danyella Silva Pereira; Sergio Tufik; Mario Pedrazzoli


Gestión de recursos de un navegador Web para prevenir ataques contra la privacidad en Tor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen—En este trabajo presentamos una propuesta para el despliegue de políticas de autorización contextuales sobre navegadores Web. El objetivo de nuestra propuesta es la automatización del proceso de control de recursos de un navegador Web cuando el contexto de navegación varía. Cuando esto sucede, los requisitos de seguridad del navegador cambian igualmente. La utilización de nuestra propuesta está orientada a

G. Navarro-Arribas; J. Garcia-Alfaro; O. Mula-Valls; J. Herrera-Joancomartí


Intact cluster and chordate-like expression of ParaHox genes in a sea star  

PubMed Central

Background The ParaHox genes are thought to be major players in patterning the gut of several bilaterian taxa. Though this is a fundamental role that these transcription factors play, their activities are not limited to the endoderm and extend to both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues. Three genes compose the ParaHox group: Gsx, Xlox and Cdx. In some taxa (mostly chordates but to some degree also in protostomes) the three genes are arranged into a genomic cluster, in a similar fashion to what has been shown for the better-known Hox genes. Sea urchins possess the full complement of ParaHox genes but they are all dispersed throughout the genome, an arrangement that, perhaps, represented the primitive condition for all echinoderms. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this group of genes we cloned and characterized all ParaHox genes, studied their expression patterns and identified their genomic loci in a member of an earlier branching group of echinoderms, the asteroid Patiria miniata. Results We identified the three ParaHox orthologs in the genome of P. miniata. While one of them, PmGsx is provided as maternal message, with no zygotic activation afterwards, the other two, PmLox and PmCdx are expressed during embryogenesis, within restricted domains of both endoderm and ectoderm. Screening of a Patiria bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library led to the identification of a clone containing the three genes. The transcriptional directions of PmGsx and PmLox are opposed to that of the PmCdx gene within the cluster. Conclusions The identification of P. miniata ParaHox genes has revealed the fact that these genes are clustered in the genome, in contrast to what has been reported for echinoids. Since the presence of an intact cluster, or at least a partial cluster, has been reported in chordates and polychaetes respectively, it becomes clear that within echinoderms, sea urchins have modified the original bilaterian arrangement. Moreover, the sea star ParaHox domains of expression show chordate-like features not found in the sea urchin, confirming that the dynamics of gene expression for the respective genes and their putative regulatory interactions have clearly changed over evolutionary time within the echinoid lineage.



In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

Marcato, Carla



La política brasileña para los residuos sólidos urbanos. Los planteamientos de catadores y empresarios en sus páginas electrónicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

El gobierno brasileño señala la posibilidad de aprobar la política nacional para los residuos sólidos urbanos (PNRS). La propuesta del Proyecto de Ley 1991\\/07 está en trámite en la cámara de los diputados desde el año 1991. Los senadores mantuvieron una charla con los catadores, empresarios del reciclaje y empresarios de servicios de gestión de residuos sólidos urbanos para conocer

Fábio Fonseca Figueiredo



Gastric perforation: a late complication of abdominal radiation for para-aortic lymph node metastasis from cervical squamous carcinoma.  


Gastric perforation was found at laparotomy for acute abdominal pain in a woman treated with pelvic and abdominal radiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix metastatic to the para-aortic nodes. This case may provide additional evidence suggesting that risks involved in para-aortic radiation may outweigh the benefits. PMID:6655724

Dini, M M; Miller, M



Gastric Perforation: A Late Complication of Abdominal Radiation for Para-Aortic Lymph Node Metastasis From Cervical Squamous Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Gastric perforation was found at laparotomy for acute abdominal pain in a woman treated with pelvic and abdominal radiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix metastatic to the para-aortic nodes. This case may provide additional evidence suggesting that risks involved in para-aortic radiation may outweigh the benefits.

Dini, Morteza M.; Miller, Madeline




EPA Science Inventory

Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...


Herramienta de simulación interactiva y de bajo coste para el desarrollo de laboratorios virtuales de comunicaciones ópticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el ámbito académico, los laboratorios virtuales constituyen una solución pedagógica muy adecuada para aquellos casos donde resulta difícil poder disponer de recursos de laboratorio costosos. En este artículo se exponen resultados preliminares de la implementación de una plataforma de simulación interactiva para la enseñanza de materias relacionadas con las comunicaciones ópticas. Tras el primer año de aplicación de esta

Francisco Ramos Pascual



Microsoft Academic Search

La participación es un elemento indispensable que hace posible poner a prueba y desarrollar las capacidades humanas y estructuras, para desde la comunidad producir cultura para esta. Así se convierte en el elemento que posibilita un verdadero desarrollo endógeno en tanto proceso de cambio y transformación. Al proporcionar cauces de participación sociocultural, se estimula el desarrollo de determinadas relaciones y

Ana Margarita Gómez Aguilera; Rafaela Macías Reyes



Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios clínicos sobre el cáncer

El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a cabo tratamientos para el cáncer y estudios clínicos.



EPA Science Inventory

The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. he data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. ull-sc...



Microsoft Academic Search

Se tuvo como objetivo la propuesta de un sistema de indicadores para la evaluación de la aplicación del Sistema de Gestión Ambiental en empresas constructoras y la elaboración de un software para el procesamiento de los mismos, que contribuya a elevar la eficacia de la evaluación del desempeño ambiental y los resultados de las organizaciones de este tipo. Este sistema

Ninfa del Carmen Moncada Serrano



Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.  


This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E



Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation  

PubMed Central

An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended.

Meale, S. J.; Chaves, A. V.; Baah, J.; McAllister, T. A.



Behavioral and developmental effects of neem extracts on Clavigralla scutellaris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae) and its egg parasitoid, Gryon fulviventre (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae).  


Extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, negatively affected feeding and development of Clavigralla scutellaris (Westwood), a coreid pest of pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh. Labial dabbing, pod wall penetration, and seed damage by fifth instars were significantly reduced on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), that had been dipped in aqueous, methanolic, or hexane extracts of neem seed kernel. When fourth instars were dipped directly into aqueous extract, developmental abnormalities of the wings occurred at all levels tested and fecundity dropped to zero at concentrations above 0.3125%. The LC50 value was 3.14% (220 ppm azadirachtin) at 8 d. The scelionid wasp Gryon fulviventre (Crawford) is an important natural enemy of Clavigralla spp.; egg mortality from this parasitoid ranged from 37 to 85% during the fall cropping season. Feeding by newly emerged wasps was dramatically reduced when honey was mixed with aqueous neem suspension, but 6-d survivorship of adults did not differ significantly from that of the control. Wasp oviposition behavior was altered slightly when coreid eggs were treated with neem: the period of antennation was significantly extended, but time for drilling, oviposition, and marking was unaffected. Neem-dipped eggs were accepted for oviposition and progeny emerged successfully from these treated eggs. Exposure of already parasitized eggs to neem did not interfere with progeny emergence, longevity, or sex ratio. Thus, neem extract and egg parasitoids seem to be compatible and promising control strategies for C. scutellaris. Our results suggest that use of neem against pod-sucking bugs will not interfere with natural control provided by G. fulviventre. PMID:15279272

Mitchell, Paula Levin; Gupta, Reetika; Singh, Ashok K; Kumar, Pradyumn



Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes  

PubMed Central

Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF) by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e., Medicago truncatula (Mt), Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc), Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv), and Glycine max (Gm). Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks) and non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (Ka) between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the highest distance between Mt and Pv in six legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reports some interesting observations e.g., no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed.

Kim, Dong Hyun; Parupalli, Swathi; Azam, Sarwar; Lee, Suk-Ha; Varshney, Rajeev K.



PIPEMicroDB: microsatellite database and primer generation tool for pigeonpea genome  

PubMed Central

Molecular markers play a significant role for crop improvement in desirable characteristics, such as high yield, resistance to disease and others that will benefit the crop in long term. Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) is the recently sequenced legume by global consortium led by ICRISAT (Hyderabad, India) and been analysed for gene prediction, synteny maps, markers, etc. We present PIgeonPEa Microsatellite DataBase (PIPEMicroDB) with an automated primer designing tool for pigeonpea genome, based on chromosome wise as well as location wise search of primers. Total of 123 387 Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) were extracted from pigeonpea genome, available in public domain using MIcroSAtellite tool (MISA). The database is an online relational database based on ‘three-tier architecture’ that catalogues information of microsatellites in MySQL and user-friendly interface is developed using PHP. Search for STRs may be customized by limiting their location on chromosome as well as number of markers in that range. This is a novel approach and is not been implemented in any of the existing marker database. This database has been further appended with Primer3 for primer designing of selected markers with left and right flankings of size up to 500 bp. This will enable researchers to select markers of choice at desired interval over the chromosome. Furthermore, one can use individual STRs of a targeted region over chromosome to narrow down location of gene of interest or linked Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs). Although it is an in silico approach, markers’ search based on characteristics and location of STRs is expected to be beneficial for researchers. Database URL:

Sarika; Arora, Vasu; Iquebal, M. A.; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh



Nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of ensiled warm-season legumes and bahiagrass.  


This study determined the nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge 'Tifton 9'), perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth. 'Florigraze'), annual peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.) 'FL MDR 98'], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. 'Iron clay'], and pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. 'GA-2']. All forages were harvested at maturity stages that optimized dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value. After harvest, forages were wilted to 45% DM, and 4 replicate bales of each legume and 8 bales of bahiagrass were wrapped in polyethylene and ensiled for 180 d. After each bale was opened, the forage was thoroughly mixed, and representative subsamples were taken for laboratory analysis and in situ incubation. Wilting and ensiling decreased the rumen-undegradable protein, water-soluble carbohydrate, crude protein (CP), and in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of bahiagrass, perennial peanut, and cowpea, and increased their neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations. Among haylages, CP concentration was greatest for annual peanut, followed by perennial peanut and cowpea, and least for bahiagrass. In contrast, NDF concentration was greater in bahiagrass than in legumes. Pigeonpea had the greatest NDF concentration among legumes and lowest IVTD of all haylages. All haylages were aerobically stable for at least 84 h, but pH was lower in perennial peanut and cowpea than in pigeonpea. Ammonia-N concentrations tended to be greater in legume haylages than in bahiagrass haylage. Butyrate concentration was greater in annual and perennial peanut than in bahiagrass. Total VFA concentration was greater in annual and perennial peanut and cowpea haylages than in bahiagrass haylage. Undegradable DM fractions were greater and extent of DM degradation was lower in bahiagrass and pigeonpea than in other haylages but lag time and degradation rates did not differ. Annual and perennial peanut and cowpea haylages were as aerobically stable and had greater CP, IVTD, and extent of degradation than did bahiagrass haylage; therefore, they are promising forages for dairy cow diets in the southeastern United States. PMID:21426995

Foster, J L; Carter, J N; Sollenberger, L E; Blount, A R; Myer, R O; Maddox, M K; Phatak, S C; Adesogan, A T



Molecular characterization of neurally expressing genes in the para sodium channel gene cluster of Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. 76 refs., 11 figs.

Hong, Chang-Sook; Ganetzky, B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)



H2CS abundances and ortho-to-para ratios in interstellar clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several H2CS ortho and para transitions have been observed toward interstellar molecular clouds, including cold, dark clouds and star-forming regions. H2CS fractional abundances f(H2CS) about 1-2 10 to the -9th relative to molecular hydrogen toward TMC-1, Orion A, and NGC 7538, and about 5 10 to the -10th for L134N are derived. The H2CS ortho-to-para ratios in TMC-1 are about 1.8 toward the cyanopolyyne peak and the ammonia peak, which may indicate the thermalization of H2CS on 10 K grains. A ratio of about 3, the statistical value, for Orion (3N, 1E) and NGC 7538 is derived, while a value of about 2 for Orion (KL) is found.

Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Brewer, M. K.



Para-aortic lymph node metastasis in malignant dysgerminoma of the ovary.  


Dysgerminomas comprise approximately 2-5% of all ovarian malignancies and mostly affect young adolescent women. Primary comprehensive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) are the current recommended treatment options, the latter reserved for advanced stages (FIGO II-IV). We report two patients aged 20 and 26 years who presented with an initial FIGO stage IA, but inadequately assessed. Both were subsequently diagnosed with recurrent malignant dysgerminoma and para-aortic lymph node metastasis. Neither had received comprehensive staging at initial surgery nor adjuvant radio or chemotherapy. Both needed extensive surgery and multiagent chemotherapy for survival and belong to the small percentage of FIGO IA dysgerminoma patients showing a relapse. Comprehensive initial surgery including systematic para-aortic lymphadenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy at tertiary referral centers is needed to minimize the treatment burden. PMID:19900144

Kasenda, Benjamin; Harter, Philipp; Hirsch, Tobias; Ast, Alexander; Buhrmann, Christine; Glaser, Florian; Du Bois, Andreas



Solid and liquid heat capacities of n-alkyl para-aminobenzoates near the melting point.  


The expression that relates the ideal mole fraction solubility of a crystalline compound to physicochemical properties of the compound includes a term involving the difference in the heat capacities of the solid and liquid forms of the solute, delta Cp. There are two alternate conventions which are employed to eliminate this term. The first assumes that the term involving delta Cp, or delta Cp itself, is zero. The alternate assumption assigns the value of the entropy of fusion to the differential heat capacity. The relative validity of these two assumptions was evaluated using the straight-chain alkyl para-aminobenzoates as test compounds. The heat capacities of the solid and liquid forms of each of the para-aminobenzoates, near the respective melting point, were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The data lead one to conclude that the assumption that the differential heat capacity is not usually negligible and is better approximated by the entropy of fusion. PMID:2293215

Neau, S H; Flynn, G L



Action spectra for ultraviolet photosensitized killing of mammalian cells by misonidazole and para-nitroacetophenone  

SciTech Connect

Chinese hamster fibroblasts in monolayer culture were exposed to ulraviolet radiation at 313, 334, 365, 380, and 405 nm in the presence of either misonidazole or para-nitroacetophenone, drugs which act as both photosensitizers and radiosensitizers of cell killing. Survival was measured by a colony-forming assay. The resulting action spectra for cell death photosensitized by the drugs (the reciprocals of the exposures required at each wavelength to reduce cell survival to a given level) closely match their absorption spectra over a range of three orders of magnitude. These results demonstrate that cells can be killed upon excitation of misonidazole or para-nitroacetophenone in the absence of any other types of energy deposition or biomolecular damage.

Fisher, G.J. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Quebec, Canada); Sutherland, B.M.; Sutherland, J.C.



Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Per?: un estudio cualitativo  

PubMed Central

El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado.

Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Diez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andres G.



Development of an integrated remote monitoring technique and its application to para-stressing bridge system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bridge monitoring system via information technology is capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance characteristics than traditional strategies. This paper describes not only an integrated Internet monitoring system that consists of a stand-alone monitoring system (SMS) and a Web-based Internet monitoring system (IMS) for bridge maintenance but also its application to para-stressing bridge system as an intelligent structure. IMS, as a Web-based system, is capable of addressing the remote monitoring by introducing measuring information derived from SMS into the system through Internet or intranet connected by either PHS or LAN. Moreover, the key functions of IMS such as data management system, condition assessment, and decision making with the proposed system are also introduced in this paper. Another goal of this study is to establish the framework of a para-stressing bridge system which is an intelligent bridge by integrating the bridge monitoring information into the system to control the bridge performance automatically.

Miyamoto, Ayaho; Motoshita, Minoru; Casas, Joan R.



Avaliação de fontes de amônia para o tratamento de fenos de gramíneas tropicais. 2. Compostos nitrogenados  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Este estudo foi desenvolvido para se avaliarem as alterações nos conteúdos de compostos nitrogenados dos fenos de braquiária decumbens ( Brachiaria decumbnes Stapf) e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf) não-tratados, tratados com uréia (U - 5,4% da MS), uréia (UL - 5,4% da MS) mais labe-labe (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, cv. Highworth-3,0% da MS) ou amônia anidra (NH3

Ricardo Andrade Reis; Luis Roberto de Andrade Rodrigues; Kléber Tomás de Resende; João Ricardo Alves Pereira; Ana Cláudia Ruggieri



Lanzamiento del estudio de tratamiento personalizado para el cáncer de seno

Hoy se inició el Estudio de Asignación de Opciones Individualizadas de Tratamiento (Trial Assigning IndividuaLized Options for Treatment (Rx), o TAILORx, el cual evaluará si los genes que están frecuentemente asociados con el riesgo de recurrencia entre las mujeres con cáncer de seno en etapa inicial pueden ser utilizados para asignar a las pacientes el tratamiento más adecuado y efectivo. Preguntas y respuestas


Desarrollo y Propiedades Psicométricas de la Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresión en Adolescentes (EADA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy questionnaires used with adolescents are mostly youth-adapted adult measures or scales developed to assess general perceived self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresión en Adolescentes (EADA). Additionally, the Emotional Self-efficacy subscale from the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children and the Children's Depression Inventory-Short Version were




Electrochemical intercalation of sodium ions into poly( para-phenylene) in carbonate-based electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical intercalation of sodium ions into poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) has been carried out in NaClO4—carbonate electrolytes (EC, PC and their mixture in the volumic ratio of 1\\/1). The same electrochemical behavior has been observed in the three electrolytes. The galvanostatic curves exhibit potential slope changes which are characteristic of multiphase system; this behavior is confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. Our experimental conditions

M. Dubois; J. Ghanbaja; D. Billaud



Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.



Diffusion Monte Carlo study of the equation of state of solid para- H2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion Monte Carlo method is used to exactly solve the N -body Schroedinger equation for a system of para- H2 molecules at different densities described as pointlike particles interacting via an effective potential. We compare the results obtained using two of the most used model interactions, i.e., the Silvera-Goldman and the Buck potentials in order to assess their validity.

Francesco Operetto; Francesco Pederiva



Acute renal failure following para-phenylenediamine (PPD) poisoning: a case report and review.  


We report a case of systemic poisoning with para-phenylenediamine (PPD) presenting with characteristic features of severe angioneurotic edema, rhabdomyolysis and intravascular hemolysis with hemoglobinuria culminating in acute renal failure. Though rare in western countries, such poisoning is not uncommon in East Africa, Indian subcontinent and Middle East countries. We discuss here the clinical features and key management issues of systemic PPD poisoning. PMID:15354985

Anuradha, S; Arora, Sandeep; Mehrotra, S; Arora, A; Kar, P



Contraluminal para-aminohippurate (PAH) transport in the proximal tubule of the rat kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the specificity for contraluminal para-aminohippurate (PAH) transport, the inhibitory potency of aliphatic dicarboxylates on3H-PAH influx, as well as the inhibitory effect on35SO42-- and3H-succinate influx, from the interstitium into cortical tubular cells in situ has been determined. The following was found:1.Testing a homologous series of dicarboxylates-ranging from the 2 C oxalate to the 10 C sebacate —

K. J. Ullrich; G. Rumrich; G. Fritzsch; S. Klöss



Diastereoselective phenol para-alkylation: access to a cross-conjugated cyclohexadienone en route to resiniferatoxin.  


We document a route for the synthesis of a densely functionalized spiro-fused 2,5-cyclohexadienone as an intermediate for the synthesis of resineferatoxin. The strategy is based on an unprecedented diastereoselective, intramolecular phenol para-alkylation to a cross-conjugated cyclohexadienone. In the course of these synthetic studies we developed rapid access to a chiral nitrile possessing a quaternary stereocenter and disclose an unusual acetal rearrangement from a dioxane, which favors the corresponding dioxepane. PMID:15524486

Ritter, Tobias; Zarotti, Pablo; Carreira, Erick M



Anomalous NMR Line Shapes in Solid Ordered OrthoHydrogen and Para-Deuterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some highly anomalous features have been observed in the low-temperature NMR spectrum of high-purity (> 99% J=1), solid para-deuterium. The intensity of the low-frequency side of the Pake doublet is enhanced and that of the high-frequency side reduced, sometimes becoming negative, corresponding to an emission of power. The anomaly is particularly pronounced and of the opposite sign for the I=2

Walter N. Hardy; A. John Berlinsky



Microsystems for determining the heterogeniety of head and neck cancer cell populations by para-magnetophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is focused on the design, fabrication and characterization of a continuous flow magnetophoretic microseparator for the separation of selectively tagged cells using para-magnetophoresis. The microseparator was characterized experimentally using head and neck cells lines 212LN and 686LN-M4E as a case study. The microfluidic separation system can separate the selectively tagged cancer cells depending on their membrane protein expression

Y. Jung; D. Wang; G. Chen; D. Shin; K. H. Han; A. B. Frazier



Significado de los cambios en los senos: Guía para la salud de la mujer

Información sobre cambios o padecimientos específicos de los senos y cómo se detectan, diagnostican y tratan estos cambios. Aquí se explica que si bien la mayoría de los cambios en los senos no son cancerosos, estos deben ser examinados por un médico. También se ofrece información sobre los pasos a seguir después de un resultado anormal de una mamografía y se incluye una lista de preguntas para el doctor.


Significado de los cambios en los senos: Guía para la salud de la mujer

E-book que describe los cambios o padecimientos específicos de los senos e incluye información sobre cómo se detectan, diagnostican y tratan estos cambios. Aquí se explica que si bien la mayoría de los cambios en los senos no son cancerosos, estos deben ser examinados por un médico. También se ofrece información sobre los pasos a seguir después de un resultado anormal de una mamografía y se incluye una lista de preguntas para el doctor.


Para-sexiphenyl-CdSe\\/ZnS nanocrystal hybrid light emitting diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

CdSe\\/ZnS core\\/shell nanocrystals (NCs) are integrated into para-sexiphenyl (p-6P) based hybrid light emitting diodes, to obtain green and red emission in addition to blue emission originated from p-6P. For the active region of the devices, ultrathin layers of p-6P and NCs are deposited by hot wall epitaxy and spin casting, respectively, resulting in current-voltage characteristics with small leakage currents and

C. Simbrunner; G. Hernandez-Sosa; E. Baumgartner; G. Hesser; J. Roither; W. Heiss; H. Sitter



Revision of Vertical Banded Gastroplasty Complicated by a Large Para-esophageal Hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery and present with upper abdominal symptoms pose a diagnostic and management challenge.\\u000a This is a case report of a 53-year-old lady who presented a number of years after vertical banded gastroplasty with upper\\u000a abdominal pain and weight gain. Radiological investigation demonstrated a large para-esophageal hernia including the stapled\\u000a area of the stomach, but with

Mansoor Khan; Fred Lee; Roger Ackroyd



Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor in 0.2-2.4 THz range from low to high humidity at room temperature. The observed absorption lines are due to the water molecular rotations in the ground vibrational state. We find that the absorption strength of para transitions increases as humidity increases, while the absorption strength of ortho

X. Xin; H. Altan; A. Saint; D. Matten; R. R. Alfano



New High Temperature Lithium Para-Toluene Sulfonate (LIPTSA) Salt for Rechargeable Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium para-toluene sulfonate [LIPTSA] was used for lithium rechargeable batteries, with poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] as the base material. Tri block copolymer of PEO-PPO-PEO was used to increase the solubility of lithium salts in PMMA matrix. FTIR, TGA, XRD, Impedance spectroscopy & SEM were used for characterizations and morphological studies. LIPTSA salt is stable up to 375°C. The highest room temperature

Sreejith K R; Akhil Kumar Sen



A rapid HPLC method for determination of Sudan dyes and Para Red in red chilli pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system consisting of an ultraviolet-visible (UV–VIS) detector was developed for the separation and determination of Sudan dyes (I, II, III, and IV) and Para Red in red chilli peppers. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse phase C18 column with isocratic elution, using a mobile phase of acetonitrile\\/methanol (80:20, v\\/v); detector was set

Erdal Erta?; Hayrettin Özer; Cesarettin Alasalvar



Determination of Sudan Dyes and Para Red in Duck Muscle and Egg by UPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive and reliable UPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six Sudan dyes\\u000a (Sudan Red G, Sudan I, II, III, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan IV) and Para Red in duck muscle and egg samples. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, then the extract was dried under\\u000a rotary evaporation and dissolved in acetonitrile\\/0.1% formic acid (85:15,

Cun Li; Ting Yang; Yan Zhang; Yin-Liang Wu



UPLC-ESI-MS\\/MS analysis of Sudan dyes and Para Red in food  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes (Sudan Red G, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan Red 7B and Sudan IV) and Para Red in food by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS\\/MS) was developed. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and water added into the extract. The supernatant was analysed by UPLC-MS\\/MS after refrigeration and

C. Li; Y. L. Wu; J. Z. Shen



Um Processador Construtivista na Web para documentos anotados (PcWDa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo A notacao XML, cada vez mais, desempenha um papel im- portante na representacao textual da informacao estruturada ou semi- estruturada, sendo a norma mais vulgarizada para marcacao de do- cumentos. Torna-se por isso indispensavel a existencia de ferramentas que possibilitem desenvolver(editar e validar) eficientemente documen- tos XML. Neste artigo pretende-se discutir a especificacao e o desenvolvimento de uma dessas

Mariana Isabel Ferreira; Sandra Cristina Lopes; Pedro Rangel Henriques


Surgical resection of a solitary para-aortic lymph node metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.  


Lymph node (LN) metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are considered uncommon. We describe the surgical resection of a solitary para-aortic LN metastasis from HCC. A 65-year-old Japanese man with B-type liver cirrhosis was admitted for the evaluation of a liver tumor. He had already undergone radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for HCC. Despite treatment, viable regions remained in segments 4 and 8. We performed a right paramedian sectionectomy with partial resection of the left paramedian section of the liver. Six months later, serum concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein (189 ng/mL) and PIVKA-2 (507 mAU/mL) increased. Enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a tumor (20 mm in diameter) on the right side of the abdominal aorta. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed an increased standard uptake value. There was no evidence of recurrence in other regions. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy revealed no malignant tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. Para-aortic LN metastasis from HCC was thus diagnosed. We performed lymphadenectomy. Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was largely necrotic, with poorly differentiated HCC on its surface, which confirmed the suspected diagnosis. After 6 mo tumor marker levels were normal, with no evidence of recurrence. Our experience suggests that a solitary para-aortic LN metastasis from HCC can be treated surgically. PMID:22736929

Ueda, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Mineta, Sho; Yoshioka, Masato; Kawano, Youichi; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Hara, Etsuko; Kawamoto, Chiaki; Kaneko, Keiko; Uchida, Eiji



Comparação de modelos para o cálculo de perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aplicações recentes de satélites artificiais com finalidades geodinâmicas requerem órbitas determinadas com bastante precisão. Em particular marés terrestres influenciam o potencial terrestre causando perturbações adicionais no movimento de satélites artificiais, as quais tem sido medidas por diversos processos. A atração exercida pela lua e pelo sol sobre a terra produz deslocamentos elásticos em seu interior e uma protuberância em sua superfície. O resultado é uma pequena variação na distribuição da massa na terra, consequentemente no geopotencial. As perturbações nos elementos orbitais de satélites artificiais terrestres devidas a maré terrestre podem ser estudadas a partir das equações de Lagrange, considerando-se um conveniente potencial. Por outro lado, como tem sido feito pelo IERS, as mudanças induzidas pela maré terrestre no geopotencial podem ser convenientemente modeladas como variações nos coeficientes Cnm e Snm do geopotencial. As duas teorias ainda não foram comparados para um mesmo satélite. Neste trabalho são apresentadas e comparadas as variações de longo período e seculares nas perturbações orbitais devidas à maré terrestre, calculadas por um modelo simples, o de Kozai, e pelo modelo do IERS. Resultados preliminares mostram, para os satélites SCD2 e CBERS1, e para a Lua em movimento elíptico e precessionando, as perturbações seculares no argumento do perigeu e na longitude do nodo ascendente.

Vieira Pinto, J.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.



Otimização de procedimento de manobra para indução de reentrada de um satélite retornável  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Veículos espaciais que retornam à Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condições de vôo distintos. Estas diferenças dificultam sua concepção aerodinâmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veículo orbital retornável (satélite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realização de experimentos científicos e tecnológicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos à sua aerodinâmica. Após o lançamento, o veículo deve permanecer em órbita pelo tempo necessário para a condução de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado à Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepção aerodinâmica é de importância para o vôo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos à estabilização Aerodinâmica e ao arrasto atmosférico, sendo este último de importância crucial na análise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui considerações sobre as condições atmosféricas e dinâmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possível. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinâmica de vôo de um satélite recuperável considerando aspectos relativos à determinação orbital com GPS, técnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinâmico em vôo balístico de retorno, com ênfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosférica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilização do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a área de impacto com o solo.

Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.



The ortho:para-H_2 ratio in C- and J-type shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have computed extensive grids of models of both C- and J-type planar shock waves, propagating in dark, cold molecular clouds, in order to study systematically the behaviour of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio. Careful attention was paid to both macroscopic (dynamical) and microscopic (chemical reactions and collisional population transfer in H_2) aspects. We relate the predictions of the models to observational determinations of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio using both pure rotational lines and rovibrational lines. As an illustration, we consider ISO and ground-based H_2 observations of HH 54. Neither planar C-type nor planar J-type shocks appear able to account fully for these observations. Given the additional constraints provided by the observed ortho:para H_2 ratios, a C-type bowshock, or a C-type precursor followed by a J-type shock, remain as plausible models. Tables~2a-f and 4a-f are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

Wilgenbus, D.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Flower, D. R.



An incidentally discovered asymptomatic para-aortic paraganglioma with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.  


Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by mucocutaneous melanin pigmentation and gastrointestinal (GI) tract hamartomatous polyps and an increased risk of malignancy. In addition to polyposis, previous studies have reported increased risk of GI and extraGI malignancies in PJS patients, compared with that of the general population. The most common extraintestinal malignancies reported in previous studies are pancreatic, breast, ovarian and testicular cancers.We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with generalized weakness, recurrent sharp abdominal pain and melena, had exploratory laparotomy and ileal resection for ileo-ileal intussusception. Pigmentation of the buccal mucosa was noted. An abdominal computed tomography scan (CT) revealed multiple polyps in small bowel loops. Gastroscopy revealed multiple dimunitive polyps in stomach and pedunculated polyp in duodenum. Colonoscopy revealed multiple colonic polyps. Pathological examination of the polyps confirmed hamartomas with smooth muscle arborization, compatible with Peutz-Jeghers polyps. CT scan guided left para-aortic lymph node biopsy revealed the characteristic features of extra-adrenal para-aortic paraganglioma. Although cases of various GI and extra GI malignancies in PJS patients has been reported, the present case appears to be the first in literature in which the PJS syndrome was associated with asymptomatic extraadrenal para-aortic paraganglioma. Patients with PJS should be treated by endoscopic or surgical resection and need whole-body screening. PMID:23150026

Butt, Nazish; Salih, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Ahmed, Rashida; Haider, Zishan; Shah, Syed Hasnain Ali



Transoral, retromolar, para-tonsillar approach to the styloid process in 6 patients with Eagle's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Eagle’s syndrome is caused by an elongated or mineralised styloid process and characterised by facial and pharyngeal pain, odynophagia and dysphagia. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings. However radiologic imaging, like panoramic radiograph, helps to confirm the diagnosis. There are different treatments of the Eagle’s syndrome. Anti-inflammatory medication (carbamazepime, corticosteroids) and/or surgical interventions are established. The aim of the different surgical techniques is to resect the elongated styloid process near the skull base. Study Design: A transoral, retromolar, para-tonsillar approach was performed to expose and resect the elongated calcified styloid process in a consecutive series of six patients. The use of different angled ring curettes, generally used in hypophysis surgery, facilitated the preparation of the styloid process through the surrounding tissue to the skull base, without a compromise to the surrounding tissue. Clinical examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively (3 month and after 1 year after surgery) in all patients. Results: No intra- or postoperative complications were observed. The hypophysis ring curettes facilitated the preparation of the styloid process to the skull base. Conclusions: The transoral, retromolar, para-tonsillar approach is a secure and fast method to resect an elongated symptomatic styloid process. Side effects of the classical transoral trans-tonsillar approach did not occur. Key words:Retromolar, para-tonsillar approach, Eagle syndrome, clinical features.

Eckert, Alexander W.; Scheller, Christian



[Formation of para-Bombay phenotype caused by homozygous or heterozygous mutation of FUT1 gene].  


This study was aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay phenotype formation. The H antigen of these individuals were identified by serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1, 2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of these individuals was amplified by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR product was identified by TOPO cloning sequencing. Analysis and comparison were used to explore the mechanisms of para-bombay phenotype formation in individuals. The results indicated that the full coding region of FUT1 DNA was successfully amplified by PCR and gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing and analysis found that h1 (547-552delAG) existed in one chromosome and h4 (35C > T) existed in the other chromosome of NO.1 individual. Meantime, h1 (547-552delAG) was found in two chromosomes of NO.2 and NO.3 individual. It also means that FUT1 gene of NO.1 individual was h1h4 heterozygote, FUT1 gene of NO.2 and NO.3 individuals were h1h1 homozygote. It is concluded that homozygous and heterozygous mutation of FUT1 gene can lead to the formation of para-Bombay phenotype. PMID:24598677

Zhang, Jin-Ping; Zheng, Yan; Sun, Dong-Ni



Fragrance material review on 1-(para-menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone.  


A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization, data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) [Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013 A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.] for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. PMID:24246181

Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M



Modeling, design, chiral aspects and role of para-substituents in aryloxypropranolamine based beta-blockers.  


The conformation of the beta-blockers viz. metoprolol, atenolol, bisoprolol, betaxolol and celiprolol has been investigated using Perturbative Configuration Interaction of Localized Orbitals (PCILO) method. The conformational energy maps have been constructed for both the enantiomers (R and S) by rotating the molecule from the para-substituent end. The aryloxypropranolamine moiety adopts the same conformation for all antagonists. The graphical view of R- and S- form of these antagonists in the lowest energy conformation reveals that it is only in the S- form of beta-blockers, all the three functionalities--aromatic moiety, amino and beta-hydroxyl groups are available for interaction with beta-adrenoceptors. The para-substituents of the beta-blockers adopt a conformation which is perpendicular to the aryloxy moiety resulting in an L-shaped structure. The beta-antagonists possibly partition into the lipid bilayer through the para-substituents and the aryloxypropranolamine moiety containing the functionalities, thus, lies parallel to the plane of lipid bilayer for interaction with beta-adrenoceptors. Superimposition of S-bisoprolol in lowest energy conformation with the 3rd putative transmembranous segment of the beta-adrenoceptors reveals that the aromatic moiety, amino and beta-hydroxyl groups of antagonists are involved in interaction with the side chains of Trp-109, Asp-113 and Thr-110 respectively. This has been further substantiated by the interaction studies on the model systems. PMID:10549157

Nandel, F S; Dhaliwal, R K; Singh, B



Theoretical study of the design of a catalyst for para to ortho hydrogen conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of Petzinger and Scalapino (1973) was thoroughly reviewed, and all of the basic equations for paramagnetic para to ortho hydrogen catalysis re-derived. There are only a few minor phase errors and errors of omission in the description of the theory. Three models (described by Petzinger and Scalapino) for the rate of para to ortho H2 catalysis were worked out, and uniform agreement obtained to within a constant factor of 2 pi. The analytical methods developed in the course of this study were then extended to two new models, which more adequately describe the process of surface catalysis including transfer of hydrogen molecules onto and off of the surface. All five equations for the para to ortho catalytic rate of conversion are described. The two new equations describe the catalytic rate for these models: H2 on the surface is a 2-D gas with lifetime tau; and H2 on the surface is a 2-D liquid undergoing Brownian motion (diffusion) with surface lifetime tau.

Coffman, Robert E.



Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.



Dynamic interplay of ParA with the polarity protein, Scy, coordinates the growth with chromosome segregation in Streptomyces coelicolor.  


Prior to bacterial cell division, the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeletal protein, ParA, positions the newly replicated origin-proximal region of the chromosome by interacting with ParB complexes assembled on parS sites located close to the origin. During the formation of unigenomic spores from multi-genomic aerial hyphae compartments of Streptomyces coelicolor, ParA is developmentally triggered to form filaments along the hyphae; this promotes the accurate and synchronized segregation of tens of chromosomes into prespore compartments. Here, we show that in addition to being a segregation protein, ParA also interacts with the polarity protein, Scy, which is a component of the tip-organizing centre that controls tip growth. Scy recruits ParA to the hyphal tips and regulates ParA polymerization. These results are supported by the phenotype of a strain with a mutant form of ParA that uncouples ParA polymerization from Scy. We suggest that the ParA-Scy interaction coordinates the transition from hyphal elongation to sporulation. PMID:23536551

Ditkowski, Bartosz; Holmes, Neil; Rydzak, Joanna; Donczew, Magdalena; Bezulska, Martyna; Ginda, Katarzyna; Kedzierski, Pawel; Zakrzewska-Czerwi?ska, Jolanta; Kelemen, Gabriella H; Jakimowicz, Dagmara



Functional expression of Drosophila para sodium channels. Modulation by the membrane protein TipE and toxin pharmacology.  


The Drosophila para sodium channel alpha subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd congruent with 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

Warmke, J W; Reenan, R A; Wang, P; Qian, S; Arena, J P; Wang, J; Wunderler, D; Liu, K; Kaczorowski, G J; Van der Ploeg, L H; Ganetzky, B; Cohen, C J



ParA encoded on chromosome II of Deinococcus radiodurans binds to nucleoid and inhibits cell division in Escherichia coli.  


Bacterial genome segregation and cell division has been studied mostly in bacteria harbouring single circular chromosome and low-copy plasmids. Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacterium, harbours multipartite genome system. Chromosome I encodes majority of the functions required for normal growth while other replicons encode mostly the proteins involved in secondary functions. Here, we report the characterization of putative P-loop ATPase (ParA2) encoded on chromosome II of D. radiodurans. Recombinant ParA2 was found to be a DNA-binding ATPase. E. coli cells expressing ParA2 showed cell division inhibition and mislocalization of FtsZ-YFP and those expressing ParA2-CFP showed multiple CFP foci formation on the nucleoid. Although, in trans expression of ParA2 failed to complement SlmA loss per se, it could induce unequal cell division in slmAminCDE double mutant. These results suggested that ParA2 is a nucleoid-binding protein, which could inhibits cell division in E. coli by affecting the correct localization of FtsZ and thereby cytokinesis. Helping slmAminCDE mutant to produce minicells, a phenotype associated with mutations in the 'Min' proteins, further indicated the possibility of ParA2 regulating cell division by bringing nucleoid compaction at the vicinity of septum growth. PMID:23938382

Charaka, Vijaya Kumar; Mehta, Kruti P; Misra, H S



Dynamic interplay of ParA with the polarity protein, Scy, coordinates the growth with chromosome segregation in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Prior to bacterial cell division, the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeletal protein, ParA, positions the newly replicated origin-proximal region of the chromosome by interacting with ParB complexes assembled on parS sites located close to the origin. During the formation of unigenomic spores from multi-genomic aerial hyphae compartments of Streptomyces coelicolor, ParA is developmentally triggered to form filaments along the hyphae; this promotes the accurate and synchronized segregation of tens of chromosomes into prespore compartments. Here, we show that in addition to being a segregation protein, ParA also interacts with the polarity protein, Scy, which is a component of the tip-organizing centre that controls tip growth. Scy recruits ParA to the hyphal tips and regulates ParA polymerization. These results are supported by the phenotype of a strain with a mutant form of ParA that uncouples ParA polymerization from Scy. We suggest that the ParA–Scy interaction coordinates the transition from hyphal elongation to sporulation.

Ditkowski, Bartosz; Holmes, Neil; Rydzak, Joanna; Donczew, Magdalena; Bezulska, Martyna; Ginda, Katarzyna; Kedzierski, Pawel; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, Jolanta; Kelemen, Gabriella H.; Jakimowicz, Dagmara



Identification of an intact ParaHox cluster with temporal colinearity but altered spatial colinearity in the hemichordate Ptychodera flava  

PubMed Central

Background ParaHox and Hox genes are thought to have evolved from a common ancestral ProtoHox cluster or from tandem duplication prior to the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians. Similar to Hox clusters, chordate ParaHox genes including Gsx, Xlox, and Cdx, are clustered and their expression exhibits temporal and spatial colinearity. In non-chordate animals, however, studies on the genomic organization of ParaHox genes are limited to only a few animal taxa. Hemichordates, such as the Enteropneust acorn worms, have been used to gain insights into the origins of chordate characters. In this study, we investigated the genomic organization and expression of ParaHox genes in the indirect developing hemichordate acorn worm Ptychodera flava. Results We found that P. flava contains an intact ParaHox cluster with a similar arrangement to that of chordates. The temporal expression order of the P. flava ParaHox genes is the same as that of the chordate ParaHox genes. During embryogenesis, the spatial expression pattern of PfCdx in the posterior endoderm represents a conserved feature similar to the expression of its orthologs in other animals. On the other hand, PfXlox and PfGsx show a novel expression pattern in the blastopore. Nevertheless, during metamorphosis, PfXlox and PfCdx are expressed in the endoderm in a spatially staggered pattern similar to the situation in chordates. Conclusions Our study shows that P. flava ParaHox genes, despite forming an intact cluster, exhibit temporal colinearity but lose spatial colinearity during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis, partial spatial colinearity is retained in the transforming larva. These results strongly suggest that intact ParaHox gene clustering was retained in the deuterostome ancestor and is correlated with temporal colinearity.



Estudio de terapias dirigidas para el cáncer de seno estableció un modelo de estudios clínicos a nivel mundial

Dos medicamentos de acción dirigida, diseñados para tratar una forma agresiva de cáncer de seno (mama), se pusieron a prueba en un estudio que incluyó a 8 000 participantes en 44 países. Si bien la finalidad del estudio fue ayudar a que los investigadores determinaran si el tratamiento combinado con trastuzumab y lapatinib para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno HER2 positivo en estado inicial era mejor que la terapia solo con trastuzumab, los resultados del estudio no indicaron que existan ventajas para las mujeres al recibir la combinación de fármacos de trastuzumab o lapatinib.


Identification and Characterization of Catabolic para-Nitrophenol 4-Monooxygenase and para-Benzoquinone Reductase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain WBC-3?  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In order to identify the genes involved in this utilization, we cloned and sequenced a 12.7-kb fragment containing a conserved region of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase genes. Of the products of the 13 open reading frames deduced from this fragment, PnpA shares 24% identity to the large component of a 3-hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida U and PnpB is 58% identical to an NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Both PnpA and PnpB were purified to homogeneity as His-tagged proteins, and they were considered to be a monomer and a dimer, respectively, as determined by gel filtration. PnpA is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent single-component PNP 4-monooxygenase that converts PNP to para-benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH. PnpB is a flavin mononucleotide-and NADPH-dependent p-benzoquinone reductase that catalyzes the reduction of p-benzoquinone to hydroquinone. PnpB could enhance PnpA activity, and genetic analyses indicated that both pnpA and pnpB play essential roles in PNP mineralization in strain WBC-3. Furthermore, the pnpCDEF gene cluster next to pnpAB shares significant similarities with and has the same organization as a gene cluster responsible for hydroquinone degradation (hapCDEF) in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB (M. J. Moonen, N. M. Kamerbeek, A. H. Westphal, S. A. Boeren, D. B. Janssen, M. W. Fraaije, and W. J. van Berkel, J. Bacteriol. 190:5190-5198, 2008), suggesting that the genes involved in PNP degradation are physically linked.

Zhang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Xian-En; Zhou, Ning-Yi



Identification and characterization of catabolic para-nitrophenol 4-monooxygenase and para-benzoquinone reductase from Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3.  


Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In order to identify the genes involved in this utilization, we cloned and sequenced a 12.7-kb fragment containing a conserved region of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase genes. Of the products of the 13 open reading frames deduced from this fragment, PnpA shares 24% identity to the large component of a 3-hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida U and PnpB is 58% identical to an NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Both PnpA and PnpB were purified to homogeneity as His-tagged proteins, and they were considered to be a monomer and a dimer, respectively, as determined by gel filtration. PnpA is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent single-component PNP 4-monooxygenase that converts PNP to para-benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH. PnpB is a flavin mononucleotide-and NADPH-dependent p-benzoquinone reductase that catalyzes the reduction of p-benzoquinone to hydroquinone. PnpB could enhance PnpA activity, and genetic analyses indicated that both pnpA and pnpB play essential roles in PNP mineralization in strain WBC-3. Furthermore, the pnpCDEF gene cluster next to pnpAB shares significant similarities with and has the same organization as a gene cluster responsible for hydroquinone degradation (hapCDEF) in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB (M. J. Moonen, N. M. Kamerbeek, A. H. Westphal, S. A. Boeren, D. B. Janssen, M. W. Fraaije, and W. J. van Berkel, J. Bacteriol. 190:5190-5198, 2008), suggesting that the genes involved in PNP degradation are physically linked. PMID:19218392

Zhang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Xian-En; Zhou, Ning-Yi



Comportamento da dose glandular versus contraste do objeto em mamografia: determinação de formalismo semi-empírico para diferentes combinações alvo-filtro  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da mudança no contraste do objeto, tempo de exposição e dose de radiação quando diferentes espessuras de filtração de molibdênio (Mo) e ródio (Rh) são empregadas em mamógrafos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se medidas da exposição na entrada da pele com uma câmara de ionização para diferentes espessuras para os filtros de Mo e Rh. Para determinar

Gabriela Hoff; Carlos Eduardo de Almeida; Gary T. Barnes



Multi-determination of Para red and Sudan dyes in egg by a broad specific antibody based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Para red and Sudan dyes (Sudan 1, 2, 3, 4, and Sudan G) have been proven to show the potential carcinogenic effect to human. This study first reported an indirect competitive immunoassay (ELISA) for simultaneous detection of the six red dyes in egg. Two immunogens of Para red were prepared by coupling the deoxidized Para red to carrier protein by

Xiang Cai Chang; Xiu Zhi Hu; Yan Qin Li; Yan Jiao Shang; Yan Zheng Liu; Gao Feng; Jian Ping Wang



Diseño, análisis y manufactura de un sistema de fijación interna para tratamiento de fracturas en el primer metacarpiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la Universidad Central de Venezuela se está desarrollando un sistema intramedular bloqueado para\\u000atratamiento de fracturas diafisiarias en los huesos metacarpianos como una nueva alternativa para este tipo\\u000ade lesiones. El dispositivo es poco invasivo y permite movilidad temprana de la mano al paciente postoperado\\u000aacortando el tiempo de recuperación. En este trabajo se presentan los diferentes procesos que

Gabriela Contreras; Miguel Cerrolaza; Manuel Martínez; Nils Götzen



A computa»c~ao numerica como ferramenta para o professor de F¶‡sica do Ensino Medio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposta deste trabalhoe apresentar ao professor de F¶‡sica do ensino medio uma forma de empregar recur- sos computacionais para esclarecer e aprofundar conceitos de F¶‡sica que s~ao explorados de forma limitada por n~ao se poder recorrer ao Calculo Diferencial e Integral. O p^endulo simplese usado como prototipo para o trata- mento sugerido. Mostramos que apenas com o aux¶‡lio de

Augusto Cesar; Claudio Gon; Marcus Vinicius; Tovar Costa


A Introdução de Astronomia Básica para Estudantes de 5 e 6 Séries do Ensino Fundamental  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Com intuito de despertar o interesse pelo estudo da astronomia, desenvolveu-se entre 2003 e 2006 no Centro Educacional do Serviço Social da Indústria situado no município de Mauá, São Paulo, um trabalho com duração de 12 meses para turmas de 11 e 12 anos, sendo três turmas por período (2003 / 2004, 2004 / 2005 e 2005 / 2006). O trabalho realizado, objetivando a introdução da astronomia básica com observações de constelações e das fases da Lua, permitindo estender-se a outros corpos celestes, iniciou-se com visita ao planetário Mundo Estelar, localizado no Ipiranga, São Paulo levantou-se a questão da importância do estudo da astronomia e foi lançado aos estudantes um trabalho de observação, com a proposta de localizar as constelações e compreender as fases da Lua, para o registro de tais observações, foram distribuídos mapas celestes, pastas, planilhas de anotações com lacunas para, constelações, fases da Lua e relatos, onde os estudantes acrescentaram pesquisas e relatórios. Os resultados dos 346 estudantes foram que 86,7% (300) concluíram a etapa de observação, destes 300 estudantes 43,3% (130) pesquisaram sobre as constelações e 19,0% (57) localizaram até quatro constelações. Dos 346 estudantes, 44,2% (153) registraram as fases da Lua equivocadamente e 10,4% (36) anexaram reportagens sobre astronomia. Conclui-se que os estudantes se dividiram em pesquisadores, sendo os estudantes que registraram e anexaram informações e, os observadores que preencheram as planilhas de observações, além de desenvolverem habilidades e competências relacionadas ao estudo da astronomia.

Gonzaga, E. P.; Voelzke, M. R.



Molecular basis for H blood group deficiency in Bombay (Oh) and para-Bombay individuals.  


The penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the human ABO blood group oligosaccharide antigens is catalyzed by alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase(s) (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC, whose expression is determined by the H and Secretor (SE) blood group loci (also known as FUT1 and FUT2, respectively). These enzymes construct Fuc alpha 1-->2Gal beta-linkages, known as H determinants, which are essential precursors to the A and B antigens. Erythrocytes from individuals with the rare Bombay and para-Bombay blood group phenotypes are deficient in H determinants, and thus A and B determinants, as a consequence of apparent homozygosity for null alleles at the H locus. We report a molecular analysis of a human alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene, thought to correspond to the H blood group locus, in a Bombay pedigree and a para-Bombay pedigree. We find inactivating point mutations in the coding regions of both alleles of this gene in each H-deficient individual. These results define the molecular basis for H blood group antigen deficiency in Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes, provide compelling evidence that this gene represents the human H blood group locus, and strongly support a hypothesis that the H and SE loci represent distinct alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase genes. Candidate sequences for the human SE locus are identified by low-stringency Southern blot hybridization analyses, using a probe derived from the H alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene. PMID:7912436

Kelly, R J; Ernst, L K; Larsen, R D; Bryant, J G; Robinson, J S; Lowe, J B



Supported transition metal catalysts for para- to ortho-hydrogen conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main goal of this study was to develop and improve on existing catalysts for the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen. Starting with a commercially available Air Products nickel silicate, which had a beta value of 20, we were trying to synthesize catalysts that would be an improvement to AP. This was accomplished by preparing silicates with various metals as well as different preparation methods. We also prepared supported ruthenium catalysts by various techniques using several metal precursors to improve present technology. What was also found was that the activation conditions prior to catalytic testing was highly important for both the silicates and the supported ruthenium catalysts. While not the initial focus of the research, we made some interesting observations into the adsorption of H2 on ruthenium. This helped us to get a better understanding of how ortho- to para-H2 conversion takes place, and what features in a catalyst are important to optimize activity. Reactor design was the final area in which some interesting conclusions were drawn. As discussed earlier, the reactor catalyst bed must be constructed using straight 1/8 feet OD stainless steel tubing. It was determined that the use of 1/4 feet OD tubing caused two problems. First, the radius from the center of the bed to the wall was too great for thermal equilibrium. Since the reaction of ortho- to para-H2 is exothermic, the catalyst bed center was warmer than the edges. Second, the catalyst bed was too shallow using a 1/4 feet tube. This caused reactant blow-by which was thought to decrease the measured activity when the flow rate was increased. The 1/8 feet tube corrected both of these concerns.

Brooks, Christopher J.; Wang, Wei; Eyman, Darrell P.



Structural and vibrational investigation of para-nitraminopyridine N-oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-ray and vibrational spectroscopic analysis of para-nitraminopyridine N-oxide are reported. The crystals of investigated compound belong to P21 of the monoclinic system, Z=4, a=3.735Å, b=11.767Å, c=14.679Å and ?=93.27°. Room temperature powder infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound and its deuterated analogue were measured.The molecular structure of p-nitraminopyridine N-oxide has been calculated with the aid of density functional

J. Oszust; J. Baran; A. Pietraszko; M. Drozd; Z. Talik



Para-hexaphenyl nanofiber growth on Au-coated porous alumina templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of easy and reproducible methods for formation of periodically nanostructured surfaces allows one to study the quasi-epitaxial growth of nanowires on such artificially modified substrates. Here, we demonstrate that crystalline nanofibers of para-hexaphenyl can grow on porous alumina templates with high pore regularity once the templates have been coated by a thin Au film. Nanofibers of that kind represent a model system for the general class of organic nanowires which have chemically changeable optoelectronic properties and hence are of interest for integration into future optoelectronic devices.

Madsen, M.; Kartopu, G.; Andersen, N. L.; Es-Souni, M.; Rubahn, H.-G.



Path integral molecular dynamics simulation of solid para-hydrogen with an aluminum impurity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium properties of an aluminum impurity trapped in solid para-hydrogen have been studied. The results were compared to those of a previous study by Krumrine et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 113 (2000) 9079] with an atomic boron. In the presence of vacancy defect, when the orientation-dependent Al- pH 2 potential is used, the Al atom is displaced to a position half way between its original substituted site and the vacancy site. Thermodynamic results also indicate that the presence of a neighboring vacancy helps to stabilize the Al impurity to a far greater extent than in the case of the B impurity.

Mirijanian, Dina T.; Alexander, Millard H.; Voth, Gregory A.



Photophysical and acid-base properties of para-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectra were collected for para-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines in aqueous solution at various pH conditions. Two fluorescing forms were observed for all studied compounds, one protonated (ANsH+) and the second unprotonated (ANs) each of them with specific spectroscopic properties. Changing pH of solution results in the displacement of the equilibrium between two forms. It was found that protonated aniline derivatives in aqueous solutions undergo very fast excited-state proton dissociation and the pKa values obtained from absorption and fluorescence spectra are similar. The excited state pKa? values were calculated using the Förster cycle method.

Szabelski, Mariusz; Bojarski, Piotr; Wieczorek, Zbigniew



Photochemical transformation of nitrate in the presence of para-halogenated phenols in frozen solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photochemical reactions leading to the chemical transformation of trace compounds in the atmosphere do not only occur in the atmospheric gas and liquid phases, but also in the tropospheric ice phase. The photochemical reactions of trace compounds embedded in ice have important implications for the composition of the atmospheric boundary layer in ice and snow covered regions and for interpretation of concentration profiles in snow and ice in the context of the composition of the past atmosphere. One of the prominent reactions is the photolysis of nitrate. This reaction is well established in natural waters, and is of interest since formation of highly mutagenic/carcinogenic nitro-compounds is possible. In contrast, the photochemical behaviour of nitrate in ice and snow is more complex. The photolysis of nitrate embedded in ice has been shown to generate OH radical, NO2(g) and NO(g) as primary photoproducts, but little is known how this photochemistry is affected by the presence of organic impurities embedded in the ice surface. In this work, we studied the effect of the presence of para-halogenated phenols on the photo-transformation of frozen nitrate solutions by Diffuse Reflective Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Moreover, the evolution of volatile nitrogen oxides to the gas phase was monitored by a commercial chemiluminescence NO/NOy monitor, chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS), and thermal-dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS). In addition, some of the organic intermediate products were characterized by GC/MS and HPLC/PDA. We show that DRIFTS can provide a qualitative picture of the chemical transformations that take place at the ice surface and kinetic data on the phototransformation of nitrate. The photochemistry of frozen solutions of nitrate in the presence of various para-halogenated phenols was found to be dependent on the ice temperature, pH, the light intensity, and the concentration and nature of para-halogenated phenols added. The release of NOy species to the gas-phase was dramatically accelerated by low pH values as well as the nature of para-halogen, in the order Cl>Br>F. The major species released were identified as NO2 and HONO.

Abida, O.; Osthoff, H. D.; Sutherland, T. C.



Para[ 18 F]fluorobenzylguanidine kinetics in a canine coronary artery occlusion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The kinetics of para-[18F]fluorobenzylguanidine ([18F]PFBG) were investigated in a canine coronary artery occlusion model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  Five dogs were imaged by positron emission tomography (PET) before and after complete surgical ligation of the left anterior\\u000a descending coronary artery. PET studies included a 10-minute dynamic [13N]NH3 perfusion scan, followed 1 hour later by 3-hour dynamic [18F]PFBG scanning. [18F]PFBG and [13N]NH3 images

Clifford R. Berry; Pradeep K. Garg; Timothy R. DeGrado; Peter Hellyer; William Weber; Sudha Garg; Bernard Hansen; Michael R. Zalutsky; R. Edward Coleman



Pressure-enhanced ortho-para conversion in solid hydrogen up to 58 GPa  

PubMed Central

We measured the ortho-para conversion rate in solid hydrogen by using Raman scattering in a diamond-anvil cell, extending previous measurements by a factor of 60 in pressure. We confirm previous experiments that suggested a decrease in the conversion rate above about 0.5 GPa. We observe a distinct minimum at 3 GPa followed by a drastic increase in the conversion rate to our maximum pressure of 58 GPa. This pressure enhancement of conversion is not predicted by previous theoretical treatments and must be due to a new conversion pathway.

Eggert, Jon H.; Karmon, Eran; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Goncharov, Alexander F.



Analysis of Para Red and Sudan Dyes in Egg Yolk by UPLC–MS–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) with alumina N as adsorbent has been used for extraction of para red, Sudan 1, Sudan\\u000a 2, Sudan 3, and Sudan 4 dyes from egg yolk. The extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass\\u000a spectrometry (UPLC–MS–MS). Mean recovery for the five dyes ranged from 63.2 to 98.6%, with CV 0.55–10.00%. One sample was\\u000a confirmed to

Xiaolin Hou; Yonggang Li; Shoujun Cao; Zhongwen Zhang; Yongnin Wu



Metabolic influences for mutation induction curves after exposure to Sudan-1 and para red.  


Sudan-1 and para red are industrial dyes that have been illegally added to some foodstuffs, leading to withdrawal of the adulterated products throughout the UK since 2003. This resulted in international concern that arose because Sudan-1 is classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer as a Category 3 carcinogen. However, little is known about the dose response of this chemical at low, more biologically relevant, doses. The study therefore aimed to characterize the dose response for gene mutation and chromosomal damage induced by two azo dyes, namely Sudan-1 and para red. Gene mutations were analysed using the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase forward mutation assay and chromosomal damage was measured using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay. Two cell lines were used in these investigations. These were the AHH-1 cell line, which inducibly expresses CYP1A1, and the MCL-5 cell line derived from a subpopulation of AHH-1 cells that expresses a particularly high level of CYP1A1 activity. The MCL-5 cell line has also been transfected with two plasmids that stably express CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 and all four of these CYP enzymes are known to metabolically activate Sudan-1. AHH-1 cells were used to investigate the dose response of the azo dyes, and MCL-5 cells were used to see if the dose response changed with increased metabolism. Sudan-1 induced a non-linear dose-response curve for gene mutation and chromosomal damage in AHH-1 cells. The genotoxic activity of Sudan-1 was greatly increased in MCL-5 cells. This indicated that the oxidation metabolites from Sudan-1 were both more mutagenic and more clastogenic than the parent compound. Para red also demonstrated a non-linear dose response for both gene mutation and chromosome damage in AHH-1 cells, and an increase in micronuclei induction was observed after increased oxidative metabolism in MCL-5 cells. Sudan-1 and para red are genotoxic chemicals with non-linear dose responses in AHH-1 but not in MCL-5 cells, and oxidative metabolism increases the genotoxic effect of both compounds. PMID:20197315

Johnson, George E; Quick, Emma L; Parry, Elizabeth M; Parry, James M



Salud Para Su Corazon (Health for Your Heart) Community Health Worker Model  

PubMed Central

This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy.

Balcazar, H.; Alvarado, M.; Ortiz, G.



Photoresponse of poly([ital para]-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the photoresponses of poly([ital para]-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) light-emitting diodes (LED's) with PPV derivatives sandwiched between tin oxide (ITO) and metals including calcium, aluminum, and copper. Under illumination all diodes exhibit relatively large photoconductive I(V) responses which cross the dark I(V) curve at a forward-bias voltage V[sub 0] that scales with the difference in work functions between the ITO and metal electrodes, the open-circuit voltage saturates at V[sub 0] and is temperature independent, and the enhanced electroluminescence intensity of the illuminated LED's correlates with the photocurrent. (AIP)

Wei, X.; Raikh, M.; Vardeny, Z.V. (Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)); Yang, Y. (UNIAX Corporation, 5375 Overpass Road, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States)); Moses, D. (Institute of Polymers and Organic Solids, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States))



Variability of kinetic parameters due to biomass acclimation: Case of para-nitrophenol biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study regards para-nitrophenol (p-NP) removal by a mixed culture in a batch reactor under aerobic conditions performed at low ratio substrate (p-NP) to p-NP degrading microorganisms (0.09

Fériel Rezouga; Moktar Hamdi; Mathieu Sperandio



A para-nitrophenol phosphonate probe labels distinct serine hydrolases of Arabidopsis.  


Activity-based protein profiling represents a powerful methodology to probe the activity state of enzymes under various physiological conditions. Here we present the development of a para-nitrophenol phosphonate activity-based probe with structural similarities to the potent agrochemical paraoxon. We demonstrate that this probes labels distinct serine hydrolases with the carboxylesterase CXE12 as the predominant target in Arabidopsis thaliana. The designed probe features a distinct labeling pattern and therefore represents a promising chemical tool to investigate physiological roles of selected serine hydrolases such as CXE12 in plant biology. PMID:21763150

Nickel, Sabrina; Kaschani, Farnusch; Colby, Tom; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Kaiser, Markus



Near-resonance scattering of the para-H2 vibrons in (ortho-H2)x(para-H2)1-x mixed crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The p-H2 vibrons hae been studied by high-resolution Raman scattering in mixed crystals of (o-H2)x(p-H2)1-x, (HD)x(p-H2)1-x, and (o-D2)0.069(p-H2)0.931. For increasing o-H2 concentration, the line shape broadens and becomes asymmetric with a tail towards higher frequencies. This effect is less pronounced in the HD- and the o-D2-doped crystals, where the energy difference between the p-H2 vibron and the stretching vibration of the impurity is much larger. Isolated impurities still have a symmetrical line shape, showing that the asymmetry is not due to inhomogeneities. Calculated line shapes by the coherent-potential-approximation technique are in very good qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The theory also accounts for previously published experimental data on the variations of the relative positions and intensities of the ortho and para peaks in (o-H2)x(p-H2)1-x.

de Kinder, J.; Bouwen, A.; Schoemaker, D.; Boukahil, A.; Huber, D. L.



Molecularly imprinted polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonic acid composite based sensor for para-nitrophenol detection.  


We report results of the studies relating to the fabrication and characterization of a conducting polymer based molecularly imprinted para-nitrophenol (PNP) sensor. A water pollutant, para-nitrophenol is electrochemically imprinted with polyvinyl sulphonic acid (PVSA) doped polyaniline onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate. This PNP imprinted electrode (PNPI-PANI-PVSA/ITO) prepared via chronopotentiometric polymerization and over-oxidation is characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, contact angle (CA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies. The response studies of PNPI-PANI-PVSA/ITO electrode carried out using DPV reveal a lower detection limit of 1×10(-3) mM, improved sensitivity as 1.5×10(-3) A mM(-1) and stability of 45 days. The PNPI-PANI-PVSA/ITO electrode shows good precision with relative standard deviation of 2.1% and good reproducibility with standard deviation of 3.78%. PMID:23622966

Roy, Abhijit Chandra; Nisha, V S; Dhand, Chetna; Ali, Md Azahar; Malhotra, B D



Screening electronic communication through ortho-, meta- and para-substituted linkers separating subphthalocyanines and C60.  


We have prepared two complementary series of SubPc-C(60) (SubPc=subphthalocyanine) electron/energy donor-acceptor systems, in which the two constituents are linked through ortho-, meta-, or para-substituted phenoxy spacers. In one of the series (1 a) the SubPc units bear iodine atoms, while in the other series (1 b) diphenylamino groups are linked to the SubPc macrocycles. The iodine atoms and diphenylamino groups both influence the resulting oxidation potentials of the electron-donating SubPc. They also modulate the outcome of excited state interactions, namely, energy and/or charge transfer. In addition, we have studied the impact that the substitution pattern in the phenoxy spacer exerts onto intramolecular processes in the ground and excited states. Although some of these processes are governed by the spatial separation between both components, the different electronic coupling through ortho-, meta-, or para- connections also plays decisive roles in some cases. PMID:18624288

González-Rodríguez, David; Torres, Tomás; Herranz, María Angeles; Echegoyen, Luis; Carbonell, Esther; Guldi, Dirk M



Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H2 molecules.  


Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H2 molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H2 colliding with CS in the j = 0-15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10(-2) to 10(3) cm(-1). The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm(-1). Above 10 cm(-1), the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H2 from the data available with (4)He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement. PMID:24289351

Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise



Crystal dimension of ZSM-5 influences on para selective disproportionation of ethylbenzene.  


Crystal size and crystal dimensions are vital role in shape selective feature. Para selective disproportionation of EthylBenzene (Dip-EB) was investigated over ZSM-5 synthesized in acidic medium. The catalysts were prepared by hydrothermal process with various Si/Al ratios (50, 75 and 100) using fluoride ion precursor. This fluoride ion precursor dissolves the ZSM-5 nutrients below it neutral pH between 4 and 6. The synthesized material was subjected into various physico chemical characterizations such as XRD, SEM, TGA and BET analyses. The XRD patterns showed high crystalline nature and their resulting SEM images were also indicate thin prismatic crystals of large dimension compared with alkaline medium synthesized one. The BET results earned good textural property. Catalytic activity of vapor phase Dip-EB was carried out between 523 and 673 K. As their result, diethylbenzene (DEB) isomers were obtained, but para selective Diethylbenzene (p-DEB) was observed higher than others. The high selectivity towards p-DEB was due to large crystal dimension of ZSM-5 catalysts synthesized in fluoride medium. Hence it is good commercial application for petrochemical feed stock production. PMID:24745253

Hariharan, Srinivasan; Palanichamy, Muthaiahpillai



Photoinduced reactions of para-quinones with bicyclopropylidene leading to diverse polycyclic compounds with spirocyclopropanes.  


Photoinduced reactions of bicyclopropylidene (BCP) with para-quinones (p-quinones) including benzoquinones, naphthoquinones, and anthraquinones were found to proceed via different cycloaddition pathways and lead to diverse polycyclic products bearing spiropropyl moiety. Photocycloaddition of BCP with benzoquinones gave spirooxetanes as the primary products, which upon irradiation were able to rearrange into the spiro[4.5]deca-6,9-diene-2,8-diones as secondary photoproducts. Chemoselectivity of the photocycloaddition of BCP with naphthoquinones relies largely on the substitution groups linked to the C?C in between the two carbonyl groups to give different types of products. Photoreaction of BCP with 9,10-anthraquinone gave not only the spirooxetane product, but also a novel spiro[indan-1,1'-phthalan]-3'-one product whose formation might be initiated by a transannular attack of the C4 cyclopropyl radical to the para-carbonyl group. Mechanisms involved in the formation of diverse primary or secondary products in the photoreactions of BCP with p-quinones were proposed. Some of the photoreactions also hold potentials as useful synthetic protocols for important spiropolycyclic compounds such as sesquiterpenes. PMID:23692405

Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Wang, Lei; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Xu, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yan



Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules  

SciTech Connect

Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H{sub 2} colliding with CS in the j = 0–15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10{sup ?2} to 10{sup 3} cm{sup ?1}. The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm{sup ?1}. Above 10 cm{sup ?1}, the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H{sub 2} from the data available with {sup 4}He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement.

Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, 33405 Talence (France) [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, 33405 Talence (France); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Matanzas, Matanzas 40100 (Cuba); Stoecklin, Thierry, E-mail:; Halvick, Philippe [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, 33405 Talence (France)] [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, 33405 Talence (France); Dubernet, Marie-Lise [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LPMAA, UMR CNRS 7092, 75252 Paris, France and Observatoire de Paris, LUTH, UMR CNRS 8102, 92195 Meudon (France)] [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LPMAA, UMR CNRS 7092, 75252 Paris, France and Observatoire de Paris, LUTH, UMR CNRS 8102, 92195 Meudon (France)



Ortho-to-para ratio in interstellar water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N).  


The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here. PMID:23656468

Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F



Ortho-to-Para Ratio in Interstellar Water on the Sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here.

Lis, Dariusz C.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.



The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic  

PubMed Central

The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany.

Hanala, Sherif



Determination of the ortho to para ratio of H2Cl+ and H2O+ from submillimeter observations.  


The opening of the submillimeter sky with the Herschel Space Observatory has led to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, H2O(+), H2Cl(+), and HCl(+), which are important intermediates in the synthesis of water vapor and hydrogen chloride. In this paper, we report new observations of H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) performed with both Herschel and ground-based telescopes, to determine the abundances of their ortho and para forms separately and derive the ortho-to-para ratio. At the achieved signal-to-noise ratio, the observations are consistent with an ortho-to-para ratios of 3 for both H2O(+) and H2Cl(+), in all velocity components detected along the lines-of-sight to the massive star-forming regions W31C and W49N. We discuss the mechanisms that contribute to establishing the observed ortho-to-para ratio and point to the need for a better understanding of chemical reactions, which are important for establishing the H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) ortho-to-para ratios. PMID:23869910

Gerin, Maryvonne; de Luca, Massimo; Lis, Dariusz C; Kramer, Carsten; Navarro, Santiago; Neufeld, David; Indriolo, Nick; Godard, Benjamin; Le Petit, Franck; Peng, Ruisheng; Phillips, Thomas G; Roueff, Evelyne




SciTech Connect

The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)



Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.



Passivation of iron-based alloys in para-toluene sulfonic acid  

SciTech Connect

Potentiodynamic and surface analysis techniques were applied to investigate the passivation of metals in para-toluene sulfonic acids (PTSA). The diffusion-limiting current density was used to calculate the ferrous ion concentration which causes the precipitation of a pseudopassive film. From the surface analysis data, the Cr/Fe ratio in the passive film increases in order of 430, 304, and 316 stainless steels. To analyze the differences, a correction was made to the data so that the observed difference in the oxide film composition is not attributed simply to the Cr and Fe contents of the alloys. This method also was applied to correct the Ni/Fe ratio in the passive film. The authors conclude that the preferential dissolution of Ni and Fe leads to a Cr enrichment in the passive film.

Iuan Jou Yang; Mao Ying Teng (Materials Research Labs., Chutung, Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China))



Quantum dynamical simulations for nuclear spin selective laser control of ortho- and para-fulvene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper we explore the prospects for laser control of the photoinduced nonadiabatic dynamics of para- and ortho-fulvene with the help of quantum dynamical simulations. Previous investigations [Bearpark et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 5253 (1996); Alfalah et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 124318 (2009)] show that photoisomerization of fulvene is hindered by ultrafast radiationless decay through a conical intersection at planar configuration. Here, we demonstrate that photoisomerization can nevertheless be initiated by damping unfavorable nuclear vibrations with properly designed laser pulses. Moreover, we show that the resulting intramolecular torsion is nuclear spin selective. The selectivity of the photoexcitation with respect to the nuclear spin isomers can be further enhanced by applying an optimized sequence of two laser pulses.

Belz, S.; Grohmann, T.; Leibscher, M.



El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.



Transient effects and pump depletion in stimulated Raman scattering. [Para-hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300-K multipass cell filled with para-H/sub 2/ with a single-mode CO/sub 2/-pumped laser is studied using a frequency-narrowed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the S/sub 0/(O) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. The pump depletion shows clear evidence of transient behavior. A theoretical treatment of transient stimulated Raman scattering, including effects of both pump depletion and medium saturation is presented. In a first approximation, diffraction effects are neglected, and only plane-wave interactions are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental pulse shapes.

Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.; Druehl, K.



Cholecystocutaneous fistula: an unusual complication of a para-umbilical hernia repair.  


This case describes a 94-year-old woman who presented 2?years postsutured para-umbilical hernia repair with a painful black lump protruding through her scar with blood stained discharge. This was initially thought to be either ischaemic bowel secondary to strangulated incisional hernia or a large organised haematoma. An urgent CT scan was performed following which the patient passed two large calculi and bile-stained fluid spontaneously through the wound, making the diagnosis somewhat clearer. The scan revealed an incisional hernia containing the gallbladder and two large calculi at the skin surface and an incidental large caecal cancer with surrounding lymphadenopathy. Frail health and the incidental finding of a colon cancer rendered invasive surgical management inappropriate. Therefore, she was managed conservatively with antibiotics. A catheter was inserted into the fistula tract to allow free drainage and alleviate pressure-related symptoms. The patient was discharged following a multidisciplinary team discussion. PMID:24862413

Dixon, Steven; Sharma, Mitesh; Holtham, Stephen



Puncture injection of para-toluenesulfonamide combined with chemoembolization for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is difficult to eradicate due to its resilient nature. Portal vein is often involved in tumors of large size, which exclude the patient from surgical resection and local ablative therapy, such as percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) because they were considered neither effective nor safe. Currently, there is almost no effective treatment for HCC of such condition. As a unique antitumor agent in form of lipophilic fluid for local injection, para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS) produces mild side effects while necrotizing the tumor tissues quickly and efficiently. Being largely different from both PEI and RFA therapies, PTS can disseminate itself in tumors more easily than other caustic agents, such as alcohol. So PTS may offer additional benefit to HCCs with vascular involvement. We herein describe a 70-year-old HCC patient who was treated with the combination of PTS injection and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, resulting in a significantly improved clinical prognosis.

He, Qing; Kuang, An-Ren; Guan, Yong-Song; Liu, Yue-Qing



Searching for auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node Shell elements and eight-node Brick elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes - DYNA3D and ParaDyn - which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.



Adsorption and organisation of para-hexaphenyl molecules on Si(100)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Para-hexaphenyl molecules (p-6P: C36H26) can be grown as nanofibres on various surfaces having optical properties of technological relevance. We report here the first observations of the initial stages of adsorption of individual p-6P molecules on Si(100)-(2×1) using room temperature Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM). Depending on the substrate temperature, the hexaphenyl molecules adsorb in two configurations; indicating both weak and strong chemisorption. All six phenyl rings are clearly visible and the molecules are found to adsorb with characteristic angles between the long axis of the molecule and the silicon dimer rows. A statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the molecules suggests that the clustering required for crystallographic nanofibre growth does not occur at the atomic scale under the experimental conditions used here.

Cranney, M.; Chalopin, Y.; Mayne, A. J.; Dujardin, G.



Food for Life / Comida para la Vida: creating a food festival to raise diabetes awareness.  


African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the "Food for Life Festival," or "Festival Comida para la Vida." This article will describe the community's perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care. PMID:20097997

Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol



Pair potentials and equation of state of solid para-hydrogen to megabar pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute by means of quantum Monte Carlo simulations the equation of state of bulk solid para-hydrogen extrapolated to zero temperature, up to a pressure of ˜2 Mbar. We compare the equation of state yielded by three different pair potentials, namely, the Silvera-Goldman (SG), Buck, and one recently proposed by Moraldi, modified at short distances to include a repulsive core, missing in the originally proposed potential. The Moraldi pair potential yields an equation of state in very good agreement with experiment at megabar pressures, owing to its softer core, and is at least as accurate as the SG or the Buck at saturated vapor pressure. Estimates for the experimentally measurable kinetic energy per molecule are provided for all pair potentials.

Omiyinka, Tokunbo; Boninsegni, Massimo



Effect of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine on response to cocaine challenge.  


This study evaluated the effect of an acute reduction in catecholamine synthesis produced by alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT), a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor, on cocaine-induced euphoria. In a blinded, placebo-controlled study, AMPT (1 g p.o. T.I.D.) was given to 10 non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers prior to intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg cocaine. AMPT, but not placebo, reduced plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid and the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. AMPT also elevated prolactin levels, indicating inhibition of the tuberoinfundibular dopamine system. AMPT pretreatment produced a trend toward diminished cocaine "high" AMPT also tended to lower heart rate and blood pressure responses to cocaine, but had no effect on serum cocaine levels. Although we cannot rule out the therapeutic potential of the depletion strategy, our results with AMPT alone, at this dose, do not strongly support it. PMID:9232210

Stine, S M; Krystal, J H; Petrakis, I L; Jatlow, P I; Heninger, G R; Kosten, T R; Charney, D S



Ortho/para ratio of H2O+ toward Sagittarius B2(M) revisited.  


The HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel satellite has allowed the observation and characterization of light hydrides, the building blocks of interstellar chemistry. In this article, we revisit the ortho/para ratio for H2O(+) toward the Sgr B2(M) cloud core. The line of sight toward this star forming region passes through several spiral arms and the gas in the Bar potential in the inner Galaxy. In contrast to earlier findings, which used fewer lines to constrain the ratio, we find a ratio of 3, which is uniformly consistent with high-temperature formation of the species. In view of the reactivity of this ion, this matches the expectations. PMID:23713712

Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Higgins, Ronan; Comito, Claudia



Surface treatment of para-aramid fiber by argon dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is focused on influence of argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on the adhesive performance and wettability of para-aramid fibers and three parameters including treated power, exposure time and argon flux were detected. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was greatly increased by 28% with 300 W, 60 s, 2 L min-1 argon flux plasma treatment. The content of oxygen atom and oxygen-containing polar functional groups were enhanced after the argon plasma treated, so as the surface roughness, which contributed to the improvement of surface wettability and the decrease of contact angle with water. However, long-time exposure, exorbitant power or overlarge argon flux could partly destroy the prior effects of the treatment and damage the mechanical properties of fibers to some degree.

Gu, Ruxi; Yu, Junrong; Hu, Chengcheng; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Jing; Hu, Zuming



Unusual Raman spectra of para-nitroaniline by sequential Fermi resonances.  


In this communication, we report the unusual Raman spectra of para-nitroaniline (PNA) by sequential Fermi resonances. The combinational mode 1292 cm(-1) in the experimental Raman spectrum indirectly gains the initial spectral weight at 1392 cm(-1) by three sequential Fermi resonances. These Fermi resonances result in the strong interaction between the donor group of NH2 and the acceptor group of NO2. Our theoretical calculations provide reasonable interpretation for the abnormal Raman spectra of PNA. Experimental surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of PNA further confirmed our conclusion, where the strongest Raman peak at 1292 cm(-1) is very weak, while the Raman peak at 1392 cm(-1) becoming the strongest Raman peak, which is consistent with the theoretical simulations. PMID:24370347

Xia, Jiarui; Zhu, Ling; Feng, Yanting; Li, Yongqing; Zhang, Zhenglong; Xia, Lixin; Liu, Liwei; Ma, Fengcai



Poly(para-dioxanone)/inorganic particle composites as a novel biomaterial.  


In this work, poly(para-dioxanone) (PPDO) was mixed with 1% (by weight) calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)), beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), or calcium sulphate dihydrate (CSD) by solution co-precipitation. Samples were compression molded into bars using a platen-vulcanizing press. The morphology, thermal and mechanical properties, and crystalline structure of the composites were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. All results suggest that three types of inorganic particle in this system promote the crystallinity of PPDO and act as an effective nucleating agent: the relative degree of crystallinity of PPDO increased from 30.74% to 100%, and the crystallization temperature of PPDO was increased by 18 degrees C. On the other hand, the mechanical properties of PPDO were changed by the presence of inorganic particles: the tensile strength of PPDO/CSD increased by 11.46%. PMID:19360890

Bai, Wei; Chen, Dongliang; Zhang, Zhiping; Li, Qing; Zhang, Dujuan; Xiong, Chengdong



Rotational Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide Solvated with Para-Hydrogen Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational spectra of carbon monoxide (^{12}C^{16}O and ^{13}C^{16}O) solvated with N=2 to 7 para-hydrogen (pH_2) molecules were studied by high resolution Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of (pH_2)_N-CO clusters have previously been reported by Moroni et al. It is expected that the end-over-end rotational frequency decreases from N=2 to N=6, then increases with the addition of the next several helium atoms; this could indicate a significant decoupling of pH_2 density from CO rotation. By measuring the microwave transitions of these clusters we are able to separate the rotational and vibrational contributions to the rovibrational line positions. The trend of the pure rotational frequencies with increasing N-value will be presented. S. Moroni, M. Botti, S. De Palo, A. R. W. McKellar, J. Chem. Phys., 122, 094314 (2005).

Raston, Paul L.; Jäger, Wolfgang



Determination of para red, Sudan dyes, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin in animal feeds using UPLC.  


A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for quantitative determination of para red, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin in feedstuff. The sample was extracted using acetonitrile and cleaned up on a C(18) SPE column. The residues were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector at 500 nm. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-formic acid-water with a gradient elution condition. The external standard curves were calibrated. The mean recoveries of the seven colorants were 62.7-91.0% with relative standard deviation 2.6-10.4% (intra-day) and 4.0-13.2% (inter-day). The detection limits were in the range of 0.006-0.02 mg/kg. PMID:20056031

Hou, Xiaolin; Li, Yonggang; Wu, Guojuan; Wang, Lei; Hong, Miao; Wu, Yongnin



The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in quantum magnetized plasma with para- and ferromagnetic properties  

SciTech Connect

We investigate influence of magnetic field on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in quantum plasmas with para- and ferromagnetic properties. Magnetization of quantum plasma happens due to the collective electron spin behavior at low temperature and high plasma density. In the classical case, without magnetization, magnetic field tends to stabilize plasma perturbations with wave numbers parallel to the field and with sufficiently short wavelengths. Paramagnetic effects in quantum plasma make this stabilization weaker. The stabilization disappears completely for short wavelength perturbations in the ferromagnetic limit, when the magnetic field is produced by intrinsic plasma magnetization only. Still, for perturbations of long and moderate wavelength, certain stabilization always takes place due to the nonlinear character of quantum plasma magnetization.

Modestov, Mikhail; Bychkov, Vitaly; Marklund, Mattias [Department of Physics, Umeaa University, 901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)



The analysis of para-cresol production and tolerance in Clostridium difficile 027 and 012 strains  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium difficile is the major cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and in recent years its increased prevalence has been linked to the emergence of hypervirulent clones such as the PCR-ribotype 027. Characteristically, C. difficile infection (CDI) occurs after treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which disrupt the normal gut microflora and allow C. difficile to flourish. One of the relatively unique features of C. difficile is its ability to ferment tyrosine to para-cresol via the intermediate para-hydroxyphenylacetate (p-HPA). P-cresol is a phenolic compound with bacteriostatic properties which C. difficile can tolerate and may provide the organism with a competitive advantage over other gut microflora, enabling it to proliferate and cause CDI. It has been proposed that the hpdBCA operon, rarely found in other gut microflora, encodes the enzymes responsible for the conversion of p-HPA to p-cresol. Results We show that the PCR-ribotype 027 strain R20291 quantitatively produced more p-cresol in-vitro and was significantly more tolerant to p-cresol than the sequenced strain 630 (PCR-ribotype 012). Tyrosine conversion to p-HPA was only observed under certain conditions. We constructed gene inactivation mutants in the hpdBCA operon in strains R20291 and 630?erm which curtails their ability to produce p-cresol, confirming the role of these genes in p-cresol production. The mutants were equally able to tolerate p-cresol compared to the respective parent strains, suggesting that tolerance to p-cresol is not linked to its production. Conclusions C. difficile converts tyrosine to p-cresol, utilising the hpdBCA operon in C. difficile strains 630 and R20291. The hypervirulent strain R20291 exhibits increased production of and tolerance to p-cresol, which may be a contributory factor to the virulence of this strain and other hypervirulent PCR-ribotype 027 strains.



Prevalence of oral trauma in Para-Pan American Games athletes.  


The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiological survey was to assess the prevalence of oral trauma in athletes representing 25 countries competing at the most recent Para-Pan American Games (III PARAPAN) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was approved by the appropriate institutional review board. The examiners participated in standardization and calibration training sessions before the field phase began. Invitations were sent to >1200 participating athletes competing in eight sports and to the Medical Committee of the Para-Pan American Sports Organization before and during the III PARAPAN. A convenience sample of 120 athletes was recruited. After signing an informed consent, all athletes answered a questionnaire. Data were collected at the clinical examination and recorded in a specific trauma form. The mean age of the athletes was 32.5 years. Males comprised 79.2% of the sample; females 20.8%. The prevalence of oral trauma among the athletes was 47.5% (N = 57). However, only 15 athletes reported that these traumatic injuries were sports-related. The sport with the highest prevalence of oral trauma was judo (75%); the least was volleyball with no reported traumatic injuries. The most common traumatic injury was enamel fracture (27.4%). The teeth most affected were the maxillary permanent central incisors (N = 19), followed by the maxillary premolars (N = 8). On the basis of the results of this study of oral trauma among athletes examined at the III PARAPAN, a recommendation for enhanced educational efforts and the use of properly fitted mouthguards to prevent traumatic injuries among high-performance athletes with disabilities seems warranted. PMID:22882839

Andrade, Rafaela Amarante; Modesto, Adriana; Evans, Patricia Louise Scabell; Almeida, Anne Louise Scabell; da Silva, Juliana de Jesus Rodrigues; Guedes, Aurelino Machado Lima; Guedes, Fábio Ribeiro; Ranalli, Dennis N; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto



Salud para su Corazón: a community-based Latino cardiovascular disease prevention and outreach model.  


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Latinos living in the United States. This population is generally unaware of important lifestyle or behavioral changes that can prevent CVD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) designed and implemented Salud para su Corazón (Health for Your Heart), a culturally appropriate, community-based, theory-driven intervention model. NHLBI's goals were: (1) to design an intervention model appropriate to Latino populations; (2) to pilot test the model in a specific community with the objectives of increasing awareness about heart disease, raising knowledge about CVD prevention, and promoting heart-healthy lifestyles; and (3) to disseminate the model and the materials developed to other communities with similar needs. An agency-community partnership, under the leadership of the Community Alliance for Heart Health, guided all stages of the community intervention project. The multimedia bilingual community intervention included television telenovela format public service announcements (PSAs), radio programs, brochures, recipe booklets, charlas, a promotores training manual, and motivational videos. An evaluation survey assessed the impact of the intervention. A pre-post intervention survey was conducted with more than 300 participants, and results showed that the respondents were substantially more aware of risk factors for CVD, and had greatly increased their knowledge of ways to prevent heart disease. Dissemination efforts have resulted in numerous requests by health organizations, universities, and health maintenance organizations (HMOs) for educational materials and communication strategies produced by Salud para su Corazón. In addition, Univision, the largest Spanish-language broadcast television network, is airing the initiative's PSAs. Also, training seminars for promotores are being conducted in different regions of the United States, and several locations are planning to replicate this study. PMID:10555925

Alcalay, R; Alvarado, M; Balcazar, H; Newman, E; Huerta, E



Self-assembled catalytic DNA nanostructures for synthesis of para-directed polyaniline.  


Templated synthesis has been considered as an efficient approach to produce polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures. The features of DNA molecules enable a DNA template to be an intriguing template for fabrication of emeraldine PANI. In this work, we assembled HRP-mimicking DNAzyme with different artificial DNA nanostructures, aiming to manipulate the molecular structures and morphologies of PANI nanostructures through the controlled DNA self-assembly. UV-vis absorption spectra were used to investigate the molecular structures of PANI and monitor kinetic growth of PANI. It was found that PANI was well-doped at neutral pH and the redox behaviors of the resultant PANI were dependent on the charge density of the template, which was controlled by the template configurations. CD spectra indicated that the PANI threaded tightly around the helical DNA backbone, resulting in the right handedness of PANI. These reveal the formation of the emeraldine form of PANI that was doped by the DNA. The morphologies of the resultant PANI were studied by AFM and SEM. It was concluded from the imaging and spectroscopic kinetic results that PANI grew preferably from the DNAzyme sites and then expanded over the template to form 1D PANI nanostructures. The strategy of the DNAzyme-DNA template assembly brings several advantages in the synthesis of para-coupling PANI, including the region-selective growth of PANI, facilitating the formation of a para-coupling structure and facile regulation. We believe this study contributes significantly to the fabrication of doped PANI nanopatterns with controlled complexity, and the development of DNA nanotechnology. PMID:23272944

Wang, Zhen-Gang; Zhan, Pengfei; Ding, Baoquan



Observation of Ortho-Para {bold H}{sup {bold +}}{sub {bold 3}} Selection Rules in Plasma Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Intensity ratios of infrared spectral lines of ortho- and para-H{sup +}{sub 3} have been measured in hydrogen plasmas using normal and para-H{sub 2}. Large dependences of the intensity ratios on the parent gases have been observed, indicating the spin memory of protons even after chemical reactions. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of selection rules on nuclear spin modifications in chemical reactions theoretically anticipated by M. Quack[Mol.Phys.{bold 34}, 477 (1977)]. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Uy, D.; Cordonnier, M.; Oka, T. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)



A kinetic method for para -nitrophenol determination based on its inhibitory effect on the catalatic reaction of catalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of para-nitrophenol on the catalytic reaction of catalase was investigated. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters were determined from\\u000a Lineweaver-Burk plots obtained in the absence or in the presence of the inhibitor. The inhibitor pattern, revealed by the\\u000a Lineweaver-Burk plots, suggested a fully mixed inhibition mechanism. Spectrophotometric monitoring of the indicator reaction:\\u000a $$H_2 O_2 \\\\xrightarrow{{catalase,para - nitrophenol}}H_2 O + \\\\tfrac{1}{2}O_2

Claudia Mure?anu; Lucian Copolovici; Florina Pogùacean



Chlorination of 2-phenoxypropanoic acid with NCP in aqueous acetic acid: using a novel ortho-para relationship and the para/meta ratio of substituent effects for mechanism elucidation.  


Rate constants were measured for the oxidative chlorodehydrogenation of (R,S)-2-phenoxypropanoic acid and nine ortho-, ten para- and five meta-substituted derivatives using (R,S)-1-chloro-3-methyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one (NCP) as chlorinating agent. The kinetics was run in 50% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid acidified with perchloric acid under pseudo-first-order conditions with respect to NCP at temperature intervals of 5 K between 298 and 318 K, except at the highest temperature for the meta derivatives. The dependence of rate constants on temperature was analyzed in terms of the isokinetic relationship (IKR). For the 20 reactions studied at five different temperatures, the isokinetic temperature was estimated to be 382 K, which suggests the preferential involvement of water molecules in the rate-determining step. The dependence of rate constants on meta and para substitution was analyzed using the tetralinear extension of the Hammett equation. The parameter lambda for the para/meta ratio of polar substituent effects was estimated to be 0.926, and its electrostatic modeling suggests the formation of an activated complex bearing an electric charge near the oxygen atom belonging to the phenoxy group. A new approach is introduced for examining the effect of ortho substituents on reaction rates. Using IKR-determined values of activation enthalpies for a set of nine pairs of substrates with a given substituent, a linear correlation is found between activation enthalpies of ortho and para derivatives. The correlation is interpreted in terms of the selectivity of the reactant toward para- or ortho-monosubstituted substrates, the slope of which being related to the ortho effect. This slope is thought to be approximated by the ratio of polar substituent effects from ortho and para positions in benzene derivatives. Using the electrostatic theory of through-space interactions and a dipole length of 0.153 nm, this ratio was calculated at various positions of a charged reaction center along the benzene C1-C4 axis, being about 2.5 near the ring and decreasing steeply with increasing distance until reaching a minimum value of -0.565 at 1.3 nm beyond the aromatic ring. Activation enthalpies and entropies were estimated for substrates bearing the isoselective substituent in either ortho and para positions, being demonstrated that they are much different from the values for the parent substrate. The electrophilic attack on the phenolic oxygen atom by the protonated chlorinating agent is proposed as the rate-determining step, this step being followed by the fast rearrangement of the intermediate thus formed, leading to products containing chlorine in the aromatic ring. PMID:17567074

Segurado, Manuel A P; Reis, João Carlos R; de Oliveira, Jaime D Gomes; Kabilan, Senthamaraikannan; Shanthi, Manohar



Ortho- and para-selective ruthenium-catalyzed C(sp2)-H oxygenations of phenol derivatives.  


Versatile ruthenium catalysts allowed for efficient direct oxygenations of aryl carbamates under remarkably mild reaction conditions. In addition to chelation-assisted C-H activation, the optimized ruthenium catalyst proved amenable to para-selective hydroxylations of anisoles without Lewis basic directing groups. PMID:23799802

Liu, Weiping; Ackermann, Lutz



ParaMEME: a parallel implementation and a web interface for a DNA and protein motif discovery tool.  


Many advanced software tools fail to reach a wide audience because they require specialized hardware, installation expertise, or an abundance of CPU cycles. The worldwide web offers a new opportunity for distributing such systems. One such program, MEME, discovers repeated patterns, called motifs, in sets of DNA or protein sequences. This tool is now available to biologists over the worldwide web, using an asynchronous, single-program multiple-data version of the program called ParaMEME that runs on an Intel Paragon XP/S parallel computer at the San Diego Super-computer Center. ParaMEME scales gracefully to 64 nodes on the Paragon with efficiencies > 72% for large data sets. The worldwide web interface to ParaMEME accepts a set of sequences interactively from a user, submits the sequences to the Paragon for analysis, and e-mails the results back to the user. ParaMEME is available for free public use at MEME. PMID:8902357

Grundy, W N; Bailey, T L; Elkan, C P



Effect of Stress and Para-Chlorophenylalanine Upon Brain Serotonin, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid and Catecholamines in Grouped and Isolated Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Para-chlorophenylalanine (pCpA), administered to mice only a few hours before they were sacrificed, lowered whole brain serotonin (5-HT) only slightly but caused a marked (27%) reduction in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Restraint stress for 2.75 hr...

A. S. Welch B. L. Welch



Acuerdos entre el gobierno central y los departamentos: una propuesta para aumentar la eficiencia del gasto público  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer un instrumento para el seguimiento de la eficiencia del gasto público. El instrumento muestra que el gobierno central se puede apoyar en las administraciones departamentales con el fin de medir los productos del gasto. La idea central de la propuesta es que los objetivos de productividad acordados entre el nivel nacional y el

Isaac de León-Beltrán; Diego Jaramillo



Una Metodología para Ajustar y Compensar las Diferencias de Riesgo entre el Sistema Público y Privado de Salud en Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el marco conceptual de seguros de salud y ajuste de riesgo y a la luz de la experiencia internacional en Fondos de Compensación de Riesgos, este documento explora el problema del «descreme» que afecta al sistema de seguros Chileno. Se presenta una metodología para estimar diferencias de riesgo entre el sector público y privado de salud en Chile y

Verónica Vargas; Camilo Cid; Mauricio Matus; Iris Delgado; José Miguel Sánchez; Beatriz Heyermann; José Angulo


La valoraciòn econòmica de bienes y servicios ambientales como herramienta estrategica para la conservaciòn y uso sostenible de los ecosistemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El trabajo corresponde a un estudio piloto hacia la implementación de una metodología que permita aproximar el valor monetario de los Bienes y Servicios Ambientales (BSA) ofertados por un ecosistema hídrico, caso “Ciénaga de la Caimanera, municipio de Coveñas, departamento de Sucre-Colombia”, como herramienta estratégica para incentivar la conservación y uso sostenible de los ecosistemas. Avanzar en procesos de




Custos de alimentação para caprinos na fase de aleitamento recebendo sucedâneos com fontes de proteína láctea e de origem vegetal  

Microsoft Academic Search

5 Bolsista de Pós-doutorado da Fapemig, UFV, Viçosa - MG. Resumo: Leite em pó integral de vaca, reconstituído, e sucedâneo comercial à base de mistura de proteínas vegetais isoladas foram comparados para avaliar custo de produção no aleitamento artificial em caprinos. Os animais foram separados das mães logo após o nascimento recebendo colostro tratado nas primeiras 6 horas de vida.

Ana Gabriela Pombo; Márcia Maria Cândido da Silva


Fontes de metionina em rações formuladas com base em aminoácidos totais ou digestíveis para frangas de reposição leves e semipesadas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de duas fontes de metionina (em pó ou líquida) em rações formuladas com base em aminoácidos digestíveis ou totais para frangas de reposição leves e semipesadas, nas fases inicial (de 1 a 6 semanas de idade) e de crescimento (de 11 a 16 semanas de idade). Em

Luiz Gustavo Rombola; Douglas Emygdio de Faria; Bruno José Deponti; Flávio Henrique Araujo Silva; Daniel Emygdio de Faria Filho; Otto Mack Junqueira



Four novel sequences in Drosophila melanogaster homologous to the auxiliary Para sodium channel subunit TipE.  


TipE is an auxiliary subunit of the Drosophila Para sodium channel. Here we describe four sequences, TEH1-4, homologous to TipE in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, harboring all typical structures of both TipE and the beta-Subunit family of big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels: short cytosolic N- and C-terminal stretches, two transmembrane domains, and a large extracellular loop with two disulfide bonds. Whereas TEH1 and TEH2 lack the TipE-specific extension in the extracellular loop, both TEH3 and TEH4 possess two extracellular EGF-like domains. A CNS-specific expression was found for TEH1, while TEH2-4 were more widely expressed. The genes for TEH2-4 are localized close to the tipE gene on chromosome 3L. Coexpression of TEH subunits with Para in Xenopus oocytes showed a strong (30-fold, TEH1), medium (5- to 10-fold, TEH2 and TEH3), or no (TEH4) increase in sodium current amplitude, while TipE increased the current 20-fold. In addition, steady-state inactivation and the recovery from fast inactivation were altered by coexpression of Para with TEH1. We conclude that members of the TEH-family are auxiliary subunits for Para sodium channels and possibly other ion channels. PMID:16325765

Derst, Christian; Walther, Christian; Veh, Rüdiger W; Wicher, Dieter; Heinemann, Stefan H



Uncoupling of Nucleotide Hydrolysis and Polymerization in the ParA Protein Superfamily Disrupts DNA Segregation Dynamics*  

PubMed Central

DNA segregation in bacteria is mediated most frequently by proteins of the ParA superfamily that transport DNA molecules attached via the segrosome nucleoprotein complex. Segregation is governed by a cycle of ATP-induced polymerization and subsequent depolymerization of the ParA factor. Here, we establish that hyperactive ATPase variants of the ParA homolog ParF display altered segrosome dynamics that block accurate DNA segregation. An arginine finger-like motif in the ParG centromere-binding factor augments ParF ATPase activity but is ineffective in stimulating nucleotide hydrolysis by the hyperactive proteins. Moreover, whereas polymerization of wild-type ParF is accelerated by ATP and inhibited by ADP, filamentation of the mutated proteins is blocked indiscriminately by nucleotides. The mutations affect a triplet of conserved residues that are situated neither in canonical nucleotide binding and hydrolysis motifs in the ParF tertiary structure nor at interfaces implicated in ParF polymerization. Instead the residues are involved in shaping the contours of the binding pocket so that nucleotide binding locks the mutant proteins into a configuration that is refractory to polymerization. Thus, the architecture of the pocket not only is crucial for optimal ATPase kinetics but also plays a key role in the polymerization dynamics of ParA proteins that drive DNA segregation ubiquitously in procaryotes.

Dobruk-Serkowska, Aneta; Caccamo, Marisa; Rodriguez-Castaneda, Fernando; Wu, Meiyi; Bryce, Kerstyn; Ng, Irene; Schumacher, Maria A.; Barilla, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Revisión bibliográfica sobre el análisis de citas como método para el estudio del uso y las necesidades de información por parte de los investigadores como usuarios de bibliotecas. Una vez comparados los estudios locales basados en las publicaciones de los usuarios potenciales de una biblioteca con los estudios de análisis de citas basados en la bibliografía circulante a nivel

Cristóbal Urbano Salido



Theoretical Study of the Mechanism Behind the para-Selective Nitration of Toluene in Zeolite H-Beta  

SciTech Connect

Periodic density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the origin of the favorable para-selective nitration of toluene exhibited by zeolite H-beta with acetyl nitrate nitration agent. Energy calculations were performed for each of the 32 crystallographically unique Bronsted acid sites of a beta polymorph B zeolite unit cell with multiple Bronsted acid sites of comparable stability. However, one particular aluminum T-site with three favorable Bronsted site oxygens embedded in a straight 12-T channel wall provides multiple favorable proton transfer sites. Transition state searches around this aluminum site were performed to determine the barrier to reaction for both para and ortho nitration of toluene. A three-step process was assumed for the nitration of toluene with two organic intermediates: the pi- and sigma-complexes. The rate limiting step is the proton transfer from the sigma-complex to a zeolite Bronsted site. The barrier for this step in ortho nitration is shown to be nearly 2.5 times that in para nitration. This discrepancy appears to be due to steric constraints imposed by the curvature of the large 12-T pore channels of beta and the toluene methyl group in the ortho approach that are not present in the para approach.

Andersen, Amity; Govind, Niranjan; Subramanian, Lalitha



Evaluación del ciclo de vida aplicada en agrocadenas productivas: un instrumento de gestión ambiental para el diseño de políticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Evaluación del Ciclo de Vida del Producto (ECV) ha sido sugerida como un instrumento adecuado para ampliar el análisis y formulación de estrategias y políticas al utilizar el enfoque de Cadenas Globales de Mercancías. En este artículo se analizan los alcances de la aplicación de la ECV en diferentes sistemas de gestión ambiental lo cual permite establecer las áreas

Rafael Díaz Porras; Marjorie Hartley Ballestero



Gestión para el desarrollo local sostenible en Granjas Agroindustriales y Empresas Azucareras del MINAZ de la provincia de Cienfuegos  

Microsoft Academic Search

La investigación se realizó en las entidades del MINAZ, teniendo como título: “Gestión para el desarrollo local sostenible en Granjas Agroindustriales y Empresas Azucareras del MINAZ en la provincia de Cienfuegos”. Tiene como objetivo general proponer un sistema de gestión ambiental integral que permita valorar e implantar las políticas de desarrollo local sostenible de las granjas agroindustriales y empresas azucareras

Eduardo Julio López Bastida; Mileisy Balbis Morejón



Filtros hidráulicos PureForce TM diseñados para satisfacer o exceder los requisitos de alto rendimiento del equipo actual  

Microsoft Academic Search

El filtro hidráulico que antes no existía en los sistemas hidráulicos, ahora se ha transformado en un componente crítico. De hecho, son muy pocas las áreas de filtración que han cambiado con tanta rapidez como la hidráulica. La razón de un cambio tan rápido es que los sistemas hidráulicos están reemplazando a otros tipos de transmisiones. Para mejorar la seguridad

Medio Oriente; América del Sur




Microsoft Academic Search

Pedro Albéniz como primer catedrático del Real Conservatorio de Madrid impulsó la consolidación del piano romántico durante la primera mitad del s. XIX, normalizando su enseñanza e introduciendo la escuela moderna del piano español, basada en el pianismo francés de la primera mitad del s. XIX. En su Método Completo para piano recogió las bases de su escuela pianística y

Gemma Salas




Microsoft Academic Search

Introdução O turismo tem crescido em ritmo intenso em todo o Brasil. No litoral norte de São Paulo, em virtude, principalmente, da proximidade com a capital do estado - maior fluxo emissivo de turistas - esse crescimento é bastante acentuado. Ilhabela detém belezas naturais e cenários geográficos que estimulam os turistas e veranistas a escolherem esse destino para suas férias

Claudia Maria Astorino


Esquema de redundancia y distribución de carga de alta disponibilidad para la prestación de telefonía IP usando SIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se presenta un esquema de distribu ción de carga y redundancia en la infraestructura de un ISP (Intern et Service Provider) para la prestación de servicios de telefo nía IP (ITSPs) sobre Internet usando el protocolo SIP (Session Ini tiation Protocol) garantizando niveles de acceso al servici o similares a la PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) y

Andrés Parra Londoño; Fabio G. Guerrero



Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia  

PubMed Central

Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut, Xlox the midgut gland or digestive gland, and Cdx the hindgut. ParaHox genes of Gibbula are also expressed during specification of cerebral and ventral neuroectodermal cells. Our results provide additional support for the ancestral complexity of Gsx expression and its ancestral role in mouth patterning in protostomes, which was secondarily lost or simplified in some species.



A remarkably stable TipE gene cluster: evolution of insect Para sodium channel auxiliary subunits  

PubMed Central

Background First identified in fruit flies with temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotypes, the Drosophila melanogaster TipE locus encodes four voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel auxiliary subunits. This cluster of TipE-like genes on chromosome 3L, and a fifth family member on chromosome 3R, are important for the optional expression and functionality of the Para NaV channel but appear quite distinct from auxiliary subunits in vertebrates. Here, we exploited available arthropod genomic resources to trace the origin of TipE-like genes by mapping their evolutionary histories and examining their genomic architectures. Results We identified a remarkably conserved synteny block of TipE-like orthologues with well-maintained local gene arrangements from 21 insect species. Homologues in the water flea, Daphnia pulex, suggest an ancestral pancrustacean repertoire of four TipE-like genes; a subsequent gene duplication may have generated functional redundancy allowing gene losses in the silk moth and mosquitoes. Intronic nesting of the insect TipE gene cluster probably occurred following the divergence from crustaceans, but in the flour beetle and silk moth genomes the clusters apparently escaped from nesting. Across Pancrustacea, TipE gene family members have experienced intronic nesting, escape from nesting, retrotransposition, translocation, and gene loss events while generally maintaining their local gene neighbourhoods. D. melanogaster TipE-like genes exhibit coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of expression distinct from their host gene but well-correlated with their regulatory target, the Para NaV channel, suggesting that functional constraints may preserve the TipE gene cluster. We identified homology between TipE-like NaV channel regulators and vertebrate Slo-beta auxiliary subunits of big-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels, which suggests that ion channel regulatory partners have evolved distinct lineage-specific characteristics. Conclusions TipE-like genes form a remarkably conserved genomic cluster across all examined insect genomes. This study reveals likely structural and functional constraints on the genomic evolution of insect TipE gene family members maintained in synteny over hundreds of millions of years of evolution. The likely common origin of these NaV channel regulators with BKCa auxiliary subunits highlights the evolutionary plasticity of ion channel regulatory mechanisms.



Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Squamous Cell Anal Cancer With Para-aortic Nodal Involvement  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the rates of toxicity, locoregional control, distant control, and survival in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement, treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 6 patients with squamous cell anal cancer and para-aortic nodal involvement were treated with IMRT and concurrent infusional 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The primary tumor was treated with a median dose of 57.5 Gy (range, 54-60 Gy), involved para-aortic, pelvic, and inguinal lymph nodes were treated with a median dose of 55 Gy (range, 50.5-55 Gy), and noninvolved nodal regions were treated with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 43.5-45 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 25 months, none of the patients had a recurrence at the primary tumor, pelvic/inguinal nodes, or para-aortic nodes, whereas 2 patients developed distant metastases to the liver. Four of the 6 patients are alive. The 3-year actuarial locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival rates were 100%, 56%, and 63%, respectively. Four of the 6 patients developed Grade 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity during chemoradiation. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy could potentially serve as definitive therapy in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be indicated in these patients, as demonstrated by the distant failure rates. These patients need to be followed carefully because of the potential for treatment-related toxicities.

Hodges, Joseph C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: PrajDas@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Eng, Cathy [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Reish, Andrew G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Beddar, A. Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)



BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.



Why are para-hydrogen clusters superfluid? A quantum theorem of corresponding states study.  


The quantum theorem of corresponding states is applied to N=13 and N=26 cold quantum fluid clusters to establish where para-hydrogen clusters lie in relation to more and less quantum delocalized systems. Path integral Monte Carlo calculations of the energies, densities, radial and pair distributions, and superfluid fractions are reported at T=0.5 K for a Lennard-Jones (LJ) (12,6) potential using six different de Boer parameters including the accepted value for hydrogen. The results indicate that the hydrogen clusters are on the borderline to being a nonsuperfluid solid but that the molecules are sufficiently delocalized to be superfluid. A general phase diagram for the total and kinetic energies of LJ (12,6) clusters encompassing all sizes from N=2 to N=infinity and for the entire range of de Boer parameters is presented. Finally the limiting de Boer parameters for quantum delocalization induced unbinding ("quantum unbinding") are estimated and the new results are found to agree with previous calculations for the bulk and smaller clusters. PMID:20707573

Sevryuk, Mikhail B; Toennies, J Peter; Ceperley, David M



Cobalt-Schiff base complex catalyzed oxidation of para-substituted phenolics. Preparation of benzoquinones  

SciTech Connect

Para-substituted phenolics, serving as models for lignin (a renewable source of carbon), are oxidized to the corresponding benzoquinone with oxygen in the presence of catalytic amounts of Co-Schiff base complexes. The reaction products observed depend on the structure of the catalyst. The 5-coordinate catalysts (pyridine)[bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine]cobalt[(pyr)Co(salen)]and[bis(salicylideneamino)ethylamine]cobalt [Co(n-Me salpr)] convert syringyl alcohol (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol) to 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone in high yield. In contrast, syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) is unreactive toward these catalysts. However, the 4-coordinate Co(salen) converts syringaldehyde to 2,6-dimethoxybenzoiquinone in 72% isolated yield. Phenols bearing a single methoxy group on the ring are unreactive toward any catalyst in MeOH. However, vanillyl alcohol (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol) is converted to 2-methoxybenzo-quinone with Co(N-Me salpr) and oxygen in 43% yield in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and 58% yield in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} in the presence of 1% CuCl{sub 2}. The success of the oxidations appears to be related to the ease of removal of the phenolic hydrogen by the Co/O{sub 2} complex. Competitive deactivation of the catalyst occurs with substrates of lower reactivity. 84 tabs.

Bozell, J.J.; Hames, B.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Dimmel, D.R. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)



Serotypes associated with the development of pneumococcal para-pneumonic effusion in adults.  


Serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A are implicated in childhood pneumococcal para-pneumonic effusion (PPE). It is not known whether the same is true for adult PPE. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 2-year period. Consecutive adults admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were studied. Pneumococcal serotype was identified from urine samples using a multiplex immunoassay. Of 920 patients recruited, 366 had pneumococcal CAP; 100 of these had PPE and a serotype was determined in 73 patients. Factors associated with PPE were age, pneumonia severity index score and serotype. Serotypes most associated with PPE were 1 (18 (45%) out of 40), 19A (9 (45%) out of 20) and 3 (8 (40%) out of 20). Serotypes common in childhood PPE were independently associated with adult PPE (adjusted OR 2.3; p = 0.003). Serotypes not included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) were more likely to be associated with PPE (OR 2.1; p = 0.024) compared with those in the vaccine. Serotypes included in PCV-13 were as likely to be associated with PPE as those that are not (OR 0.8; p = 0.301). Serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A are independently associated with adult PPE, a similar finding to childhood PPE. Serotype replacement following pneumococcal vaccine implementation may influence the spectrum of clinical disease. PMID:23258784

Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; Slack, Mary; Trotter, Caroline; George, Robert; Lim, Wei Shen



Taxas de eventos para as fontes astrofísicas do detector Mario Schenberg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg será sensível a sinais que cheguem à Terra com amplitude h~10-21 e dentro da faixa em frequências que varia de 3,0 a 3,4 kHz. As principais fontes astrofísicas em condições de gerar um sinal detectável pela antena Schenberg são: colapsos estelares que produzam eventos do tipo supernova; instabilidades hidrodinâmicas em estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos modos fluído (modos f) de estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos primeiros modos quadrupolares de buracos negros com massa ~ 3,8 M¤; coalescências de estrelas de nêutrons e buracos negros em sistemas binários e, ainda, espiralações de mini-buracos negros. Neste trabalho nós determinamos as taxas de eventos para o Schenberg associadas a dois tipos de fontes: através da de-excitação dos modos f de estrelas de nêutrons e através da coalescência de mini-buracos negros de 0,5 M¤ (que atualmente têm sido colocados como possíveis candidatos a objetos massivos do halo Galáctico). Nós mostramos que esses tipos de fontes poderão produzir sinais em ondas gravitacionais com uma taxa em torno de um evento por ano dentro da banda do Schenberg.

Castro, C. S.; Araujo, J. C. N.; Miranda, O. D.; Aguiar, O. D.



Porous poly(para-phenylene) scaffolds for load-bearing orthopedic applications.  


The focus of this study was to fabricate and investigate the mechanical behavior of porous poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) for potential use as a load-bearing orthopedic biomaterial. PPPs are known to have exceptional mechanical properties due to their aromatic backbone; however, the manufacturing and properties of PPP porous structures have not been previously investigated. Tailored porous structures with either small (150-250µm) or large (420-500µm) pore sizes were manufactured using a powder-sintering/salt-leaching technique. Porosities were systematically varied using 50 to 90vol%. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to verify an open-cell structure and investigate pore morphology of the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical behavior of solid and porous PPP samples was characterized through tensile and compressive testing. Both modulus and strength decreased with increasing porosity and matched well with foam theory. Porous scaffolds showed a significant decrease in strain-to-failure (<4%) under tensile loading and experienced linear elasticity, plastic deformation, and densification under compressive loading. Over the size ranges tested, pore size did not significantly influence the mechanical behavior of the scaffolds on a consistent basis. These results are discussed in regards to use of porous PPP for orthopedic applications and a prototype porous interbody fusion cage is presented. PMID:24374261

DiRienzo, Amy L; Yakacki, Christopher M; Frensemeier, Mareike; Schneider, Andreas S; Safranski, David L; Hoyt, Anthony J; Frick, Carl P



Creation and evolution of net proton hyperpolarization arising from para-hydrogenation.  


When a hydrogenation reaction is carried out with gaseous hydrogen enriched in its para- isomer in the earth magnetic field (prior to adiabatic insertion of the sample in the NMR magnet), enhanced proton longitudinal order (represented by 2I(z)(A)I(z)(B)) is created but also difference of enhanced polarizations (I(z)(A)-I(z)(B)). In a first part, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that the longitudinal relaxation time of this polarization difference is roughly twice the ones of individual polarizations. The second part is devoted to a pulse sequence designed for transforming this difference into net hyperpolarization. The evolution of this global hyperpolarization is studied experimentally in a third part and it is observed that a fraction of hyperpolarization possesses an effective longitudinal relaxation time similar to the one of the initial polarization difference. Those experimental results are interpreted by numerical calculations based on Solomon-type equations including the longitudinal order and possibly dipolar-csa cross correlation rates. PMID:21402486

Reineri, Francesca; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Canet, Daniel



Tensile behavior of porous scaffolds made from poly(para phenylene) - biomed 2013.  


The goal of this study was to fabricate and mechanically characterize a high-strength porous polymer scaffold for potential use as an orthopedic device. Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) is an excellent candidate due to its exceptional strength and stiffness and relative inertness, but has never been explicitly investigated for use as a biomedical device. PPP has strength values 3 to 10 times higher and an elastic modulus nearly an order of magnitude higher than traditional polymers such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polycaprolactone (PCL), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and polyurethane (PU) and is significantly stronger and stiffer than polyetheretherketone (PEEK). By utilizing PPP we can overcome the mechanical limitations of traditional porous polymeric scaffolds since the outstanding stiffness of PPP allows for a highly porous structure appropriate for osteointegration that can match the stiffness of bone (100-250 MPa), while maintaining suitable mechanical properties for soft-tissue fixation. Porous samples were manufactured by powder sintering followed by particle leaching. The pore volume fraction was systematically varied from 50?80 vol% for a pore sizes from150-500 µm, as indicated by previous studies for optimal osteointegration. The tensile modulus of the porous samples was compared to the rule of mixtures, and closely matches foam theory up to 70 vol%. The experimental modulus for 70 vol% porous samples matches the stiffness of bone and contains pore sizes optimal for osteointegration. PMID:23686195

Dirienzo, Amy L; Yakacki, Christopher M; Safranski, David L; Frick, Carl P



ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.



Interface Properties of Organic para-Hexaphenyl/?-Sexithiophene Heterostructures Deposited on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite  

PubMed Central

It was recently reported, that heterostructures of para-hexaphenyl (p-6P) and ?-sexithiophene (6T) deposited on muscovite mica exhibit the intriguing possibility to prepare lasing nanofibers of tunable emission wavelength. For p-6P/6T heterostructures, two different types of 6T emission have been observed, namely, the well-known red emission of bulk 6T crystals and additionally a green emission connected to the interface between p-6P and 6T. In this study, the origin of the green fluorescence is investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). As a prerequisite, it is necessary to prepare structurally similar organic crystals on a conductive surface, which leads to the choice of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as a substrate. The similarity between p-6P/6T heterostructures on muscovite mica and on HOPG is evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning force microscopy (SFM), and optical spectroscopy. PES measurements show that the interface between p-6P and 6T crystals is sharp on a molecular level without any sign of interface dipole formation or chemical interaction between the molecules. We therefore conclude that the different emission colors of the two 6T phases are caused by different types of molecular aggregation.



Optimal timing algorithms of para-aortic counterpulsation device: an animal study.  


Para-aortic counterpulsation device (PACD) is a promising therapy for severe heart failure (HF). However, the lack of knowledge about mechanisms has limited its clinical application. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal timing algorithms. At the following four triggering algorithms, pre-R-wave-deflation and dicrotic notch-inflation (PD), pre-R-wave-deflation and postdicrotic notch-inflation (PP), R-wave-deflation and dicrotic notch-inflation (RD), and R-wave-deflation and postdicrotic notch-inflation (RP), hemodynamic effects of PACD were assessed in vivo. There was more significant promotion of left mean coronary artery flow (Q(LM)), carotid artery flow (Q(CA)), cardiac output (CO), pulmonary artery flow/LA pressure ratio (Q(PA)/LAP), left ventricular myocardial oxygen consumption (LVVO(2)), external LV work (ELVW), and cardiac mechanical efficiency (CME) at RD and RP models than PD and PP models. R-wave-deflation and postdicrotic notch-inflation model provided further benefits. There was significant correlation between LV functional parameters and carotid arterial reflux, but aortic pressure-related parameters. Filling at beginning of LV systolic phase and ejection at the end of isovolumic relaxation phase were the optimal triggering algorithms of PACD. It is suggested that carotid artery reflows and ventricular pressure-related parameters should be used as reference standard to adjust the timing of balloon inflation or deflation. PMID:22236623

Zhang, Guang-Wei; Wen, Ti; Gu, Tian-Xiang; Yu, Yang; Zhao, Ye; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Chun



Electronic effects of para-substitution on the melting points of TAAILs.  


Owing to numerous new applications, the interest in "task-specific" ionic liquids increased significantly over the last decade. But, unfortunately, the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (by far the most frequently used cations) have serious limitations when it comes to modifications of their properties. The new generation of ionic liquids, called tunable aryl-alkyl ionic liquids (TAAILs), replaces one of the two alkyl chains on the imidazolium ring with an aryl ring which allows a large degree of functionalization. Inductive, mesomeric, and steric effects as well as potentially also ?-? and ?-?(+) interactions provide a wide range of possibilities to tune this new class of ILs. We investigated the influence of electron-withdrawing and -donating substituents at the para-position of the aryl ring (NO(2), Cl, Br, EtO(CO), H, Me, OEt, OMe) by studying the changes in the melting points of the corresponding bromide and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, (N(Tf)(2)(-)), salts. In addition, we calculated (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)) the different charge distributions of substituted 1-aryl-3-propyl-imidazolium cations to understand the experimentally observed effects. The results indicated that the presence of electron-donating and -withdrawing groups leads to strong polarization effects in the cations. PMID:21254445

Schulz, Tobias; Ahrens, Sebastian; Meyer, Dirk; Allolio, Christoph; Peritz, Anke; Strassner, Thomas



Polychlorinated Dibenzo-para-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans in Sediments from U.K. Estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined in sediments from U.K. coastal locations adjacent to the estuaries of the Dee, Humber, Mersey, Tees, Tweed and Tyne and from an offshore site in Morecambe Bay. The sediments had total PCDD/DF concentrations of <100 pg g -1, except for the Dee and Morecambe Bay which had total PCDD (total PCDF) concentrations of 750 (390) and 207 pg g -1 (116 pg g -1), respectively. However, estuarine sediments collected during axial transects of Dee, Humber and Clyde Estuaries had total PCDD (total PCDF) concentrations in the range 530-1880 (340-710), 300-1890 (260-1240) and 290-4670 pg g -1 (100-1540 pg g -1), respectively. Examination of the homologue groups showed that about 70% of PCDDs were in the octa-chlorinated form in the Dee and Clyde, whereas for PCDFs the hepta- and hexa-chlorinated forms were relatively more important. The association of PCDD/DFs with particle surfaces was interpreted using data on sediment characteristics and a two-stage adsorption model. The conclusions from this study have implications for the estuarine transport of PCDD and PCDF and their uptake by benthic organisms.

Tyler, A. O.; Millward, G. E.; Jones, P. H.; Turner, A.



Synthesis and spectral studies of platinum complexes of para-substituted 4-phenylthiosemicarbazides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum(II) complexes of para-substituted 4-phenylthiosemicarbazides, RPhNHCSNHNH 2 (R = H, CH 3, Br, F and NO 2) have been prepared and characterised by infrared and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The thiosemicarbazides act as bidentate ligands bonding through the sulphur and hydrazinic nitrogen atoms to form mixtures of cis- and trans-isomers of square planar complexes. 1H and 195Pt NMR spectroscopy suggest that the trans-isomer predominates in solution and that the relative ratio of trans: cis increases with increasing temperature of synthesis. 15N NMR spectroscopy has also been used to assign the cis- and trans-isomers of platinum complexes of 15N enriched 4-(4'-bromophenyl)thiosemicarbazide using 15N chemical shifts and … 1J 195Pt? 15N… values. The magnitude of the coupling constant … 1J 195Pt? 15N… of 238 Hz compares favourably with other platinum(II) complexes in which the 15N donor atom is trans to 15N and thus confirms the assignment of the trans-isomer as the predominant one in solution.

Arendse, Malcolm J.; Green, Ivan R.; Koch, K. R.



Searching for auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present special issue of physica status solidi (b), guest-edited by Krzysztof W. Wojciechowski, Andrew Alderson, Arkadiusz Braka, and Kim L. Alderson, is dedicated to Auxetics and Related Systems - materials which exhibit negative Poisson's ratio behaviour. Most papers were presented at a workshop which was held in Pozna-Bdlewo, 27-30 June 2004.In our Editor's Choice [1] novel simulations with a parallel finite element program, ParaDyn, have been conducted to study the formation of auxetic materials. Structures composed of either brick elements (hexahedra) or shell elements are constructed in a regular array of panels. These structures are compressed and relaxed to form an initial state for an auxetic (foam-like) material. The foam structure shown is composed of 208896 shell elements arranged in four by four panels. Applying a uniaxial compression to this structure characterizes the material behaviour of the lateral surfaces as normal (expanding) or auxetic (compressing).The first author, William G. Hoover, has been working in areas such as statistical and applied mechanics, nonlinear and molecular dynamics and is now pursuing, as he states on his own webpage, an active retired research career as Professor Emeritus of UC Davis.

Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.



Analysis of passive motion of para- and retropharyngeal structures during swallowing using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.  


The purpose of this study was to analyze passive motion of the para- and retropharyngeal space (PRS) during swallowing using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We conducted a preliminary study involving 30 healthy volunteers who underwent dynamic MRI. Consecutive MRI axial images were obtained by examining the plane parallel to the hard palate at the level of the anterior inferior corner of C2. Anterior displacement of the posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW) was measured as a motion index of pharyngeal contraction. The displacement and internal angle of the bilateral external and internal carotid arteries (ECA and ICA) and the bilateral centroids of the PRS area, as well as the increase in PRS area, were calculated at rest and at maximum pharyngeal contraction. In most participants, the bilateral ECA, ICA, and centroids were anterointernally displaced by pharyngeal contraction. The normalized ECA displacement (r = 0.64, r (2) = 0.41), normalized ICA displacement (r = 0.60, r (2) = 0.37), and normalized centroid displacement (r = 0.43, r (2) = 0.19) were more than moderately positively correlated with the normalized PPW displacement. The normalized PRS area increase (r = 0.35, r (2) = 0.12) was weakly positively correlated with the normalized PPW displacement. These results revealed that PRS area increased as the ECA and ICA were drawn anterointernally via its passive motion by pharyngeal contraction. PMID:24859486

Chitose, Shun-Ichi; Haraguchi, Masahiro; Nagata, Shuji; Katayama, Reiji; Sato, Kiminori; Fukahori, Mioko; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Abe, Toshi; Nakashima, Tadashi



[Classification as carcinogenic for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin: an eventful journey].  


Carcinogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) and some other dioxin congeners is long time discussed by epidemiological and experimental studies, often with conflicting findings. The inclusion of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in Group 1 by 1ARC in 1997 was based essentially on mechanistic evidence and experimental studies despite the limited evidence in humans. This procedure generated a lot of controversy. Some scientists agree with this classification and sometimes suggested increased cancer mortality risk with TCDD daily intake similar to those of the general population. Other authors re-analyzing data mainly from caselist previously investigated did not confirm the 2,3,7,8-TCDD carcinogenicity. In the review process of carcinogenic substances by IARC in 2010, the evidence for 2,3,7,8-TCDD carcinogenicity in humans upgraded from limited to sufficient, due to confirmed and integrated epidemiological evidences. It is also confirmed that these findings relate to all cancers combined, while for some "classic" cancers related to TCDD (as soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) the evidence remains limited. In this paper a literature review accompanied by comments is reported with the aim to provide information about the evaluation process and tools for its more critical and scrupulous interpretation. PMID:21425634

Apostoli, Pietro; Bergonzi, Roberto; Catalani, Simona



Para-veterinary professionals and the development of quality, self-sustaining community-based services.  


Livestock are a major asset for rural households throughout the developing world and are increasingly regarded as a means of reducing poverty. However, many rural areas are characterised by limited or no accessibility to veterinary services. Economic theory indicates that primary level services can be provided by para-veterinary professionals working as private operators and as an outreach component of veterinary clinics and pharmacies in small urban centres. Experience from the development of community-based animal health worker (CAHW) systems indicates that these workers can have a substantial impact on livestock morbidity and mortality through the treatment or prevention of a limited range of animal health problems. Factors for success include community involvement in the design and implementation of these systems, and involvement of the private sector to supply and supervise CAHWs. Examples of privatised and veterinary supervised CAHW networks are cited to show the considerable potential of this simple model to improve primary animal health services in marginalised areas. An analysis of constraints indicates that inappropriate policies and legislation are a major concern. By referring to the section on the evaluation of Veterinary Services in the OIE (World organisation for animal health) Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the paper proposes guidelines to assist governments in improving the regulation, quality, and co-ordination of privatised, veterinary supervised CAHW systems. PMID:15200100

Catley, A; Leyland, T; Mariner, J C; Akabwai, D M O; Admassu, B; Asfaw, W; Bekele, G; Hassan, H Sh



LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.  


The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging. PMID:24784636

Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn



HERRAMIENTAS GERENCIALES PARA EL POSICIONAMIENTO DE LA EMPRESA SOSTENIBLE Y EL MARKETING ECOLÓGICO Management tools and positioning of sustainable enterprises and marketing ecological  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN La civilización humana está direccionando su acción comercial hacia el componente ecológico, tomando como principio la gerencia para proyectarse al mercado verde es decir, productos que generen menor impacto ambiental. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las herramientas gerenciales para el posicionamiento de la empresa sostenible y el marketing ecológico. Este trabajo de investigación fue descriptivo, transeccional y

Dalia Plata de Plata



Microsoft Academic Search

Recibido para revisar octubre 06 de 2006, aceptado febrero 05 de 2007, versión final febrero 28 de 2007 RESUMEN: En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un prototipo digital utilizando un procesador de señales digitales DSP, al cual se le han incorporado dos algoritmos para diagnosticar fallas en el estator de motores de inducción. El primer algoritmo utiliza las

FERNANDO VILLADA DUQUE; Ingeniero Electricista; VELÁSQUEZ V; Ingeniero Electrónico; DIEGO R. CADAVID



Involvement of the azorhizobial chromosome partition gene (parA) in the onset of bacteroid differentiation during Sesbania rostrata stem nodule development.  


A parA gene in-frame deletion mutant of Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 (ORS571-?parA) was constructed to evaluate the roles of the chromosome-partitioning gene on various bacterial traits and on the development of stem-positioned nodules. The ?parA mutant showed a pleiomorphic cell shape phenotype and was polyploid, with differences in nucleoid sizes due to dramatic defects in chromosome partitioning. Upon inoculation of the ?parA mutant onto the stem of Sesbania rostrata, three types of immature nodule-like structures with impaired nitrogen-fixing activity were generated. Most showed signs of bacteroid early senescence. Moreover, the ?parA cells within the nodule-like structures exhibited multiple developmental-stage phenotypes. Since the bacA gene has been considered an indicator for bacteroid formation, we applied the expression pattern of bacA as a nodule maturity index in this study. Our data indicate that the bacA gene expression is parA dependent in symbiosis. The presence of the parA gene transcript was inversely correlated with the maturity of nodule; the transcript was switched off in fully mature bacteroids. In summary, our experimental evidence demonstrates that the parA gene not only plays crucial roles in cellular development when the microbe is free-living but also negatively regulates bacteroid formation in S. rostrata stem nodules. PMID:21571889

Liu, Chi-Te; Lee, Kyung-Bum; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Peng, Min-Hua; Lee, Kung-Ta; Suzuki, Shino; Suzuki, Tadahiro; Oyaizu, Hiroshi



Normas Chilenas para el MACI: Una Integración de Criterios Categoriales y Dimensionales1 Chilean Norms for MACI: An Integration of Categorical and Dimensional Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Este estudio desarrolló normas chilenas para el Inventario Clínico para Adolescentes de Millon (MACI) utilizando una muestra de baremación diferenciada por sexo y dicotomizada en dos grupos, no-consultantes (200 hombres y 206 mujeres) y consultantes (212 hombres y 189 mujeres), que respondió el MACI y el MMPI-A. Con los datos MACI se desarrolló un conjunto de análisis estadísticos de

Eugenia V. Vinet



An apparatus to control and monitor the para-D 2 concentration in a solid deuterium, superthermal source of ultra-cold neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling and measuring the concentration of para-D 2 is an essential step toward realizing solid deuterium as an intense ultra-cold neutron source. To this end, we implemented an experimental technique to convert para- to ortho-deuterium molecules by flowing D 2 gas through a cryogenic cell filled with paramagnetic hydrous ferric oxide granules. This process efficiently reduced the para-D 2 concentration from 33.3% to 1.5%. Rotational Raman spectroscopy was applied to measure the residual para-D 2 contamination to better than 2 parts in 10 3, and the hydrogen contamination to 1 part in 10 3. We also contrast our optical technique to conventional thermal conductivity measurements of the para-D 2 concentration, reporting some of the relevant strengths and weaknesses of our implementation of each technique.

Liu, C.-Y.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Saunders, A.; Smith, D.; Young, A. R.



Propuesta de un m‚todo para la elecci¢n de buenas alternativas para la localizaci¢n de empresas de reciclaje de RAEE en Espa¤a  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ante la necesidad de Espa¤a de instalar nuevas empresas de reciclaje de RAEE, este trabajo proporciona a los agentes decisores una ordenaci¢n de los principales municipios espa¤oles seg£n su apropiabilidad para la instalaci¢n de estas empresas. Desarrolla un procedimiento que consiste en la identificaci¢n de los factores relevantes que deben tenerse en cuenta y en la posterior aplicaci¢n de una

Dolores Queiruga; Javier Gonz lez Benito; Grit Walther; Thomas Spengler



Characterization of a para -nitrophenol catabolic cluster in Pseudomonas sp. strain NyZ402 and construction of an engineered strain capable of simultaneously mineralizing both para - and ortho -nitrophenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas sp. strain NyZ402 was isolated for its ability to grow on para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy, and was shown to degrade PNP via an oxidization pathway.\\u000a This strain was also capable of growing on hydroquinone or catechol. A 15, 818 bp DNA fragment extending from a 800-bp DNA\\u000a fragment of hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase gene (pnpG)

Qing WeiHong; Hong Liu; Jun-Jie Zhang; Song-He Wang; Yi Xiao; Ning-Yi Zhou



Liquid chromatographic determination of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fillet tissues from three species of fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chloramine-T (N-sodium-N-chloro-p-toluene-sulfonamide) is a candidate therapeutic drug for treating bacterial gill disease, a predominant disease of a variety of fish species. Research has been initiated to obtain the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T on a variety of fish species. An attribute of a therapeutic aquaculture drug that must be characterized before the FDA approves its use is depletion of the drug's marker residue (the drug's parent compound or metabolite of highest concentration in an edible tissue). Para-Toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) is the primary degradation product and marker residue for chloramine-T in rainbow trout. To conduct residue depletion studies for chloramine-T in fish, a robust analytical method sensitive and specific for p-TSA residues in edible fillet tissue from a variety of fish was required. Homogenized fillet tissues from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were fortified at nominal p-TSA concentrations of 17, 67, 200, 333, and 1000 ng/g. Samples were analyzed by isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection at 226 nm. Mean recoveries of p-TSA ranged from 77 to 93.17%; relative standard deviations ranged from 1.5 to 14%; method quantitation limits ranged from 13 to 18 ng/g; and method detection limits ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 ng/g. The LC parameters produced p-TSA peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds and excluded chromatographic interference from at least 20 chemicals and drugs of potential use in aquaculture.

Meinertz, J. R.; Schmidt, L. J.; Stehly, G. R.; Gingerich, W. H.



High-strength poly(para-phenylene) as an orthopedic biomaterial.  


Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) exhibits exceptional mechanical strength, stiffness, toughness, and chemical inertness, although it is not currently used in any biomedical applications. The purpose of this study is to serve as a preliminary investigation into the potential of PPP as a biomaterial in orthopedic load-bearing applications. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis confirmed a polymer structure composed of an aromatic backbone and side groups. Tensile PPP specimens along with samples from several other polymers often used for orthopedic applications were elongated to failure after being soaked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 1 h, 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and more than 1 year. Results showed that PBS absorption of the PPP plateaued at 1 week at values of ?0.7 wt % and remained within one standard deviation when soaked for over 1 year. PBS absorption did not affect elastic modulus (5.0 GPa), yield strength (141 MPa), fracture strength (120 MPa) and strain-to-failure (17%) more than one standard deviation. Zero-to-tension fatigue testing established an endurance limit of approximately 35 MPa, which was relatively insensitive to frequency (1-10 Hz). Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) elution assay with fibroblasts confirmed that the PPP was noncytotoxic. Relative to other polymers used for load-bearing biomedical applications, PPP displays promising mechanical properties that remain stable in aqueous solution. Lastly, prototype PPP and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) bone plates were manufactured and tested, with the PPP plate showing a 38% higher maximum tensile load before failure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 3122-3129, 2014. PMID:24123879

Frick, Carl P; DiRienzo, Amy L; Hoyt, Anthony J; Safranski, David L; Saed, Mohand; Losty, Eric J; Yakacki, Christopher M



Chelation Therapy of Manganese Intoxication with para-Aminosalicylic Acid (PAS) in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), an FDA-approved anti-tuberculosis drug, has been used successfully in the treatment of severe manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism in humans (Jiang et al., JOEM 48:644, 2006). This study was conducted to explore the capability of PAS in reducing Mn concentrations in body fluids and tissues of Mn-exposed animals. Sprague-Dawley rats received daily intraperitoneally (i.p.) injections of 6 mg Mn/kg, 5 d/wk for 4 wks, followed by a daily subcutaneously (sc.) dose of PAS (100 and 200 mg/kg as the PAS-L and PAS-H group, respectively) for another 2, 3 or 6 wks. Mn exposure significantly increased the concentrations of Mn in plasma, red blood cells (RBC), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain and soft tissues. Following PAS-H treatment for 3 wks, Mn levels in liver, heart, spleen and pancreas were significantly reduced by 25 to 33%, while 3 wks of PAS-L treatment did not show any effect. Further therapy with PAS-H for 6 wk reduced Mn levels in striatum, thalamus, choroid plexus, hippocampus and frontal cortex by 16 to 29% (p<0.05). Mn exposure greatly increased iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) concentrations in CSF, brain and liver. Treatment with PAS-H restored Fe and Cu levels comparable with control. These data suggest that PAS likely acts as a chelating agent to mobilize and remove tissue Mn. A high-dose and prolonged PAS treatment appears necessary for its therapeutic effectiveness.

Zheng, Wei; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Yanshu; Jiang, Wendy; Wang, Xueqian; Cowan, Dallas M.



Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Postpartum Latinas: Madres para la Salud  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors of postpartum Latinas who are overweight or obese prior to initiating Madres para la Salud, a social-support mediated walking intervention to promote postpartum weight loss. Methods 139 postpartum (13.6 ± 7.7 weeks since childbirth) women (age = 28.3 ± 5.6 years and BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg.m2), recruited from Phoenix area Latino-serving organizations completed the Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS) and concurrently wore an accelerometer (AG) and a pedometer for 7-days, and kept a PA record (PAR). Results Most were classified as inactive and lightly active on the SBAS (51% inactive, 37% light, 11% moderate). Most time was spent in sedentary (512.0 ± 169.9 min.d?1) and light-intensity PA (242.4 ± 51.4 min.d?1) with less time in moderate-intensity lifestyle (78.3 ± 39.9 min.d?1), moderate-intensity walking (16.6 ± 14.4 min.d?1), and vigorous-intensity PA (0.34 ± 1.5 min.d?1). Pedometer steps.d?1 were low (total = 4,973 ± 2,202 steps; aerobic = 412 ± 774 steps) with most participants rated as sedentary (61%) or low-active (28.1%). Consistent with objective PA measures, PARs showed more time spent in light-intensity PAs such as home care, cooking, child- and self care tasks, occupation, religious events, and watching television. Conclusion By and large, the postpartum Latinas enrolled spent most of their day in low-intensity activity levels with little time spent in health-enhancing PA levels/behaviors. This demographic should be the focus of PA interventions to increase PA to health enhancing levels.

Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Keller, Colleen; Herrmann, Stephen; Belyea, Michael; Records, Kathryn; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Vega-Lopez, Sonia; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean V.



Nitration of endogenous para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and the metabolism of nitrotyrosine.  

PubMed Central

Reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite, can nitrate tyrosine in proteins to form nitrotyrosine. Nitrotyrosine is metabolized to 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (NHPA), which is excreted in the urine. This has led to the notion that measurement of urinary NHPA may provide a time-integrated index of nitrotyrosine formation in vivo. However, it is not known whether NHPA is derived exclusively from metabolism of nitrotyrosine, or whether it can be formed by nitration of circulating para -hydroxyphenylacetic acid (PHPA), a metabolite of tyrosine. In the present study, we have developed a gas chromatography MS assay for NHPA and PHPA to determine whether or not NHPA can be formed directly by nitration of PHPA. Following the injection of nitrotyrosine, 0.5+/-0.16% of injected dose was recovered unchanged as nitrotyrosine, and 4.3+/-0.2% as NHPA in the urine. To determine whether or not NHPA could be formed by the nitration of PHPA, deuterium-labelled PHPA ([(2)H(6)]PHPA) was injected, and the formation of deuterated NHPA ([(2)H(5)]NHPA) was measured. Of the infused [(2)H(6)]PHPA, 78+/-2% was recovered in the urine unchanged, and approx. 0.23% was recovered as [(2)H(5)]NHPA. Since the plasma concentration of PHPA is markedly higher than free nitrotyrosine (approx. 400-fold), the nitration of high-circulating endogenous PHPA to form NHPA becomes very significant and accounts for the majority of NHPA excreted in urine. This is the first study to demonstrate that NHPA can be formed by nitration of PHPA in vivo, and that this is the major route for its formation.

Mani, Ali R; Pannala, Ananth S; Orie, Nelson N; Ollosson, Richard; Harry, David; Rice-Evans, Catherine A; Moore, Kevin P



Genes, Enzymes, and Regulation of para-Cresol Metabolism in Geobacter metallireducens? †  

PubMed Central

In aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the degradation of para-cresol (p-cresol) involves the initial hydroxylation to p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol by water catalyzed by the soluble, periplasmatic flavocytochrome p-cresol methylhydroxylase (PCMH; ?2?2 composition). In denitrifying bacteria the further metabolism proceeds via oxidation to p-hydroxybenzoate, the formation of p-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), and the subsequent dehydroxylation of the latter to benzoyl-CoA by reduction. In contrast, the strictly anaerobic Desulfobacterium cetonicum degrades p-cresol by addition to fumarate, yielding p-hydroxybenzylsuccinate. In this work, in vitro enzyme activity measurements revealed that the obligately anaerobic Geobacter metallireducens uses the p-cresol degradation pathway of denitrifying bacteria. Surprisingly, PCMH, which is supposed to catalyze both p-cresol hydroxylation and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation to the corresponding aldehyde, was located in the membrane fraction. The ? subunit of the enzyme was present in two isoforms, suggesting an ????2 composition. We propose that the unusual asymmetric architecture and the membrane association of PCMH might be important for alternative electron transfer routes to either cytochrome c (in the case of p-cresol oxidation) or to menaquinone (in the case of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation). Unusual properties of further enzymes of p-cresol metabolism, p-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase, and p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase were identified and are discussed. A proteomic approach identified a gene cluster comprising most of the putative structural genes for enzymes involved in p-cresol metabolism (pcm genes). Reverse transcription-PCR studies revealed a different regulation of transcription of pcm genes and the corresponding enzyme activities, suggesting the presence of posttranscriptional regulatory elements.

Peters, Franziska; Heintz, Dimitri; Johannes, Jorg; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Boll, Matthias



Origin of the bimodal island size distribution in ultrathin films of para-hexaphenyl on mica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin films of para-hexaphenyl (6P) were prepared on freshly cleaved and sputter-amorphized mica(001) by physical vapor deposition. Ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a bimodal island size distribution for the films on both surfaces. On freshly cleaved mica long needlelike islands exist, which are surrounded by small crystallites. On the sputter-amorphized substrates, large dendritic islands exist which are again surrounded by small, compact islands. We could prove by thermal desorption spectroscopy that the small islands are the result of adsorbate-induced subsequent nucleation, when the films were exposed to air. In case of the freshly cleaved mica, islands grow on a wetting layer in vacuum. This layer dewets and forms the small islands upon venting, due to the adsorption of water. In the case of the amorphous mica substrate an equilibrium exists between the islands and a two-dimensional gas phase in the sub-monolayer regime. Again, the latter phase nucleates after venting. In a particular coverage range, islands due to nucleation during deposition and subsequent nucleation coexist on the substrate, leading to the bimodal island size distribution. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were performed to model the nucleation process after venting on the sputter-modified mica substrate. The density of the subsequently nucleated islands just depends on the initial coverage and the critical island size. A critical cluster size of i = 7 molecules was determined for 6P on amorphized mica, by comparing the KMC results with the AFM images in case of adsorbate-induced nucleation. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained island size distributions could be well reproduced by KMC simulations.

Tumbek, L.; Gleichweit, C.; Zojer, K.; Winkler, A.



Tyrosine-lipid peroxide adducts from radical termination: para coupling and intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization.  


Free radical co-oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids with tyrosine or phenolic analogues of tyrosine gave rise to lipid peroxide-tyrosine (phenol) adducts in both aqueous micellar and organic solutions. The novel adducts were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry (MS). The spectral data suggest that the polyunsaturated lipid peroxyl radicals give stable peroxide coupling products exclusively at the para position of the tyrosyl (phenoxy) radicals. These adducts have characteristic (13)C chemical shifts at 185 ppm due to the cross-conjugated carbonyl of the phenol-derived cyclohexadienone. The primary peroxide adducts subsequently undergo intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cyclization, affording a number of diastereomeric tricyclic adducts that have characteristic carbonyl (13)C chemical shifts at ~198 ppm. All of the NMR HMBC and HSQC correlations support the structure assignments of the primary and Diels-Alder adducts, as does MS collision-induced dissociation data. Kinetic rate constants and activation parameters for the IMDA reaction were determined, and the primary adducts were reduced with cuprous ion to give a phenol-derived 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone. No products from adduction of peroxyls at the phenolic ortho position were found in either the primary or cuprous reduction product mixtures. These studies provide a framework for understanding the nature of lipid-protein adducts formed by peroxyl-tyrosyl radical-radical termination processes. Coupling of lipid peroxyl radicals with tyrosyl radicals leads to cyclohexenone and cyclohexadienone adducts, which are of interest in and of themselves since, as electrophiles, they are likely targets for protein nucleophiles. One consequence of lipid peroxyl reactions with tyrosyls may therefore be protein-protein cross-links via interprotein Michael adducts. PMID:21090613

Shchepin, Roman; Möller, Matias N; Kim, Hye-young H; Hatch, Duane M; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael; Porter, Ned A



High stroke volume para-aortic counterpulsation device versus centrifugal pump in cardiogenic shock: experimental study.  


During the last decades a number of left ventricular assist devices has been used especially for patients resistant to pharmacologic treatment and to intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) support for left ventricular failure. A high stroke volume para-aortic counterpulsation device (PACD) has been developed utilizing the principle of the diastolic counterpulsation technique. In this study the hemodynamic effects of the valveless PACD were compared to those of the centrifugal blood pump (CBP) in nine dogs in acute experimental cardiogenic shock. Hemodynamic measurements were obtained at baseline with both devices off, PACD on and CBP off, or PACD off and CBP on. There was no difference in mean aortic pressure between PACD on (60.0 +/- 11.5 mmHg) and CBP on (69.0 +/- 26.8 mmHg). Similarly, there was no difference in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure with the PACD on (11.9 +/- 5.4 mmHg) versus the CBP on (9.9 +/- 5.2 mmHg) or the cardiac index with the PACD on (84 +/- 36 ml/kg/min) versus the CBP on (77 +/- 36 ml/kg/min). However, the left ventricular systolic pressure (55.0 +/- 19.0 with PACD versus 73.0 +/- 26.0 with CBP,p < 0.001), the tension time index (712 +/- 381 versus 1333 +/- 694,p < 0.01), and the double product (5629 +/- 2574 versus 7440 +/- 3294,p < 0.01) were significantly lower during assistance with the PACD than with the CBP. It was concluded that PACD is at least as effective as CBP for restoring hemodynamic status during acute experimental cardiogenic shock. Moreover, the PACD unloads the left ventricle more effectively than CBP, making it suitable for left ventricular mechanical support in cases with reversible myocardial damage. PMID:9015178

Nanas, S N; Nanas, J N; Charitos, C E; Gougoulakis, A; Makaritsis, K; Chatzigeorgiou, J; Moussoutzani, K; Anastasiou-Nana, M I; Moulopoulos, S D



Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

Bennett, Gordon D.



Membrane Potential-Dependent Inhibition of the Na+,K+-ATPase by para-Nitrobenzyltriethylammonium Bromide  

PubMed Central

Membrane potential (VM)-dependent inhibitors of the Na+,K+-ATPase are a new class of compounds that may have inherent advantages over currently available drugs targeting this enzyme. However, two questions remain unanswered regarding these inhibitors: (1) what is the mechanism of VM-dependent Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition, and (2) is their binding affinity high enough to consider them as possible lead compounds? To address these questions, we investigated how a recently synthesized VM-dependent Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor, para-nitrobenzyltriethylamine (pNBTEA), binds to the enzyme by measuring the extracellular pNBTEA concentration and VM dependence of ouabain-sensitive transient charge movements in whole-cell patch-clamped rat cardiac ventricular myocytes. By analyzing the kinetics of charge movements and the steady-state distribution of charge, we show that the VM-dependent properties of pNBTEA binding differ from those for extracellular Na+ and K+ binding, even though inhibitor binding is competitive with extracellular K+. The data were also fit to specific models for pNBTEA binding to show that pNBTEA binding is a rate-limiting VM-dependent reaction that, in light of homology models for the Na+,K+-ATPase, we interpret as a transfer reaction of pNBTEA from a peripheral binding site in the enzyme to a site near the known K+ coordination sites buried within the transmembrane helices of the enzyme. These models also suggest that binding occurs with an apparent affinity of 7 ?M. This apparent binding affinity suggests that high-affinity VM-dependent Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitors should be feasible to design and test as specific enzyme inhibitors.

Peluffo, R. Daniel