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Sample records for cajanus cajan para

  1. Antiplasmodial constituents of Cajanus cajan.

    PubMed

    Duker-Eshun, George; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Asomaning, William A; Oppong-Boachie, Francis; Brøgger Christensen, S

    2004-02-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts of roots and leaves of Cajanus cajan afforded 8 compounds: betulinic acid, biochanin A, cajanol, genistein and 2'-hydroxygenistein, longistylin A and C, and pinostrobin. The two stilbenes, longistylin A and C, and betulinic acid showed a moderately high in vitro activity against the chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7. PMID:15022164

  2. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mishra, Pragya; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, Ashoke K.

    2011-01-01

    Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur) (family: Fabaceae) is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details. PMID:22247887

  3. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mishra, Pragya; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, Ashoke K

    2011-10-01

    Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur) (family: Fabaceae) is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details. PMID:22247887

  4. Genetic patterns of domestication in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and wild Cajanus relatives.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Mulualem T; Penmetsa, R Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Sarma, Birinchi K; Datta, Subhojit; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Varshney, Rajeev K; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Cook, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history and relationships to wild species. Here we use 752 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 670 low copy orthologous genes to clarify the evolutionary history of pigeonpea (79 accessions) and its wild relatives (31 accessions). We identified three well-supported lineages that are geographically clustered and congruent with previous nuclear and plastid sequence-based phylogenies. Among all species analyzed Cajanus cajanifolius is the most probable progenitor of cultivated pigeonpea. Multiple lines of evidence suggest recent gene flow between cultivated and non-cultivated forms, as well as historical gene flow between diverged but sympatric species. Evidence supports that primary domestication occurred in India, with a second and more recent nested population bottleneck focused in tropical regions that is the likely consequence of pigeonpea breeding. We find abundant allelic variation and genetic diversity among the wild relatives, with the exception of wild species from Australia for which we report a third bottleneck unrelated to domestication within India. Domesticated C. cajan possess 75% less allelic diversity than the progenitor clade of wild Indian species, indicating a severe "domestication bottleneck" during pigeonpea domestication. PMID:22745789

  5. Genetic Patterns of Domestication in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and Wild Cajanus Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Kassa, Mulualem T.; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Datta, Subhojit; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.; Cook, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history and relationships to wild species. Here we use 752 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 670 low copy orthologous genes to clarify the evolutionary history of pigeonpea (79 accessions) and its wild relatives (31 accessions). We identified three well-supported lineages that are geographically clustered and congruent with previous nuclear and plastid sequence-based phylogenies. Among all species analyzed Cajanus cajanifolius is the most probable progenitor of cultivated pigeonpea. Multiple lines of evidence suggest recent gene flow between cultivated and non-cultivated forms, as well as historical gene flow between diverged but sympatric species. Evidence supports that primary domestication occurred in India, with a second and more recent nested population bottleneck focused in tropical regions that is the likely consequence of pigeonpea breeding. We find abundant allelic variation and genetic diversity among the wild relatives, with the exception of wild species from Australia for which we report a third bottleneck unrelated to domestication within India. Domesticated C. cajan possess 75% less allelic diversity than the progenitor clade of wild Indian species, indicating a severe “domestication bottleneck” during pigeonpea domestication. PMID:22745789

  6. Identification of metabolites from an active fraction of Cajanus cajan seeds by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tekale, Satishkumar S; Jaiwal, Bhimrao V; Padul, Manohar V

    2016-11-15

    Antioxidants are important food additives which prolong food storage due to their protective effects against oxidative degradation of foods by free radicals. However, the synthetic antioxidants show toxic properties. Alternative economical and eco-friendly approach is screening of plant extract for natural antioxidants. Plant phenolics are potent antioxidants. Hence, in present study Cajanus cajan seeds were analyzed for antioxidant activity, Iron chelating activity and total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay showed 71.3% inhibition and 65.8% Iron chelating activity. Total 37 compounds including some short peptides and five major abundant compounds were identified in active fraction of C. cajan seeds. This study concludes that C. cajan seeds are good source of antioxidants and Iron chelating activity. Metabolites found in C. cajan seeds which remove reactive oxygen species (ROS), may help to alleviate oxidative stress associated dreaded health problem like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27283694

  7. Pinostrobin from Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. inhibits sodium channel-activated depolarization of mouse brain synaptoneurosomes.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Russell A; David, Laurence S; Pan, Rui Le; Liu, Xin Min

    2010-10-01

    This investigation focuses on the in vitro neuroactive properties of pinostrobin, a substituted flavanone from Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. of the Fabaceae family. We demonstrate that pinostrobin inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels of mammalian brain (IC(50)=23 µM) based on the ability of this substance to suppress the depolarizing effects of the sodium channel-selective activator veratridine in a synaptoneurosomal preparation from mouse brain. The resting membrane potential of synaptoneurosomes was unaffected by pinostrobin. The pharmacological profile of pinostrobin resembles that of depressant drugs that block sodium channels. PMID:20472040

  8. HCH, endosulfan, and fluvalinate residue behavior in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp)

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, I.; Gopal, M.; Yaduraju, N.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) is one of the major pulse crop of India. The loss of pigeonpea crop due to pod and foliage pests is significant, the major pests being pod fly, hairy caterpillar, aphids, white fly, plume moth borer, leaf caterpillar and jassids. It is imperative to save every grain by chemical control methods but these toxicants should not leave unusually high residues on the edible parts. In this paper the authors report the residue behavior of three different insecticides namely, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan and fluvalinate on this crop.

  9. In vitro Antioxidant and Pharmacognostic Studies of Leaf Extracts of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp

    PubMed Central

    Mahitha, B.; Archana, P.; Ebrahimzadeh, MD. H.; Srikanth, K.; Rajinikanth, M.; Ramaswamy, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is one of the second most dietary legume crops. The leaf extracts may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The ash values, extractive values, total phenolic and flavonoid content, in vitro antioxidant activity of various leaf extracts as well as anatomical investigation of Cajanus cajan were carried out. Physicochemical parameters such as total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values and moisture content of the leaf powder of C. cajan were found to be 9.50%, 1.40 g/100 g, 4.15 g/100 g drug and 6.72%, respectively. Percent yield of acetone, aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform leaf extracts were 9.0, 10.6, 13.75, 8.7 and 5.8 g/100 g, respectively. Significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid content were observed. The results of the antioxidant activity were found to be concentration-dependent. The IC50 values for DPPH assay determined for aqueous and ethanol extracts were 0.69 and 0.79 mg/ml, respectively. Reducing power is increased with increasing amount of concentration in both aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts. The highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity reached up to 83.67% in aqueous and 78.75% in ethanol extracts and in phosphomolybdenum assay the aqueous extract showed strong antioxidant capacity up to 55.97 nM gallic acid equivalents/g. It was found that the aqueous extract possessed highest antioxidant activity in all the assays tested. The antioxidant characteristics of leaf extracts are possibly because of the presence of polyphenols. Microscopic study showed the presence of collenchyma, fibres, xylem, phloem, epidermis, trichomes, palisade tissue, basal sheath, pith and cortex in leaf, petiole and pulvinus. PMID:26009649

  10. Evaluation of Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) for phytoremediation of landfill leachate containing chromium and lead.

    PubMed

    Jerez Ch, José A; Romero, Rosaura M

    2016-11-01

    Landfill leachates containing heavy metals are important contaminants and a matter of great concern due to the effect that they might have on ecosystems. We evaluated the use of Cajanus cajan to remove chromium and lead from landfill leachates. Eight-week-old plants were submitted to varied tests to select the experimental conditions. Water assays with a solution (pH 6) containing leachate (25% v/v) were selected; the metals were added as potassium dichromate and lead (II) nitrate salts. Soil matrices that contained leachate (30% v/v) up to field capacity were used. For both water and soil assays, the metal concentrations were 10 mg kg(-1). C. cajan proved able to remove 49% of chromium and 36% of lead, both from dilute leachate. The plants also removed 34.7% of chromium from irrigated soil, but were unable to decrease the lead content. Removal of nitrogen from landfill leachate was also tested, resulting in elimination of 85% of ammonia and 70% of combined nitrite/nitrate species. The results indicate that C. cajan might be an effective candidate for the rhizofiltration of leachates containing chromium and lead, and nitrogen in large concentrations. PMID:27196815

  11. Pinostrobin and Cajanus lactone isolated from Cajanus cajan (L.) leaves inhibits TNF-α and IL-1β production: in vitro and in vivo experimentation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neeraj K; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2014-06-15

    The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) inhibitory activities of Cajanus cajan (leaves) crude methanolic extract, its fractions and its phytochemical constituents were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Phytochemical investigation of the active ethyl acetate (CCE) and n-butanol (CCB) fractions of C. cajan L. leaves yielded 14 compounds. It was observed that both pinostrobin (9) and cajanus lactone (4) were found to be most active in inhibiting TNF-α (IC50<22 μM) and IL-1β (IC50<40 μM) whereas compounds 2, 3, 5-8, 10 and 14 showed moderate and mild effects (IC50=35.50-81.22 μM for TNF-α and 38.23-89.10 μM for IL-1β) in both the cell lines. Furthermore, at dose of 20mg/kg, both pinostrobin (9) and cajanus lactone (4) were found to reduce LPS-induced TNF-α levels by 48.6% and 55.0% respectively and IL-1β levels by 53.1% and 41.8% respectively in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. These findings suggest that C. cajan L. leaves can be developed as an effective herbal remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammation or associated ailments. PMID:24680612

  12. Hepatoprotective effect of Caesalpinia gilliesii and Cajanus cajan proteins against acetoaminophen overdose-induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Maha Z; Aly, Hanan F; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Desoky, M M; Ibrahim, N; Younis, Eman A

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate two proteins derived from the seeds of the plants Cajanus cajan (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Leguminosae) for their abilities to ameliorate the toxic effects of chronic doses of acetoaminphen (APAP) through the determination of certain biochemical parameters including liver marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin. Also, total protein content and hepatic marker enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase were studied. Moreover, liver antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, and lipid peroxides were determined in this study. Hepatic adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), adenylate energy charge (ATP, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and inorganic phosphate), and phosphate potential, serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and myeloperoxidase were also examined in the present study. On the other hand, histopathological examination of intoxicated and liver treated with both proteins was taken into consideration. The present results show disturbances in all biochemical parameters and hepatic toxicity signs including mild vascular congestion, moderate inflammatory changes with moderate congested sinusoids, moderate nuclear changes (pyknosis), moderate centrilobular necrosis, fatty changes, nuclear pyknosis vascular congestion, and change in fatty centrilobular necrosis liver. Improvement in all biochemical parameters studied was noticed as a result of treatment intoxicated liver with C. gilliesii and C. cajan proteins either paracetamol with or post paracetamol treatment. These results were documented by the amelioration signs in rat's hepatic architecture. Thus, both plant protein extracts can upregulate and counteract the inflammatory process, minimize damage of the liver, delay disease progression, and reduce its complications. PMID:24414985

  13. Morpho-anatomical and growth alterations induced by arsenic in Cajanus cajan (L.) DC (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Pita-Barbosa, Alice; Gonçalves, Elton Carvalho; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves

    2015-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element to most organisms. Studies investigating anatomic alterations due to As exposure in plants are scarce but of utmost importance to the establishment of environmental biomonitoring techniques. So, this study aimed to investigate the effects of As on the development and initial root growth in Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), characterize and quantify the possible damages, evaluate genotoxic effects, and identify structural markers to be used in environmental bioindication. Plants were exposed hydroponically to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg As L(-1), as sodium arsenate. Growth parameters were measured, and in the end of the exposure, root samples were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative anatomical alterations. Arsenic genotoxicity was evaluated through analysis of the mitotic index in the root apex. Compared to the control, As-treated seedlings showed an altered architecture, with significantly decreased root length (due to the lower mitotic index in the apical meristem and reduced elongation of parenchyma cells) with darkened color, and abnormal development of the root cap. A significant increase in vascular cylinder/root diameter ratio was also detected, due to the reduction of the cellular spaces in the cortex. The secondary xylem vessel elements were reduced in diameter and had sinuous walls. The severest damage was visible in the ramification zone, where uncommon division planes of phellogen and cambium cells and disintegration of the parenchyma cells adjacent to lateral roots were observed. The high sensibility of C. cajan to As was confirmed, since it caused severe damages in root growth and anatomy. The main structural markers for As toxicity were the altered root architecture, with the reduction of the elongation zone and increase of ramification zone length, and the root primordia retained within the cortex. Our results show a new approach about As toxicity and indicate that C. cajan is a promising species to be used for

  14. Comparative analysis of genome-wide Mlo gene family in Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Reena; Singh, V K; Singh, B D

    2016-04-01

    The Mlo gene was discovered in barley because the mutant 'mlo' allele conferred broad-spectrum, non-race-specific resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The Mlo genes also play important roles in growth and development of plants, and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The Mlo gene family has been characterized in several crop species, but only a single legume species, soybean (Glycine max L.), has been investigated so far. The present report describes in silico identification of 18 CcMlo and 20 PvMlo genes in the important legume crops Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. and Phaseolus vulgaris L., respectively. In silico analysis of gene organization, protein properties and conserved domains revealed that the C. cajan and P. vulgaris Mlo gene paralogs are more divergent from each other than from their orthologous pairs. The comparative phylogenetic analysis classified CcMlo and PvMlo genes into three major clades. A comparative analysis of CcMlo and PvMlo proteins with the G. max Mlo proteins indicated close association of one CcMlo, one PvMlo with two GmMlo genes, indicating that there was no further expansion of the Mlo gene family after the separation of these species. Thus, most of the diploid species of eudicots might be expected to contain 15-20 Mlo genes. The genes CcMlo12 and 14, and PvMlo11 and 12 are predicted to participate in powdery mildew resistance. If this prediction were verified, these genes could be targeted by TILLING or CRISPR to isolate powdery mildew resistant mutants. PMID:26961357

  15. Increased effectiveness of competitive rhizobium strains upon inoculation of Cajanus cajan

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, B.S.; Poth, M.; Focht, D.D.

    1987-09-01

    A field study was conducted in lysimeters containing /sup 15/N-enriched soil to determine the effects of four competitive rhizobium strains upon yield parameters of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan). The greatest differences observed were in seed yields; strain P132 effected the highest seed yield (121 +/- 20 g per plant), and the control strain (indigenous rhizobia) effected the lowest yield (43.9 +/- 8 g per plant). With the exception of seeds and pods, the dry matter weights were not different. Although there appeared to be no effect by inoculum strains on the fractional content of N derived from biological nitrogen fixation when the total plant biomass was considered, strains P132 and 401 partitioned more of the N derived from fixation into seeds and leaves than did the other strains. Because the seeds comprised the major portion of plant N, more total N and more N derived from biological nitrogen fixation (about half of total N) were found in plants inoculated with P132, whereas the smallest amount was found in the uninoculated controls. P132 was also the best competitor with respect to indigenous rhizobia and accounted for all of the nodules found on the plants in which it was inoculated.

  16. Determination by flow cytometry polyploidy inducing-capacity of colchicine in Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp.

    PubMed

    Udensi, O U; Ontui, V

    2013-07-01

    The need to optimize flow cytometric analysis for the determination of ploidy level is a worthwhile venture to precisely know at what concentration of a mutagen and at what time of exposure polyploidy could be induced. Flow cytometry was used to determine the polyploidy inducing-capacity of colchicine in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp). Seeds of pigeon pea were soaked in three different concentrations of colchicine-5 mg, 10 and 15 mg L(-1) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, while the control group was soaked in water. Treated seeds and those from the control were planted in a greenhouse using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results show that colchicine induced tetraploids (4n) and mixoploids (2n+ 4n) as the concentration of colchicine increased and soaking duration. Days to seedling emergence increased as concentration of colchicine and duration of soaking increased while germination rate decreased proportionately with the increase in colchicine concentration and soaking duration but did not significantly affect percentage seedling survival. Explicitly, colchicine has the capacity of inducing polyploidy; especially tetraploids on the seeds of pigeon pea, which obviously could be harnessed for further breeding and improvement of the pigeon pea. PMID:24505986

  17. Influence of cadmium stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) causes oxidative damage and affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation process of legumes. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been demonstrated to alleviate heavy metal stress of plants. The present study was conducted to assess role of AM in alleviating negative effects of Cd on nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan genotypes differing in their metal tolerance. Fifteen day-old plants were subjected to Cd treatments--25 mg and 50 mg Cd per kg dry soil and were grown with and without Glomus mosseae. Cd treatments led to a decline in mycorrhizal infection (MI), nodule number and dry weights which was accompanied by reductions in leghemoglobin content, nitrogenase activity, organic acid contents. Cd supply caused a marked decrease in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) contents. Conversely, Cd increased membrane permeability, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Cd contents in nodules. AM inoculations were beneficial in reducing the above mentioned harmful effects of Cd and significantly improved nodule functioning. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) increased markedly in nodules of mycorrhizal-stressed plants. The negative effects of Cd were genotype and concentration dependent. PMID:22567695

  18. Identification of amylase inhibitor deficient mutants in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millisp.).

    PubMed

    Chougule, N P; Giri, A P; Hivrale, V K; Chhabda, P J; Kachole, M S

    2004-06-01

    We have developed and analyzed several mutant lines (M6 generation) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) for the content of defensive proteins and antinutritional factors. Inhibitors of proteinase and of amylase, lectins, and raffinose family oligosaccharides were analyzed in mature seeds of different pigeonpea accessions (untreated) and compared with mutant lines. Proteinase inhibitor profiles were similar in terms of number and intensities of activity bands but they differ marginally in the activity units in pigeonpea accessions and mutants. Pigeonpea mutants showed significant differences in amylase inhibitor profiles as well as activity units from those of pigeonpea accessions. Interestingly, two mutants (A6-5-1 and A7-3-2) were identified to have absence of amylase inhibitor isoforms. Hemagglutinating activity and raffinose family oligosaccharides content were found to be significantly higher in mutants than in accessions. It is evident from the results that proteinase inhibitors of pigeonpea are stable while amylase inhibitors, lectins, and raffinose family oligosaccharides show altered expression upon mutagen treatments. These mutants will be ideal candidates for further evaluation. PMID:15260142

  19. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and β-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA. PMID:22102911

  20. Germinated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan): a novel diet for lowering oxidative stress and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Uchegbu, Nneka N; Ishiwu, Charles N

    2016-09-01

    This work studied the antioxidant activity of extract of germinated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Germination was carried out in a dark chamber under room temperature (28°C). The total phenolic, 1,1,diphenyl-2-picrylhy-drazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were done in vitro and blood glucose levels of the animal were investigated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic and DPPH scavenging activity increased by 30% and 63%, respectively, after germinating pigeon pea. Also after germination there was an increase in the inhibitory potential of pigeon pea extract against α-glucosidase compared with the nongerminated pigeon pea extract. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in fasting blood glucose level of alloxan-induced rats. Consumption of germinated pigeon pea extract gave rise to a reduced fasting blood glucose level in diabetic rats. On administration of germinated pigeon pea extract, LPO reduced drastically but there was an increase in the level of GSH. This study concluded that intake of germinated pigeon pea is a good dietary supplement for controlling hyperglycemia and LPO. PMID:27625782

  1. Laser Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Spectra of Cajanus Cajan L Plant Growing Under Cadmium Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Ram; Pandey, J. K.

    2010-06-01

    Laser-induced Chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) spectra of Cajanus cajan L leaves treated with different concentrations of Cd (0.05, 0.5 and 1 mM) are recorded at 10 and 20 days after first treatment of cadmium. LICF spectra are recorded in the region of 650-780 nm using violet diode laser (405 nm). LICF spectra of plant leaves show two maxima near 685 and 730nm. Fluorescence induction kinetics (FIK) curve are recorded at 685 and 730 nm with red diode laser (635 nm) for excitation. The fluorescence intensity ratios (FIR) F685/F730 are calculated from LICF spectra and vitality index (Rfd) are determined from FIK curve. FIR and Rfd value are good stress indicator of plant health. These parameters along with chlorophyll content are used to analyze the effect of Cd on wheat plants. The result indicates that higher concentrations of Cd hazardous for photosynthetic activity and health of Arhar plants. The lower concentration of 0.05 mM shows stimulatory response up to 10 days while after 20 days this concentration also shows inhibitory response. R. Gopal, K. B. Mishra, M. Zeeshan, S. M. Prasad, and M. M. Joshi Curr. Sci., 83, 880, 2002 K. B. Mishra and R. Gopal Int. J. Rem. Sen., 29, 157, 2008 R. Maurya, S. M. Prasad, and R. Gopal J. Photochem. Photobio. C: Photochem. Rev., 9, 29, 2008

  2. Antioxidant activities of extracts and main components of Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Fu, Kuang; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Yung-Husan; Liu, Xiao-Lei; Kong, Yu; Liu, Wei; Gu, Cheng-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves, as well as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions and the four main compounds separated from the ethanol extract, i.e. cajaninstilbene acid (3-hydroxy-4-prenylmethoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid), pinostrobin, vitexin and orientin, were examined by a DPPH radical-scavenging assay and a beta-carotene-linoleic acid test. In the DPPH system, the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was superior to that of the aqueous extracts, with IC(50) values were 242.01 and 404.91 microg/mL, respectively. Among the four fractions, the ethyl acetate one showed the highest scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 194.98 microg/mL. Cajaninstilbene acid (302.12 microg/mL) and orientin (316.21 microg/mL) showed more efficient radical-scavenging abilities than pinostrobin and vitexin. In the beta-carotene-linoleic acid test, the inhibition ratio (%) of the ethyl acetate fraction (94.13%+/-3.41%) was found to be the highest, being almost equal to the inhibition capacity of the positive control BHT (93.89%+/-1.45%) at 4 mg/mL. Pinostrobin (>500 microg/mL) and vitexin (>500 microg/mL) showed insignificant antioxidant activities compared with cajaninstilbene (321.53 microg/mL) and orientin (444.61 microg/mL). In general, the ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract showed greater activity than the main compounds in both systems, such results might be attributed to the synergistic effects of the components. The antioxidant activities of all the tested samples were concentration-dependent. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that the pigeonpea leaf extracts may be valuable natural antioxidant sources and are potentially applicable in both medicine and the healthy food industry. PMID:19305357

  3. Effectiveness of native and exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nutrient uptake and ion homeostasis in salt-stressed Cajanus cajan L. (Millsp.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neera; Pandey, Rekha

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinity is an increasing problem worldwide, restricting plant growth and production. Research findings show that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to reduce negative effects of salinity. However, plant growth responses to AM fungi vary as a result of genetic variation in mycorrhizal colonization and plant growth responsiveness. Thus, profitable use of AM requires selection of a suitable combination of host plant and fungal partner. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to compare effectiveness of a native AM fungal inoculum sourced from saline soil and two single exotic isolates, Funneliformis mossseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (single or dual mix), on Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. genotypes (Paras and Pusa 2002) under salt stress (0-100 mM NaCl). While salinity reduced plant biomass and disturbed ionic status in both genotypes, Pusa 2002 was more salt tolerant and ensured higher AM fungal colonization, plant biomass and nutrient content with favourable ion status under salinity. Although all AM fungi reduced negative effects of salt stress, R. irregularis (alone or in combination with F. mosseae) displayed highest efficiency under salinity, resulting in highest biomass, yield, nutrient uptake and improved membrane stability with favourable K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios in the host plant. Higher effectiveness of R. irregularis correlated with higher root colonization, indicating that the symbiosis formed by R. irregularis had more stable viability and efficiency under salt stress. These findings enhance understanding of the functional diversity of AM fungi in ameliorating plant salt stress tolerance and suggest the potential use of R. irregularis for increasing Cajanus cajan productivity in saline soils. PMID:25155616

  4. Evaluation of the antifungal activity and modulation between Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. leaves and roots ethanolic extracts and conventional antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Samara A.; Rodrigues, Fabíola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; da Costa, José G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The use and investigation of natural products with antimicrobial activity from vegeral source have been reported by several researchers. Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae) is a multiple use specie mainly as human food. In popular medicine, diverse parts of the plant are used as sedative and to treat cough, hepatitis, and diabetes. Materials and Methods: This study shows the characterization of secondary metabolites present in ehtanolic extracts from leaves and roots of Cajanus cajan by phytochemical prospection. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the microdilution method, and from the subinhibitory concentrations (MIC 1/8) the modulatory activity of antifungical (fluconazole and ketoconazole) was analyzed by the direct contact assay against C. albicans ATCC40006, Candida krusei ATCC 6538 and Candida tropicalis ATCC 40042. Results: The results showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids in both extracts as the clinically relevant antifungal activity. The modulatory potential is presented by the antifungal tested against yeasts. Conclusion: The extracts studied here have demonstrated to be a new therapeutic source to treat these microorganism-associated diseases. PMID:22701281

  5. Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations. PMID:19476009

  6. Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Kids Fed Expander-extruded Complete Feed Pellets Containing Red Gram (Cajanus cajan) Straw

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, P. B.; Reddy, T. J.; Reddy, Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    A growth and digestibility study was conducted using Osmanabadi goat male kids by feeding complete diets in the form of mash or expander extruded pellets containing different levels of red gram (Cajanus cajan) straw (RGS). Two iso-nitrogenous complete diets were prepared by incorporating RGS at 35% and 50% levels. Half the quantity of each complete mash feed was then converted into pellets through expander extruder processing. Thirty two kids of 4 to 5 months age were divided into four groups of eight each and were fed for 150 d with four experimental diets (T1: mash with 35% RGS, T2: mash with 50% RGS, T3: pellets with 35% RGS and T4: pellets with 50% RGS). Pelleting of complete diets significantly (p<0.001) increased the voluntary feed intake (671.45 vs 426.28 g/d) at both levels of RGS in the feeds. Average daily gain (ADG, g/d) also increased significantly (p<0.001) from 48.79 in kids fed mash diet to 71.29 in those fed with pelleted diets. Feed conversion efficiency (dry matter (DM) intake: weight gain) was comparable among all the treatment groups. Digestibility of nutrients was not affected by pelleting of the feeds whereas, increasing the level of inclusion of RGS in feeds from 35% to 50% decreased (p<0.05) the digestibility of DM and crude protein (CP) resulting in lower (p<0.001) metabolizable energy (ME) content (MJ/kg DM) in feeds with 50% RGS (7.93 vs 8.75). Daily intake (MJ/kg BW−0.75) of ME decreased (p<0.05) in feeds containing 50% RGS while pelleting of feeds increased (p<0.05) the intake of DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP) and ME. It is inferred that expander extruder pelleting can efficiently utilize RGS up to 50% level in complete diets for growing goat kids. PMID:25049537

  7. Application of fly ash on the growth performance and translocation of toxic heavy metals within Cajanus cajan L.: implication for safe utilization of fly ash for agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra; Abhilash, P C; Upadhyay, Raj Narayan; Tewari, D D

    2009-07-15

    The present study was undertaken to examine the influence of the application of fly ash (FA) into garden soil for Cajanus cajan L. cultivation and on accumulation and translocation of hazardous metals from FA to edible part. Numerous studies have been reported on the growth and yield of agricultural crops under FA stress; however, there is a dearth of studies recommending the safe utilization of fly ash for crop production. Pot experiments were conducted on C. cajan L., a widely cultivating legume in India for its highly nutritious seeds. C. cajan L. were grown in garden soil and amended with varying concentrations of FA in a weight/weight ratio (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%; w/w). Incorporation of fly ash from 25% to 100% in garden soil increases the levels of pH, particle density, porosity and water holding capacity from 3.47% to 26.39%, 3.98% to 26.14%, 37.50% to 147.92% and 163.16% to 318.42%, respectively, than the control while bulk density decrease respectively from 8.94% to 48.89%. Pot experiment found that accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in tested plant depends on the concentration of FA. Addition of FA at lower concentration (25%) had shown positive results in most of the studied parameters of growth and yield (14.23% than control). The experimental results confirmed that lower concentration of FA (25%) is safe for C. cajan cultivation, which not only enhanced the yield of C. cajan L. significantly but also ensured the translocation of heavy metals to edible parts within the critical limits. PMID:19111395

  8. A Halogen-Containing Stilbene Derivative from the Leaves of Cajanus cajan that Induces Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia-Zhong; Tang, Rong; Ye, Gui-Fu; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Nen-Ling; Hu, Ying-Jie; Shen, Xiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    A new natural halogen-containing stilbene derivative was isolated from the leaves of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. and identified as 3-O-(3-chloro-2-hydroxyl-propanyl)-longistylin A by comprehensive spectroscopic and chemical analysis, and named cajanstilbene H (1). It is the first halogen-containing stilbene derivative found from plants. In human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) from bone marrow, 1 did not promote cell proliferation, but distinctly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hMSC in time- and dose-dependent manners. In six human cancer cell lines, 1 showed a moderate inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, with IC50 values of 21.42-25.85 μmol·L(-1). PMID:26111172

  9. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) and functional validation of selected genes for abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, B; Sekhar, K; Sunita, T; Reddy, V D; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2010-03-01

    Pigeonpea, a major grain legume crop with remarkable drought tolerance traits, has been used for the isolation of stress-responsive genes. Herein, we report generation of ESTs, transcript profiles of selected genes and validation of candidate genes obtained from the subtracted cDNA libraries of pigeonpea plants subjected to PEG/water-deficit stress conditions. Cluster analysis of 124 selected ESTs yielded 75 high-quality ESTs. Homology searches disclosed that 55 ESTs share significant similarity with the known/putative proteins or ESTs available in the databases. These ESTs were characterized and genes relevant to the specific physiological processes were identified. Of the 75 ESTs obtained from the cDNA libraries of drought-stressed plants, 20 ESTs proved to be unique to the pigeonpea. These sequences are envisaged to serve as a potential source of stress-inducible genes of the drought stress-response transcriptome, and hence may be used for deciphering the mechanism of drought tolerance of the pigeonpea. Expression profiles of selected genes revealed increased levels of m-RNA transcripts in pigeonpea plants subjected to different abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines, expressing Cajanus cajan hybrid-proline-rich protein (CcHyPRP), C. cajan cyclophilin (CcCYP) and C. cajan cold and drought regulatory (CcCDR) genes, exhibited marked tolerance, increased plant biomass and enhanced photosynthetic rates under PEG/NaCl/cold/heat stress conditions. This study represents the first report dealing with the isolation of drought-specific ESTs, transcriptome analysis and functional validation of drought-responsive genes of the pigeonpea. These genes, as such, hold promise for engineering crop plants bestowed with tolerance to major abiotic stresses. PMID:20131066

  10. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea) and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities--A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashi; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant's growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA) and function (nitrogen cycle) of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold), even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold) and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields. PMID:26231030

  11. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea) and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities – A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rashi; Bisaria, V. S.; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant’s growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA) and function (nitrogen cycle) of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold), even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold) and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields. PMID:26231030

  12. Chemical composition of the SFE-CO extracts from Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth and their antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuan-gang; Liu, Xiao-lei; Fu, Yu-jie; Wu, Nan; Kong, Yu; Wink, Michael

    2010-12-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of SFE-CO₂(supercritical fluid extraction) extracts and ethanol extracts from Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth were investigated. The flavonoid compounds orientin, vitexin, isovitexin, pinostrobin and the stilbene cajaninstilbene acid were detected in SFE-CO₂ extracts by HPLC-DAD. In vitro antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated against eight microbial strains (the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli; and the fungi Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans). A marked inhibitory effect of the SFE extracts was observed against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The IC(50) of SFE-CO₂ extracts ranged from 0.0557 mg/ml to 0.0689 mg/ml consisting of cancer (MCF-7 (0.0557 mg/ml)) as well as non-cancer (BHK-21 (0.0641 mg/ml), RAW264.7 (0.0689 mg/ml) and Vero (0.0625 mg/ml)) cells. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze death rate of the most sensitive strain (Staphylococcus aureus) caused by the SFE extracts. Additionally, the whole cell proteins of Staphylococcus aureus were analyzed by SDS-PAGE to detect if there were changes in protein patterns. In vivo antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. The potential mechanism of antimicrobial activity in vivo was studied by histopathology. PMID:20576412

  13. Next-generation sequencing for identification of candidate genes for Fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic disease in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan).

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikas K; Khan, Aamir W; Saxena, Rachit K; Kumar, Vinay; Kale, Sandip M; Sinha, Pallavi; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Pazhamala, Lekha T; Garg, Vanika; Sharma, Mamta; Sameer Kumar, Chanda Venkata; Parupalli, Swathi; Vechalapu, Suryanarayana; Patil, Suyash; Muniswamy, Sonnappa; Ghanta, Anuradha; Yamini, Kalinati Narasimhan; Dharmaraj, Pallavi Subbanna; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-05-01

    To map resistance genes for Fusarium wilt (FW) and sterility mosaic disease (SMD) in pigeonpea, sequencing-based bulked segregant analysis (Seq-BSA) was used. Resistant (R) and susceptible (S) bulks from the extreme recombinant inbred lines of ICPL 20096 × ICPL 332 were sequenced. Subsequently, SNP index was calculated between R- and S-bulks with the help of draft genome sequence and reference-guided assembly of ICPL 20096 (resistant parent). Seq-BSA has provided seven candidate SNPs for FW and SMD resistance in pigeonpea. In parallel, four additional genotypes were re-sequenced and their combined analysis with R- and S-bulks has provided a total of 8362 nonsynonymous (ns) SNPs. Of 8362 nsSNPs, 60 were found within the 2-Mb flanking regions of seven candidate SNPs identified through Seq-BSA. Haplotype analysis narrowed down to eight nsSNPs in seven genes. These eight nsSNPs were further validated by re-sequencing 11 genotypes that are resistant and susceptible to FW and SMD. This analysis revealed association of four candidate nsSNPs in four genes with FW resistance and four candidate nsSNPs in three genes with SMD resistance. Further, In silico protein analysis and expression profiling identified two most promising candidate genes namely C.cajan_01839 for SMD resistance and C.cajan_03203 for FW resistance. Identified candidate genomic regions/SNPs will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in pigeonpea. PMID:26397045

  14. Identification and Validation of Selected Universal Stress Protein Domain Containing Drought-Responsive Genes in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pallavi; Pazhamala, Lekha T.; Singh, Vikas K.; Saxena, Rachit K.; Krishnamurthy, L.; Azam, Sarwar; Khan, Aamir W.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Pigeonpea is a resilient crop, which is relatively more drought tolerant than many other legume crops. To understand the molecular mechanisms of this unique feature of pigeonpea, 51 genes were selected using the Hidden Markov Models (HMM) those codes for proteins having close similarity to universal stress protein domain. Validation of these genes was conducted on three pigeonpea genotypes (ICPL 151, ICPL 8755, and ICPL 227) having different levels of drought tolerance. Gene expression analysis using qRT-PCR revealed 6, 8, and 18 genes to be ≥2-fold differentially expressed in ICPL 151, ICPL 8755, and ICPL 227, respectively. A total of 10 differentially expressed genes showed ≥2-fold up-regulation in the more drought tolerant genotype, which encoded four different classes of proteins. These include plant U-box protein (four genes), universal stress protein A-like protein (four genes), cation/H(+) antiporter protein (one gene) and an uncharacterized protein (one gene). Genes C.cajan_29830 and C.cajan_33874 belonging to uspA, were found significantly expressed in all the three genotypes with ≥2-fold expression variations. Expression profiling of these two genes on the four other legume crops revealed their specific role in pigeonpea. Therefore, these genes seem to be promising candidates for conferring drought tolerance specifically to pigeonpea. PMID:26779199

  15. Identification and Validation of Selected Universal Stress Protein Domain Containing Drought-Responsive Genes in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pallavi; Pazhamala, Lekha T; Singh, Vikas K; Saxena, Rachit K; Krishnamurthy, L; Azam, Sarwar; Khan, Aamir W; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea is a resilient crop, which is relatively more drought tolerant than many other legume crops. To understand the molecular mechanisms of this unique feature of pigeonpea, 51 genes were selected using the Hidden Markov Models (HMM) those codes for proteins having close similarity to universal stress protein domain. Validation of these genes was conducted on three pigeonpea genotypes (ICPL 151, ICPL 8755, and ICPL 227) having different levels of drought tolerance. Gene expression analysis using qRT-PCR revealed 6, 8, and 18 genes to be ≥2-fold differentially expressed in ICPL 151, ICPL 8755, and ICPL 227, respectively. A total of 10 differentially expressed genes showed ≥2-fold up-regulation in the more drought tolerant genotype, which encoded four different classes of proteins. These include plant U-box protein (four genes), universal stress protein A-like protein (four genes), cation/H(+) antiporter protein (one gene) and an uncharacterized protein (one gene). Genes C.cajan_29830 and C.cajan_33874 belonging to uspA, were found significantly expressed in all the three genotypes with ≥2-fold expression variations. Expression profiling of these two genes on the four other legume crops revealed their specific role in pigeonpea. Therefore, these genes seem to be promising candidates for conferring drought tolerance specifically to pigeonpea. PMID:26779199

  16. Therapeutic and protective effects of Caesalpinia gilliesii and Cajanus cajan proteins against acetaminophen overdose-induced renal damage.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hanan F; Rizk, Maha Z; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Desoky, M M; Ibrahim, N A; Younis, Eman A

    2016-04-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the protective and ameliorative effects of two plant-derived proteins obtained from the seeds ofCajanus cajanandCaesalpinia gilliesii(Leguminosae) against the toxic effects of acetaminophen in kidney after chronic dose through determination of certain biochemical markers including total urea, creatinine, and kidney marker enzyme, that is, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In addition histopathological examination of intoxicated and treated kidney with both proteins was performed. The present results show a significant increase in serum total urea and creatinine, while significant decrease in GAPDH. Improvement in all biochemical parameters studied was demonstrated, which was documented by the amelioration signs in rats kidney architecture. Thus, both plant protein extracts can counteract the nephrotoxic process, minimize damage to the kidney, delay disease progression, and reduce its complications. PMID:24280655

  17. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Laizuman; Nasrin, Fatema; Zahan, Ronok; Haque, Anamul; Haque, Ekramul; Mosaddik, Ashik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2) but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC) and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI). Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg). In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001), reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001) in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress. PMID:24761124

  18. Functional properties of raw and processed pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) flour.

    PubMed

    Okpala, L C; Mamah, E N

    2001-07-01

    Emulsification capacity, foam capacity, foam stability, fat and water absorption of raw and processed pigeonpea flour were investigated and compared with those of raw soy flour. The processing methods included soaking in water, soaking and blanching in water and soaking and blanching with trona, a sodium sesquicarbonate salt. Soaking in water was found to reduce the water absorption capacity of pigeonpea flour while soy flour had a slightly higher water absorption capacity than the other processed flours. All the processing treatments increased the fat absorption capacity of pigeonpea flour and the values were also higher than the value obtained for raw soy flour. Data on the emulsifying activities showed that the trona-treated pigeonpea flour had the highest emulsification capacity and was even higher than that of raw soy flour. Soy flour was found to have higher foaming capacity than all the pigeonpea flour samples. PMID:11474899

  19. Genomics-assisted breeding for boosting crop improvement in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)

    PubMed Central

    Pazhamala, Lekha; Saxena, Rachit K.; Singh, Vikas K.; Sameerkumar, C. V.; Kumar, Vinay; Sinha, Pallavi; Patel, Kishan; Obala, Jimmy; Kaoneka, Seleman R.; Tongoona, P.; Shimelis, Hussein A.; Gangarao, N. V. P. R.; Odeny, Damaris; Rathore, Abhishek; Dharmaraj, P. S.; Yamini, K. N.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important pulse crop grown predominantly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Although pigeonpea growing area has considerably increased, yield has remained stagnant for the last six decades mainly due to the exposure of the crop to various biotic and abiotic constraints. In addition, low level of genetic variability and limited genomic resources have been serious impediments to pigeonpea crop improvement through modern breeding approaches. In recent years, however, due to the availability of next generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies, the scenario has changed tremendously. The reduced sequencing costs resulting in the decoding of the pigeonpea genome has led to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, transcript sequences and comprehensive genetic maps. Mapping of some important traits including resistance to Fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic disease, fertility restoration, determinacy with other agronomically important traits have paved the way for applying genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) through marker assisted selection as well as genomic selection (GS). This would accelerate the development and improvement of both varieties and hybrids in pigeonpea. Particularly for hybrid breeding programme, mitochondrial genomes of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, maintainers and hybrids have been sequenced to identify genes responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore, several diagnostic molecular markers have been developed to assess the purity of commercial hybrids. In summary, pigeonpea has become a genomic resources-rich crop and efforts have already been initiated to integrate these resources in pigeonpea breeding. PMID:25741349

  20. Genetics of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and Efficacy of Associated SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepu; Sinha, B; Rai, V P; Singh, M N; Singh, D K; Kumar, R; Singh, A K

    2016-04-01

    Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW) disease caused by Fusarium udum was investigated in pigeonpea using four different long duration FW resistant genotypes viz., BDN-2004-1, BDN-2001-9, BWR-133 and IPA-234. Based on the F2 segregation pattern, FW resistance has been reported to be governed by one dominant gene in BDN-2004-1 and BDN-2001-9, two duplicate dominant genes in BWR-133 and two dominant complimentary genes in resistance source IPA-234. Further, the efficacy of six simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers namely, ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148, ASSR-229, ASSR-363 and ASSR-366 reported to be associated with FW resistance were also tested and concluded that markers ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148 will be used for screening of parental genotypes in pigeonpea FW resistance breeding programs. The information on genetics of FW resistance generated from this study would be used, to introgress FW resistance into susceptible but highly adopted cultivars through marker-assisted backcross breeding and in conventional breeding programs. PMID:27147929

  1. Genetics of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and Efficacy of Associated SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deepu; Sinha, B.; Rai, V. P.; Singh, M. N.; Singh, D. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW) disease caused by Fusarium udum was investigated in pigeonpea using four different long duration FW resistant genotypes viz., BDN-2004-1, BDN-2001-9, BWR-133 and IPA-234. Based on the F2 segregation pattern, FW resistance has been reported to be governed by one dominant gene in BDN-2004-1 and BDN-2001-9, two duplicate dominant genes in BWR-133 and two dominant complimentary genes in resistance source IPA-234. Further, the efficacy of six simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers namely, ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148, ASSR-229, ASSR-363 and ASSR-366 reported to be associated with FW resistance were also tested and concluded that markers ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148 will be used for screening of parental genotypes in pigeonpea FW resistance breeding programs. The information on genetics of FW resistance generated from this study would be used, to introgress FW resistance into susceptible but highly adopted cultivars through marker-assisted backcross breeding and in conventional breeding programs. PMID:27147929

  2. Bioformulation of Burkholderia sp. MSSP with a multispecies consortium for growth promotion of Cajanus cajan.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Piyush; Maheshwari, D K

    2007-02-01

    The present work was undertaken to formulate an effective bioformulation using Burkholderia sp. strain MSSP, a known plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium. MSSP was tagged with the reporter gene of green fluorescent protein (gfp) to monitor its population in cost-effective solid carriers, including sugarcane-bagasse, sawdust, cocoa peat, rice husk, wheat bran, charcoal, and rock phosphate, and paneer-whey as liquid carrier. Physical and chemical properties of different low-cost carrier materials were studied. The viability of the green fluorescent tagged variant of MSSP was estimated in different sterile carrier materials. Whey and wheat bran proved to be efficient carrier materials for the bioformulation. Sawdust, rock phosphate, rice husk, and cocoa peat were average, while charcoal and sugarcane-bagasse proved to be inferior carriers. The viability of strain MSSP was also assessed in wheat bran and whey-based consortium, having three other bacterial strains, namely Sinorhizobium meliloti PP3, Rhizobium leguminosarum Pcc, and Bacillus sp. strain B1. Presence of other plant-growth-promoting bacteria did not have any detrimental effect on the viability of MSSP. Efficiency of the wheat-bran-based multispecies consortium was studied on the growth of pigeonpea in field conditions. A considerable increase in plant biomass, nodule number and weight, and number of pods was recorded as compared with individual trials and with the control. PMID:17496969

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour

    PubMed Central

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T

    2013-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) value of protein and little or no effect on moisture content. There were slight decreases in crude fiber and ash content of the irradiated samples compared with the control sample. The result of functional properties of the irradiated flours showed slight increase in water absorption capacity, swelling capacity and bulk density. The peroxide value of crude oil increased significantly with dose increases for the period of storage. The sensory evaluation of moinmoin samples prepared from irradiated pigeon pea flour showed no significant difference from the moinmoin sample prepared from nonirradiated flour. It can be concluded that gamma irradiation can extend the shelf life of pigeon pea flour. PMID:24804044

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2008-07-01

    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å.

  5. Facile combustion synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Cajanus cajan (L.) and its multidisciplinary applications

    SciTech Connect

    Manjunath, K.; Ravishankar, T.N.; Kumar, Dhanith; Priyanka, K.P; Varghese, Thomas; Naika, H.Raja; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S.C.; Dupont, J.; Ramakrishnappa, T.; Nagaraju, G.

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Facile combustion synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Cajanuscajan (L.) and its multidisciplinary applications.Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by solution combustion method (SCM) using pigeon pea as a combustible fuel for the first time. The as-prepared product shows good photocatalytic, dielectric, antibacterial, electrochemical properties. - Highlights: • ZnO Nps were synthesized via combustion method using pigeon pea as a fuel. • The structure of the product was confirmed by XRD technique. • The morphology was confirmed by SEM and TEM images. • The as-prepared product shown good photocatalytic activity, dielectric property. • It has also shown good antibacterial and electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) were successfully synthesized by solution combustion method (SCM) using pigeon pea as a fuel for the first time. X-Ray diffraction pattern reveals that the product belongs to hexagonal system. FTIR spectrum of ZnO Nps shows the band at 420 cm{sup −1} associated with the characteristic vibration of Zn–O. TEM images show that the nanoparticles are found to be ∼40–80 nm. Furthermore, the as-prepared ZnO Nps exhibits good photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB), indicating that they are indeed a promising photocatalytic semiconductor. The antibacterial properties of ZnO nanopowders were investigated by their bactericidal activity against four bacterial strains.

  6. The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwata, E.

    2012-04-01

    In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

  7. Molecular mapping of QTLs for plant type and earliness traits in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pigeonpea is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics and sub-tropical regions where it plays a crucial role in the food and nutritional security of the people. The average productivity of pigeonpea has remained very low and stagnant for over five decades due to lack of genomic information and intensive breeding efforts. Previous SSR-based linkage maps of pigeonpea used inter-specific crosses due to low inter-varietal polymorphism. Here our aim was to construct a high density intra-specific linkage map using genic-SNP markers for mapping of major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for key agronomic traits, including plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, number of pods, days to flowering and days to maturity in pigeonpea. Results A population of 186 F2:3 lines derived from an intra-specific cross between inbred lines ‘Pusa Dwarf’ and ‘HDM04-1’ was used to construct a dense molecular linkage map of 296 genic SNP and SSR markers covering a total adjusted map length of 1520.22 cM for the 11 chromosomes of the pigeonpea genome. This is the first dense intra-specific linkage map of pigeonpea with the highest genome length coverage. Phenotypic data from the F2:3 families were used to identify thirteen QTLs for the six agronomic traits. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the individual QTLs ranged from 3.18% to 51.4%. Ten of these QTLs were clustered in just two genomic regions, indicating pleiotropic effects or close genetic linkage. In addition to the main effects, significant epistatic interaction effects were detected between the QTLs for number of pods per plant. Conclusions A large amount of information on transcript sequences, SSR markers and draft genome sequence is now available for pigeonpea. However, there is need to develop high density linkage maps and identify genes/QTLs for important agronomic traits for practical breeding applications. This is the first report on identification of QTLs for plant type and maturity traits in pigeonpea. The QTLs identified in this study provide a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in the pigeonpea improvement. PMID:23043321

  8. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preference and acceptability of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes of medium maturity was evaluated in Eastern Kenya based on six seed cultivar parameters of color, appearance, taste, odor, tenderness and overall seed acceptability. The sensory characteristics were scored by consumers and farmers...

  9. A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) using sanger and second-generation sequencing platforms.

    PubMed

    Kudapa, Himabindu; Bharti, Arvind K; Cannon, Steven B; Farmer, Andrew D; Mulaosmanovic, Benjamin; Kramer, Robin; Bohra, Abhishek; Weeks, Nathan T; Crow, John A; Tuteja, Reetu; Shah, Trushar; Dutta, Sutapa; Gupta, Deepak K; Singh, Archana; Gaikwad, Kishor; Sharma, Tilak R; May, Gregory D; Singh, Nagendra K; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly for pigeonpea has been developed by analyzing 128.9 million short Illumina GA IIx single end reads, 2.19 million single end FLX/454 reads, and 18 353 Sanger expressed sequenced tags from more than 16 genotypes. The resultant transcriptome assembly, referred to as CcTA v2, comprised 21 434 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) with an N50 of 1510 bp, the largest one being ~8 kb. Of the 21 434 TACs, 16 622 (77.5%) could be mapped on to the soybean genome build 1.0.9 under fairly stringent alignment parameters. Based on knowledge of intron junctions, 10 009 primer pairs were designed from 5033 TACs for amplifying intron spanning regions (ISRs). By using in silico mapping of BAC-end-derived SSR loci of pigeonpea on the soybean genome as a reference, putative mapping positions at the chromosome level were predicted for 6284 ISR markers, covering all 11 pigeonpea chromosomes. A subset of 128 ISR markers were analyzed on a set of eight genotypes. While 116 markers were validated, 70 markers showed one to three alleles, with an average of 0.16 polymorphism information content (PIC) value. In summary, the CcTA v2 transcript assembly and ISR markers will serve as a useful resource to accelerate genetic research and breeding applications in pigeonpea. PMID:22241453

  10. Defining the transcriptome assembly and its use for genome dynamics and transcriptome profiling studies in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports generation of large-scale genomic resources for pigeonpea, a so-called ‘orphan crop species’ of the semi-arid tropic regions. Roche FLX/454 sequencing was carried out on a normalized cDNA pool prepared from 31 tissues produced 494,353 short transcript reads (STRs). Cluster analysi...

  11. In vitro regeneration through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in pigeon pea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] cv. JKR105.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gaurav; Reddy, P Sairam; Ramteke, Pramod W; Rambabu, Pogiri; Sohrab, Sayed S; Rana, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Parthasarathi

    2011-10-01

    In vitro regeneration of pigeon pea through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was demonstrated with pigeon pea cv. JKR105. Embryonic axes explants of pigeon pea showed greater regeneration of shoot buds on 2.5 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the medium, followed by further elongation at lower concentrations. Rooting of shoots was observed on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 % sucrose and 0.5 mg L(-1) 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA). On the other hand, the regeneration of globular embryos from cotyledon explant was faster and greater with thidiazuron (TDZ) than BAP with sucrose as carbohydrate source. These globular embryos were maturated on MS medium with abscisic acid (ABA) and finally germinated on half-strength MS medium at lower concentrations of BAP. Comparison of regeneration pathways in pigeon pea cv. JKR105 showed that the turnover of successful establishment of plants achieved through organogenesis was more compared to somatic embryogenesis, despite the production of more embryos than shoot buds. PMID:23573031

  12. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends.

    PubMed

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne

    2012-06-01

    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein (0.15 to 1.2%), fat (0.26 to 0.56%) and ash (0.30 to 0.69%) while the amylose content of the starch blends decreased (from 23.8 to 18.4%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density (0.75 to 0.60 g/cm(3)), water absorption capacity (3.1 to 2.6 g water/ g sample) and dispersibility (58.6 to 42.7%) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at the highest concentration (50%) of pigeon pea starch respectively. Pasting properties such as peak, breakdown, final and setback viscosities increased with increasing levels of pigeon pea starch while peak time and pasting temperature decreased. The sensory attributes of stiff porridges were not adversely affected by pigeon pea starch inclusion. Therefore it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of low digestible pigeon pea starch into Irish potato starch from legumes such as pigeon pea as alternatives to cassava starch in the preparation of stiff porridges. Such porridges made from Irish potato and legume starches could provide additional incentive for individuals requiring decreased and or slow starch digestibility such as diabetics. PMID:23729855

  13. Development of a potential functional food prepared with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), oats and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Yasmina; Márquez, Enrique; Parra, Katynna; Piñero, M Patricia; Medina, Luis M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in creams, prepared with pigeon peas and oat. Products were analysed to determine their content of protein, fibre, fat, carbohydrates and degree of likeness. Viable numbers of L. reuteri and pH were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 4°C. Results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in protein, fat, fibre and carbohydrate content between creams. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found on sensory quality between control and creams with L. reuteri. After 28 days, the cell viability was above 7 log cfu/g in all creams. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 had the highest viability in cream with 40% pigeon pea and 20% oat (8.16 log cfu/g). In conclusion, due to its acceptability and highly nutritious value, the product could be used so as to support the growth of L. reuteri. PMID:22533458

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b gene from the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guang; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (LHCB) have been implicated in the stress response. In this study, a gene encoding LHCB in the pigeon pea was cloned and characterized. Based on the sequence of a previously obtained 327 bp Est, a full-length 793 bp cDNA was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. It was designated CcLHCB1 and encoded a 262 amino acid protein. The calculated molecular weight of the CcLHCB1 protein was 27.89 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.29. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the CcLHCB1 protein sequence shared a high identity with LHCB from other plants. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that CcLHCB1 was a hydrophobic protein with three transmembrane domains. By fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CcLHCB1 mRNA transcripts were detectable in different tissues (leaf, stem, and root), with the highest level found in the leaf. The expression of CcLHCB1 mRNA in the leaves was up-regulated by drought stimulation and AM inoculation. Our results provide the basis for a better understanding of the molecular organization of LCHB and might be useful for understanding the interaction between plants and microbes in the future. PMID:26329890

  15. Delayed flowering is associated with lack of photosynthetic acclimation in Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) grown under elevated CO₂.

    PubMed

    Sreeharsha, Rachapudi Venkata; Sekhar, Kalva Madhana; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the likely consequences of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations [CO2] on growth, physiology and reproductive phenology of Pigeonpea. A short duration Pigeonpea cultivar (ICPL 15011) was grown without N fertilizer from emergence to final harvest in CO2 enriched atmosphere (open top chambers; 550μmolmol(-1)) for two seasons. CO2 enrichment improved both net photosynthetic rates (Asat) and foliar carbohydrate content by 36 and 43%, respectively, which further reflected in dry biomass after harvest, showing an increment of 29% over the control plants. Greater carboxylation rates of Rubisco (Vcmax) and photosynthetic electron transport rates (Jmax) in elevated CO2 grown plants measured during different growth periods, clearly demonstrated lack of photosynthetic acclimation. Further, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements as indicated by Fv/Fm and ΔF/Fm' ratios justified enhanced photosystem II efficiency. Mass and number of root nodules were significantly high in elevated CO2 grown plants showing 58% increase in nodule mass ratio (NMR) which directly correlated with Pn. Growth under high CO2 showed significant ontogenic changes including delayed flowering. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the lack of photosynthetic acclimation and increased carbohydrate-nitrogen reserves modulate the vegetative and reproductive growth patterns in Pigeonpea grown under elevated CO2. PMID:25575994

  16. Selection and Validation of Housekeeping Genes as Reference for Gene Expression Studies in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) under Heat and Salt Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pallavi; Saxena, Rachit K.; Singh, Vikas K.; Krishnamurthy, L.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    To identify stable housekeeping genes as a reference for expression analysis under heat and salt stress conditions in pigeonpea, the relative expression variation for 10 commonly used housekeeping genes (EF1α, UBQ10, GAPDH, 18Sr RNA, 25Sr RNA, TUB6, ACT1, IF4α, UBC, and HSP90) was studied in root, stem, and leaves tissues of Asha (ICPL 87119), a leading pigeonpea variety. Three statistical algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to define the stability of candidate genes. Under heat stress, UBC, HSP90, and GAPDH were found to be the most stable reference genes. In the case of salinity stress, GAPDH followed by UBC and HSP90 were identified to be the most stable reference genes. Subsequently, the above identified genes were validated using qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis of two universal stress-resposive genes namely uspA and uspB. The relative quantification of these two genes varied according to the internal controls (most stable, least stable, and combination of most stable and least stable housekeeping genes) and thus confirmed the choice as well as validation of internal controls in such experiments. The identified and validated housekeeping genes will facilitate gene expression studies under heat and salt stress conditions in pigeonpea. PMID:27242803

  17. Characterisation of a novel enterobacteria phage, CAjan, isolated from rat faeces.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Alexander B; Kot, Witold; Lametsch, Rene; Neve, Horst; Hansen, Lars H

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we describe the isolation and characterisation of the novel enterobacteria phage CAjan. This phage belongs to the order Caudovirales and the family Siphoviridae. The phage possesses a linear, double-stranded DNA genome consisting of 59,670 bp with a G+C content of 44.7 % and 91 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Putative functions were assigned to 39 of the ORFs (37.4 %). The phage structural genes were furthermore functionally characterised by LC MS/MS. CAjan, together with Escherichia phage Seurat and Escherichia phage slur01, represent a novel and genetically distinct clade of Siphoviridae phages that could be considered to constitute a new phage genus. Despite limited sequence similarity, the phages in this group share a number of other common features, including genome structure and the presence of queuosine biosynthesis genes. PMID:27231007

  18. Identification of Coupling and Repulsion Phase DNA Marker Associated With an Allele of a Gene Conferring Host Plant Resistance to Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.)

    PubMed Central

    Daspute, Abhijit; Fakrudin, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea Sterility Mosaic Disease (PSMD) is an important foliar disease caused by Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) which is transmitted by eriophyid mites (Aceria cajani Channabasavanna). In present study, a F2 mapping population comprising 325 individuals was developed by crossing PSMD susceptible genotype (Gullyal white) and PSMD resistant genotype (BSMR 736). We identified a set of 32 out of 300 short decamer random DNA markers that showed polymorphism between Gullyal white and BSMR 736 parents. Among them, eleven DNA markers showed polymorphism including coupling and repulsion phase type of polymorphism across the parents. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA), revealed that the DNA marker, IABTPPN7, produced a single coupling phase marker (IABTPPN7414) and a repulsion phase marker (IABTPPN7983) co-segregating with PSMD reaction. Screening of 325 F2 population using IABTPPN7 revealed that the repulsion phase marker, IABTPPN7983, was co-segregating with the PSMD responsive SV1 at a distance of 23.9 cM for Bidar PPSMV isolate. On the other hand, the coupling phase marker IABTPPN7414 did not show any linkage with PSMD resistance. Additionally, single marker analysis both IABTPPN7983 (P<0.0001) and IABTPPN 7414 (P<0.0001) recorded a significant association with the PSMD resistance and explained a phenotypic variance of 31 and 36% respectively in F2 population. The repulsion phase marker, IABTPPN7983, could be of use in Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in the PPSMV resistance breeding programmes of pigeonpea. PMID:25774108

  19. First-generation HapMap in Cajanus spp. reveals untapped variations in parental lines of mapping populations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Khan, Aamir W; Saxena, Rachit K; Garg, Vanika; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-08-01

    Whole genome re-sequencing (WGRS) was conducted on a panel of 20 Cajanus spp. accessions (crossing parentals of recombinant inbred lines, introgression lines, multiparent advanced generation intercross and nested association mapping population) comprising of two wild species and 18 cultivated species accessions. A total of 791.77 million paired-end reads were generated with an effective mapping depth of ~12X per accession. Analysis of WGRS data provided 5 465 676 genome-wide variations including 4 686 422 SNPs and 779 254 InDels across the accessions. Large structural variations in the form of copy number variations (2598) and presence and absence variations (970) were also identified. Additionally, 2 630 904 accession-specific variations comprising of 2 278 571 SNPs (86.6%), 166 243 deletions (6.3%) and 186 090 insertions (7.1%) were also reported. Identified polymorphic sites in this study provide the first-generation HapMap in Cajanus spp. which will be useful in mapping the genomic regions responsible for important traits. PMID:26821983

  20. Preventive and curative role of a 43kD protein from the leaves of the herb Cajanus indicus L on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kasturi; Ghosh, Ayantika; Sil, Parames C

    2005-09-01

    An approximately 43kD protein has been isolated and purified from the herb Cajanus indicus L and believed to be the most active principle for its hepatoprotective action. In this study, experiments have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of that protein for the preventive and curative action against thioacetamide-induced toxicity in vivo using a murine model. Mice were treated with the protein intraperitoneally at a dose of 2mg/kg body weight for 2 and 6 days before and separately 1-5 days after thioacetamide administration to evaluate its preventive and curative role, respectively. Thioacetamide was administered once at a dose of 150mg/kg body weight and after 48h of its application, the animals were sacrificed. Levels of various markers related to physiological and pathological conditions of the liver, e.g., glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), etc. were determined in the murine sera under different experimental conditions. In addition, antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were measured from the liver homogenates. The antioxidant property of the protein was compared with the potent antioxidant, vitamin E (used as a positive control). The active principle effectively reduced the elevated GPT and ALP levels in serum and lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue. The reduced levels of SOD, CAT and GST by thioacetamide were again brought back to almost normal levels upon pre- and post-treatment with the protein. Histopathological changes in the liver of TAA control and protein-treated groups also prove that the protein possesses hepatoprotective activity. The protein acts dose-dependently and maximum hepatoprotectivity was obtained when administered at a dose of 2mg/kg body weight. Data suggest that the active principle plays an important preventive and curative role against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity

  1. A 43 kD protein isolated from the herb Cajanus indicus L attenuates sodium fluoride-induced hepatic and renal disorders in vivo.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2007-05-31

    The herb, Cajanus indicus L, is well known for its hepatoprotective action. A 43 kD protein has been isolated, purified and partially sequenced from the leaves of this herb. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies carried out in our laboratory suggest that this protein might be a major component responsible for the hepatoprotective action of the herb. Our successive studies have been designed to evaluate the potential efficacy of this protein in protecting the hepatic as well as renal tissues from the sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative stress. The experimental groups of mice were exposed to NaF at a dose of 600 ppm through drinking water for one week. This exposure significantly altered the activities of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and the cellular metabolites such as reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), total thiols, lipid peroxidation end products in liver and kidney compared to the normal mice. Intraperitoneal administration of the protein at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight for seven days followed by NaF treatment (600 ppm for next seven days) normalized the activities of the hepato-renal antioxidant enzymes, the level of cellular metabolites and lipid peroxidation end products. Post treatment with the protein for four days showed that it could help recovering the damages after NaF administration. Time-course study suggests that the protein could stimulate the recovery of both the organs faster than natural process. Effects of a known antioxidant, vitamin E, and a non-relevant protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been included in the study to validate the experimental data. Combining all, result suggests that NaF could induce severe oxidative stress both in the liver and kidney tissues in mice and the protein possessed the ability to attenuate that hepato-renal toxic effect of NaF probably via its antioxidant activity. PMID:17562290

  2. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. GROWTH AND SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS WITH PIGEONPEA AND COWPEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is a limiting factor on legume-Bradyrhizobium symbiosis of subtropical plants in the temperate region. Twelve strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp], and cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], were evaluated for tolerance to three temperature re...

  3. Legume genomics: Understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approximately 17,000 species. A few of these species including, but not limited to; Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing the dietary protein for approximately 300 million people wor...

  4. Detection of Legume Protease Inhibitors by the Gel-X-ray Film Contact Print Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulimani, Veerappa H.; Sudheendra, Kulkarni; Giri, Ashok P.

    2002-01-01

    Redgram (Cajanus cajan L.) extracts have been analyzed for the protease inhibitors using a new, sensitive, simple, and rapid method for detection of electrophoretically separated protease inhibitors. The detection involves equilibrating the gel successively in the protease assay buffer and protease solution, rinsing the gel in assay buffer, and…

  5. Pigeon Pea: A versatile, drought-resistant crop for the Sothern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan(L.)] is a drought tolerant legume originating in India and ranking sixth in production worldwide, compared to other grain legumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production potential of pigeonpea in the alkaline clay soils of the North Texas Blacklands. Four...

  6. A pigeonpea gene confers resistance to Asian soybean rust in soybean.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Cintia G; Guimarães, Gustavo Augusto; Nogueira, Sônia Regina; MacLean, Dan; Cook, Doug R; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Baek, Jongmin; Bouyioukos, Costas; Melo, Bernardo do V A; Tristão, Gustavo; de Oliveira, Jamile Camargos; Rauscher, Gilda; Mittal, Shipra; Panichelli, Lisa; Bacot, Karen; Johnson, Ebony; Iyer, Geeta; Tabor, Girma; Wulff, Brande B H; Ward, Eric; Rairdan, Gregory J; Broglie, Karen E; Wu, Gusui; van Esse, H Peter; Jones, Jonathan D G; Brommonschenkel, Sérgio H

    2016-06-01

    Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most economically important crop diseases, but is only treatable with fungicides, which are becoming less effective owing to the emergence of fungicide resistance. There are no commercial soybean cultivars with durable resistance to P. pachyrhizi, and although soybean resistance loci have been mapped, no resistance genes have been cloned. We report the cloning of a P. pachyrhizi resistance gene CcRpp1 (Cajanus cajan Resistance against Phakopsora pachyrhizi 1) from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and show that CcRpp1 confers full resistance to P. pachyrhizi in soybean. Our findings show that legume species related to soybean such as pigeonpea, cowpea, common bean and others could provide a valuable and diverse pool of resistance traits for crop improvement. PMID:27111723

  7. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  8. Efficacy of nanostructured silica as a stored pulse protector against the infestation of bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Ganesh; Velayutham, Veeramani; Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with the pulse seeds of Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum and Vigna unguiculata against the infestation of stored pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus revealed a significant reduction in oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage potential. There was a complete retardation of growth of this beetle in the treated seeds of C. cajan. SNP-treated seeds of these six varieties of pulses revealed no effect on the growth of seeds as revealed by seed germination, growth rate of root and shoot. Similarly, the soil microflora measured in terms of colony forming units was not affected by silica nanoparticles upon its treatment with pulse seeds. The results of this study thus clearly demonstrated the useful nature of silica nanoparticles as seed protecting agent for the control of C. maculatus.

  9. Large-scale development of cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism marker assays for genetic mapping in pigeonpea and comparative mapping in legumes.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rachit K; Penmetsa, R Varma; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kumar, Ashish; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Schlueter, Jessica A; Farmer, Andrew; Whaley, Adam M; Sarma, Birinchi K; May, Gregory D; Cook, Douglas R; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-12-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, >2000) were discovered by using RNA-seq and allele-specific sequencing approaches in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). For making the SNP genotyping cost-effective, successful competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASPar) assays were developed for 1616 SNPs and referred to as PKAMs (pigeonpea KASPar assay markers). Screening of PKAMs on 24 genotypes [23 from cultivated species and 1 wild species (Cajanus scarabaeoides)] defined a set of 1154 polymorphic markers (77.4%) with a polymorphism information content (PIC) value from 0.04 to 0.38. One thousand and ninety-four PKAMs showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the reference mapping population (C. cajan ICP 28 × C. scarabaeoides ICPW 94). By using high-quality marker genotyping data on 167 F(2) lines from the population, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 875 PKAMs with an average inter-marker distance of 1.11 cM was developed. Previously mapped 35 simple sequence repeat markers were integrated into the PKAM map and an integrated genetic map of 996.21 cM was constructed. Mapped PKAMs showed a higher degree of synteny with the genome of Glycine max followed by Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. These PKAMs will be useful for genetics research and breeding applications in pigeonpea and for utilizing genome information from other legume species. PMID:23103470

  10. Separating para and ortho water.

    PubMed

    Horke, Daniel A; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Długołęcki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen

    2014-10-27

    Water exists as two nuclear-spin isomers, para and ortho, determined by the overall spin of its two hydrogen nuclei. For isolated water molecules, the conversion between these isomers is forbidden and they act as different molecular species. Yet, these species are not readily separated, and no pure para sample has been produced. Accordingly, little is known about their specific physical and chemical properties, conversion mechanisms, or interactions. The production of isolated samples of both spin isomers is demonstrated in pure beams of para and ortho water in their respective absolute ground state. These single-quantum-state samples are ideal targets for unraveling spin-conversion mechanisms, for precision spectroscopy and fundamental symmetry-breaking studies, and for spin-enhanced applications, for example laboratory astrophysics and astrochemistry or hypersensitized NMR experiments. PMID:25196938

  11. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  12. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

  13. Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

  14. Laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Iserte, Pablo Padilla; Minig, Lucas; Zorrero, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Lymph nodes are the main pathway in the spread of gynaecological malignancies, being a well-known prognostic factor. Lymph node dissection is a complex surgical procedure and requires surgical expertise to perform the procedure, thereby minimising complications. In addition, lymphadenectomy has value in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with gynaecologic cancer. Therefore, a video focused on the para-aortic retroperitoneal anatomy and the surgical technique of the extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy is presented. PMID:26435746

  15. Process for para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.C.

    1986-06-03

    A process is described of dehydrogenating para-ethyltoluene to selectively form para-methylstyrene comprising contacting to para-ethyltoluene under dehydrogenation reaction conditions with a catalyst composition comprising: (a) from about 30% to 60% by weight of iron oxide, calculated as ferric oxide; (b) from about 13% to 48% by weight of a potassium compound, calculated as potassium oxide; and (c) from about 0% to 5% by weight of a chromium compound, calculated as chromic oxide. The improvement is described comprising dehydrogenating the para-ethyltoluene with a catalyst composition comprising, in addition to the components (a), (b) and (c), a modifying component (d) capable of rendering the para-methylstyrene-containing dehydrogenation reaction effluent especially resistant to the subsequent formation of popcorn polymers when the dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene is conducted over the modified catalyst, the modifying component (d) being a bismuth compound present to the extent of from about 1% to 20% by weight of the catalyst composition, calculated as bismuth trioxide.

  16. [Baked product development based fermented legumes and cereals for schoolchildren snack].

    PubMed

    Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar; Zambrano, Rosaura

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this work was to develop three foodstuffs based on mixes of wheat and fermented and non-fermented legumes, for the purpose of contributing with a healthy alternative for school snacks. To this aim, refined wheat flour was partially substituted with whole legume flours for the preparation of cakes, brownies and cookies, foodstuffs traditionally consumed by school age children. Cakes were formulated substituting 20% of wheat flour with Phaseolus vulgaris flour, brownies with 30% of Cajanus cajan flour and cookies with 30% of Vigna sinensis flour, using fermented and non-fermented legumes in the three products. When these products were subjected to sensorial evaluation through a test of degree of acceptability and using a hedonic scale of 7 points, values higher than 5 in the attributes taste, color and overall appraisal were found for all the products. In addition, the preference was measured with a group of 90 school children, corroborating the results obtained at laboratory level. Chemical characterization showed protein contents between 12 and 13% for the cake, 10 and 11% for the brownies and 10% for the cookies and protein digestibilities in vitro of 91%, 87% and 93%, respectively. The calorie supply, calculated per portion was of 199 kcal, 246 kcal and 237 kcal, for cakes, brownies and cookies, respectively. It was concluded that it is technically possible to incorporate fermented and non-fermented Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna sinensis and Cajanus cajan, to highly consumed products such as cakes, brownies and cookies with a higher nutritional content and well-accepted by school-age children. PMID:21090280

  17. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  18. Pore size distribution of a deeply excavated Oxisol after 19 years reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Batista Bonini, Carolina; de Cássia Marchini, Débora; Alves, Marlene Cristina; García de Arruda, Otton; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Digging of the local soil and using it as a raw material for construction purposes has been identified as a non-negligible source of land degradation. Techniques aimed at soil profile reconstruction and ecological restoration of soils truncated by mechanical excavation using heavy machinery have been investigated Both, total soil porosity and pore size distribution are important properties for soil management as well as for assessing the recovery of soil function after land degradation. In this way, macropores are responsible for aeration, whereas water storage depends on soil meso- and micropores in the soil and the optimal pore-size distribution is also an indicator of soil quality. We investigated the changes in the pore size distribution of a soil that was beheaded to extract raw materials after a 19 year period of reclamation, which involved the use of green manures, gypsum and pasture for the purpose of profile recovery. The studied area is located in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brzil. A field trial was performed following a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and four replications. Starting 1992, the initial treatments were: 1) control (tilled bare soil), 2)Stizolobium aterrium, 3)Cajanus cajan, 4)lime+S. aterrimum, 5) lime+C. cajan, 6) lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum, 7) lime + gypsum+C. cajan. In 1994, all treatments with C. cajan were replaced by Canavalia ensiformis and in 1999, Brachiaria decumbens was implanted in all the experimental plots. Data from vegetated treatments were compared with bare soil (control) and native vegetation (Savannah). Soil samples were collected in 2011 at the 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m depths. Treatment differences were assessed by analysis of variance, following the Scott-Knott test (5%) of probability to compare averages. Macroporosity of the 0.00-0.10 m top layer was above the 0.10 m3m-3 threshold considered as critical for plant growth. On the 0.10-0.20 m layer only treatments with C

  19. Pigeonpea genotypes influence parasitization preference and survival and development of the Helicoverpa armigera larval parasitoid, Campoletis chlorideae.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Shiddalingappa V; Sharma, Hari C; Basavan Goud, Kondikallu

    2014-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to identify pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh and the wild relative of pigeonpea, Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) (accession ICPW 125,) genotypes that are hospitable to the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval parasitoid, Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) for the management of this pest in pigeonpea based cropping systems. Percentage parasitization of the H. armigera larvae by the C. chlorideae females was greater under no-choice conditions than under multi-choice conditions because of forced parasitization under no-choice conditions. Lowest parasitization was recorded on the wild relative, ICPW 125, which may be due to long nonglandular hairs and low survival of H. armigera larvae. Parasitization of H. armigera larvae was greater under no-choice, dual-choice and/or multi-choice conditions on ICPL 87, ICPL 87119 and ICPL 87091, which are susceptible to H. armigera, than on the pod borer-resistant genotypes ICPL 332WR, ICPL 84060 and ICPB 2042; while survival and development of the parasitoid was better on H. armigera larvae fed on ICPL 87, ICPL 87119, LRG 41, ICP 7035 and ICPL 87091 than on ICPL 332WR, ICPL 84060, ICPB 2042 and ICPW 125. The genotypes ICPL 87, ICPL 87119, LRG 42 and ICPL 87091 that are hospitable to C. chloridae, are better suited for use in integrated pest management to minimize the losses due to H. armigera in pigeonpea. PMID:25110629

  20. Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 bacteroids are not terminally differentiated and show altered O-antigen in nodules of the Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade legume Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Rivas, Juan C; Guefrachi, Ibtissem; Mok, Kenny C; Villaécija-Aguilar, José A; Acosta-Jurado, Sebastián; Pierre, Olivier; Ruiz-Sainz, José E; Taga, Michiko E; Mergaert, Peter; Vinardell, José M

    2016-09-01

    In rhizobial species that nodulate inverted repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) legumes, such as the interaction between Sinorhizobium meliloti and Medicago, bacteroid differentiation is driven by an endoreduplication event that is induced by host nodule-specific cysteine rich (NCR) antimicrobial peptides and requires the participation of the bacterial protein BacA. We have studied bacteroid differentiation of Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 in three host plants: Glycine max, Cajanus cajan and the IRLC legume Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Flow cytometry, microscopy analyses and viability studies of bacteroids as well as confocal microscopy studies carried out in nodules showed that S. fredii HH103 bacteroids, regardless of the host plant, had deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contents, cellular sizes and survival rates similar to those of free-living bacteria. Contrary to S. meliloti, S. fredii HH103 showed little or no sensitivity to Medicago NCR247 and NCR335 peptides. Inactivation of S. fredii HH103 bacA neither affected symbiosis with Glycyrrhiza nor increased bacterial sensitivity to Medicago NCRs. Finally, HH103 bacteroids isolated from Glycyrrhiza, but not those isolated from Cajanus or Glycine, showed an altered lipopolysaccharide. Our studies indicate that, in contrast to the S. meliloti-Medicago model symbiosis, bacteroids in the S. fredii HH103-Glycyrrhiza symbiosis do not undergo NCR-induced and bacA-dependent terminal differentiation. PMID:26521863

  1. Oxidative para-triflation of acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Pialat, Amélie; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Direct triflation of acetanilide derivatives with silver triflate has been accomplished under mild iodine(III)-mediated oxidative conditions. The reaction shows excellent regioselectivity for the para position and tolerates a range of ortho and meta substituents on the aromatic ring. This method is also compatible with the preparation of arylnonaflates in synthetically useful yields. PMID:23534500

  2. FDA aprueba la primera inmunoterapia para linfoma

    Cancer.gov

    La FDA ha aprobado nivolumab (Opdivo®) para el tratamiento de pacientes con el linfoma clásico de Hodgkin que ha recaído o empeorado después de recibir un trasplante autólogo hematopoyético seguido de brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®)

  3. Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

  4. Para-hydrogen perspectives in hyperpolarized NMR.

    PubMed

    Glöggler, Stefan; Colell, Johannes; Appelt, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    The first instance of para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) in an NMR experiment was serendipitously observed in the 1980s while investigating a hydrogenation reaction (Seldler et al., 1983; Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986, 1987; Eisenschmid et al., 1987) [1-4]. Remarkably a theoretical investigation of the applicability of para-hydrogen as a hyperpolarization agent was being performed in the 1980's thereby quickly providing a theoretical basis for the PHIP-effect (Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986) [2]. The discovery of signal amplification by a non-hydrogenating interaction with para-hydrogen has recently extended the interest to exploit the PHIP effect, as it enables investigation of compounds without structural alteration while retaining the advantages of spectroscopy with hyperpolarized compounds [5]. In this article we will place more emphasis of the future applications of the method while only briefly discussing the efforts that have been made in the understanding of the phenomenon and the development of the method so far. PMID:23932399

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high. PMID:25302475

  6. On Lightlike Geometry of Para-Sasakian Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Acet, Bilal Eftal; Kılıç, Erol

    2014-01-01

    We study lightlike hypersurfaces of para-Sasakian manifolds tangent to the characteristic vector field. In particular, we define invariant lightlike hypersurfaces and screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurfaces, respectively, and give examples. Integrability conditions for the distributions on a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface of para-Sasakian manifolds are investigated. We obtain a para-Sasakian structure on the leaves of an integrable distribution of a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface. PMID:24892072

  7. Dipolar induced para-hydrogen-induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Buntkowsky, Gerd; Gutmann, Torsten; Petrova, Marina V; Ivanov, Konstantin L; Bommerich, Ute; Plaumann, Markus; Bernarding, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the signal enhancement in solid-state PHIP NMR spectroscopy mediated by homonuclear dipolar interactions and single pulse or spin-echo excitation are developed and simulated numerically. It is shown that an efficient enhancement of the proton NMR signal in solid-state NMR studies of chemisorbed hydrogen on surfaces is possible. Employing typical reaction efficacy, enhancement-factors of ca. 30-40 can be expected both under ALTADENA and under PASADENA conditions. This result has important consequences for the practical application of the method, since it potentially allows the design of an in-situ flow setup, where the para-hydrogen is adsorbed and desorbed from catalyst surfaces inside the NMR magnet. PMID:25218522

  8. Cooling by Para-to-Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.; Nast, T.

    1983-01-01

    Catalyst speeds conversion, increasing capacity of solid hydrogen cooling system. In radial-flow catalytic converter, para-hydrogen is converted to equilibrium mixture of para-hydrogen and ortho-hydrogen as it passes through porous cylinder of catalyst. Addition of catalyst increases capacity of hydrogen sublimation cooling systems for radiation detectors.

  9. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  10. Construction of a Para-Ortho Hydrogen Test Cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essler, J.; Haberstroh, Ch.

    2010-04-01

    In a prospective hydrogen economy it is necessary to verify the para concentration of the employed hydrogen. In case of a short storage time of about a few days only it has been shown that a partial conversion into para-hydrogen gives an optimized overall efficiency. Hence, an easy and reliable method of measuring the para-hydrogen concentration is needed. In this paper, the concept and construction of a small test cryostat are described and first results are presented. The measuring principle is based on a catalytic induced adiabatic ortho-para conversion of a hydrogen gas flow starting from a known temperature. The operation of the system only requires a certain amount of liquid nitrogen as coolant. To determine the concentration of para-hydrogen it is only necessary to measure the temperature of the gas before and after the adiabatic catalyst cell. The measuring cryostat is used for further investigation of the spontaneous para-ortho conversion in the supercritical state. In addition, the design of the cryostat allows the investigation of different catalyst materials regarding the catalytic activity and possible degradation by using a known para concentration for the measurement.

  11. a New Equation of State for Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Solid para-H_2 is a popular accommodating host for impurity spectroscopy due to its unique softness and the spherical symmetry of para-H_2 in its J}=0 rotational level. To simulate the properties of impurity-doped solid para-H_2, a reliable model for the `soft' pure solid para-H_2 at different pressures is highly desirable. While a couple of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the equation of state (EOS) of solid para-H_2 have been reported, the calculated EOS was shown to be heavily dependent on the potential energy surface (PES) between two para-H_2 that was used in the simulations. The current study also demonstrates that different choices of the parameters governing the Quantum Monte Carlo simulation could produce different EOS curves. To obtain a reliable model for pure solid para-H_2, we used a new 1-D para-H_2 PES reported by Faruk et al. that was obtained by averaging over Hinde's highly accurate 6-D H_2--H_2 PES. The EOS of pure solid para-H_2 was calculated using the PIMC algorithm with periodic boundary conditions (PBC). To precisely determine the equilibrium density of solid para-H_2, both the value of the PIMC time step (τ) and the number of particles in the PBC cell were extrapolated to convergence. The resulting EOS agreed well with experimental observations, and the hcp structured solid para-H_2 was found to be more stable than the fcc one at 4.2K, in agreement with experiment. The vibrational frequency shift of para-H_2 as a function of the density of the pure solid was also calculated, and the value of the shift at the equilibrium density is found to agree well with experiment. T. Momose, H. Honshina, M. Fushitani and H. Katsuki, Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 95(2004). M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). I. F. Silvera, Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 393(1980). F. Operetto and F. Pederiva, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184124(2006). T. Omiyinka and M. Boninsegni, Phys. Rev. B 88, 024112(2013). N. Faruk, M. Schmidt, H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, and P

  12. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  13. Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

  14. Para hydrogen equilibration in the atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, Barney J.

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets is strongly dependent on the extent to which local thermal equilibration of the ortho and para states of molecular hydrogen is achieved. Voyager IRIS data from Jupiter imply substantial departures of the para hydrogen fraction from equilibrium in the upper troposphere at low latitudes, but with values approaching equilibrium at higher latitudes. Data from Saturn are less sensitive to the orth-para ratio, but suggest para hydrogen fractions near the equilibrium value. Above approximately the 200 K temperature level, para hydrogen conversion can enhance the efficiency of convection, resulting in a substantial increase in overturning times on all of the outer planets. Currently available data cannot definitively establish the ortho-para ratios in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, but suggest values closer to local equilibrium than to the 3.1 normal ratio. Modeling of sub-millimeter wavelength measurements of these planets suggest thermal structures with frozen equilibrium lapse rates in their convective regions.

  15. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  16. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  17. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

  18. Hacer frente - Para la familia y los amigos

    Cancer.gov

    Si usted ayuda a su familiar o amigo durante el tratamiento del cáncer, usted es quien le cuida. Estar al cuidado de una persona con cáncer puede incluir muchas tensiones. Sugerencias para que se cuide usted cuando cuida a otros.

  19. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  20. Linfoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del linfoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  1. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James P; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  2. Cabozantinib y lenvatinib para cáncer renal

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog del NCI sobre la aprobación reciente de la FDA de cabozantinib (Cabometyx®) y de lenvatinib (Lenvima®) para el tratamiento de pacientes cuyo cáncer avanzado de riñón ha evolucionado después de tratamiento con terapias antiangiogénicas.

  3. Leucemia—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la leucemia, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  4. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PARA-NONYLPHENOL TO SALTWATER ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...

  5. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-07-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys—ushering in the era of precision cosmology—has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  6. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  7. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  8. Mesotelioma maligno—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y las causas del mesotelioma maligno, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  9. Retinoblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del retinoblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  10. Neuroblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  11. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  12. DESIGN NOTE: A compact catalytic converter for the production of para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, A. M.; Cubric, D.; King, G. C.

    2002-05-01

    The design and operation of a compact converter to produce a constant flow of para-hydrogen from normal hydrogen is described. The converter features a paramagnetic compound (nickel sulfate) that catalyses the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen at temperatures of 14-21 K. The converter has been tested by measuring rotationally resolved photoelectron spectra in the para-hydrogen produced. The percentage of the para-hydrogen species in the converted gas was determined to be >97%.

  13. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  14. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

  15. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

  16. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly. PMID:24976614

  17. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  18. Ethnomedical study and iron content of some medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine in Cote d'Ivoire for the treatment of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Koné, W Mamidou; Koffi, A G; Bomisso, E L; Tra Bi, F H

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been a source of succour in the control of many diseases in developing countries and anaemia is no exception. In this study, ethnomedical survey was carried out for recording medicinal plants used in Northern and South-Eastern Côte d'Ivoire against anaemia. Also iron content was determined for some of the recorded plants using phenanthroline method. Thirty (30) medicinal plants, covering 28 genera and 22 families were recorded. These plants were used to prepare 30 receipts for the treatment of anaemia and aggravating factors such as malaria and gastro-intestinal helminthes. Eleven (11) of these medicinal plants showed presence of iron in various quantities. The most promising were Tectona grandis, Amaranthus spinosus and Stylosanthes erecta which contained the highest iron contents viz; 266.6, 236.6 and 206.6 mg/100 g respectively. They were followed by Hoslundia opposita, Imperata cylindrica, Cajanus cajan, Thalia geniculata and Milicia excelsa. These results lend credence to the traditional use of these plants in Cote d'Ivoire's ethnomedicine for the treatment of anaemia. PMID:23983324

  19. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

    2002-06-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

  20. Two rhizobacterial strains, individually and in interactions with Rhizobium sp., enhance fusarial wilt control, growth, and yield in pigeon pea.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Swarnalee; Morang, Pranjal; Kumar S, Nishanth; Dileep Kumar, B S

    2014-09-01

    A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, RRLJ 04, and a Bacillus cereus strain, BS 03, were tested both individually and in combination with a Rhizobium strain, RH 2, for their ability to enhance plant growth and nodulation in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) under gnotobiotic, greenhouse and field conditions. Both of the rhizobacterial strains exhibited a positive effect on growth in terms of shoot height, root length, fresh and dry weight, nodulation and yield over the non-treated control. Co-inoculation of seeds with these strains and Rhizobium RH 2 also reduced the number of wilted plants, when grown in soil infested with Fusarium udum. Gnotobiotic studies confirmed that the suppression of wilt disease was due to the presence of the respective PGPR strains. Seed bacterization with drug-marked mutants of RRLJ 04 and BS 03 confirmed their ability to colonize and multiply along the roots. The results suggest that co-inoculation of these strains with Rhizobium strain RH 2 can be further exploited for enhanced growth, nodulation and yield in addition to control of fusarial wilt in pigeon pea. PMID:25224506

  1. Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.

    PubMed

    Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

    2014-09-01

    Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 μM was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 μM, which increases up to 150 μM, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones. PMID:25062779

  2. Deep sequencing of pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus discloses five RNA segments related to emaraviruses.

    PubMed

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Digiaro, Michele; Uppala, Mangala; Sudini, Harikishan

    2014-08-01

    The sequences of five viral RNA segments of pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV), the agent of sterility mosaic disease (SMD) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan, Fabaceae), were determined using the deep sequencing technology. Each of the five RNAs encodes a single protein on the negative-sense strand with an open reading frame (ORF) of 6885, 1947, 927, 1086, and 1,422 nts, respectively. In order, from RNA1 to RNA5, these ORFs encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (p1, 267.9 kDa), a putative glycoprotein precursor (p2, 74.3 kDa), a putative nucleocapsid protein (p3, 34.6 kDa), a putative movement protein (p4, 40.8 kDa), while p5 (55 kDa) has an unknown function. All RNA segments of PPSMV showed the highest identity with orthologs of fig mosaic virus (FMV) and Rose rosette virus (RRV). In phylogenetic trees constructed with the amino acid sequences of p1, p2 and p3, PPSMV clustered consistently with other emaraviruses, close to clades comprising members of other genera of the family Bunyaviridae. Based on the molecular characteristics unveiled in this study and the morphological and epidemiological features similar to other emaraviruses, PPSMV seems to be the seventh species to join the list of emaraviruses known to date and accordingly, its classification in the genus Emaravirus seems now legitimate. PMID:24685674

  3. Emaravirus: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mielke-Ehret, Nicole; Mühlbach, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (Cajanus cajan) and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV), Fig mosaic virus (FMV), rose rosette virus (RRV), raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus Emaravirus was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses. PMID:23170170

  4. LegumeIP 2.0—a platform for the study of gene function and genome evolution in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Zhuang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Patrick X.

    2016-01-01

    The LegumeIP 2.0 database hosts large-scale genomics and transcriptomics data and provides integrative bioinformatics tools for the study of gene function and evolution in legumes. Our recent updates in LegumeIP 2.0 include gene and protein sequences, gene models and annotations, syntenic regions, protein families and phylogenetic trees for six legume species: Medicago truncatula, Glycine max (soybean), Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) and two outgroup reference species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Poplar trichocarpa. Moreover, the LegumeIP 2.0 features the following new data resources and bioinformatics tools: (i) an integrative gene expression atlas for four model legumes that include 550 array hybridizations from M. truncatula, 962 gene expression profiles of G. max, 276 array hybridizations from L. japonicas and 56 RNA-Seq-based gene expression profiles for C. arietinum. These datasets were manually curated and hierarchically organized based on Experimental Ontology and Plant Ontology so that users can browse, search, and retrieve data for their selected experiments. (ii) New functions/analytical tools to query, mine and visualize large-scale gene sequences, annotations and transcriptome profiles. Users may select a subset of expression experiments and visualize and compare expression profiles for multiple genes. The LegumeIP 2.0 database is freely available to the public at http://plantgrn.noble.org/LegumeIP/. PMID:26578557

  5. LegumeIP 2.0--a platform for the study of gene function and genome evolution in legumes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Zhuang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Patrick X

    2016-01-01

    The LegumeIP 2.0 database hosts large-scale genomics and transcriptomics data and provides integrative bioinformatics tools for the study of gene function and evolution in legumes. Our recent updates in LegumeIP 2.0 include gene and protein sequences, gene models and annotations, syntenic regions, protein families and phylogenetic trees for six legume species: Medicago truncatula, Glycine max (soybean), Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) and two outgroup reference species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Poplar trichocarpa. Moreover, the LegumeIP 2.0 features the following new data resources and bioinformatics tools: (i) an integrative gene expression atlas for four model legumes that include 550 array hybridizations from M. truncatula, 962 gene expression profiles of G. max, 276 array hybridizations from L. japonicas and 56 RNA-Seq-based gene expression profiles for C. arietinum. These datasets were manually curated and hierarchically organized based on Experimental Ontology and Plant Ontology so that users can browse, search, and retrieve data for their selected experiments. (ii) New functions/analytical tools to query, mine and visualize large-scale gene sequences, annotations and transcriptome profiles. Users may select a subset of expression experiments and visualize and compare expression profiles for multiple genes. The LegumeIP 2.0 database is freely available to the public at http://plantgrn.noble.org/LegumeIP/. PMID:26578557

  6. Soil Organic Matter Quality of an Oxisol Affected by Plant Residues and Crop Sequence under No-Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cora, Jose; Marcelo, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    Plant residues are considered the primarily resource for soil organic matter (SOM) formation and the amounts and properties of plant litter are important controlling factors for the SOM quality. We determined the amounts, quality and decomposition rate of plant residues and the effects of summer and winter crop sequences on soil organic C (TOC) content, both particulate organic C (POC) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) pools and humic substances in a Brazilian Rhodic Eutrudox soil under a no-tillage system. The organic C analysis in specifics pools used in this study was effective and should be adopted in tropical climates to evaluate the soil quality and the sustainability of various cropping systems. Continuous growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on summer provided higher contents of soil POC and continuous growth of maize (Zea mays L.) provided higher soil humic acid and MOC contents. Summer soybean-maize rotation provided the higher plant diversity, which likely improved the soil microbial activity and the soil organic C consumption. The winter sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) enhanced the soil MOC, a finding that is attributable to the higher N content of the crop residue. Sunn hemp and pigeon pea provided the higher soil POC content. Sunn hemp showed better performance and positive effects on the SOM quality, making it a suitable winter crop choice for tropical conditions with a warm and dry winter.

  7. Successive Use of Non-Host Plant Proteinase Inhibitors Required for Effective Inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Gut Proteinases and Larval Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Harsulkar, Abhay M.; Giri, Ashok P.; Patankar, Aparna G.; Gupta, Vidya S.; Sainani, Mohini N.; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K.; Deshpande, Vasanti V.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the efficacy of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from three host plants (chickpea [Cicer arietinum], pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan], and cotton [Gossypium arboreum]) and three non-host (groundnut [Arachis hypogea], winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) in retarding the growth of Helicoverpa armigera larvae, a devastating pest of important crop plants. Enzyme assays and electrophoretic analysis of interaction of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGPs) with PIs revealed that non-host PIs inhibited HGP activity efficiently whereas host PIs were ineffective. In the electrophoretic assay, trypsin inhibitor activity bands were detected in all of the host and non-host plants, but HGP inhibitor activity bands were present only in non-host plants (except cotton in the host plant group). H. armigera larvae reared on a diet containing non-host PIs showed growth retardation, a reduction in total and trypsin-like proteinase activity, and the production of inhibitor-insensitive proteinases. Electrophoretic analysis of PI-induced HGP showed differential regulation of proteinase isoforms. Interestingly, HGP activity induced in response to dietary potato PI-II was inhibited by winged bean PIs. The optimized combination of potato PI-II and winged bean PIs identified in the present study and their proposed successive use has potential in developing H. armigera-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:10517841

  8. Study the effect of insecticide dimethoate on photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea: Laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jitendra Kumar; Dubey, Gunjan; Gopal, R

    2015-10-01

    Pigeon pea is one of the most important legume crops in India and dimethoate is a widely used insecticide in various crop plants. We studied the effect of dimethoate on growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants over a short and long term exposure. Plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence response of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) plants treated with various concentrations of the insecticide dimethoate (10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm) have been compared for 30 days at regular intervals of 10 days each. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra and fluorescence-induction kinetics (FIK) curve of dimethoate treated pigeon pea plants were recorded after 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment. Fluorescence intensity ratio at the two fluorescence maxima (F685/F730) was calculated by evaluating curve-fitted parameters. The variable chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (Rfd) was determined from the FIK curves. Our study revealed that after 10 days of treatment, 10 ppm of dimethoate showed stimulatory response whereas 20, 40 and 80 ppm of dimethoate showed inhibitory response for growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants, but after 20 and 30 days of treatment all the tested concentrations of dimethoate became inhibitory. This study clearly shows that dimethoate is highly toxic to the pigeon pea plant, even at very low concentration (10 ppm), if used for a prolonged duration. Our study may thus be helpful in determining the optimal dose of dimethoate in agricultural practices. PMID:25228224

  9. Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity

    PubMed Central

    Goud, Prashanth B.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others. PMID:22895104

  10. Construction and pilot screening of a signature-tagged mutant library of Sinorhizobium fredii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yuan Chun; Wu, Li Juan; Liu, Jian Xin; Zhang, Pan; Jiao, Jian; Yan, Hui; Liu, Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin

    2016-03-01

    Sinorhizobium fredii is well known for its ability to establish symbiosis with diverse legumes such as Glycine max (soybean, determinate nodules) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea, indeterminate nodules). In order to make screening of S. fredii genes related to symbiosis cost-effective, we constructed a large Tn5 insertion mutant library of S. fredii CCBAU45436 using the signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) technique. This STM library contains a total of 25,500 independent mutants distributed in 17 sublibraries tagged by corresponding distinct DNA bar-code sequences. After the pilot screening of 255 mutants in 15 batches, Tag85-4, Tag4-17, Tag4-11 and Tag10-13 were found to have attenuated competitiveness (0-30 % in nodule occupation) compared to the wild-type strain when inoculated on soybean. Further characterization of these mutants suggests that Tag4-11 (a pyrC mutant) and Tag10-13 (a nrdJ mutant) are defective in establishing symbiosis with soybean. The pyrC mutant induced uninfected pseudonodules while the nrdJ mutant formed significantly more nodules containing bacteroids with poor persistence ability. When these two mutants were tested on pigeon pea, host-specific symbiotic defects were found. These results demonstrated the STM library as a valuable resource for identifying S. fredii genes relevant to symbiosis. PMID:26472206

  11. Characterization of the bioactive metabolites from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their exploitation as antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting agents.

    PubMed

    George, Emrin; Kumar, S Nishanth; Jacob, Jubi; Bommasani, Bhaskara; Lankalapalli, Ravi S; Morang, P; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2015-05-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial strain, PM 105, isolated from a tea plantation soil from the North Eastern region of India was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa through classical and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Further studies with this strain confirmed broad spectrum antifungal activity against ten human and plant pathogenic fungal pathogens viz. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Candida albicans, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Pencillium expansum, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichophyton rubrum besides growth-promoting property in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). However, no antibacterial property was exhibited by this strain against the four test bacterial pathogens tested in agar overlay method. The crude bioactive metabolites produced by this strain were isolated with three different solvents that exhibited significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Chloroform extract recorded significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Three major compounds viz. 1-hydroxyphenazine, pyocyanin, and phenazine-1-carboxamide were purified and characterized from crude extracts of this strain by various spectral data. The purified compounds recorded prominent antimicrobial activity but failed to establish the plant growth promotion activity in test crop plants under gnotobiotic conditions. Pyocyanin recorded significant antimicrobial activity, and best activity was recorded against T. rubrum (29 mm), followed by P. expansum (28 mm). These results suggest the use of PM 105 as plant growth-promoting agent in crop plants after successful field trials. PMID:25832181

  12. Pigeonpea Hybrid-Proline-Rich Protein (CcHyPRP) Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice.

    PubMed

    Mellacheruvu, Sunitha; Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the overexpression of Cajanus cajan hybrid-proline-rich protein encoding gene (CcHyPRP) in rice which resulted in increased tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic rice lines, expressing CcHyPRP, exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity, and heat, as evidenced by increased biomass, chlorophyll content, survival rate, root, and shoot growth. Further, transgenic rice lines showed increased panicle size and grain number compared to the control plants under different stress conditions. The CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, revealed enhanced activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Expression pattern of CcHyPRP::GFP fusion-protein confirmed its predominant localization in cell walls. Moreover, the CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, exhibited increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea which causes blast disease in rice. Higher levels of bZIP and endochitinase transcripts as well as endochitinase activity were observed in transgenic rice compared to the control plants. The overall results demonstrate the intrinsic role of CcHyPRP in conferring multiple stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multipotent CcHyPRP seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants for enhanced tolerance/resistance to different stress factors. PMID:26834756

  13. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their distribution patterns related to host-plants and habitats in a hot and arid ecosystem, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Fei; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2010-03-01

    The communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonizing the roots of Bothriochloa pertusa, Cajanus cajan and Heteropogon contortus in a fallow land (FL) and an undisturbed land (UL) were characterized. The large subunit rDNA genes of AMF from roots were amplified and cloned. A total of 2353 clones were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and 428 clones were subsequently sequenced. A total of 393 AMF sequences, which were grouped into 100 operational taxonomic units, were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the AMF sequences belonged to Glomus, Acaulospora and Scutellospora, and that Glomus was the dominant genus. Of the 393 AMF sequences, 81% were novel. The diversity of AMF colonizing the same plant species was higher in the UL than in the FL, which confirmed strongly from the molecular evidence that soil disturbance reduced AMF population and species richness. The results revealed that AMF communities were significantly different among host-plant species and between the two habitats. The similarity of AMF communities colonizing different plant species within a habitat was higher than that of the same plant species from different habitats. The molecular evidence supported our previous hypothesis based on morphological analyses that AMF communities were more influenced by habitats compared with host preference. PMID:20015335

  14. Pigeonpea Hybrid-Proline-Rich Protein (CcHyPRP) Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Mellacheruvu, Sunitha; Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the overexpression of Cajanus cajan hybrid-proline-rich protein encoding gene (CcHyPRP) in rice which resulted in increased tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic rice lines, expressing CcHyPRP, exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity, and heat, as evidenced by increased biomass, chlorophyll content, survival rate, root, and shoot growth. Further, transgenic rice lines showed increased panicle size and grain number compared to the control plants under different stress conditions. The CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, revealed enhanced activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Expression pattern of CcHyPRP::GFP fusion-protein confirmed its predominant localization in cell walls. Moreover, the CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, exhibited increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea which causes blast disease in rice. Higher levels of bZIP and endochitinase transcripts as well as endochitinase activity were observed in transgenic rice compared to the control plants. The overall results demonstrate the intrinsic role of CcHyPRP in conferring multiple stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multipotent CcHyPRP seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants for enhanced tolerance/resistance to different stress factors. PMID:26834756

  15. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  16. Isolation and characterization of a pigeonpea cyclophilin (CcCYP) gene, and its over-expression in Arabidopsis confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Kambakam; Priyanka, Bhyri; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2010-08-01

    A full-length cDNA clone of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) encoding cyclophilin (CcCYP) has been isolated from the cDNA library of plants subjected to drought stress. Amino acid sequence of CcCYP disclosed similarity with that of single-domain cytosolic cyclophilins of various organisms. Expression profile of CcCYP in pigeonpea plants is strongly induced by different abiotic stresses, indicating its stress-responsive nature. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing CcCYP exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity and extreme temperatures as evidenced by increased plant survival, biomass, chlorophyll content and profuse root growth. The CcCYP transgenics, compared to the controls, revealed enhanced peptidyl-propyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity under stressed conditions, owing to transcriptional activation of stress-related genes besides intrinsic chaperonic activity of the cyclophilin. The transgenic plants subjected to salt stress exhibited higher Na(+) ion accumulation in roots as compared to shoots, while a reverse trend was observed in the salt-stressed control plants, implicating the involvement of CcCYP in the maintenance of ion homeostasis. Expression pattern of CcCYP:GFP fusion protein confirmed the localization of CcCYP predominantly in the nucleus as revealed by intense green fluorescence. The overall results amply demonstrate the implicit role of CcCYP in conferring multiple abiotic stress tolerance at whole-plant level. PMID:20374537

  17. Transformation of pWWO in Rhizobium leguminosarum DPT to Engineer Toluene Degrading Ability for Rhizoremediation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Garima; Pandey, Piyush; Sood, Anchal; Bisht, Sandeep; Maheshwari, D K; Sharma, G D

    2012-06-01

    Rhizoremediation of organic xenobiotics is based on interactions between plants and their associated micro-organisms. The present work was designed to engineer a bacterial system having toluene degradation ability along with plant growth promoting characteristics for effective rhizoremediation. pWWO harboring the genes responsible for toluene breakdown was isolated from Pseudomonas putida MTCC 979 and successfully transformed in Rhizobium DPT. This resulted in a bacterial strain (DPT(T)) which had the ability to degrade toluene as well as enhance growth of host plant. The frequency of transformation was recorded 5.7 × 10(-6). DPT produced IAA, siderophore, chitinase, HCN, ACC deaminase, solubilized inorganic phosphate, fixed atmospheric nitrogen and inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. During pot assay, 50 ppm toluene in soil was found to inhibit the germination of Cajanus cajan seeds. However when the seeds bacterized with toluene degrading P. putida or R. leguminosarum DPT were sown in pots, again no germination was observed. Non-bacterized as well as bacterized seeds germinated successfully in toluene free soil as control. The results forced for an alternative mode of application of bacteria for rhizoremediation purpose. Hence bacterial suspension was mixed with soil having 50 ppm of toluene. Germination index in DPT treated soil was 100% while in P. putida it was 50%. Untreated soil with toluene restricted the seeds to germinate. PMID:23729882

  18. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  19. Regulation of Population Densities of Heterodera cajani and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Crop Rotations on Vertisols, in Semi-Arid Tropical Production Systems in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S B; Rego, T J; Mohiuddin, M; Rao, V N

    1996-06-01

    The significance of double crop (intercrop and sequential crop), single crop (rainy season crop fallow from June to September), and rotations on densities of Heterodera cajani, Helicotylenchus retusus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis was studied on Vertisol (Typic Pellusterts) between 1987 and 1993. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis), mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) greatly increased the population densities of H. cajani and suppressed the population densities of other plant-parasitic nematodes. Mean population densities of H. cajani were about 8 times lower in single crop systems than in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop. Plots planted to sorghum, safflower, and chickpea in the preceding year contained fewer H. cajani eggs and juveniles than did plots previously planted to pigeonpea, cowpea, or mungbean. Continuous cropping of sorghum in the rainy season and safflower in the post-rainy season markedly reduced the population density of H. cajani. Sorghum, safflower, and chickpea favored increased population densities of H. retusus. Adding cowpea to the system resulted in a significant increase in the densities of R. reniformis. Mean densities of total plant-parasitic nematodes were three times greater in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop than in single crop systems with rainy season fallow component. Cropping systems had a regulatory effect on the nematode populations and could be an effective nematode management tactic. Intercropping of sorghum with H. cajani tolerant pigeonpea could be effective in increasing the productivity of traditional production systems in H. cajani infested regions. PMID:19277141

  20. Regulation of Population Densities of Heterodera cajani and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Crop Rotations on Vertisols, in Semi-Arid Tropical Production Systems in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. B.; Rego, T. J.; Mohiuddin, M.; Rao, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    The significance of double crop (intercrop and sequential crop), single crop (rainy season crop fallow from June to September), and rotations on densities of Heterodera cajani, Helicotylenchus retusus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis was studied on Vertisol (Typic Pellusterts) between 1987 and 1993. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis), mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) greatly increased the population densities of H. cajani and suppressed the population densities of other plant-parasitic nematodes. Mean population densities of H. cajani were about 8 times lower in single crop systems than in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop. Plots planted to sorghum, safflower, and chickpea in the preceding year contained fewer H. cajani eggs and juveniles than did plots previously planted to pigeonpea, cowpea, or mungbean. Continuous cropping of sorghum in the rainy season and safflower in the post-rainy season markedly reduced the population density of H. cajani. Sorghum, safflower, and chickpea favored increased population densities of H. retusus. Adding cowpea to the system resulted in a significant increase in the densities of R. reniformis. Mean densities of total plant-parasitic nematodes were three times greater in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop than in single crop systems with rainy season fallow component. Cropping systems had a regulatory effect on the nematode populations and could be an effective nematode management tactic. Intercropping of sorghum with H. cajani tolerant pigeonpea could be effective in increasing the productivity of traditional production systems in H. cajani infested regions. PMID:19277141

  1. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Thomson, James G; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Blanvillain, Robert; Nunes, Wylla M; Chiniquy, Dawn; Thilmony, Roger; Ow, David W

    2009-04-01

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed under the control of the Arabidopsis OXS3 promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis lines harboring a chromosomally integrated MRS-flanked target. The ParA recombinase excised the MRS-flanked DNA and the excision event was detected in subsequent generations in the absence of ParA, indicating germinal transmission of the excision event. The precise site-specific deletion by the ParA recombination system in planta demonstrates that the ParA recombinase can be used to remove transgenic DNA, such as selectable markers or other introduced transgenes that are no longer desired in the final product. PMID:18704739

  2. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  3. Laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection for patients with primary colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung Ho; Park, Soo Yeun; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Chun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Treatment of patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer is controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility of laparoscopic intrarenal para-aortic lymph node dissection in patients with colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph node dissection. Methods The inclusion criteria for the laparoscopic approach were patients with infrarenal para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer. Patients who had any other distant metastatic lesion or metachronous para-aortic lymph node metastasis were excluded from this study. Perioperative outcomes and survival outcomes were analyzed. Results Between November 2004 and October 2013, 40 patients underwent laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection. The mean operating time was 192.3 ± 68.8 minutes (range, 100-400 minutes) and the mean estimated blood loss was 65.6 ± 52.6 mL (range, 20-210 mL). No patient required open conversion. The postoperative complication rate was 15.0%. Sixteen patients (40.0%) had pathologically positive lymph nodes. In patients with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes, the 3-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 65.7% and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that a laparoscopic approach for patients with colorectal cancer with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes can be a reasonable option for selected patients. PMID:26793690

  4. Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI anuncia becas de investigación para tecnologías portátiles

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI (CGH) anunció el otorgamiento de subvenciones que apoyarán el desarrollo y la validación de tecnologías portátiles y de bajo costo para mejorar la detección temprana, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del cáncer.

  5. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  6. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  7. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  8. Spectroscopy of Single Dibenzoterrylene Molecules in para-Dichlorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Verhart, Nico R; Müller, Mathias; Orrit, Michel

    2016-05-18

    We study single dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecules embedded in 1,4-dichlorobenzene (para-dichlorobenzene, pDCB) at 1.2 K. Due to the relatively low melting point of pDCB (53 °C), this host-guest system can be easily prepared from the molten phase. Narrow linewidths, stable molecular lines and high saturation count rates of single DBT molecules were observed. For this reason, we consider this host-guest system a promising candidate for the study of interactions of single molecules with other small objects such as waveguides or nanoparticles. PMID:26840901

  9. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize andmore » enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results

  10. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  11. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  12. Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low. PMID:23530629

  13. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  14. Spectroscopy of Defects in Epitaxially Grown Para-sexiphenyl Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Beynik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    We present a study of steady-state- and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films on KCl grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE). Using different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites but keeping virtually untouched their chemical structure. By this comparative study we prove that the broad red-shifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to be drastically suppressed in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  15. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  16. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  17. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  18. Wave intensity analysis of para-aortic counterpulsation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pong-Jeu; Yang, Chi-Fu Jeffrey; Wu, Meng-Yu; Hung, Chun-Hao; Chan, Ming-Yao; Hsu, Tzu-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) was used to delineate and maximize the efficacy of a newly developed para-aortic blood pump (PABP). The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was employed as the comparison benchmark. Acute porcine experiments using eight pigs, randomly divided into IABP (n = 4) and PABP (n = 4) groups, were conducted to compare the characteristics of intra- and para-aortic counterpulsation. We measured pressure and velocity with probes installed in the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta, during and without PABP assistance. Wave intensity for aortic and left coronary waves were derived from pressure and flow measurements with synchronization correction applied. To achieve maximized support efficacy, deflation timings ranging from 25 ms ahead of to 35 ms after the R-wave were tested. Similar to those associated with IABP counterpulsation, the PABP-generated backward-traveling waves predominantly drove aortic and coronary blood flows. However, in contrast with IABP counterpulsation, the nonocclusive nature of the PABP allowed systolic unloading to be delayed into early systole, which resulted in near elimination of coronary blood steal without diminution of systolic left ventricular ejection wave intensities. WIA can elucidate subtleties among different counterpulsatile support means with high sensitivity. Total accelerating wave intensity (TAWI), which was defined as the sum of the time integration of accelerated parts of the positive and negative wave intensities, was used to quantify counterpulsation efficacy. In general, the larger the TAWI gain, the better the counter-pulsatile support efficacy. However, when PABP deflation timings were delayed to after the R-wave, the TAWI was found to be inversely correlated with coronary perfusion. In this delayed deflation timing setting, greater wave cancellation occurred, which led to decreased TAWI but increased coronary perfusion attributed to blood regurgitation reduction. PMID:22227124

  19. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  20. The Clearance of Creatinine, Inulin, Para-aminohippurate and Phenosulphothalein in the Cat

    PubMed Central

    Osbaldiston, G. W.; Fuhrman, W.

    1970-01-01

    Endogenous creatinine, inulin, para-amino-hippurate and phenolsulphothalein clearances for healthy cats are presented. The values for inulin and para-aminohippurate clearances (ml/kg/min) are similar to those for the dog. Creatinine clearance was less than inulin clearance values. Pnenolsulphothalein clearance may be a better index of glomerular rather than tubular function in the cat. PMID:4246836

  1. Chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed asymmetric addition of naphthols to para-quinone methides.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuk Fai; Wang, Zhaobin; Sun, Jianwei

    2016-06-28

    An asymmetric addition of naphthols to in situ generated para-quinone methides catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid is described. A range of useful triarylmethanes can be generated from stable general para-hydroxybenzyl alcohols with good efficiency and enantioselectivity. PMID:26932597

  2. Para-meatal urethral cyst with bladder calculi: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patil, Siddangouda B; Patil, Nikhil Ashok; Kundargi, Vinay S; Biradar, Ashok N

    2015-01-01

    Para-meatal urethral cyst or median raphe cyst of the glans penis is a benign cystic lesion uncommonly encountered in prepubertal age group. Approximately, about 50 cases have been reported till date in the world literature. Herein we report a case of para-meatal urethral cyst concurrent with urinary bladder calculi. PMID:26539378

  3. Para-meatal urethral cyst with bladder calculi: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Siddangouda B.; Patil, Nikhil Ashok; Kundargi, Vinay S.; Biradar, Ashok N.

    2015-01-01

    Para-meatal urethral cyst or median raphe cyst of the glans penis is a benign cystic lesion uncommonly encountered in prepubertal age group. Approximately, about 50 cases have been reported till date in the world literature. Herein we report a case of para-meatal urethral cyst concurrent with urinary bladder calculi. PMID:26539378

  4. Under the skin: Biotransformation of para-aminophenol and para-phenylenediamine in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Duche, Daniel; Garrigues, Alexia; Meunier, Pierre-Alain; Toutain, Herve; Leclaire, Jacques

    2005-09-15

    We investigated the biotransformation of the oxidative arylamine (AA) hair dye ingredients [14C]-para-aminophenol (PAP) and [14C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes. Human epidermis quantitatively transformed PAP to its N-acetylated derivative (APAP), whereas hepatocytes transformed PAP to sulfate or glucuronic acid conjugates of APAP or PAP as well as free APAP. Epidermis and hepatocytes converted PPD to N-mono- (MAPPD) and N,N'-di-acetylated (DAPPD) derivatives. At higher concentrations of PPD (250-1000 microM), epidermis or hepatocytes produced more of the MAPPD, whereas concentrations below 250 microM and lower favoured formation of the DAPPD metabolite. When compared with epidermis, human hepatocytes had a three-fold or eight-fold greater capacity for generation of MAPPD or DAPPD, respectively. No evidence of transformation of PAP or PPD to N-hydroxylated derivatives was found in epidermis or hepatocytes. Our results suggest that (i) after dermal absorption of PAP or PPD, humans are systemically exposed to acetylated derivatives; (ii) current in vitro skin absorption studies may be inadapated for determination of human systemic exposure to AAs due to reduced or absent metabolic capacity of non-viable skin; (iii) due to qualitative differences between dermal and hepatic metabolism, oral toxicity studies may be unsuited for the hazard assessment of dermal exposure to AAs; and (iv) use of induced rodent liver S9 metabolic activation systems for in vitro genotoxicity studies may produce misleading results on the hazard of human dermal exposure to AAs. In conclusion, our data support the growing evidence that AAs are transformed in human skin and suggest that current practices of safety assessment of AAs should take these findings into account. PMID:15890478

  5. Contextual Factors that Foster or Inhibit Para-Teacher Professional Development: The Case of an Indian, Non-Governmental Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    The appointment of para-professionals to overcome skill shortages and/or make efficient use of expensive resources is well established in both developing and developed countries. The present research concerns para-teachers in India. The literature on para-teachers is dominated by training for special needs settings, largely in developed societies.…

  6. Females prefer carotenoid colored males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Godfrey R; Breden, Felix; Allen, Teresa C

    2003-09-01

    The first results of female preference and chosen male mating success in a new model organism, the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae, are presented. Poecilia parae is a relative of the guppy, P. reticulata, and is assumed to have similar reproductive behavior. We tested the hypothesis that P. parae females, like female guppies, prefer carotenoid colored males as mates. Here we show that the time a female spent with males was significantly greater for carotenoid coloration in red and yellow melanzona, but time with these two morphs did not differ. The preferred red and yellow males mated significantly more often with their choosing females than did the non-preferred blue and parae males. The few blue melanzona and parae males that mated did so without performing courtship displays. Some females mated with all phenotypes including immaculata males during open group trials. Female P. parae clearly preferred males with carotenoid coloration, thereby corroborating the hypothesis. Alternative male mating tactics by blue melanzona, parae, and immaculata morphs and promiscuous mating by females also resembled features of reproductive behaviors exhibited by guppies. PMID:14504782

  7. Quantum fluctuations increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in narrow carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2011-05-28

    Quantum fluctuations significantly increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen adsorbed in narrow carbon nanotubes at 30 K comparing to its classical counterpart. Rigorous Feynman's path integral calculations reveal that self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K and pore densities below ∼29 mmol cm(-3) is one order of magnitude faster than the classical counterpart. We find that the zero-point energy and tunneling significantly smoothed out the free energy landscape of para-hydrogen molecules adsorbed in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube. This promotes a delocalization of the confined para-hydrogen at 30 K (i.e., population of unclassical paths due to quantum effects). Contrary the self-diffusive motion of classical para-hydrogen molecules in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K is very slow. This is because classical para-hydrogen molecules undergo highly correlated movement when their collision diameter approached the carbon nanotube size (i.e., anomalous diffusion in quasi-one dimensional pores). On the basis of current results we predict that narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising nanoporous molecular sieves being able to separate para-hydrogen molecules from mixtures of classical particles at cryogenic temperatures. PMID:21503294

  8. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  9. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  10. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  11. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  12. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2007-01-31

    We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

  14. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  15. Anise oil as para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) precursor.

    PubMed

    Waumans, Dieter; Bruneel, Noël; Tytgat, Jan

    2003-04-23

    These days, MDMA is one of the most popular drugs of abuse. Due to its illegality, MDMA and its chemical precursors are watched by governmental organizations in many countries. To avoid conflicts with legal instances, underground chemists have tried to market several new unregulated amphetamine analogues, such as 4-MTA. Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), on the other hand, is regulated by law but its precursors are easily obtained since they are cheap and unwatched. This article presents such a case, namely the large scale synthesis of PMA using anethole, a main constituent of anise oil, as precursor. Anethole has been converted to its phenyl acetone analogue via peracid oxidation, while PMA itself has been synthesized using this ketone as precursor in the Leuckart synthesis. The synthesis of PMA using anethole as starting product has been investigated applying GC/MS and GC-HSPME/MS techniques, hereby discovering new specific (4-methoxyphenol) and already identified synthesis impurities (4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine, N-(beta-4-methoxyphenylisopropyl)-4-methoxybenzyl methyl ketimine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-2-propanamine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-2-propanamine, N-(beta-4-methoxyphenylisopropyl)-4-methoxybenzaldimine). The new impurity 4-methoxyphenol is specific for the application of a peracid oxidation method where anethole is used as precursor. PMID:12742705

  16. Metabolism of para-aminophenol by rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Z; Nikelly, J G; Killmer, L; Tarloff, J B

    2000-08-01

    Autoxidation of para-aminophenol (PAP) has been proposed to account for the selective nephrotoxicity of this compound. However, other studies suggest that hepatic metabolites of PAP rather than the parent compound may be responsible for renal damage. These studies were designed to investigate PAP metabolism in isolated hepatocytes. We synthesized several proposed metabolites for analysis by HPLC/mass spectrometry and compared those results with HPLC/mass spectrometric analyses of metabolites found after incubating hepatocytes with PAP. Hepatocytes prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C for 5 h with 2.3 mM PAP under an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% O2. Aliquots were withdrawn at 0.1 h of incubation and then hourly through 5 h of incubation. Reactions were terminated by the addition of acetonitrile. Hepatocyte viability was unaltered with PAP present in the incubation medium. We found that hepatocytes converted PAP to two major metabolites (PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates) and several minor metabolites [PAP-O-glucuronide, acetaminophen (APAP), APAP-O-glucuronide, APAP-GSH conjugates, and 4-hydroxyformanilide]. Preincubating hepatoyctes with 1-aminobenzotriazole, an inhibitor of cytochromes P450, did not alter the pattern of PAP metabolism. In conclusion, we found that PAP was metabolized in hepatocytes predominantly to PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates in sufficient quantities to account for the nephrotoxicity of PAP. PMID:10901695

  17. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  18. Uninfected Para-Anastomotic Aneurysms after Infrarenal Aortic Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Nano, Giovanni; Cusmai, Francesco; Ramponi, Fabio; Stegher, Silvia; Dell'Aglio, Daniela; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This single-institution retrospective review examines the management of uninfected para-anastomotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (PAAA), developed after infrarenal grafting. Materials and Methods From October 1979 to November 2005, 31 PAAA were observed in our Department. Twenty-six uninfected PAAA of degenerative etiology, including 24 false and 2 true aneurysms, were candidates for intervention and retrospectively included in our database for management and outcome evaluation. Six (23%) patients were treated as emergencies. Surgery included tube graft interposition (n = 12), new reconstruction (n = 8), and graft removal with extra-anatomic bypass (n = 3). Endovascular management (n = 3) consisted of free-flow tube endografts. Results The mortality rate among the elective and emergency cases was 5% and 66.6%, respectively (p = 0.005). The morbidity rate in elective cases was 57.8%, whereas 75% in emergency cases (p = 0.99). The survival rate during the follow-up was significantly higher for elective cases than for emergency cases. Conclusion Uninfected PAAA is a late complication of aortic grafting, tends to evolve silently and is difficult to diagnose. The prevalence is underestimated and increases with time since surgery. The mortality rate is higher among patients treated as an emergency than among patients who undergo elective surgery, therefore, elective treatment and aggressive management in the case of pseudoaneurysm are the keys to obtain a good outcome. Endovascular treatment could reduce mortality. Patients who undergo infrarenal aortic grafting require life-long surveillance after surgery. PMID:19430556

  19. Para-Tyrosine Supplementation Improves Insulin- and Liraglutide- Induced Vasorelaxation in Cholesterol-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Sélley, Eszter; Kun, Szilárd; Kürthy, Mária; Kovács, Tibor; Wittmann, István; Molnár, Gergo A

    2015-01-01

    Former data of our workgroup indicated that the accumulation of oxidized amino acids (meta- and ortho-tyrosine) due to oxidative stress may play an important role in the impaired insulininduced vasoactive properties of different arterial segments. There are evidences, that incorporation of these amino acids into cellular proteins leads to certain hormonal resistances, which might be restored by supplementation with the physiologic isoform, para-tyrosine. Rats in the control group were kept on a regular diet, rats in the cholesterol-fed group received high-fat diet, while the third group of rats received high-fat diet with para-tyrosine supplementation for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol level was significantly higher in the cholesterol-fed group, while the level of cholesterol in the cholesterol+para-tyrosine group did not differ significantly from that of the controls. Plasma level of insulin after glucose stimulation was decreased in the cholesterol-fed group, while that in the para-tyrosine supplemented group did not differ significantly from the controls. Vascular para-, meta- and ortho-tyrosine content was measured with HPLC. Elevated vascular meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio of cholesterol fed rats could be avoided by para-tyrosine supplementation. Vascular response of the thoracic aorta to insulin and liraglutide was assessed by a DMT multi-myograph. Cholesterol feeding resulted in vascular insulin-and liraglutide resistance, which was restored by para-tyrosine supplementation. Incorporation of the oxidative stress induced pathological tyrosine isoforms leads to vascular-hormone-resistances. We show that the physiological amino acid para-tyrosine is capable of restoring hypercholesterolemia-induced increased meta-tyrosine content of the vascular wall, thus attenuating functional vascular damage. PMID:26202368

  20. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  1. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  2. Management of large para-esophageal hiatal hernias.

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Luc, G; Chiche, L

    2013-12-01

    Para-esophageal hernias are relatively rare and typically occur in elderly patients. The various presenting symptoms are non-specific and often occur in combination. These include symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) in 26 to 70% of cases, microcytic anemia in 17 to 47%, and respiratory symptoms in 9 to 59%. Respiratory symptoms are not completely resolved by surgical intervention. Acute complications such as gastric volvulus with incarceration or strangulation are rare (estimated incidence of 1.2% per patient per year) but gastric ischemia leading to perforation is the main cause of mortality. Only patients with symptomatic hernias should undergo surgery. Prophylactic repair to prevent acute incarceration should only be undertaken in patients younger than 75 in good condition; surgical indications must be discussed individually beyond this age. The laparoscopic approach is now generally accepted. Resection of the hernia sac is associated with a lower incidence of recurrence. Repair of the hiatus can be reinforced with prosthetic material (either synthetic or biologic), but the benefit of prosthetic repair has not been clearly shown. Results of prosthetic reinforcement vary in different studies; it has been variably associated with four times fewer recurrences or with no measurable difference. A Collis type gastroplasty may be useful to lengthen a foreshortened esophagus, but no objective criteria have been defined to support this approach. The anatomic recurrence rate can be as high as 60% at 12years. But most recurrences are asymptomatic and do not affect the quality of life index. It therefore seems more appropriate to evaluate functional results and quality of life measures rather than to gauge success by a strict evaluation of anatomic hernia reduction. PMID:24060742

  3. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  4. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  5. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  6. Efficient ortho-para conversion of H2 on interstellar grain surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bron, Emeric; Le Petit, Franck; Le Bourlot, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Context. Fast surface conversion between ortho- and para-H2 has been observed in laboratory studies, and it has been proposed that this mechanism plays a role in the control of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium. Observations of rotational lines of H2 in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) have indeed found significantly lower ortho-para ratios than expected at equilibrium. The mechanisms controlling the balance of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium thus remain incompletely understood, while this ratio can affect the thermodynamical properties of the gas (equation of state, cooling function). Aims: We aim to build an accurate model of ortho-para conversion on dust surfaces based on the most recent experimental and theoretical results, and to validate it by comparison to observations of H2 rotational lines in PDRs. Methods: We propose a statistical model of ortho-para conversion on dust grains with fluctuating dust temperatures. It is based on a master equation approach. This computation is then coupled to full PDR models and compared to PDR observations. Results: We show that the observations of rotational H2 lines indicate a high conversion efficiency on dust grains and that this high efficiency can be accounted for if taking dust temperature fluctuations into account with our statistical model of surface conversion. Simpler models that neglect the dust temperature fluctuations do not reach the high efficiency deduced from the observations. Moreover, this high efficiency induced by dust temperature fluctuations is very insensitive to the values of the model's microphysical parameters. Conclusions: Ortho-para conversion on grains is thus an efficient mechanism in most astrophysical conditions and can play a significant role in controlling the ortho-para ratio.

  7. A comparison of extraperitoneal versus transperitoneal laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy for staging of endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pakish, Janelle; Soliman, Pamela T.; Frumovitz, Michael; Westin, Shannon N.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; dos Reis, Ricardo; Munsell, Mark F.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of our study was to compare the surgical outcomes of extraperitoneal laparoscopic, transperitoneal laparoscopic, and robotic transperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer staging. Methods A retrospective review was performed from January 2007 to November 2012. Three groups were compared: extraperitoneal laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy and robotic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (“extraperitoneal group”; N=34); laparoscopic hysterectomy and transperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (“transperitoneal laparoscopic group”; N=108); and robotic hysterectomy and transperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (“transperitoneal robotic group”; N=52). Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis, and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05. Results Median number of para-aortic lymph nodes obtained was higher in the extraperitoneal group than in the transperitoneal laparoscopic and robotic groups (10, 5, and 4.5 nodes, respectively; P<0.001). Among patients with BMI <35 kg/m2, the median number of para-aortic nodes harvested was higher in the extraperitoneal group than in the transperitoneal laparoscopic and robotic groups (9, 4, and 5 nodes, respectively; P<0.01). The same pattern was observed among patients with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 (10, 6, and 3 nodes, respectively) (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in median estimated blood loss between the extraperitoneal group and either the transperitoneal laparoscopic group (100 vs. 112.5 mL; P=0.06) or the transperitoneal robotic group (100 vs. 67.5 mL; P=0.23). Conclusion Extraperitoneal laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy resulted in a higher number of para-aortic lymph nodes removed than transperitoneal laparoscopic or robotic lymphadenectomy. The extraperitoneal approach should be considered for endometrial cancer staging. PMID:24361579

  8. Ortho-Para Mixing Interaction in the Vinyl Radical Detected by Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy and Prediction of Fast Ortho-Para Conversion Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Hayashi, Masato; Ohtsuki, Mitsuhiko; Harada, Kensuke; Tanaka, Takehiko

    2010-06-01

    Ortho-para mixing interaction due to the coupling of nuclear and electron spins was detected for the first time by millimeter-wave spectroscopy of deuterated vinyl radicals, H_2CCD and D_2CCD, of which the ground states are split by the tunneling motion of the α deuteron into two components 0^+ and 0^-, whose separations have been determined to be Δ E_0 = 1186.644(16) and 771.978(18) MHz, respectively. The observed tunneling-rotation spectra are significantly perturbed by the othro-para mixing interaction expressed by < 0^± |H'|0^mprangle = (δ aF(β)/2) S \\cdot(I_β 1-I_β 2), where I_β 1 and I_β 2 are spins of the two hydrogen nuclei in the β position and S is the electron spin, which connects rotational levels in the 0^+ and 0^- states, one being an ortho level and the other a para level. The δ aF(β) constants for H_2CCD and D_2CCD have been determined to be 68.06(53) and 10.63(94) MHz, respectively, consistent each other within the isotopic mass relation. The othro and para states are mixed by about 0.097% and 0.0123% due to this interaction. The δ aF constant for H_2CCH should be similar to that for H_2CCD because of the same probability density of the unpaired electron at the β protons, but could not be determined independently in our previous study. It is because the mixing of para- and ortho-levels of about 0.00044% is much smaller than that for H_2CCD due to the large tunneling splitting of Δ E_0=16271.8429(59) MHz. The rate constant of para to ortho (I_β = 0 → 1) conversion is predicted as 1.2× 10^5 s-1 torr-1 for H_2CCD, suggesting extremely rapid mutual conversion between ortho and para nuclear spin isomers of H_2CCD, which is more than 106 times faster compared with that in closed shell molecules such as H_2CO and H_2CCH_2. K. Tanaka, M. Hayashi, M. Ohtsuki, K. Harada, T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys., 131, 111101 (2009). K. Tanaka, M. Toshimitsu, K. Harada, T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys., 120, 3604 (2004).

  9. para-Sulphonato-calix[n]arenes as selective activators for the passage of molecules across the Caco-2 model intestinal membrane.

    PubMed

    Roka, Eszter; Vecsernyes, Miklos; Bacskay, Ildiko; Félix, Caroline; Rhimi, Moez; Coleman, Anthony W; Perret, Florent

    2015-06-01

    The passage of Lucifer Yellow across the Caco-2 intestinal model membrane has been studied for the para-sulphonato-calix[n]arenes, the results show that para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and para-sulphonato-calix[8]arene activate membrane passage when used simultaneously with a transport probe, Lucifer Yellow, whereas para-sulphonato-calix[6]arene has no effect. PMID:25958962

  10. Vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine in a henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Rachel U; Francis, Nick D; Basarab, Tamara; Morar, Nilesh

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis reaction to topical "black henna" tattoo is usually described secondary to the organic dye para-phenylenediamine, a derivative of analine. Allergic contact dermatitis reactions to para-phenylenediamine are well recognized and most commonly involve an eczematous reaction that may become generalized and an acute angio-edema. Only four previous instances have been reported of an erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives, including only one mild reaction to a tattoo. A vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction has not been reported. An erythema multiforme-like reaction to contact allergens is usually caused by potent allergens including plant quinolones in Compositae and sesquiterpene lactones in exotic woods, and it is also reported to topical drugs, epoxy resin, metals (particularly nickel), and various chemicals. A generalized vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction is unusual, and rarely reported. We describe a 6-year-old boy who developed a localized, eczematous and severe generalized vesicular erythema multiforme-like contact allergy to para-phenylenediamine secondary to a henna tattoo. As henna tattoos are becoming increasingly popular, one should be aware of the possibility of such a reaction. This presentation also highlights the call to ban the use of para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives in dyes. PMID:18429780

  11. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  12. On the Ortho:Para Ratio of H+ 3 in Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; Tom, Brian A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2011-03-01

    The excitation temperature T 01 derived from the relative intensities of the J = 0 (para) and J = 1 (ortho) rotational levels of H2 has been assumed to be an accurate measure of the kinetic temperature in interstellar environments. In diffuse molecular clouds, the average value of T 01 is ~70 K. However, the excitation temperature T(H+ 3) derived from the (J, K) = (1, 1) (para) and (1, 0) (ortho) rotational levels of H+ 3 has been observed to be ~30 K in the same types of environments. In this work, we present observations of H+ 3 in three additional diffuse cloud sight lines for which H2 measurements are available, showing that in four of five cases T 01 and T(H+ 3) are discrepant. We then examine the thermalization mechanisms for the ortho:para ratios of H+ 3 and H2, concluding that indeed T 01 is an accurate measure of the cloud kinetic temperature, while the ortho:para ratio of H+ 3 need not be thermal. By constructing a steady-state chemical model taking into account the nuclear spin dependence of reactions involving H+ 3, we show that the ortho:para ratio of H+ 3 in diffuse molecular clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination with electrons and thermalization via reactive collisions with H2. Based in part on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories under program ID 384.C-0618.

  13. The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

  14. Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, X.; Altan, H.; Saint, A.; Matten, D.; Alfano, R. R.

    2006-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor in 0.2-2.4THz range from low to high humidity at room temperature. The observed absorption lines are due to the water molecular rotations in the ground vibrational state. We find that the absorption strength of para transitions increases as humidity increases, while the absorption strength of ortho transitions increases and then decreases in intensity with increasing humidity. We explain this difference based on the nuclear spin statistics based ratio of ortho to para water monomer populations at room temperature. The preferential adsorption on the solid surfaces of para water leads to an ortho dominated vapor cloud whose monomer rotational absorption intensity decreases due to the effects of dimerization, molecular collisions, clustering, and interactions with liquid droplets at high concentrations.

  15. Production and characterization of para-hydrogen gas for matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.; Ramanathan, N.; Gopi, R.

    2016-08-01

    Normal hydrogen (n-H2) has 3:1 ortho/para ratio and the production of enriched para-hydrogen (p-H2) from normal hydrogen is useful for many applications including matrix isolation experiments. In this paper, we describe the design, development and fabrication of the ortho-para converter that is capable of producing enriched p-H2. The p-H2 thus produced was probed using infrared and Raman techniques. Using infrared measurement, the thickness and the purity of the p-H2 matrix were determined. The purity of p-H2 was determined to be >99%. Matrix isolation infrared spectra of trimethylphosphate (TMP) and acetylene (C2H2) were studied in p-H2 and n-H2 matrices and the results were compared with the conventional inert matrices.

  16. Electrical detection of ortho-para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-08-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho-para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51+/-0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon.

  17. Quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis of the pharmacology of para-substituted methcathinone analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bonano, J S; Banks, M L; Kolanos, R; Sakloth, F; Barnier, M L; Glennon, R A; Cozzi, N V; Partilla, J S; Baumann, M H; Negus, S S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Methcathinone (MCAT) is a potent monoamine releaser and parent compound to emerging drugs of abuse including mephedrone (4-CH3 MCAT), the para-methyl analogue of MCAT. This study examined quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) for MCAT and six para-substituted MCAT analogues on (a) in vitro potency to promote monoamine release via dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT, respectively), and (b) in vivo modulation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a behavioural procedure used to evaluate abuse potential. Neurochemical and behavioural effects were correlated with steric (Es), electronic (σp) and lipophilic (πp) parameters of the para substituents. Experimental Approach For neurochemical studies, drug effects on monoamine release through DAT and SERT were evaluated in rat brain synaptosomes. For behavioural studies, drug effects were tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle and trained to lever-press for electrical brain stimulation. Key Results MCAT and all six para-substituted analogues increased monoamine release via DAT and SERT and dose- and time-dependently modulated ICSS. In vitro selectivity for DAT versus SERT correlated with in vivo efficacy to produce abuse-related ICSS facilitation. In addition, the Es values of the para substituents correlated with both selectivity for DAT versus SERT and magnitude of ICSS facilitation. Conclusions and Implications Selectivity for DAT versus SERT in vitro is a key determinant of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by these MCAT analogues, and steric aspects of the para substituent of the MCAT scaffold (indicated by Es) are key determinants of this selectivity. PMID:25438806

  18. Simulation Studies of the Vibrational Dynamics of para-HYDROGEN Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruk, Nabil F.; Yang, Jing; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the construction and application of reduced-dimensional potential energy surfaces for use in performing simulation of para-hydrogen clusters. Simple spherical averaging and `adiabatic-hindered-rotor' averaging treatments of the angular degrees of freedom are considered and compared. The resulting one-dimensional surface is used in quantum Monte Carlo simulations of para-hydrogen clusters of varying sizes. Energetic, and structural properties are computed and compared to previously published results, and vibrational frequency shifts are predicted and compared to available experimental measurements. H. Li, P.N. Roy and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 104305 (2010).

  19. Le lipome para testiculaire: à propos d'un cas rare

    PubMed Central

    Lasri, Abdelouahed; Lamchahab, Hamza; Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2015-01-01

    Les tumeurs para testiculaires sont des tumeurs rares et complexes qui ont une symptomatologie insidieuse et pauvre. Les formes bénignes représentent 70%. Le lipome para testiculaire étant le type le plus fréquent. L'examen clinique est peu spécifique. L'examen échographique est la pierre angulaire pour assoir le diagnostic. Le traitement chirurgical s'impose en cas de tumeur symptomatique, l'histologie étant habituellement typique permet la confirmation diagnostique. Le pronostic est bon malgré d’éventuelles récidives. PMID:26175802

  20. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  1. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage

    PubMed Central

    Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng

    2012-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment. PMID:22837402

  2. [PDS cord fixation of sternoclavicular dislocation and para-articular clavicular fractures].

    PubMed

    Friedl, W; Fritz, T

    1994-05-01

    Sternoclavicular joint dislocation and para-articular fractures of the clavicle are rare injuries. Because severe complications of dorsal dislocations have often been seen and because functional impairment has often followed ventral dislocations, we treat most patients with such injuries operatively. Internal fixation with K-wires frequently leads to severe complications. We present our operation techniques with a resorbable 2 mm polydioxanon cord. This pack up technique can be used in both dislocations and para-articular fractures with no risk of implant dislocation. PMID:8052863

  3. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M; Saxena, Deep R; Jain, Yogendra K

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  4. Preliminary evaluation of hepatoprotective potential of the polyherbal formulation

    PubMed Central

    Arka, Ghosh; Anindita, Kundu; Ankit, Seth; Kumar, Singh Anil; Kumar, Maurya Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the polyherbal formulation (PHF)containing Cajanus cajan (L.)Millsp., Lawsonia inermis L. Linn, Mimosa pudica L., Uraria picta (Jacq.)DC. and Operculina turpethum (L.)Silva Manso on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)induced acute liver damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The groups of animals were administered with PHF at the doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. (per oral [p.o.])once in a day for 7 days and at day 6th and 7th the animals were administrated with Carbon tetrachloride (1.0 mL/kg b.w. 50% v/v with olive oil,; p.o.). The effect of PHF on serum glutamine pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamine oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)and total bilirubin were determined in CCl4 - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Further, the effects of PHF on glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD)level and lipid peroxidation (LPO)activity were also investigated. Results: The results demonstrated that PHF (400 mg/kg b.w.)significantly reduces the CCl4 induced increase in level of serum SGPT, serum ALP and total bilirubin. PHF (400 mg/kg b.w.)prevents the depletion level of GSH and decrease in the activity of SOD in CCl4 -induced liver injury in rats. In addition, PHF also showed a significant decrease in the LPO levels signifying the potent antioxidant activity. Conclusion: All our findings suggest that PHF could protect the liver cells from CCl4 - induced liver damages and the mechanism may be through the anti-oxidative effect of PHF. PMID:26401397

  5. Comparison of hup trait and intrinsic antibiotic resistance for assessing rhizobial competitiveness axenically and in soil.

    PubMed

    El Hassan, G A; Hernandez, B S; Focht, D D

    1986-03-01

    The competitiveness of dual-strain inocula of cowpea rhizobia for nodulation of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. was studied axenically between one slow-growing strain (P132, HP147, 401, or 22A1) and one fast-growing strain (176A26 or 176A28) at logarithmic inoculum ratios ranging from 10 to 10. Nodule infectivity was determined by multiple intrinsic antibiotic resistance, since both fast-growing strains were sensitive. Different hydrogen uptake (Hup) efficiencies of dual-strain inocula allowed for the comparison of an indirect rapid method. Infectivity data based on antibiotic resistance and Hup efficiency were fit to linearized fractile plots of log-normal distributions to determine C(AB) (percent infectivity at a 1:1 inoculum density) or I(50) (inoculum ratio at 50% infectivity). The slow growers were always better competitors and had I(50) values which ranged from 7 to 160,000 and C(AB) values which ranged from 62 to 97%. P132 was the best competitor of all those tested. Antibiotic resistance and Hup efficiency methods were in agreement with 401 (Hup) and 176A26 (Hup), but the Hup efficiency method overestimated the I(50) index with 22A1 (Hup) and 176A28 (Hup). The competition of each of the four slow-growing strains with indigenous rhizobia was examined in Cajanus cajan from three tropical soils. Nodule infectivity for all strains ranged from 42 to 96%, and P132 was the best competitor in all the soils. Hup efficiency overestimated infectivity by about 2-fold when Hup inocula (P132 and HP147) were used but underestimated infectivity by more than 100-fold when Hup inocula (401 and 22A1) were used. Although the Hup trait has limited quantitative usage axenically, it is only qualitative in soil competition studies and can only be used with Hup inocula. PMID:16347016

  6. Legume genomics: understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approx. 17 000 species. A few of these species, including, but not limited to, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing protein for approx. 300 million people worldwide. Additional species, including soybean (Glycine max) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), are important crops utilized mainly in animal feed. In addition, legumes are important contributors to biological nitrogen, forming symbiotic relationships with rhizobia to fix atmospheric N2 and providing up to 30 % of available nitrogen for the next season of crops. The application of high-throughput genomic technologies including genome sequencing projects, genome re-sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) by the legume research community has provided major insights into genome evolution, genomic architecture and domestication. Scope and Conclusions This review presents an overview of the current state of legume genomics and explores the role that next-generation sequencing technologies play in advancing legume genomics. The adoption of next-generation sequencing and implementation of associated bioinformatic tools has allowed researchers to turn each species of interest into their own model organism. To illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing, an in-depth overview of the transcriptomes of both soybean and white lupin (Lupinus albus) is provided. The soybean transcriptome focuses on analysing seed development in two near-isogenic lines, examining the role of transporters, oil biosynthesis and nitrogen utilization. The white lupin transcriptome analysis examines how phosphate deficiency alters gene expression patterns, inducing the formation of cluster roots. Such studies illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in elucidating the gene networks underlying biological processes. PMID:24769535

  7. Ensifer glycinis sp. nov., a rhizobial species associated with species of the genus Glycine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Yan, Jun; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Chen, Wen Feng

    2016-09-01

    Rhizobial strains from root nodules of Astragalus mongholicus and soybean (Glycine max) were characterized phylogenetically as members of the genus Ensifer (formerly named Sinorhizobium), based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Results based upon concatenated sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (recA, atpD and glnII, ≤ 93.8 % similarities to known species) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of whole genome sequence comparisons (ranging from 89.6 % to 83.4 % to Ensifer fredii and Ensifer saheli, respectively) indicated the distinct positions of these novel strains within the genus Ensifer. Phylogeny of symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) of three novel strains clustered them with rhizobial species Ensifer fredii and Ensifer sojae, both isolated from nodules of Glycine max. Cross-nodulation tests showed that the representative strain CCBAU 23380T could form root nodules with nitrogen fixation capability on Glycine soja, Albizia julibrissin, Vigna unguiculata and Cajanus cajan, but failed to nodulate Astragalus mongholicus, its original host legume. Strain CCBAU 23380T formed inefficient nodules on G. max, and it did not contain 18 : 0, 18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl or summed feature 1 fatty acids, which differed from other related strains. Failure to utilize malonic acid as a carbon source distinguished strain CCBAU 23380T from the type strains of related species. The genome size of CCBAU 23380T was 6.0 Mbp, comprising 5624 predicted genes with DNA G+C content of 62.4 mol%. Based on the results above, a novel species, Ensifer glycinis sp. nov., is proposed, with CCBAU 23380T (=LMG 29231T =HAMBI 3645T) as the type strain. PMID:27125987

  8. Deep sequencing of dsRNAs recovered from mosaic-diseased pigeonpea reveals the presence of a novel emaravirus: pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2.

    PubMed

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Digiaro, Michele; Uppala, Mangala; Sudini, Harikishan

    2015-08-01

    Deep-sequencing analysis of double-stranded RNA extracted from a mosaic-diseased pigeonpea plant (Cajanus cajan L., family Fabaceae) revealed the complete sequence of six emaravirus-like negative-sense RNA segments of 7009, 2229, 1335, 1491, 1833 and 1194 nucleotides in size. In the order from RNA1 to RNA6, these genomic RNAs contained ORFs coding for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, p1 of 266 kDa), the glycoprotein precursor (GP, p2 of 74.5 kDa), the nucleocapsid (NC, p3 of 34.9 kDa), and the putative movement protein (MP, p4 of 40.7 kDa), while p5 (55 kDa) and p6 (27 kDa) had unknown functions. All RNA segments showed distant relationships to viruses of the genus Emaravirus, and in particular to pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV), with which they shared nucleotide sequence identity ranging from 48.5 % (RNA3) to 62.5 % (RNA1). In phylogenetic trees constructed from the sequences of the proteins encoded by RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3 (p1, p2 and p3), this new viral entity showed a consistent grouping with fig mosaic virus (FMV) and rose rosette virus (RRV), which formed a cluster of their own, clearly distinct from PPSMV-1. In experimental greenhouse trials, this novel virus was successfully transmitted to pigeonpea and French bean seedlings by the eriophyid mite Aceria cajani. Preliminary surveys conducted in the Hyderabad region (India) showed that the virus in question is widespread in pigeonpea plants affected by sterility mosaic disease (86.4 %) but is absent in symptomless plants. Based on molecular, biological and epidemiological features, this novel virus is the second emaravirus infecting pigeonpea, for which the provisional name pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2 (PPSMV-2) is proposed. PMID:26060057

  9. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

  10. Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Meale, S. J.; Chaves, A. V.; Baah, J.; McAllister, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

  11. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production

    PubMed Central

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  12. A survey of the nutritional and haemagglutination properties of legume seeds generally available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; More, L J; McKenzie, N H; Stewart, J C; Pusztai, A

    1983-09-01

    Eighty-five samples from fifteen different legume seed lines generally available in the UK were examined by measurements of their net protein utilization by rats and by haemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from a number of different animal species. From these results the seeds were classified into four broad groups. Group a seeds from most varieties of kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris), runner (Phaseolus coccineus) and tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) beans showed high reactivity with all cell types and were also highly toxic. Group b, which contained seeds from lima or butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), agglutinated only human and pronase-treated rat erythrocytes. These seeds did not support proper growth of the rats although the animals survived the 10 d experimental period. Group c consisted of seeds from lentils (Lens culinaris), peas (Pisum sativum), chick-peas (Cicer arietinum), blackeyed peas (Vigna sinensis), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), field or broad beans (Vicia faba) and aduki beans (Phaseolus angularis). These generally had low reactivity with all cells and were non-toxic. Group d, represented by soya (Glycine max) and pinto (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans, generally had low reactivity with all cells but caused growth depression at certain dietary concentrations. This growth depression was probably mainly due to antinutritional factors other than lectins. Lectins from group a seeds showed many structural and immunological similarities. However the subunit composition of the lectin from the tepary bean samples was different from that of the other bean lectins in this or any other groups. PMID:6615758

  13. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  14. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    PubMed

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  15. Mutation in GDP-fucose synthesis genes of Sinorhizobium fredii alters Nod factors and significantly decreases competitiveness to nodulate soybeans.

    PubMed

    Lamrabet, Y; Bellogín, R A; Cubo, T; Espuny, R; Gil, A; Krishnan, H B; Megias, M; Ollero, F J; Pueppke, S G; Ruiz-Sainz, J E; Spaink, H P; Tejero-Mateo, P; Thomas-Oates, J; Vinardell, J M

    1999-03-01

    We mutagenized Sinorhizobium fredii HH103-1 with Tn5-B20 and screened about 2,000 colonies for increased beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of the flavonoid naringenin. One mutant, designated SVQ287, produces lipochitooligosaccharide Nod factors (LCOs) that differ from those of the parental strain. The nonreducing N-acetylglucosamine residues of all of the LCOs of mutant SVQ287 lack fucose and 2-O-methylfucose substituents. In addition, SVQ287 synthesizes an LCO with an unusually long, C20:1 fatty acyl side chain. The transposon insertion of mutant SVQ287 lies within a 1.1-kb HindIII fragment. This and an adjacent 2.4-kb HindIII fragment were sequenced. The sequence contains the 3' end of noeK, nodZ, and noeL (the gene interrupted by Tn5-B20), and the 5' end of nolK, all in the same orientation. Although each of these genes has a similarly oriented counterpart on the symbiosis plasmid of the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, there are significant differences in the noeK/nodZ intergenic region. Based on amino acid sequence homology, noeL encodes GDP-D-mannose dehydratase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of GDP-L-fucose, and nolK encodes a NAD-dependent nucleotide sugar epimerase/dehydrogenase. We show that expression of the noeL gene is under the control of NodD1 in S. fredii and is most probably mediated by the nod box that precedes nodZ. Transposon insertion into neoL has two impacts on symbiosis with Williams soybean: nodulation rate is reduced slightly and competitiveness for nodulation is decreased significantly. Mutant SVQ287 retains its ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other legumes, but final nodule number is attenuated on Cajanus cajan. PMID:10065558

  16. In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcato, Carla

    1997-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

  17. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. he data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. ull-sc...

  18. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

  19. Fabrication of multipotent poly-para-xylylene particles in controlled nanoscopic dimensions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ruei-Hung; Li, Yi-Jye; Sun, Ho-Yi; Wu, Chih-Yu; Guan, Zhen-Yu; Ho, Hsin-Ying; Fang, Cheng-Yuan; Chen, Hsien-Yeh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, poly-para-xylylene-based multifunctional nanoparticles (PPX-NPs) were fabricated. Based on the solubility characteristics determined for asymmetrically substituted poly-para-xylylenes in polar solvents, well-dispersed nanocolloids with a controllable size ranging from 50 to 800nm were produced in solution by the displacement of the solvent (water). These size ranges were found to have acceptable cellular compatibility through examinations of cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and adipose-derived stem cells treated with the PPX-NPs. In addition, these nanoscale PPX-NPs exhibited versatile bioconjugation properties in that a variety of available functional groups can be adopted from their counterpart, thin-film poly-para-xylylenes, during the production of these nanoparticles. For instance, bifunctional PPX-NPs with maleimide and benzoyl moieties were produced to enable immobilization via a maleimide-thiol reaction concurrent with a photochemical reaction. A cleavable PPX-NP was also produced with a thiol-exchangeable surface property. Additionally, by performing electrohydrodynamic jetting of parallel polymer solutions of selected poly-para-xylylenes, Janus-type or multicompartment PPX-NPs were created. The PPX-NPs can potentially be used for various biomedical applications such as combined diagnostics and drug delivery, multiplexing of detection, multiple-drug loading, and the targeted delivery of biomolecules or drugs. PMID:26724467

  20. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  1. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer, como la náusea y el vómito.

  2. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  3. Cáncer de intestino delgado—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de intestino delgado, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  4. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo,…

  5. Cáncer colorrectal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de colon y recto, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas.

  6. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigation of para-aminophenol ionization in corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, H.; Salehabadi, H.

    2015-03-01

    Ionization of para-aminophenol was investigated using an ion mobility spectrometer equipped with a corona discharge as ionization source. The experimental results were confirmed with the use of theoretical method, based on density functional theory. Two peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum in the positive ion mode which was corresponded to the protonated isomers of para-aminophenol. It was observed that the relative intensities of the peaks depend on the sample concentration and the nature of the reactant ions. The relative energies of ions derived from protonation of para-aminophenol and its topical proton affinities were determined for different sites in the gas phase. The peak with the lower drift time was assigned to the oxygen protonated isomer and the other peak was ascribed to the nitrogen protonated isomer of para-aminophenol. The calculated dipole moment and localized charge of each isomer were used to verify the ion mobility peak separation. It was shown that combination of theoretical and experimental tools leads to reliable prediction of reactive protonation sites of chemicals in a corona discharge.

  8. Synthesis and properties of para-substituted NCN-pincer palladium and platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Slagt, Martijn Q; Rodríguez, Gema; Grutters, Michiel M P; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M; Klopper, Wim; Jenneskens, Leonardus W; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; van Koten, Gerard

    2004-03-19

    A variety of para-substituted NCN-pincer palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes [MX(NCN-Z)] (M=Pd(II), Pt(II); X=Cl, Br, I; NCN-Z=[2,6-(CH(2)NMe(2))(2)C(6)H(2)-4-Z](-); Z=NO(2), COOH, SO(3)H, PO(OEt)(2), PO(OH)(OEt), PO(OH)(2), CH(2)OH, SMe, NH(2)) were synthesised by routes involving substitution reactions, either prior to or, notably, after metalation of the ligand. The solubility of the pincer complexes is dominated by the nature of the para substituent Z, which renders several complexes water-soluble. The influence of the para substituent on the electronic properties of the metal centre was studied by (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Both the (195)Pt chemical shift and the calculated natural population charge on platinum correlate linearly with the sigma(p) Hammett substituent constants, and thus the electronic properties of predesigned pincer complexes can be predicted. The sigma(p) value for the para-PtI group itself was determined to be -1.18 in methanol and -0.72 in water/methanol (1/1). Complexes substituted with protic functional groups (CH(2)OH, COOH) exist as dimers in the solid state due to intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:15034878

  9. Cáncer de páncreas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de páncreas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  10. Cáncer de vagina—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vagina, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  11. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  12. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  13. Preguntas para hacerle al doctor acerca del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacer al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.

  14. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  15. Resultados de estudio para cáncer de pulmón indica

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre métodos de detección para reducir el número de muertes por cáncer de pulmón al detectar cánceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

  16. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to assess this…

  17. Sarcoma de tejido blando—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del sarcoma de tejido blando, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  18. Ortho-para conversion of endohedral water in the fullerene C60 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugai, Anna; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Mamone, S.; Concistrè, M.; Meier, B.; Krachmalnicoff, A.; Whitby, R. J.; Levitt, M. H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Turro, N. J.

    2015-03-01

    Water displays the phenomenon of spin isomerism in which the two proton spins either couple to form a triplet (ortho water, I = 1) or a singlet nuclear spin state (para water, I = 0). Here we study the interconversion of para and ortho water. The exact mechanism of this process is still not fully understood. In order to minimize interactions between molecules we use a sample where a single H2O is trapped in the C60 molecular cage (H2O@C60)andH2O@C60iscrystallized.H2O@C60 has long-lived ortho state and ortho-para conversion kinetics is non-exponential at LHeT. We studied mixtures of H2O@C60, D2O@C60 and C60 using IR absorption, NMR and dielectric measurements. We saw the speeding up of the interconversion with the growth of H2O@C60 concentration in C60 or when D2O@C60 was added. At some temperatures the kinetics is exponential. Models are discussed in order to explain the T and concentration dependence of ortho-para interconversion kinetics. This work was supported by institutional research funding IUT23-3 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.

  19. Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

  20. Construction of erythrinane skeleton via Pd(0)-catalyzed intramolecular dearomatization of para-aminophenols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-Qi; Gu, Qing; Wu, Wen-Ting; Zhao, Zhuo-An; You, Shu-Li

    2014-11-01

    A novel Pd(0)-catalyzed intramolecular arylative dearomatization of para-aminophenol derivatives is described. In the presence of 1.25 mol % [Pd(C3H5)Cl]2 and 3.75 mol % RuPhos, the arylative dearomatization reaction proceeds smoothly for a broad range of substrates, offering an efficient synthetic route to erythrinane derivatives in excellent yields. PMID:25308898

  1. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety.

    PubMed

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i-6m and 8f-8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  2. Up from Apathy: Para-Professional Training for the Socially Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mark J.; Wright, Bobbye S.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a program of training for young men to fill a para-professional position in the growing field of social services. The program provides training in human relations, basic skills, and on-the-job techniques. Training Technology is a quarterly supplement to Educational Technology Magazine. (GR)

  3. Can para-aryl-dithiols cross-link two plasmonic noble nanoparticles as monolayer dithiolate spacers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Para-aryl-dithiols (PADTs, HS-(C6H4)n-SH, n = 1, 2, and 3) have been used extensively in molecular electronics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and quantum electron tunneling between two gold or silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). One popular belief is that these dithiols cross-link ...

  4. Cáncer de la corteza suprarrenal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de corteza suprarrenal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Tumores de hipófisis—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor de hipófisis, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados.

  6. Cáncer de útero—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  7. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  8. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  9. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  10. Cáncer de hueso—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de hueso (óseo), así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.