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Sample records for cajanus cajan para

  1. Genetic patterns of domestication in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and wild Cajanus relatives.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Mulualem T; Penmetsa, R Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Sarma, Birinchi K; Datta, Subhojit; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Varshney, Rajeev K; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Cook, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history and relationships to wild species. Here we use 752 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 670 low copy orthologous genes to clarify the evolutionary history of pigeonpea (79 accessions) and its wild relatives (31 accessions). We identified three well-supported lineages that are geographically clustered and congruent with previous nuclear and plastid sequence-based phylogenies. Among all species analyzed Cajanus cajanifolius is the most probable progenitor of cultivated pigeonpea. Multiple lines of evidence suggest recent gene flow between cultivated and non-cultivated forms, as well as historical gene flow between diverged but sympatric species. Evidence supports that primary domestication occurred in India, with a second and more recent nested population bottleneck focused in tropical regions that is the likely consequence of pigeonpea breeding. We find abundant allelic variation and genetic diversity among the wild relatives, with the exception of wild species from Australia for which we report a third bottleneck unrelated to domestication within India. Domesticated C. cajan possess 75% less allelic diversity than the progenitor clade of wild Indian species, indicating a severe "domestication bottleneck" during pigeonpea domestication. PMID:22745789

  2. Genetic Patterns of Domestication in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and Wild Cajanus Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Kassa, Mulualem T.; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Datta, Subhojit; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.; Cook, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history and relationships to wild species. Here we use 752 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 670 low copy orthologous genes to clarify the evolutionary history of pigeonpea (79 accessions) and its wild relatives (31 accessions). We identified three well-supported lineages that are geographically clustered and congruent with previous nuclear and plastid sequence-based phylogenies. Among all species analyzed Cajanus cajanifolius is the most probable progenitor of cultivated pigeonpea. Multiple lines of evidence suggest recent gene flow between cultivated and non-cultivated forms, as well as historical gene flow between diverged but sympatric species. Evidence supports that primary domestication occurred in India, with a second and more recent nested population bottleneck focused in tropical regions that is the likely consequence of pigeonpea breeding. We find abundant allelic variation and genetic diversity among the wild relatives, with the exception of wild species from Australia for which we report a third bottleneck unrelated to domestication within India. Domesticated C. cajan possess 75% less allelic diversity than the progenitor clade of wild Indian species, indicating a severe “domestication bottleneck” during pigeonpea domestication. PMID:22745789

  3. Response surface analysis of nano-ureases from Canavalia ensiformis and Cajanus cajan.

    PubMed

    Dwevedi, Alka; Routh, Satya Brata; Yadav, Amit Singh; Singh, Ashwani Kumar; Srivastava, Onkar Nath; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2011-11-01

    Ureases isolated from leguminous sources, Canavalia ensiformis and Cajanus cajan were immobilized onto gold nanoparticles (nano-ureases). Optimization of the urease immobilization was carried using response surface methodology based on Central Composite Design. Immobilization efficiency of nano-urease from C. ensiformis and C. cajan were found to be 215.10% and 255.92%, respectively. The methodology adopted has deviation of 2.56% and 3.01% with respect to experimental values in case of C. ensiformis and C. cajan, respectively. Nano-urease from C. cajan has broad physico-chemical parameters with pH optimum from 7.1 to 7.3 and temperature optimum from 50 to 70C. Nano-urease from C. ensiformis has sharp pH and temperature optima at 7.3 and 70C, respectively. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy has revealed involvement of groups viz. amino, glycosyl moiety, etc. in urease immobilization onto gold nano-particles. Transmission and scanning electron micrographs revealed that arrangement of urease onto gold nano-particles from C. ensiformis was uniform while it was localized in case of C. cajan. Nano-urease from C. ensiformis has higher specificity and catalysis toward urea as compared to nano-urease from C. cajan. Nano-ureases from both sources are equally stable for 6 months under dried conditions and can be used for 10 washes. PMID:21762723

  4. HCH, endosulfan, and fluvalinate residue behavior in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp)

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, I.; Gopal, M.; Yaduraju, N.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) is one of the major pulse crop of India. The loss of pigeonpea crop due to pod and foliage pests is significant, the major pests being pod fly, hairy caterpillar, aphids, white fly, plume moth borer, leaf caterpillar and jassids. It is imperative to save every grain by chemical control methods but these toxicants should not leave unusually high residues on the edible parts. In this paper the authors report the residue behavior of three different insecticides namely, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan and fluvalinate on this crop.

  5. In vitro Antioxidant and Pharmacognostic Studies of Leaf Extracts of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp

    PubMed Central

    Mahitha, B.; Archana, P.; Ebrahimzadeh, MD. H.; Srikanth, K.; Rajinikanth, M.; Ramaswamy, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is one of the second most dietary legume crops. The leaf extracts may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The ash values, extractive values, total phenolic and flavonoid content, in vitro antioxidant activity of various leaf extracts as well as anatomical investigation of Cajanus cajan were carried out. Physicochemical parameters such as total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values and moisture content of the leaf powder of C. cajan were found to be 9.50%, 1.40 g/100 g, 4.15 g/100 g drug and 6.72%, respectively. Percent yield of acetone, aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform leaf extracts were 9.0, 10.6, 13.75, 8.7 and 5.8 g/100 g, respectively. Significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid content were observed. The results of the antioxidant activity were found to be concentration-dependent. The IC50 values for DPPH assay determined for aqueous and ethanol extracts were 0.69 and 0.79 mg/ml, respectively. Reducing power is increased with increasing amount of concentration in both aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts. The highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity reached up to 83.67% in aqueous and 78.75% in ethanol extracts and in phosphomolybdenum assay the aqueous extract showed strong antioxidant capacity up to 55.97 nM gallic acid equivalents/g. It was found that the aqueous extract possessed highest antioxidant activity in all the assays tested. The antioxidant characteristics of leaf extracts are possibly because of the presence of polyphenols. Microscopic study showed the presence of collenchyma, fibres, xylem, phloem, epidermis, trichomes, palisade tissue, basal sheath, pith and cortex in leaf, petiole and pulvinus. PMID:26009649

  6. In vitro Antioxidant and Pharmacognostic Studies of Leaf Extracts of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed

    Mahitha, B; Archana, P; Ebrahimzadeh, Md H; Srikanth, K; Rajinikanth, M; Ramaswamy, N

    2015-01-01

    Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is one of the second most dietary legume crops. The leaf extracts may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The ash values, extractive values, total phenolic and flavonoid content, in vitro antioxidant activity of various leaf extracts as well as anatomical investigation of Cajanus cajan were carried out. Physicochemical parameters such as total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values and moisture content of the leaf powder of C. cajan were found to be 9.50%, 1.40 g/100 g, 4.15 g/100 g drug and 6.72%, respectively. Percent yield of acetone, aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform leaf extracts were 9.0, 10.6, 13.75, 8.7 and 5.8 g/100 g, respectively. Significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid content were observed. The results of the antioxidant activity were found to be concentration-dependent. The IC50 values for DPPH assay determined for aqueous and ethanol extracts were 0.69 and 0.79 mg/ml, respectively. Reducing power is increased with increasing amount of concentration in both aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts. The highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity reached up to 83.67% in aqueous and 78.75% in ethanol extracts and in phosphomolybdenum assay the aqueous extract showed strong antioxidant capacity up to 55.97 nM gallic acid equivalents/g. It was found that the aqueous extract possessed highest antioxidant activity in all the assays tested. The antioxidant characteristics of leaf extracts are possibly because of the presence of polyphenols. Microscopic study showed the presence of collenchyma, fibres, xylem, phloem, epidermis, trichomes, palisade tissue, basal sheath, pith and cortex in leaf, petiole and pulvinus. PMID:26009649

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of Caesalpinia gilliesii and Cajanus cajan proteins against acetoaminophen overdose-induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Maha Z; Aly, Hanan F; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Desoky, M M; Ibrahim, N; Younis, Eman A

    2014-01-10

    This study aims to evaluate two proteins derived from the seeds of the plants Cajanus cajan (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Leguminosae) for their abilities to ameliorate the toxic effects of chronic doses of acetoaminphen (APAP) through the determination of certain biochemical parameters including liver marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin. Also, total protein content and hepatic marker enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase were studied. Moreover, liver antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, and lipid peroxides were determined in this study. Hepatic adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), adenylate energy charge (ATP, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and inorganic phosphate), and phosphate potential, serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and myeloperoxidase were also examined in the present study. On the other hand, histopathological examination of intoxicated and liver treated with both proteins was taken into consideration. The present results show disturbances in all biochemical parameters and hepatic toxicity signs including mild vascular congestion, moderate inflammatory changes with moderate congested sinusoids, moderate nuclear changes (pyknosis), moderate centrilobular necrosis, fatty changes, nuclear pyknosis vascular congestion, and change in fatty centrilobular necrosis liver. Improvement in all biochemical parameters studied was noticed as a result of treatment intoxicated liver with C. gilliesii and C. cajan proteins either paracetamol with or post paracetamol treatment. These results were documented by the amelioration signs in rat's hepatic architecture. Thus, both plant protein extracts can upregulate and counteract the inflammatory process, minimize damage of the liver, delay disease progression, and reduce its complications. PMID:24414985

  8. Comparative analysis of genome-wide Mlo gene family in Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Reena; Singh, V K; Singh, B D

    2016-04-01

    The Mlo gene was discovered in barley because the mutant 'mlo' allele conferred broad-spectrum, non-race-specific resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The Mlo genes also play important roles in growth and development of plants, and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The Mlo gene family has been characterized in several crop species, but only a single legume species, soybean (Glycine max L.), has been investigated so far. The present report describes in silico identification of 18 CcMlo and 20 PvMlo genes in the important legume crops Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. and Phaseolus vulgaris L., respectively. In silico analysis of gene organization, protein properties and conserved domains revealed that the C. cajan and P. vulgaris Mlo gene paralogs are more divergent from each other than from their orthologous pairs. The comparative phylogenetic analysis classified CcMlo and PvMlo genes into three major clades. A comparative analysis of CcMlo and PvMlo proteins with the G. max Mlo proteins indicated close association of one CcMlo, one PvMlo with two GmMlo genes, indicating that there was no further expansion of the Mlo gene family after the separation of these species. Thus, most of the diploid species of eudicots might be expected to contain 15-20 Mlo genes. The genes CcMlo12 and 14, and PvMlo11 and 12 are predicted to participate in powdery mildew resistance. If this prediction were verified, these genes could be targeted by TILLING or CRISPR to isolate powdery mildew resistant mutants. PMID:26961357

  9. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and β-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA. PMID:22102911

  10. A microdroplet cell culture based high frequency somatic embryogenesis system for pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nagan Udhaya; Gnanaraj, Muniraj; Sindhujaa, Vajravel; Viji, Maluventhen; Manoharan, Kumariah

    2015-09-01

    A protocol for high frequency production of somatic embryos was worked out in pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. The protocol involved sequential employment of embryogenic callus cultures, low density cell suspension cultures and a novel microdroplet cell culture system. The microdroplet cell cultures involved culture of a single cell in 10 ?I of Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with phytohormones, growth factors and phospholipid precursors. By employing the microdroplet cell cultures, single cells in isolation were grown into cell clones which developed somatic embryos. Further, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, kinetin, polyethylene glycol, putrescine, spermine, spermidine, choline chloride, ethanolamine and LiCl were supplemented to the low density cell suspension cultures and microdroplet cell cultures to screen for their cell division and somatic embryogenesis activity. Incubation of callus or the inoculum employed for low density cell suspension cultures and microdroplet cell cultures with polyethylene glycol was found critical for induction of somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis at a frequency of 1.19, 3.16 and 6.51 per 10(6) cells was achieved in the callus, low density cell suspension cultures and microdroplet cell cultures, respectively. Advantages of employing microdroplet cell cultures for high frequency production of somatic embryos and its application in genetic transformation protocols are discussed. PMID:26548080

  11. Increased effectiveness of competitive rhizobium strains upon inoculation of Cajanus cajan

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, B.S.; Poth, M.; Focht, D.D.

    1987-09-01

    A field study was conducted in lysimeters containing /sup 15/N-enriched soil to determine the effects of four competitive rhizobium strains upon yield parameters of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan). The greatest differences observed were in seed yields; strain P132 effected the highest seed yield (121 +/- 20 g per plant), and the control strain (indigenous rhizobia) effected the lowest yield (43.9 +/- 8 g per plant). With the exception of seeds and pods, the dry matter weights were not different. Although there appeared to be no effect by inoculum strains on the fractional content of N derived from biological nitrogen fixation when the total plant biomass was considered, strains P132 and 401 partitioned more of the N derived from fixation into seeds and leaves than did the other strains. Because the seeds comprised the major portion of plant N, more total N and more N derived from biological nitrogen fixation (about half of total N) were found in plants inoculated with P132, whereas the smallest amount was found in the uninoculated controls. P132 was also the best competitor with respect to indigenous rhizobia and accounted for all of the nodules found on the plants in which it was inoculated.

  12. Identification and Validation of Expressed Sequence Tags from Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) Root

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Yadav, Shailesh; Joshi, Shourabh; Bhandare, Prithviraj P.; Patil, Vinod Kumar; Kulkarni, Pramod B.; Sonkawade, Swati; Naik, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.) is an important food legume crop of rain fed agriculture in the arid and semiarid tropics of the world. It has deep and extensive root system which serves a number of important physiological and metabolic functions in plant development and growth. In order to identify genes associated with pigeonpea root, ESTs were generated from the root tissues of pigeonpea (GRG-295 genotype) by normalized cDNA library. A total of 105 high quality ESTs were generated by sequencing of 250 random clones which resulted in 72 unigenes comprising 25 contigs and 47 singlets. The ESTs were assigned to 9 functional categories on the basis of their putative function. In order to validate the possible expression of transcripts, four genes, namely, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, phosphoglycerate kinase, serine carboxypeptidase, and methionine aminopeptidase, were further analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR. The possible role of the identified transcripts and their functions associated with root will also be a valuable resource for the functional genomics study in legume crop. PMID:24895494

  13. Laser Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Spectra of Cajanus Cajan L Plant Growing Under Cadmium Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Ram; Pandey, J. K.

    2010-06-01

    Laser-induced Chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) spectra of Cajanus cajan L leaves treated with different concentrations of Cd (0.05, 0.5 and 1 mM) are recorded at 10 and 20 days after first treatment of cadmium. LICF spectra are recorded in the region of 650-780 nm using violet diode laser (405 nm). LICF spectra of plant leaves show two maxima near 685 and 730nm. Fluorescence induction kinetics (FIK) curve are recorded at 685 and 730 nm with red diode laser (635 nm) for excitation. The fluorescence intensity ratios (FIR) F685/F730 are calculated from LICF spectra and vitality index (Rfd) are determined from FIK curve. FIR and Rfd value are good stress indicator of plant health. These parameters along with chlorophyll content are used to analyze the effect of Cd on wheat plants. The result indicates that higher concentrations of Cd hazardous for photosynthetic activity and health of Arhar plants. The lower concentration of 0.05 mM shows stimulatory response up to 10 days while after 20 days this concentration also shows inhibitory response. R. Gopal, K. B. Mishra, M. Zeeshan, S. M. Prasad, and M. M. Joshi Curr. Sci., 83, 880, 2002 K. B. Mishra and R. Gopal Int. J. Rem. Sen., 29, 157, 2008 R. Maurya, S. M. Prasad, and R. Gopal J. Photochem. Photobio. C: Photochem. Rev., 9, 29, 2008

  14. Influence of cadmium stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) causes oxidative damage and affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation process of legumes. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been demonstrated to alleviate heavy metal stress of plants. The present study was conducted to assess role of AM in alleviating negative effects of Cd on nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan genotypes differing in their metal tolerance. Fifteen day-old plants were subjected to Cd treatments--25 mg and 50 mg Cd per kg dry soil and were grown with and without Glomus mosseae. Cd treatments led to a decline in mycorrhizal infection (MI), nodule number and dry weights which was accompanied by reductions in leghemoglobin content, nitrogenase activity, organic acid contents. Cd supply caused a marked decrease in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) contents. Conversely, Cd increased membrane permeability, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Cd contents in nodules. AM inoculations were beneficial in reducing the above mentioned harmful effects of Cd and significantly improved nodule functioning. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) increased markedly in nodules of mycorrhizal-stressed plants. The negative effects of Cd were genotype and concentration dependent. PMID:22567695

  15. Development of genic-SSR markers by deep transcriptome sequencing in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh], one of the most important food legumes of semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, has limited genomic resources, particularly expressed sequence based (genic) markers. We report a comprehensive set of validated genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using deep transcriptome sequencing, and its application in genetic diversity analysis and mapping. Results In this study, 43,324 transcriptome shotgun assembly unigene contigs were assembled from 1.696 million 454 GS-FLX sequence reads of separate pooled cDNA libraries prepared from leaf, root, stem and immature seed of two pigeonpea varieties, Asha and UPAS 120. A total of 3,771 genic-SSR loci, excluding homopolymeric and compound repeats, were identified; of which 2,877 PCR primer pairs were designed for marker development. Dinucleotide was the most common repeat motif with a frequency of 60.41%, followed by tri- (34.52%), hexa- (2.62%), tetra- (1.67%) and pentanucleotide (0.76%) repeat motifs. Primers were synthesized and tested for 772 of these loci with repeat lengths of ≥18 bp. Of these, 550 markers were validated for consistent amplification in eight diverse pigeonpea varieties; 71 were found to be polymorphic on agarose gel electrophoresis. Genetic diversity analysis was done on 22 pigeonpea varieties and eight wild species using 20 highly polymorphic genic-SSR markers. The number of alleles at these loci ranged from 4-10 and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.46 to 0.72. Neighbor-joining dendrogram showed distinct separation of the different groups of pigeonpea cultivars and wild species. Deep transcriptome sequencing of the two parental lines helped in silico identification of polymorphic genic-SSR loci to facilitate the rapid development of an intra-species reference genetic map, a subset of which was validated for expected allelic segregation in the reference mapping population. Conclusion We developed 550 validated genic-SSR markers in pigeonpea using deep transcriptome sequencing. From these, 20 highly polymorphic markers were used to evaluate the genetic relationship among species of the genus Cajanus. A comprehensive set of genic-SSR markers was developed as an important genomic resource for diversity analysis and genetic mapping in pigeonpea. PMID:21251263

  16. Evaluation of the antifungal activity and modulation between Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. leaves and roots ethanolic extracts and conventional antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Samara A.; Rodrigues, Fabola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; da Costa, Jos G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The use and investigation of natural products with antimicrobial activity from vegeral source have been reported by several researchers. Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae) is a multiple use specie mainly as human food. In popular medicine, diverse parts of the plant are used as sedative and to treat cough, hepatitis, and diabetes. Materials and Methods: This study shows the characterization of secondary metabolites present in ehtanolic extracts from leaves and roots of Cajanus cajan by phytochemical prospection. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the microdilution method, and from the subinhibitory concentrations (MIC 1/8) the modulatory activity of antifungical (fluconazole and ketoconazole) was analyzed by the direct contact assay against C. albicans ATCC40006, Candida krusei ATCC 6538 and Candida tropicalis ATCC 40042. Results: The results showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids in both extracts as the clinically relevant antifungal activity. The modulatory potential is presented by the antifungal tested against yeasts. Conclusion: The extracts studied here have demonstrated to be a new therapeutic source to treat these microorganism-associated diseases. PMID:22701281

  17. Effectiveness of native and exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nutrient uptake and ion homeostasis in salt-stressed Cajanus cajan L. (Millsp.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neera; Pandey, Rekha

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinity is an increasing problem worldwide, restricting plant growth and production. Research findings show that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to reduce negative effects of salinity. However, plant growth responses to AM fungi vary as a result of genetic variation in mycorrhizal colonization and plant growth responsiveness. Thus, profitable use of AM requires selection of a suitable combination of host plant and fungal partner. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to compare effectiveness of a native AM fungal inoculum sourced from saline soil and two single exotic isolates, Funneliformis mossseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (single or dual mix), on Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. genotypes (Paras and Pusa 2002) under salt stress (0-100mM NaCl). While salinity reduced plant biomass and disturbed ionic status in both genotypes, Pusa 2002 was more salt tolerant and ensured higher AM fungal colonization, plant biomass and nutrient content with favourable ion status under salinity. Although all AM fungi reduced negative effects of salt stress, R. irregularis (alone or in combination with F. mosseae) displayed highest efficiency under salinity, resulting in highest biomass, yield, nutrient uptake and improved membrane stability with favourable K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios in the host plant. Higher effectiveness of R. irregularis correlated with higher root colonization, indicating that the symbiosis formed by R. irregularis had more stable viability and efficiency under salt stress. These findings enhance understanding of the functional diversity of AM fungi in ameliorating plant salt stress tolerance and suggest the potential use of R. irregularis for increasing Cajanus cajan productivity in saline soils. PMID:25155616

  18. Pigeonpea genomics initiative (PGI): an international effort to improve crop productivity of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)

    PubMed Central

    Penmetsa, R. V.; Dutta, S.; Kulwal, P. L.; Saxena, R. K.; Datta, S.; Sharma, T. R.; Rosen, B.; Carrasquilla-Garcia, N.; Farmer, A. D.; Dubey, A.; Saxena, K. B.; Gao, J.; Fakrudin, B.; Singh, M. N.; Singh, B. P.; Wanjari, K. B.; Yuan, M.; Srivastava, R. K.; Kilian, A.; Upadhyaya, H. D.; Mallikarjuna, N.; Town, C. D.; Bruening, G. E.; He, G.; May, G. D.; McCombie, R.; Jackson, S. A.; Singh, N. K.; Cook, D. R.

    2009-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an important food legume crop in the semi-arid regions of the world and the second most important pulse crop in India, has an average crop productivity of 780kg/ha. The relatively low crop yields may be attributed to non-availability of improved cultivars, poor crop husbandry and exposure to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses in pigeonpea growing regions. Narrow genetic diversity in cultivated germplasm has further hampered the effective utilization of conventional breeding as well as development and utilization of genomic tools, resulting in pigeonpea being often referred to as an orphan crop legume. To enable genomics-assisted breeding in this crop, the pigeonpea genomics initiative (PGI) was initiated in late 2006 with funding from Indian Council of Agricultural Research under the umbrella of Indo-US agricultural knowledge initiative, which was further expanded with financial support from the US National Science Foundations Plant Genome Research Program and the Generation Challenge Program. As a result of the PGI, the last 3years have witnessed significant progress in development of both genetic as well as genomic resources in this crop through effective collaborations and coordination of genomics activities across several institutes and countries. For instance, 25 mapping populations segregating for a number of biotic and abiotic stresses have been developed or are under development. An 11X-genome coverage bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library comprising of 69,120 clones have been developed of which 50,000 clones were end sequenced to generate 87,590 BAC-end sequences (BESs). About 10,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Sanger sequencing and ca. 2million short ESTs by 454/FLX sequencing have been generated. A variety of molecular markers have been developed from BESs, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR)-enriched libraries and mining of ESTs and genomic amplicon sequencing. Of about 21,000 SSRs identified, 6,698 SSRs are under analysis along with 670 orthologous genes using a GoldenGate SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotyping platform, with large scale SNP discovery using Solexa, a next generation sequencing technology, is in progress. Similarly a diversity array technology array comprising of ca. 15,000 features has been developed. In addition, >600 unique nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain containing members of the NBS-leucine rich repeat disease resistance homologs were cloned in pigeonpea; 960 BACs containing these sequences were identified by filter hybridization, BES physical maps developed using high information content fingerprinting. To enrich the genomic resources further, sequenced soybean genome is being analyzed to establish the anchor points between pigeonpea and soybean genomes. In addition, Solexa sequencing is being used to explore the feasibility of generating whole genome sequence. In summary, the collaborative efforts of several research groups under the umbrella of PGI are making significant progress in improving molecular tools in pigeonpea and should significantly benefit pigeonpea genetics and breeding. As these efforts come to fruition, and expanded (depending on funding), pigeonpea would move from an orphan legume crop to one where genomics-assisted breeding approaches for a sustainable crop improvement are routine. PMID:20976284

  19. Evaluation and validation of housekeeping genes as reference for gene expression studies in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) under drought stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pallavi; Singh, Vikas K; Suryanarayana, V; Krishnamurthy, L; Saxena, Rachit K; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a very sensitive technique and its sensitivity depends on the stable performance of reference gene(s) used in the study. A number of housekeeping genes have been used in various expression studies in many crops however, their expression were found to be inconsistent under different stress conditions. As a result, species specific housekeeping genes have been recommended for different expression studies in several crop species. However, such specific housekeeping genes have not been reported in the case of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) despite the fact that genome sequence has become available for the crop. To identify the stable housekeeping genes in pigeonpea for expression analysis under drought stress conditions, the relative expression variations of 10 commonly used housekeeping genes (EF1α, UBQ10, GAPDH, 18SrRNA, 25SrRNA, TUB6, ACT1, IF4α, UBC and HSP90) were studied on root, stem and leaves tissues of Asha (ICPL 87119). Three statistical algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to define the stability of candidate genes. geNorm analysis identified IF4α and TUB6 as the most stable housekeeping genes however, NormFinder analysis determined IF4α and HSP90 as the most stable housekeeping genes under drought stress conditions. Subsequently validation of the identified candidate genes was undertaken in qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis of uspA gene which plays an important role for drought stress conditions in pigeonpea. The relative quantification of the uspA gene varied according to the internal controls (stable and least stable genes), thus highlighting the importance of the choice of as well as validation of internal controls in such experiments. The identified stable and validated housekeeping genes will facilitate gene expression studies in pigeonpea especially under drought stress conditions. PMID:25849964

  20. Evaluation and Validation of Housekeeping Genes as Reference for Gene Expression Studies in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) Under Drought Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pallavi; Singh, Vikas K.; Suryanarayana, V.; Krishnamurthy, L.; Saxena, Rachit K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a very sensitive technique and its sensitivity depends on the stable performance of reference gene(s) used in the study. A number of housekeeping genes have been used in various expression studies in many crops however, their expression were found to be inconsistent under different stress conditions. As a result, species specific housekeeping genes have been recommended for different expression studies in several crop species. However, such specific housekeeping genes have not been reported in the case of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) despite the fact that genome sequence has become available for the crop. To identify the stable housekeeping genes in pigeonpea for expression analysis under drought stress conditions, the relative expression variations of 10 commonly used housekeeping genes (EF1α, UBQ10, GAPDH, 18SrRNA, 25SrRNA, TUB6, ACT1, IF4α, UBC and HSP90) were studied on root, stem and leaves tissues of Asha (ICPL 87119). Three statistical algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to define the stability of candidate genes. geNorm analysis identified IF4α and TUB6 as the most stable housekeeping genes however, NormFinder analysis determined IF4α and HSP90 as the most stable housekeeping genes under drought stress conditions. Subsequently validation of the identified candidate genes was undertaken in qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis of uspA gene which plays an important role for drought stress conditions in pigeonpea. The relative quantification of the uspA gene varied according to the internal controls (stable and least stable genes), thus highlighting the importance of the choice of as well as validation of internal controls in such experiments. The identified stable and validated housekeeping genes will facilitate gene expression studies in pigeonpea especially under drought stress conditions. PMID:25849964

  1. An intra-specific consensus genetic map of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh] derived from six mapping populations.

    PubMed

    Bohra, Abhishek; Saxena, Rachit K; Gnanesh, B N; Saxena, Kulbhushan; Byregowda, M; Rathore, Abhishek; Kavikishor, P B; Cook, Douglas R; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-10-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) is an important food legume crop of rainfed agriculture. Owing to exposure of the crop to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses, the crop productivity has remained stagnant for almost last five decades at ca. 750kg/ha. The availability of a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) system has facilitated the development and release of hybrids which are expected to enhance the productivity of pigeonpea. Recent advances in genomics and molecular breeding such as marker-assisted selection (MAS) offer the possibility to accelerate hybrid breeding. Molecular markers and genetic maps are pre-requisites for deploying MAS in breeding. However, in the case of pigeonpea, only one inter- and two intra-specific genetic maps are available so far. Here, four new intra-specific genetic maps comprising 59-140 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci with map lengths ranging from 586.9 to 881.6cM have been constructed. Using these four genetic maps together with two recently published intra-specific genetic maps, a consensus map was constructed, comprising of 339 SSR loci spanning a distance of 1,059cM. Furthermore, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for fertility restoration (Rf) conducted in three mapping populations identified four major QTLs explaining phenotypic variances up to 24%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on construction of a consensus genetic map in pigeonpea and on the identification of QTLs for fertility restoration. The developed consensus genetic map should serve as a reference for developing new genetic maps as well as correlating with the physical map in pigeonpea to be developed in near future. The availability of more informative markers in the bins harbouring QTLs for sterility mosaic disease (SMD) and Rf will facilitate the selection of the most suitable markers for genetic analysis and molecular breeding applications in pigeonpea. PMID:22772726

  2. A Halogen-Containing Stilbene Derivative from the Leaves of Cajanus cajan that Induces Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia-Zhong; Tang, Rong; Ye, Gui-Fu; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Nen-Ling; Hu, Ying-Jie; Shen, Xiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    A new natural halogen-containing stilbene derivative was isolated from the leaves of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. and identified as 3-O-(3-chloro-2-hydroxyl-propanyl)-longistylin A by comprehensive spectroscopic and chemical analysis, and named cajanstilbene H (1). It is the first halogen-containing stilbene derivative found from plants. In human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) from bone marrow, 1 did not promote cell proliferation, but distinctly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hMSC in time- and dose-dependent manners. In six human cancer cell lines, 1 showed a moderate inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, with IC50 values of 21.42-25.85 ?molL(-1). PMID:26111172

  3. Development of new cytoplasmic-genetic male-sterile lines in pigeonpea from crosses between Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.and C. scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars.

    PubMed

    Kalaimagal, Thiyagarajan; Muthaiah, Arunachalam; Rajarathinam, Sankaran; Malini, Subramaniam; Nadarajan, Nagasamy; Pechiammal, Indra

    2008-01-01

    Exploitation of hybrid vigour is quite possible in cross-pollinated crops. However, pigeonpea is a grain legume crop with a moderate level of cross-pollination (20-70%), which is mainly aided by insect pollinators. As a first step, hybrids based on genetic male sterility (GMS) were developed in pigeonpea, but the hybrid seed production technique is not farmer-friendly, because in the hybrid seed production plot 50% of the population, which are male-fertile in the female rows, have to be eliminated in time before contamination. This requires skilled labour and is a time-consuming process, which increases the cost of hybrid seed production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop cytoplasmic-genetic male-sterile (CGMS) lines in pigeonpea through wide hybridization, which would be very suitable for hybrid seed production. Two CGMS lines, viz. CORG 990052 A and CORG 990047, were developed by interspecific hybridization of Cajanus cajan and C. scarabaeoides. Restorers were identified and three CGMS-based pigeonpea hybrids were developed. The hybrid COPH 3 is found to be promising in Tamil Nadu State, India. PMID:18670057

  4. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea) and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities – A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rashi; Bisaria, V. S.; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant’s growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA) and function (nitrogen cycle) of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold), even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold) and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields. PMID:26231030

  5. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea) and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities--A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashi; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant's growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA) and function (nitrogen cycle) of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold), even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold) and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields. PMID:26231030

  6. Identification and Validation of Selected Universal Stress Protein Domain Containing Drought-Responsive Genes in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pallavi; Pazhamala, Lekha T.; Singh, Vikas K.; Saxena, Rachit K.; Krishnamurthy, L.; Azam, Sarwar; Khan, Aamir W.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Pigeonpea is a resilient crop, which is relatively more drought tolerant than many other legume crops. To understand the molecular mechanisms of this unique feature of pigeonpea, 51 genes were selected using the Hidden Markov Models (HMM) those codes for proteins having close similarity to universal stress protein domain. Validation of these genes was conducted on three pigeonpea genotypes (ICPL 151, ICPL 8755, and ICPL 227) having different levels of drought tolerance. Gene expression analysis using qRT-PCR revealed 6, 8, and 18 genes to be ≥2-fold differentially expressed in ICPL 151, ICPL 8755, and ICPL 227, respectively. A total of 10 differentially expressed genes showed ≥2-fold up-regulation in the more drought tolerant genotype, which encoded four different classes of proteins. These include plant U-box protein (four genes), universal stress protein A-like protein (four genes), cation/H(+) antiporter protein (one gene) and an uncharacterized protein (one gene). Genes C.cajan_29830 and C.cajan_33874 belonging to uspA, were found significantly expressed in all the three genotypes with ≥2-fold expression variations. Expression profiling of these two genes on the four other legume crops revealed their specific role in pigeonpea. Therefore, these genes seem to be promising candidates for conferring drought tolerance specifically to pigeonpea. PMID:26779199

  7. Therapeutic and protective effects of Caesalpinia gilliesii and Cajanus cajan proteins against acetaminophen overdose-induced renal damage.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hanan F; Rizk, Maha Z; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Desoky, M M; Ibrahim, N A; Younis, Eman A

    2016-04-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the protective and ameliorative effects of two plant-derived proteins obtained from the seeds ofCajanus cajanandCaesalpinia gilliesii(Leguminosae) against the toxic effects of acetaminophen in kidney after chronic dose through determination of certain biochemical markers including total urea, creatinine, and kidney marker enzyme, that is, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In addition histopathological examination of intoxicated and treated kidney with both proteins was performed. The present results show a significant increase in serum total urea and creatinine, while significant decrease in GAPDH. Improvement in all biochemical parameters studied was demonstrated, which was documented by the amelioration signs in rats kidney architecture. Thus, both plant protein extracts can counteract the nephrotoxic process, minimize damage to the kidney, delay disease progression, and reduce its complications. PMID:24280655

  8. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Laizuman; Nasrin, Fatema; Zahan, Ronok; Haque, Anamul; Haque, Ekramul; Mosaddik, Ashik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2) but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC) and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI). Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg). In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001), reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001) in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress. PMID:24761124

  9. Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of Cajanus spp. Illustrated from Genome-Wide SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rachit K.; von Wettberg, Eric; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Sanchez, Vanessa; Songok, Serah; Saxena, Kulbhushan; Kimurto, Paul; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic structure of Cajanus spp. is essential for achieving genetic improvement by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping or association studies and use of selected markers through genomic assisted breeding and genomic selection. After developing a comprehensive set of 1,616 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and their conversion into cost effective KASPar assays for pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), we studied levels of genetic variability both within and between diverse set of Cajanus lines including 56 breeding lines, 21 landraces and 107 accessions from 18 wild species. These results revealed a high frequency of polymorphic SNPs and relatively high level of cross-species transferability. Indeed, 75.8% of successful SNP assays revealed polymorphism, and more than 95% of these assays could be successfully transferred to related wild species. To show regional patterns of variation, we used STRUCTURE and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) to partition variance among hierarchical sets of landraces and wild species at either the continental scale or within India. STRUCTURE separated most of the domesticated germplasm from wild ecotypes, and separates Australian and Asian wild species as has been found previously. Among Indian regions and states within regions, we found 36% of the variation between regions, and 64% within landraces or wilds within states. The highest level of polymorphism in wild relatives and landraces was found in Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh provinces of India representing the centre of origin and domestication of pigeonpea respectively. PMID:24533111

  10. Genomics-assisted breeding for boosting crop improvement in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)

    PubMed Central

    Pazhamala, Lekha; Saxena, Rachit K.; Singh, Vikas K.; Sameerkumar, C. V.; Kumar, Vinay; Sinha, Pallavi; Patel, Kishan; Obala, Jimmy; Kaoneka, Seleman R.; Tongoona, P.; Shimelis, Hussein A.; Gangarao, N. V. P. R.; Odeny, Damaris; Rathore, Abhishek; Dharmaraj, P. S.; Yamini, K. N.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important pulse crop grown predominantly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Although pigeonpea growing area has considerably increased, yield has remained stagnant for the last six decades mainly due to the exposure of the crop to various biotic and abiotic constraints. In addition, low level of genetic variability and limited genomic resources have been serious impediments to pigeonpea crop improvement through modern breeding approaches. In recent years, however, due to the availability of next generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies, the scenario has changed tremendously. The reduced sequencing costs resulting in the decoding of the pigeonpea genome has led to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, transcript sequences and comprehensive genetic maps. Mapping of some important traits including resistance to Fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic disease, fertility restoration, determinacy with other agronomically important traits have paved the way for applying genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) through marker assisted selection as well as genomic selection (GS). This would accelerate the development and improvement of both varieties and hybrids in pigeonpea. Particularly for hybrid breeding programme, mitochondrial genomes of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, maintainers and hybrids have been sequenced to identify genes responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore, several diagnostic molecular markers have been developed to assess the purity of commercial hybrids. In summary, pigeonpea has become a genomic resources-rich crop and efforts have already been initiated to integrate these resources in pigeonpea breeding. PMID:25741349

  11. Optimization of luteolin separation from pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves by macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Liu, Wei; Efferth, Thomas; Zhang, Naijing; Liu, Xiaona; Kong, Yu

    2006-12-29

    In the present study, the performance and separation characteristics of eight macroporous resins for the separation of luteolin (LU) from pigeonpea leaves extracts have been evaluated. The adsorption and desorption properties of LU on macroporous resins including AB-8, NKA-9, NKA-2, D3520, D101, H1020, H103 and AL-2 have been compared. AL-2 resin offers the best adsorption and desorption capacity for LU than other resins based on the research results, and its adsorption data at 25 degrees C fit best to the Freundlich isotherm. Dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments have been carried out with the column packed by AL-2 resin to optimize the separation process of LU from pigeonpea leaves extracts. The optimum parameters for adsorption were sample solution LU concentration 65.5 microg/ml, pH 5, processing volume 3 BV, flow rate 1.5BV/h, temperature 25 degrees C; for desorption were elution solvent ethanol-water (50:50, v/v) 2 BV and followed by ethanol-water (60:40, v/v) 2 BV, and flow rate 1BV/h. After treated with AL-2 resin, the LU content in the product was increased 19.8-fold from 0.129% to 2.55%, with a recovery yield of 78.54%. The results showed that AL-2 resin revealed a good ability to separate LU. Therefore, we conclude that results in this study may provide scientific references for the large-scale LU production from pigeonpea or other plants extracts. PMID:17126843

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2008-07-01

    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å.

  13. Water used by grazed pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan(L) Millsp] in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use by the warm-season annual pulse pigeon pea must be described to effectively use this legume as forage to support late-summer grazing by stocker cattle in the southern Great Plains (SGP). This study was conducted in central Oklahoma during 2008 to 2010 to quantify water and water use effici...

  14. Facile combustion synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Cajanus cajan (L.) and its multidisciplinary applications

    SciTech Connect

    Manjunath, K.; Ravishankar, T.N.; Kumar, Dhanith; Priyanka, K.P; Varghese, Thomas; Naika, H.Raja; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S.C.; Dupont, J.; Ramakrishnappa, T.; Nagaraju, G.

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Facile combustion synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Cajanuscajan (L.) and its multidisciplinary applications.Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by solution combustion method (SCM) using pigeon pea as a combustible fuel for the first time. The as-prepared product shows good photocatalytic, dielectric, antibacterial, electrochemical properties. - Highlights: • ZnO Nps were synthesized via combustion method using pigeon pea as a fuel. • The structure of the product was confirmed by XRD technique. • The morphology was confirmed by SEM and TEM images. • The as-prepared product shown good photocatalytic activity, dielectric property. • It has also shown good antibacterial and electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) were successfully synthesized by solution combustion method (SCM) using pigeon pea as a fuel for the first time. X-Ray diffraction pattern reveals that the product belongs to hexagonal system. FTIR spectrum of ZnO Nps shows the band at 420 cm{sup −1} associated with the characteristic vibration of Zn–O. TEM images show that the nanoparticles are found to be ∼40–80 nm. Furthermore, the as-prepared ZnO Nps exhibits good photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB), indicating that they are indeed a promising photocatalytic semiconductor. The antibacterial properties of ZnO nanopowders were investigated by their bactericidal activity against four bacterial strains.

  15. Phenotypic diversity and amylolytic activity of fast growing rhizobia from pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Jnior, Paulo Ivan Fernandes; de Lima, Andra Aparecida; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Tuo Gava, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Paulo Jansen; Rumjanek, Norma Gouva; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated 26 pigeonpea rhizobial isolates according to their cultural characteristics, intrinsic antibiotic resistance, salt and temperature tolerance, carbon source utilization and amylolytic activity. The cultural characterization showed that the majority of them presented the ability to acidify the YMA. Among the 27 isolates evaluated, 25 were able to grow when incubated at 42 C and 11 showed tolerance to 3% (w/v) of NaCl in YMA medium. The patterns of carbon sources utilization was very diverse among the isolates. It was observed the capacity of three strains to metabolize all the carbon sources evaluated and a total of 42% of the bacterial isolates was able to grow in the culture medium supplemented with at least, six carbon sources. The carbon sources mannitol (control) and sucrose were metabilized by all isolates evaluated. The profile of intrinsic resistance to antibiotics showed that the isolates were mostly resistant to streptomycin and ampicillin, but susceptible to kanamycin and chloranphenicol. High amylolytic activity of, at least, four isolates was also demonstrated, especially for isolated 47.3b, which showed the highest enzymatic index. These results indicate the metabolic versatility of the pigeonpea rhizobia, and indicates the isolate 47.3b to further studies regarding the amylase production and characterization. PMID:24031992

  16. The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwata, E.

    2012-04-01

    In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

  17. Genomics-assisted breeding for boosting crop improvement in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan).

    PubMed

    Pazhamala, Lekha; Saxena, Rachit K; Singh, Vikas K; Sameerkumar, C V; Kumar, Vinay; Sinha, Pallavi; Patel, Kishan; Obala, Jimmy; Kaoneka, Seleman R; Tongoona, P; Shimelis, Hussein A; Gangarao, N V P R; Odeny, Damaris; Rathore, Abhishek; Dharmaraj, P S; Yamini, K N; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important pulse crop grown predominantly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Although pigeonpea growing area has considerably increased, yield has remained stagnant for the last six decades mainly due to the exposure of the crop to various biotic and abiotic constraints. In addition, low level of genetic variability and limited genomic resources have been serious impediments to pigeonpea crop improvement through modern breeding approaches. In recent years, however, due to the availability of next generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies, the scenario has changed tremendously. The reduced sequencing costs resulting in the decoding of the pigeonpea genome has led to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, transcript sequences and comprehensive genetic maps. Mapping of some important traits including resistance to Fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic disease, fertility restoration, determinacy with other agronomically important traits have paved the way for applying genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) through marker assisted selection as well as genomic selection (GS). This would accelerate the development and improvement of both varieties and hybrids in pigeonpea. Particularly for hybrid breeding programme, mitochondrial genomes of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, maintainers and hybrids have been sequenced to identify genes responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore, several diagnostic molecular markers have been developed to assess the purity of commercial hybrids. In summary, pigeonpea has become a genomic resources-rich crop and efforts have already been initiated to integrate these resources in pigeonpea breeding. PMID:25741349

  18. A comparative method for protein extraction and 2-D gel electrophoresis from different tissues of Cajanus cajan

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Jain, Neha; Kumar, Ram; Jain, Ajay; Singh, Nagendra K.; Rai, Vandna

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important legume crop with high protein content. However, it is often subjected to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Proteomics is a state-of-the-art technique used to analyze the protein profiling of a tissue for deciphering the molecular entities that could be manipulated for developing crops resistant to these stresses. In this context, developing a comprehensive proteome profile from different vegetative and reproductive tissues has become mandatory. Although several protein extraction protocols from different tissues of diverse plant species have been reported, there is no report for pigeonpea. Here, we report tissue-specific protein extraction protocols representing vegetative (young leaves), and reproductive (flowers and seeds) organs and their subsequent analysis on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The study explicitly demonstrated that the efficacy of a particular protein extraction protocol is dependent on the different tissues, such as leaves, flowers and seeds that differ in their structure and metabolic constituents. For instance, phenol-based protocol showed an efficacy toward higher protein yield, better spot resolution and a minimal streaking on 2-DE gel for both leaves and flowers. Protein extraction from seeds was best achieved by employing phosphate-TCA-acetone protocol. PMID:26300903

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b gene from the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guang; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (LHCB) have been implicated in the stress response. In this study, a gene encoding LHCB in the pigeon pea was cloned and characterized. Based on the sequence of a previously obtained 327 bp Est, a full-length 793 bp cDNA was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. It was designated CcLHCB1 and encoded a 262 amino acid protein. The calculated molecular weight of the CcLHCB1 protein was 27.89 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.29. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the CcLHCB1 protein sequence shared a high identity with LHCB from other plants. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that CcLHCB1 was a hydrophobic protein with three transmembrane domains. By fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CcLHCB1 mRNA transcripts were detectable in different tissues (leaf, stem, and root), with the highest level found in the leaf. The expression of CcLHCB1 mRNA in the leaves was up-regulated by drought stimulation and AM inoculation. Our results provide the basis for a better understanding of the molecular organization of LCHB and might be useful for understanding the interaction between plants and microbes in the future. PMID:26329890

  20. In vitro regeneration through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in pigeon pea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] cv. JKR105.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gaurav; Reddy, P Sairam; Ramteke, Pramod W; Rambabu, Pogiri; Sohrab, Sayed S; Rana, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Parthasarathi

    2011-10-01

    In vitro regeneration of pigeon pea through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was demonstrated with pigeon pea cv. JKR105. Embryonic axes explants of pigeon pea showed greater regeneration of shoot buds on 2.5mgL(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the medium, followed by further elongation at lower concentrations. Rooting of shoots was observed on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2% sucrose and 0.5mgL(-1) 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA). On the other hand, the regeneration of globular embryos from cotyledon explant was faster and greater with thidiazuron (TDZ) than BAP with sucrose as carbohydrate source. These globular embryos were maturated on MS medium with abscisic acid (ABA) and finally germinated on half-strength MS medium at lower concentrations of BAP. Comparison of regeneration pathways in pigeon pea cv. JKR105 showed that the turnover of successful establishment of plants achieved through organogenesis was more compared to somatic embryogenesis, despite the production of more embryos than shoot buds. PMID:23573031

  1. Defining the transcriptome assembly and its use for genome dynamics and transcriptome profiling studies in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports generation of large-scale genomic resources for pigeonpea, a so-called ‘orphan crop species’ of the semi-arid tropic regions. Roche FLX/454 sequencing was carried out on a normalized cDNA pool prepared from 31 tissues produced 494,353 short transcript reads (STRs). Cluster analysi...

  2. Effect of dietary inclusion of fermented pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) meal on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of cockerel chicks.

    PubMed

    Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Idowu, Olusegun Mark Obawale; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Olayemi, Wasiu A; Lala, Olubukola A; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha

    2012-10-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of fermented pigeon pea meal (FPPM) on growth response, apparent nutrient digestibility, haematological indices and serum biochemistry of cockerel chicks was studied using 240-day-old cockerel chicks allotted to four dietary treatments consisting of 60 birds each. Four experimental diets were formulated to include FPPM at 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg inclusion levels, respectively. Each of the diets was fed to 60 birds replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days. Results indicated that final live weight (linear (L). quadratic (Q): P < 0.05), weight gain (L.Q: P < 0.01), feed intake (Q.: P < 0.05) and coefficient of total tract apparent crude protein digestibility (P < 0.05) were reduced with increasing dietary inclusion of FPPM. Similar improved feed-to-gain ratios were obtained for chicks fed the control and those fed a diet containing 50 g/kg FPPM. Coefficient of total tract apparent ether extract and ash digestibility were not affected (P > 0.05) by the inclusion of FPPM. Haemoglobin and serum uric acid concentrations were also reduced (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary inclusion of FPPM. Chicks fed with 150 g/kg FPPM had the least (P < 0.05) packed cell volume, red blood cell and neutrophil count. It was concluded that dietary inclusion of up to 50 g/kg FPPM could be used in the ration for cockerel chicks without imposing any threat on the growth response, nutrient digestibility and blood constituents. PMID:22392547

  3. Analysis of BAC-end sequences (BESs) and development of BES-SSR markers for genetic mapping and hybrid purity assessment in pigeonpea (Cajanus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is an important legume crop of rainfed agriculture. Despite of concerted research efforts directed to pigeonpea improvement, stagnated productivity of pigeonpea during last several decades may be accounted to prevalence of various biotic and abiotic constraints and the situation is exacerbated by availability of inadequate genomic resources to undertake any molecular breeding programme for accelerated crop improvement. With the objective of enhancing genomic resources for pigeonpea, this study reports for the first time, large scale development of SSR markers from BAC-end sequences and their subsequent use for genetic mapping and hybridity testing in pigeonpea. Results A set of 88,860 BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome)-end sequences (BESs) were generated after constructing two BAC libraries by using HindIII (34,560 clones) and BamHI (34,560 clones) restriction enzymes. Clustering based on sequence identity of BESs yielded a set of >52K non-redundant sequences, comprising 35 Mbp or >4% of the pigeonpea genome. These sequences were analyzed to develop annotation lists and subdivide the BESs into genome fractions (e.g., genes, retroelements, transpons and non-annotated sequences). Parallel analysis of BESs for microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 18,149 SSRs, from which a set of 6,212 SSRs were selected for further analysis. A total of 3,072 novel SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested for length polymorphism on a set of 22 parental genotypes of 13 mapping populations segregating for traits of interest. In total, we identified 842 polymorphic SSR markers that will have utility in pigeonpea improvement. Based on these markers, the first SSR-based genetic map comprising of 239 loci was developed for this previously uncharacterized genome. Utility of developed SSR markers was also demonstrated by identifying a set of 42 markers each for two hybrids (ICPH 2671 and ICPH 2438) for genetic purity assessment in commercial hybrid breeding programme. Conclusion In summary, while BAC libraries and BESs should be useful for genomics studies, BES-SSR markers, and the genetic map should be very useful for linking the genetic map with a future physical map as well as for molecular breeding in pigeonpea. PMID:21447154

  4. Identification of Coupling and Repulsion Phase DNA Marker Associated With an Allele of a Gene Conferring Host Plant Resistance to Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.)

    PubMed Central

    Daspute, Abhijit; Fakrudin, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea Sterility Mosaic Disease (PSMD) is an important foliar disease caused by Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) which is transmitted by eriophyid mites (Aceria cajani Channabasavanna). In present study, a F2 mapping population comprising 325 individuals was developed by crossing PSMD susceptible genotype (Gullyal white) and PSMD resistant genotype (BSMR 736). We identified a set of 32 out of 300 short decamer random DNA markers that showed polymorphism between Gullyal white and BSMR 736 parents. Among them, eleven DNA markers showed polymorphism including coupling and repulsion phase type of polymorphism across the parents. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA), revealed that the DNA marker, IABTPPN7, produced a single coupling phase marker (IABTPPN7414) and a repulsion phase marker (IABTPPN7983) co-segregating with PSMD reaction. Screening of 325 F2 population using IABTPPN7 revealed that the repulsion phase marker, IABTPPN7983, was co-segregating with the PSMD responsive SV1 at a distance of 23.9 cM for Bidar PPSMV isolate. On the other hand, the coupling phase marker IABTPPN7414 did not show any linkage with PSMD resistance. Additionally, single marker analysis both IABTPPN7983 (P<0.0001) and IABTPPN 7414 (P<0.0001) recorded a significant association with the PSMD resistance and explained a phenotypic variance of 31 and 36% respectively in F2 population. The repulsion phase marker, IABTPPN7983, could be of use in Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in the PPSMV resistance breeding programmes of pigeonpea. PMID:25774108

  5. SHORT-DURATION PIGEONPEA - A POTENTIAL GRAIN AND FORAGE FOR THE SOUTHERN PLAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage based livestock production systems occur extensively throughout the southern Great Plains (SPG). However, a period of limited forage availability occurs from late July to early November in the region. In semi-arid regions of Asia, pigeon-pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) is grown for grain and ...

  6. MODELING PIGEONPEA PHENOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a widely grown legume in tropical and subtropical areas. A crop simulation model that can assist in farmer decision-making was developed. The phenological module is one of the major elements of the crop model because accurate prediction of the timing of gr...

  7. WEED CONTROL IN A PIGEON PEA - WHEAT ROTATION: FINAL REPORT OF A THREE YEAR STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] has potential as a hay, grain, and green manure crop in the southern Great Plains. Rapid growth of pigweed [Amaranthus retroflexus (L.)] adversely affects establishment of slower-growing pigeon pea. A 3-yr study was conducted from June 1998 through June 2001 i...

  8. POTENTIAL GRAIN AND FORAGE PRODUCTION OF EARLY MATURING PIGEONPEAS IN THE SOUTHERN PLAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage-based livestock production is a significant component of the agricultural economy throughout the southern Great Plains. However, low forage mass and quality for grazing limits livestock productivity from late-July to early-November. Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) is a warm-season grain...

  9. Pigeon Pea: A versatile, drought-resistant crop for the Sothern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan(L.)] is a drought tolerant legume originating in India and ranking sixth in production worldwide, compared to other grain legumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production potential of pigeonpea in the alkaline clay soils of the North Texas Blacklands. Four...

  10. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. GROWTH AND SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS WITH PIGEONPEA AND COWPEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is a limiting factor on legume-Bradyrhizobium symbiosis of subtropical plants in the temperate region. Twelve strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp], and cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], were evaluated for tolerance to three temperature re...

  11. Capabilities of four novel warm-season legumes in the southern Great Plains: biomass and forage quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain legumes could provide high nitrogen (N), late summer forage for stocker cattle in the southern Great Plains (SGP). This study evaluated the forage yield and nutritive value of tropical annual legumes novel to the SGP. Included were cultivars of pigeon pea ([Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.], cv. ‘GA...

  12. Pigeon pea potential for summer grazing in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocker cattle production in the southern Great Plains (SGP) faces forage quality gaps during July through September. A study was conducted in 2008 through 2010 to determine if pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] could fill this deficit period. Six, 0.41 ha experimental paddocks were randomly ...

  13. Capabilities of four novel warm-season legumes in the southern Great Plains: grain production and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain legumes could serve as a low cost nitrogen (N) and energy source for animal production in the southern Great Plains (SGP). This study evaluated the yield and nutritive value of grains of tropical annual legumes novel to the SGP. Included were cultivars of pigeon pea ([Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp...

  14. Detection of Legume Protease Inhibitors by the Gel-X-ray Film Contact Print Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulimani, Veerappa H.; Sudheendra, Kulkarni; Giri, Ashok P.

    2002-01-01

    Redgram (Cajanus cajan L.) extracts have been analyzed for the protease inhibitors using a new, sensitive, simple, and rapid method for detection of electrophoretically separated protease inhibitors. The detection involves equilibrating the gel successively in the protease assay buffer and protease solution, rinsing the gel in assay buffer, and…

  15. Detection of Legume Protease Inhibitors by the Gel-X-ray Film Contact Print Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulimani, Veerappa H.; Sudheendra, Kulkarni; Giri, Ashok P.

    2002-01-01

    Redgram (Cajanus cajan L.) extracts have been analyzed for the protease inhibitors using a new, sensitive, simple, and rapid method for detection of electrophoretically separated protease inhibitors. The detection involves equilibrating the gel successively in the protease assay buffer and protease solution, rinsing the gel in assay buffer, and

  16. Legume genomics: Understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approximately 17,000 species. A few of these species including, but not limited to; Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing the dietary protein for approximately 300 million people wor...

  17. Efficacy of nanostructured silica as a stored pulse protector against the infestation of bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Ganesh; Velayutham, Veeramani; Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with the pulse seeds of Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum and Vigna unguiculata against the infestation of stored pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus revealed a significant reduction in oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage potential. There was a complete retardation of growth of this beetle in the treated seeds of C. cajan. SNP-treated seeds of these six varieties of pulses revealed no effect on the growth of seeds as revealed by seed germination, growth rate of root and shoot. Similarly, the soil microflora measured in terms of colony forming units was not affected by silica nanoparticles upon its treatment with pulse seeds. The results of this study thus clearly demonstrated the useful nature of silica nanoparticles as seed protecting agent for the control of C. maculatus.

  18. Efficacy of nanostructured silica as a stored pulse protector against the infestation of bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Ganesh; Velayutham, Veeramani; Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with the pulse seeds of Cajanus cajan, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum and Vigna unguiculata against the infestation of stored pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus revealed a significant reduction in oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage potential. There was a complete retardation of growth of this beetle in the treated seeds of C. cajan. SNP-treated seeds of these six varieties of pulses revealed no effect on the growth of seeds as revealed by seed germination, growth rate of root and shoot. Similarly, the soil microflora measured in terms of colony forming units was not affected by silica nanoparticles upon its treatment with pulse seeds. The results of this study thus clearly demonstrated the useful nature of silica nanoparticles as seed protecting agent for the control of C. maculatus.

  19. Problemas para dormir

    Cancer.gov

    Dormir bien es importante para su salud fsica y mental. Un buen sueo en la noche no solo le ayuda a pensar claramente, tambin le baja su presin arterial, ayuda su apetito y fortalece su sistema inmunitario.

  20. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  1. Large-Scale Development of Cost-Effective Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker Assays for Genetic Mapping in Pigeonpea and Comparative Mapping in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rachit K.; Varma Penmetsa, R.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Kumar, Ashish; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Schlueter, Jessica A.; Farmer, Andrew; Whaley, Adam M.; Sarma, Birinchi K.; May, Gregory D.; Cook, Douglas R.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2012-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, >2000) were discovered by using RNA-seq and allele-specific sequencing approaches in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). For making the SNP genotyping cost-effective, successful competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASPar) assays were developed for 1616 SNPs and referred to as PKAMs (pigeonpea KASPar assay markers). Screening of PKAMs on 24 genotypes [23 from cultivated species and 1 wild species (Cajanus scarabaeoides)] defined a set of 1154 polymorphic markers (77.4%) with a polymorphism information content (PIC) value from 0.04 to 0.38. One thousand and ninety-four PKAMs showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the reference mapping population (C. cajan ICP 28 × C. scarabaeoides ICPW 94). By using high-quality marker genotyping data on 167 F2 lines from the population, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 875 PKAMs with an average inter-marker distance of 1.11 cM was developed. Previously mapped 35 simple sequence repeat markers were integrated into the PKAM map and an integrated genetic map of 996.21 cM was constructed. Mapped PKAMs showed a higher degree of synteny with the genome of Glycine max followed by Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. These PKAMs will be useful for genetics research and breeding applications in pigeonpea and for utilizing genome information from other legume species. PMID:23103470

  2. Large-scale development of cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism marker assays for genetic mapping in pigeonpea and comparative mapping in legumes.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rachit K; Penmetsa, R Varma; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kumar, Ashish; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Schlueter, Jessica A; Farmer, Andrew; Whaley, Adam M; Sarma, Birinchi K; May, Gregory D; Cook, Douglas R; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-12-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, >2000) were discovered by using RNA-seq and allele-specific sequencing approaches in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). For making the SNP genotyping cost-effective, successful competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASPar) assays were developed for 1616 SNPs and referred to as PKAMs (pigeonpea KASPar assay markers). Screening of PKAMs on 24 genotypes [23 from cultivated species and 1 wild species (Cajanus scarabaeoides)] defined a set of 1154 polymorphic markers (77.4%) with a polymorphism information content (PIC) value from 0.04 to 0.38. One thousand and ninety-four PKAMs showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the reference mapping population (C. cajan ICP 28 C. scarabaeoides ICPW 94). By using high-quality marker genotyping data on 167 F(2) lines from the population, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 875 PKAMs with an average inter-marker distance of 1.11 cM was developed. Previously mapped 35 simple sequence repeat markers were integrated into the PKAM map and an integrated genetic map of 996.21 cM was constructed. Mapped PKAMs showed a higher degree of synteny with the genome of Glycine max followed by Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. These PKAMs will be useful for genetics research and breeding applications in pigeonpea and for utilizing genome information from other legume species. PMID:23103470

  3. Tomografa computarizada (TC) y exploraciones para cncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe el procedimiento y la tecnologa de exploraciones con tomografa computarizada as como sus usos para el diagnstico, para exmenes de deteccin y para tratamiento del cncer.

  4. Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Fernanda G; Bouzada, Maria Lcia M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; de O Matos, Magnum; Moreira, Francis O; Scio, Elita; Coimbra, Elaine S

    2007-05-01

    The antileishmanial and antifungal activity of 24 methanol extracts from 20 plants, all of them used in the Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, were evaluated against promastigotes forms of two species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis and L. chagasi) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Among the 20 tested methanolic extracts, those of Vernonia polyanthes was the most active against L. amazonensis (IC(50) of 4 microg/ml), those of Ocimum gratissimum exhibited the best activity against L. chagasi (IC(50) of 71 microg/ml). Concerning antifungical activity, Schinus terebintifolius, O. gratissimum, Cajanus cajan, and Piper aduncum extracts were the most active against C. albicans (MIC of 1.25 mg/ml) whereas Bixa orellana, O. gratissimum and Syzygium cumini exhibited the best activity against C. neoformans (MIC of 0.078 mg/ml). PMID:17234373

  5. Impact of mine waste dumps on growth and biomass of economically important crops.

    PubMed

    Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of magnesite and bauxite waste dumps on growth and biochemical parameters of some edible and economically important plants such as Vigna radiata, V. mungo, V. unguiculata, Eleusine coracana, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolour, Sesamum indicum, Ricinus communis, Brassica juncea, Gossypium hirsutum and Jatropha curcas. The growth rate of all the crops was observed in the range of 75 to 100% in magnesite and 15 to 100% in bauxite mine soil. The moisture content of roots and shoots of all the crops were in the range of 24 to 77, 20 to 88% and 42 to 87, 59 to 88% respectively. The height of the crops was in the range of 2.6 to 48 cm in magnesite soil and 3 to 33 cm in bauxite soil. Thus the study shows that both mine soils reflects some physical and biomolecule impact on selected crops. PMID:23741803

  6. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Espaol

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan espaol y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la Divisin de Investigacin para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cncer.

  7. Genome Duplication and Gene Loss Affect the Evolution of Heat Shock Transcription Factor Genes in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jing; Jin, Xiaolei; Jiang, Haiyang; Yan, Hanwei; Cheng, Beijiu

    2014-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication events (polyploidy events) and gene loss events have played important roles in the evolution of legumes. Here we show that the vast majority of Hsf gene duplications resulted from whole genome duplication events rather than tandem duplication, and significant differences in gene retention exist between species. By searching for intraspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) and dating the age distributions of duplicated genes, we found that genome duplications accounted for 42 of 46 Hsf-containing segments in Glycine max, while paired segments were rarely identified in Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula and Cajanus cajan. However, by comparing interspecies microsynteny, we determined that the great majority of Hsf-containing segments in Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula and Cajanus cajan show extensive conservation with the duplicated regions of Glycine max. These segments formed 17 groups of orthologous segments. These results suggest that these regions shared ancient genome duplication with Hsf genes in Glycine max, but more than half of the copies of these genes were lost. On the other hand, the Glycine max Hsf gene family retained approximately 75% and 84% of duplicated genes produced from the ancient genome duplication and recent Glycine-specific genome duplication, respectively. Continuous purifying selection has played a key role in the maintenance of Hsf genes in Glycine max. Expression analysis of the Hsf genes in Lotus japonicus revealed their putative involvement in multiple tissue-/developmental stages and responses to various abiotic stimuli. This study traces the evolution of Hsf genes in legume species and demonstrates that the rates of gene gain and loss are far from equilibrium in different species. PMID:25047803

  8. Structural quality of on Oxisol in recovery for 18 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Batista Bonini, C.; Alves, M. C.; Marchini, D. C.; Garcia de Arruda, O.; Nilce Souto Filho, S.

    2012-04-01

    Incorrect use of soil and large buildings construction in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In this sense we investigated the positive changes in the structural quality of a soil that was beheaded in human intervention techniques for recovery for 18 years, having been used green manures, gypsum and pasture. The studied area is located in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was a completely randomized with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments were: control (tilled soil without culture); Stizolobium aterrium; Cajanus cajan; lime+S. aterrimum; lime+C. cajan; lime+gypsum+S. aterrimum; lime+gypsum+C. cajan. In 1994, all treatments with C. cajan were replaced by Canavalia ensiformis and in 1999, Brachiaria decumbens was implanted in all treatments. Data from vegetated treatments were compared with the control bare soil and native vegetation (savannah). We evaluated the distribution and aggregate stability in water, soil samples were collected in 2010 in the depths: 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0,20-0.40 m. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance, following Scott-Knott test (5%) of probability to compare averages. Evaluating the results is noted that in the depth of 0.00-0.10 m, the control bare soil and savannah soil had lower and higher DMP, respectively. All recovery treatments were DMP greater than found for the bare soil control. Treatments: S. aterrimum, lime + gypsum + C. cajan and lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum and the savannah control were similar in the depth of 0.00-0.10 m. All of the recovery treatment in the depth from 0.00-0.10 m with values is close to the native vegetation of the savannah. Depths of 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m results obtained for DMP treatments in recovery are similar to the bare soil, except for treatments with S. aterrimum and lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum that had values were similar to the savannah control. This behavior shows that the recovery of soil treatments were eficient only the superficial layer soil and other depths in the structure is still in recovery. It is concluded that the recovery treatment have positively influenced the structure quality in the 0.00-0.10 m depth : the recovery treatment with S. aterrimum and lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum were the most promising in the recovery structural quality.

  9. Pore size distribution of a deeply excavated Oxisol after 19 years reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Batista Bonini, Carolina; de Cássia Marchini, Débora; Alves, Marlene Cristina; García de Arruda, Otton; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Digging of the local soil and using it as a raw material for construction purposes has been identified as a non-negligible source of land degradation. Techniques aimed at soil profile reconstruction and ecological restoration of soils truncated by mechanical excavation using heavy machinery have been investigated Both, total soil porosity and pore size distribution are important properties for soil management as well as for assessing the recovery of soil function after land degradation. In this way, macropores are responsible for aeration, whereas water storage depends on soil meso- and micropores in the soil and the optimal pore-size distribution is also an indicator of soil quality. We investigated the changes in the pore size distribution of a soil that was beheaded to extract raw materials after a 19 year period of reclamation, which involved the use of green manures, gypsum and pasture for the purpose of profile recovery. The studied area is located in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brzil. A field trial was performed following a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and four replications. Starting 1992, the initial treatments were: 1) control (tilled bare soil), 2)Stizolobium aterrium, 3)Cajanus cajan, 4)lime+S. aterrimum, 5) lime+C. cajan, 6) lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum, 7) lime + gypsum+C. cajan. In 1994, all treatments with C. cajan were replaced by Canavalia ensiformis and in 1999, Brachiaria decumbens was implanted in all the experimental plots. Data from vegetated treatments were compared with bare soil (control) and native vegetation (Savannah). Soil samples were collected in 2011 at the 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m depths. Treatment differences were assessed by analysis of variance, following the Scott-Knott test (5%) of probability to compare averages. Macroporosity of the 0.00-0.10 m top layer was above the 0.10 m3m-3 threshold considered as critical for plant growth. On the 0.10-0.20 m layer only treatments with C. cajan later on followed by C. ensiformis reached macroporosities over the 0.10 m3m-3 threshold, and on the 0.20-0.40 m no treatment was above this critical value. In spite of the positive development of macroporosity in the restored soil profile, this physical attribute was far from the typical values corresponding to local soils under native Savannah vegetation.

  10. Conservation in Soil of H2 Liberated from N2 Fixation by Hup- Nodules

    PubMed Central

    La Favre, J. S.; Focht, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan) were grown in large soil columns (90-cm length by 30-cm diameter) and inoculated with four different strains of cowpea rhizobia, which varied with respect to hydrogen uptake activity (Hup). Despite the profuse liberation of H2 from Hup- nodules in vitro, H2 gas was not detected in any of the soil columns. When H2 was injected into the columns, the rates of consumption were highest in the treatments (including control) containing Hup- nodules (218 and 177 nmol h?1 cm?2) and lowest in the Hup+ treatments (158, 92, and 64 nmoles h?1 cm?2). In situ H2 uptake rates in small soil cores at fixed distances from the nodules decreased exponentially with distance from the nodule (R2 = 0.99). This decrease in H2 consumption was associated with a similar decrease in numbers of H2-oxidizing chemolithotrophic bacteria as determined by the most-probable-number method. On the basis of two equations derived separately upon diffusive theory (Fix's Law) and kinetic theory (Michaelis-Menten), the empirically derived rate constants and coefficients indicated that all of the H2 emitted from Hup- nodules would be consumed by H2-oxidizing bacteria within a 3- to 4.5-cm radius of the nodule surface. It is concluded that H2 is not lost from the soil-plant ecosystem during N2 fixation in C. cajan but is conserved by H2-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346356

  11. Generalized deformed para-Bose oscillator and its coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Ha Huy

    1996-04-01

    Generalized deformed commutation relations for a single-mode para-Bose oscillator are constructed. The connection of generalized deformed para-Bose oscillators with para-Bose oscillators is determined. From these, the energy spectrum of generalized deformed para-Bose oscillators and the coherent states of the annihilation operators are discussed.

  12. Oxidative para-triflation of acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Pialat, Amélie; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Direct triflation of acetanilide derivatives with silver triflate has been accomplished under mild iodine(III)-mediated oxidative conditions. The reaction shows excellent regioselectivity for the para position and tolerates a range of ortho and meta substituents on the aromatic ring. This method is also compatible with the preparation of arylnonaflates in synthetically useful yields. PMID:23534500

  13. Efficient Ortho Hydrogen to Para Hydrogen Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Sullivan, N. S.

    2004-03-01

    One of the most important considerations in the production and storage of liquid hydrogen is the need for efficient cost-effective means of conversion from ortho- to para-hydrogen.(See Ref.1.) At 300 K, the equilibrium concentration is 75% ortho, while at the boiling point (20.3 K), the equilibrium ortho concentration is 0.21%. Because of the large heat of ortho-para conversion (670 J/g), incomplete conversion during liquefaction results in severe losses due to boil-off during storage and transport. Most manufacturers use a two-stage catalytic converter, at 77 K, and at 20.3 K in the liquefying process. The conversion at 77 K can produce 50% para-H2, and the remaining conversion at 20.3 K consumes a significant fraction ( 50%) of liquid hydrogen. We propose a high efficient ortho-para hydrogen converter, using Cr2O3 powder as the active element contained in a continuous heat exchanger that allows the heat of conversion to be removed by the hydrogen gas flow. Ref. 1. N. S. Sullivan, D. Zhou and C. M. Edwards, Cryogenics 30, 734 (1990) # Supported by NASA Contract NAG3-2750

  14. Para-methylstyrene from toluene and acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, R.A.; Occelli, M.L.

    1984-08-01

    High yields of para-methylstyrene (PMS) were obtained in this study by coupling toluene and acetaldehyde then cracking the resultant 1,1-ditolylethane (DTE) to give equimolar amounts of PMS and toluene. In the first step, a total DTE and ''trimer'' yield of 98% on toluene and 93% on acetaldehyde was obtained using 98% sulfuric acid as catalyst at 5-10/sup 0/C. In the second step, a choline chloride-offretite cracked DTE with 84.0% conversion and 91% selectivity to PMS and toluene. Additional PMS can be obtained by cracking the by-product ''trimer'' formed by coupling DTE and toluene with acetaldehyde. Zeolite Rho was as active but yielded less PMS (86%) and produced more para-ethyltoluene (PET), an undesirable by-product.

  15. Sensitization to methylenedianiline and para-structures.

    PubMed

    Van Joost, T; Heule, F; de Boer, J

    1987-05-01

    A toxic-allergic skin reaction of the face, neck and arms due to accidental contact with methylenedianiline (syn: 4-4'-diaminodiphenylmethane) is reported in a cleaner at a chemical plant. Patch tests revealed sensitization to chemicals of the para-group. Earlier exposure to it was unlikely. Previous sensitization to related chemicals and possible cross-sensitization was considered to be the primary cause of the allergy and the clinical manifestations. PMID:3621924

  16. Dotar de precisin a exmenes de deteccin para cncer

    Cancer.gov

    Una conferencia reciente patrocinada por el NCI reuni a investigadores importantes de exmenes de deteccin y de control de cncer para tratar la situacin de la ciencia de exmenes de deteccin de precisin para cinco cnceres.

  17. Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

  18. The para radiation effects current simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuva, Bharat; Kerns, Sherra

    1992-01-01

    The Parametric Analysis of Radiation effects software development is given the general title PARA. This report describes the development of algorithms and source codes for the simulation of radiation effects on CMOS ICs. The project concentrated on the simulation of total dose effects and the ways to establish/predict the operational lifetime and radiation tolerance of ICs. The switch level simulator incorporates the capability to assign bias dependent post-irradiation drive parameters to transistors within a microcircuit and to calculate propagation delays based on those parameters. This permits test vectors to be assigned based on worst case post-irradiation propagation delays.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high. PMID:25302475

  20. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Fsica como construo humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto se ela est sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Mdio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela est sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicao de um questionrio a partir do 2 semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Fsica, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeiro Pires e Mau no estado So Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionrio nos municpios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeiro Pires e Mau, 57,4% no aplicaram nenhum tpico de astronomia, 70,2% no utilizaram laboratrio, 89,4% no utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetrios e 38,3% no indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um contedo potencialmente significativo, esta no fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto so necessrias propostas que visem estratgias para a educao continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos especficos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  1. On q-DEFORMED Para Oscillators and PARA-q Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, M. Krishna; Shanta, P.; Chaturvedi, S.; Srinivasan, V.

    Three generalized commutation relations for a single mode of the harmonic oscillator which contains para-bose and q oscillator commutation relations are constructed. These are shown to be inequivalent. The coherent states of the annihilation operator for these three cases are also constructed.

  2. New strategies maximize para-xylene production

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanneret, J.J.; Low, C.D.; Zukauskas, V. )

    1994-06-01

    Strong consumption growth and the shutdown of some capacity in 1992 have completely eliminated the surplus of para-xylene (p-xylene) capacity, which existed from 1990 to 1993. p-Xylene supplies are becoming tight and market prices have risen dramatically over the last several months, sparking considerable interest in new p-xylene production capacity. However, adding new capacity does not necessarily mean building new grassroots facilities. Additional capacity can be found'' by creative use of existing BTX (benzene, toluene and xylenes) resources. Options include: debottleneck existing units, reload with new catalysts, convert idle units to new services and diversify into new feedstocks. By making the most of existing facilities, producers can capitalize on the current upswing of the p-xylene market cycle. The paper describes this high demand chemical and how it is integrated with BTX complexes, then discusses short-, medium-, and long-term strategies for increased production.

  3. Time domain para hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Gutmann, Torsten; Dillenberger, Sonja; Abdulhussaein, Safaa; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Breitzke, Hergen; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Bernarding, Johannes; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Para hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique, which increases the NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. However the hyperpolarized signal is created as an anti-phase signal, which necessitates high magnetic field homogeneity and spectral resolution in the conventional PHIP schemes. This hampers the application of PHIP enhancement in many fields, as for example in food science, materials science or MRI, where low B(0)-fields or low B(0)-homogeneity do decrease spectral resolution, leading to potential extinction if in-phase and anti-phase hyperpolarization signals cannot be resolved. Herein, we demonstrate that the echo sequence (45-?-180-?) enables the acquisition of low resolution PHIP enhanced liquid state NMR signals of phenylpropiolic acid derivatives and phenylacetylene at a low cost low-resolution 0.54 T spectrometer. As low field TD-spectrometers are commonly used in industry or biomedicine for the relaxometry of oil-water mixtures, food, nano-particles, or other systems, we compare two variants of para-hydrogen induced polarization with data-evaluation in the time domain (TD-PHIP). In both TD-ALTADENA and the TD-PASADENA strong spin echoes could be detected under conditions when usually no anti-phase signals can be measured due to the lack of resolution. The results suggest that the time-domain detection of PHIP-enhanced signals opens up new application areas for low-field PHIP-hyperpolarization, such as non-invasive compound detection or new contrast agents and biomarkers in low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Finally, solid-state NMR calculations are presented, which show that the solid echo (90y-?-90x-?) version of the TD-ALTADENA experiment is able to convert up to 10% of the PHIP signal into visible magnetization. PMID:22365288

  4. On Lightlike Geometry of Para-Sasakian Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Acet, Bilal Eftal; K?l?, Erol

    2014-01-01

    We study lightlike hypersurfaces of para-Sasakian manifolds tangent to the characteristic vector field. In particular, we define invariant lightlike hypersurfaces and screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurfaces, respectively, and give examples. Integrability conditions for the distributions on a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface of para-Sasakian manifolds are investigated. We obtain a para-Sasakian structure on the leaves of an integrable distribution of a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface. PMID:24892072

  5. Spirocyclopropanation Reaction of para-Quinone Methides with Sulfonium Salts: The Synthesis of Spirocyclopropanyl para-Dienones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Zhi; Du, Ji-Yuan; Deng, Yu-Hua; Chu, Wen-Dao; Yan, Xu; Yu, Ke-Yin; Fan, Chun-An

    2016-03-18

    A novel DBU-mediated stereoselective spirocyclopropanation of para-quinone methides with sulfonium salts has been developed on the basis of the mode involving a 1,6-conjugate addition/intramolecular dearomatizing cyclization cascade. This reaction provides a mild and effective method for the assembly of synthetically and structurally interesting spirocyclopropanyl para-dienones. The feasibility for the enantioselective access to such functionalized para-dienones has also been explored by using the axially chiral sulfonium salt. Importantly, the regioselective ring openings of the related spirocyclopropanyl para-dienones have been achieved divergently. PMID:26892163

  6. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-15

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  7. Construction of a Para-Ortho Hydrogen Test Cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essler, J.; Haberstroh, Ch.

    2010-04-01

    In a prospective hydrogen economy it is necessary to verify the para concentration of the employed hydrogen. In case of a short storage time of about a few days only it has been shown that a partial conversion into para-hydrogen gives an optimized overall efficiency. Hence, an easy and reliable method of measuring the para-hydrogen concentration is needed. In this paper, the concept and construction of a small test cryostat are described and first results are presented. The measuring principle is based on a catalytic induced adiabatic ortho-para conversion of a hydrogen gas flow starting from a known temperature. The operation of the system only requires a certain amount of liquid nitrogen as coolant. To determine the concentration of para-hydrogen it is only necessary to measure the temperature of the gas before and after the adiabatic catalyst cell. The measuring cryostat is used for further investigation of the spontaneous para-ortho conversion in the supercritical state. In addition, the design of the cryostat allows the investigation of different catalyst materials regarding the catalytic activity and possible degradation by using a known para concentration for the measurement.

  8. Electrically charged selectivity of poly-para-xylylene deposition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Yu; Sun, Ho-Yi; Liang, Wei-Chieh; Hsu, Hung-Lun; Ho, Hsin-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ming; Chen, Hsien-Yeh

    2016-02-18

    The bottom-up patterning approach provides intrinsic advantages associated with unlimited resolution but is limited by the materials available for selection. A general and simple approach towards the selective deposition of poly-para-xylylenes is introduced in this communication. The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of poly-para-xylylenes is inhibited on the high-energy surfaces of electrically charged conducting substrates. This technology provides an approach to selectively deposit poly-para-xylylenes irrespective of the substituted functionality and to pattern these polymer thin films from the bottom up. PMID:26788557

  9. a New Equation of State for Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Solid para-H_2 is a popular accommodating host for impurity spectroscopy due to its unique softness and the spherical symmetry of para-H_2 in its J}=0 rotational level. To simulate the properties of impurity-doped solid para-H_2, a reliable model for the `soft' pure solid para-H_2 at different pressures is highly desirable. While a couple of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the equation of state (EOS) of solid para-H_2 have been reported, the calculated EOS was shown to be heavily dependent on the potential energy surface (PES) between two para-H_2 that was used in the simulations. The current study also demonstrates that different choices of the parameters governing the Quantum Monte Carlo simulation could produce different EOS curves. To obtain a reliable model for pure solid para-H_2, we used a new 1-D para-H_2 PES reported by Faruk et al. that was obtained by averaging over Hinde's highly accurate 6-D H_2--H_2 PES. The EOS of pure solid para-H_2 was calculated using the PIMC algorithm with periodic boundary conditions (PBC). To precisely determine the equilibrium density of solid para-H_2, both the value of the PIMC time step (?) and the number of particles in the PBC cell were extrapolated to convergence. The resulting EOS agreed well with experimental observations, and the hcp structured solid para-H_2 was found to be more stable than the fcc one at 4.2K, in agreement with experiment. The vibrational frequency shift of para-H_2 as a function of the density of the pure solid was also calculated, and the value of the shift at the equilibrium density is found to agree well with experiment. T. Momose, H. Honshina, M. Fushitani and H. Katsuki, Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 95(2004). M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). I. F. Silvera, Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 393(1980). F. Operetto and F. Pederiva, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184124(2006). T. Omiyinka and M. Boninsegni, Phys. Rev. B 88, 024112(2013). N. Faruk, M. Schmidt, H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 014310(2014). R. J. Hinde, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154308(2008).

  10. Vibronic spectroscopy of a nitrile/isonitrile isoelectronic pair: para-diisocyanobenzene and para-isocyanobenzonitrile.

    PubMed

    Mehta-Hurt, Deepali N; Korn, Joseph A; Gutberlet, Anna K; Zwier, Timothy S

    2015-03-26

    The ultraviolet spectroscopy of isoelectronic pair para-diisocyanobenzene (pDIB) and para-isocyanobenzonitrile (pIBN) has been studied under gas-phase, jet-cooled conditions. These molecules complete a sequence of mono and disubstituted nitrile/isonitrile benzene derivatives, enabling a comparison of the electronic effects of such substitution. Utilizing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) spectroscopy, the S0-S1 electronic origins of pDIB and pIBN have been identified at 35,566 and 35,443 cm(-1), respectively. In pDIB, the S0-S1 origin is very weak, with b(3g) fundamentals induced by vibronic coupling to the S2 state dominating the spectrum at 501 cm(-1) (?17, isocyano bend) and 650 cm(-1) (?16, ring distortion). The spectrum extends over 5000 cm(-1), remaining sharp and relatively uncongested over much of this range. Dispersed fluorescence (DFL) spectra confirm the dominating role played by vibronic coupling and identify Franck-Condon active ring modes built off the vibronically-induced bands. In pDIB, the S2 state has been tentatively observed at about 6100 cm(-1) above the S0-S1 origin. In pIBN, the S0-S1 origin is considerably stronger, but vibronic coupling still plays an important role, involving fundamentals of b2 symmetry. The bending mode of the nitrile group dominates the vibronically-induced activity. Calculations carried out at the TD-DFT B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory account for the extremely weak S0-S1 oscillator strength of pDIB and the larger intensity of the S0-S1 origins of pIBN and pDCB (para-dicyanobenzene) as nitrile groups are substituted for isonitrile groups. In pDIB, a nearly perfect cancellation of transition dipoles occurs due to two one-electron transitions that contribute nearly equally to the S0-S1 transition. The spectra of both molecules show no clear evidence of charge-transfer interactions that play such an important role in some cyanobenzene derivatives. PMID:25699407

  11. LegumeIP 2.0-a platform for the study of gene function and genome evolution in legumes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Zhuang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Patrick X

    2016-01-01

    The LegumeIP 2.0 database hosts large-scale genomics and transcriptomics data and provides integrative bioinformatics tools for the study of gene function and evolution in legumes. Our recent updates in LegumeIP 2.0 include gene and protein sequences, gene models and annotations, syntenic regions, protein families and phylogenetic trees for six legume species: Medicago truncatula, Glycine max (soybean), Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) and two outgroup reference species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Poplar trichocarpa. Moreover, the LegumeIP 2.0 features the following new data resources and bioinformatics tools: (i) an integrative gene expression atlas for four model legumes that include 550 array hybridizations from M. truncatula, 962 gene expression profiles of G. max, 276 array hybridizations from L. japonicas and 56 RNA-Seq-based gene expression profiles for C. arietinum. These datasets were manually curated and hierarchically organized based on Experimental Ontology and Plant Ontology so that users can browse, search, and retrieve data for their selected experiments. (ii) New functions/analytical tools to query, mine and visualize large-scale gene sequences, annotations and transcriptome profiles. Users may select a subset of expression experiments and visualize and compare expression profiles for multiple genes. The LegumeIP 2.0 database is freely available to the public at http://plantgrn.noble.org/LegumeIP/. PMID:26578557

  12. Characterization of the bioactive metabolites from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their exploitation as antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting agents.

    PubMed

    George, Emrin; Kumar, S Nishanth; Jacob, Jubi; Bommasani, Bhaskara; Lankalapalli, Ravi S; Morang, P; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2015-05-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial strain, PM 105, isolated from a tea plantation soil from the North Eastern region of India was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa through classical and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Further studies with this strain confirmed broad spectrum antifungal activity against ten human and plant pathogenic fungal pathogens viz. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Candida albicans, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Pencillium expansum, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichophyton rubrum besides growth-promoting property in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). However, no antibacterial property was exhibited by this strain against the four test bacterial pathogens tested in agar overlay method. The crude bioactive metabolites produced by this strain were isolated with three different solvents that exhibited significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Chloroform extract recorded significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Three major compounds viz. 1-hydroxyphenazine, pyocyanin, and phenazine-1-carboxamide were purified and characterized from crude extracts of this strain by various spectral data. The purified compounds recorded prominent antimicrobial activity but failed to establish the plant growth promotion activity in test crop plants under gnotobiotic conditions. Pyocyanin recorded significant antimicrobial activity, and best activity was recorded against T. rubrum (29 mm), followed by P. expansum (28 mm). These results suggest the use of PM 105 as plant growth-promoting agent in crop plants after successful field trials. PMID:25832181

  13. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  14. Soil Organic Matter Quality of an Oxisol Affected by Plant Residues and Crop Sequence under No-Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cora, Jose; Marcelo, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    Plant residues are considered the primarily resource for soil organic matter (SOM) formation and the amounts and properties of plant litter are important controlling factors for the SOM quality. We determined the amounts, quality and decomposition rate of plant residues and the effects of summer and winter crop sequences on soil organic C (TOC) content, both particulate organic C (POC) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) pools and humic substances in a Brazilian Rhodic Eutrudox soil under a no-tillage system. The organic C analysis in specifics pools used in this study was effective and should be adopted in tropical climates to evaluate the soil quality and the sustainability of various cropping systems. Continuous growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on summer provided higher contents of soil POC and continuous growth of maize (Zea mays L.) provided higher soil humic acid and MOC contents. Summer soybean-maize rotation provided the higher plant diversity, which likely improved the soil microbial activity and the soil organic C consumption. The winter sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) enhanced the soil MOC, a finding that is attributable to the higher N content of the crop residue. Sunn hemp and pigeon pea provided the higher soil POC content. Sunn hemp showed better performance and positive effects on the SOM quality, making it a suitable winter crop choice for tropical conditions with a warm and dry winter.

  15. Feeding and oviposition preference of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) on several crops.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lenita J; Garcia, Maria A; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B; do Amaral, Maria L B

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to study food and oviposition preference by Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) on different plant species as Cajanus cajan L. (pigeon pea), Crotalaria juncea L. (sun hemp), Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy crotalaria), Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don (slenderleaf rattlebox), Glycine max [L.] Merrill (soybean), Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton), Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower), Stizolobium aterrimum [Mucuna aterrima] Piper Tracey (velvetbean) and Zea mays L. (mayze). In no-choice experiments, the number of eggs layed in sunflower, C. juncea and soybean was larger compared to cotton. Despite the fact that the adults did not discriminate among plants, in dual-choice test, the proportion of eggs layed and leaf consumption by P. cuyabana adults in soybean were significantly higher than in C. spectabilis. The larval distribution in the soil was at random in multiple-choice, without any trend of preference, but in dual-choice, when soybean was the control, larvae always preferred to feed on its roots. P. cuyabana adults had preference for more suitable hosts and that could stand their offspring survival. This behaviour can be usefully exploited in an integrated management program for this pest. PMID:18060303

  16. Emaravirus: a novel genus of multipartite, negative strand RNA plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Mielke-Ehret, Nicole; Mühlbach, Hans-Peter

    2012-09-01

    Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (Cajanus cajan) and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV), Fig mosaic virus (FMV), rose rosette virus (RRV), raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus Emaravirus was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses. PMID:23170170

  17. Deep sequencing of pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus discloses five RNA segments related to emaraviruses.

    PubMed

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Digiaro, Michele; Uppala, Mangala; Sudini, Harikishan

    2014-08-01

    The sequences of five viral RNA segments of pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV), the agent of sterility mosaic disease (SMD) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan, Fabaceae), were determined using the deep sequencing technology. Each of the five RNAs encodes a single protein on the negative-sense strand with an open reading frame (ORF) of 6885, 1947, 927, 1086, and 1,422 nts, respectively. In order, from RNA1 to RNA5, these ORFs encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (p1, 267.9 kDa), a putative glycoprotein precursor (p2, 74.3 kDa), a putative nucleocapsid protein (p3, 34.6 kDa), a putative movement protein (p4, 40.8 kDa), while p5 (55 kDa) has an unknown function. All RNA segments of PPSMV showed the highest identity with orthologs of fig mosaic virus (FMV) and Rose rosette virus (RRV). In phylogenetic trees constructed with the amino acid sequences of p1, p2 and p3, PPSMV clustered consistently with other emaraviruses, close to clades comprising members of other genera of the family Bunyaviridae. Based on the molecular characteristics unveiled in this study and the morphological and epidemiological features similar to other emaraviruses, PPSMV seems to be the seventh species to join the list of emaraviruses known to date and accordingly, its classification in the genus Emaravirus seems now legitimate. PMID:24685674

  18. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

    2002-06-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

  19. Pigeonpea Hybrid-Proline-Rich Protein (CcHyPRP) Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Mellacheruvu, Sunitha; Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the overexpression of Cajanus cajan hybrid-proline-rich protein encoding gene (CcHyPRP) in rice which resulted in increased tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic rice lines, expressing CcHyPRP, exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity, and heat, as evidenced by increased biomass, chlorophyll content, survival rate, root, and shoot growth. Further, transgenic rice lines showed increased panicle size and grain number compared to the control plants under different stress conditions. The CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, revealed enhanced activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Expression pattern of CcHyPRP::GFP fusion-protein confirmed its predominant localization in cell walls. Moreover, the CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, exhibited increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea which causes blast disease in rice. Higher levels of bZIP and endochitinase transcripts as well as endochitinase activity were observed in transgenic rice compared to the control plants. The overall results demonstrate the intrinsic role of CcHyPRP in conferring multiple stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multipotent CcHyPRP seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants for enhanced tolerance/resistance to different stress factors. PMID:26834756

  20. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  1. [Soil microbial diversity in typical Karst peak-cluster depression under effects of different de-farming patterns].

    PubMed

    He, Xun-Yang; Su, Yi-Rong; Liang, Yue-Ming; Yang, Shan; Wang, Ke-Lin

    2010-02-01

    By using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog_Eco micro-plate technique, this paper studied the soil microbial genetic taxonomic and bacterial metabolic functional diversities under four de-farming patterns, i. e., natural restoration (NT, dominant plant species Neyraudia reynaudiana and Miscanthus floridulus), economic plantation (CM, Cajanus cajan and Castanea mollissima), zero-tillage (PI, Pennisetum purpureum and Zenia insign), and conventional tillage (MB, maize-soybean intercropping), in a typical Karst peak-cluster depression. All test de-farming patterns had significant effects on the soil microbial community structure and bacterial metabolic pattern. The community structure of soil fungi was more affected by the de-farming patterns than that of soil bacteria, while the later was more affected by seasonal variation. After 6-7 years of de-farming, soil bacterial taxonomic Shannon diversity indices had no significant differences under the four de-farming patterns, while soil fungal taxonomic Shannon diversity indices were significantly higher under CM and PI than under NT and MB. The soil bacterial metabolic functional diversity under PI was obviously lower than those under other de-farming patterns. Therefore, soil fungal genetic and bacterial metabolic diversities were more sensitive to de-farming patterns than soil bacterial genetic diversity did. Among the four de-farming patterns, economic plantation had the superiority in maintaining soil microbial genetic and bacterial metabolic functional diversities, being a better de-farming pattern. PMID:20462000

  2. Construction and pilot screening of a signature-tagged mutant library of Sinorhizobium fredii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yuan Chun; Wu, Li Juan; Liu, Jian Xin; Zhang, Pan; Jiao, Jian; Yan, Hui; Liu, Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin

    2016-03-01

    Sinorhizobium fredii is well known for its ability to establish symbiosis with diverse legumes such as Glycine max (soybean, determinate nodules) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea, indeterminate nodules). In order to make screening of S. fredii genes related to symbiosis cost-effective, we constructed a large Tn5 insertion mutant library of S. fredii CCBAU45436 using the signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) technique. This STM library contains a total of 25,500 independent mutants distributed in 17 sublibraries tagged by corresponding distinct DNA bar-code sequences. After the pilot screening of 255 mutants in 15 batches, Tag85-4, Tag4-17, Tag4-11 and Tag10-13 were found to have attenuated competitiveness (0-30 % in nodule occupation) compared to the wild-type strain when inoculated on soybean. Further characterization of these mutants suggests that Tag4-11 (a pyrC mutant) and Tag10-13 (a nrdJ mutant) are defective in establishing symbiosis with soybean. The pyrC mutant induced uninfected pseudonodules while the nrdJ mutant formed significantly more nodules containing bacteroids with poor persistence ability. When these two mutants were tested on pigeon pea, host-specific symbiotic defects were found. These results demonstrated the STM library as a valuable resource for identifying S. fredii genes relevant to symbiosis. PMID:26472206

  3. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their distribution patterns related to host-plants and habitats in a hot and arid ecosystem, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Fei; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2010-03-01

    The communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonizing the roots of Bothriochloa pertusa, Cajanus cajan and Heteropogon contortus in a fallow land (FL) and an undisturbed land (UL) were characterized. The large subunit rDNA genes of AMF from roots were amplified and cloned. A total of 2353 clones were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and 428 clones were subsequently sequenced. A total of 393 AMF sequences, which were grouped into 100 operational taxonomic units, were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the AMF sequences belonged to Glomus, Acaulospora and Scutellospora, and that Glomus was the dominant genus. Of the 393 AMF sequences, 81% were novel. The diversity of AMF colonizing the same plant species was higher in the UL than in the FL, which confirmed strongly from the molecular evidence that soil disturbance reduced AMF population and species richness. The results revealed that AMF communities were significantly different among host-plant species and between the two habitats. The similarity of AMF communities colonizing different plant species within a habitat was higher than that of the same plant species from different habitats. The molecular evidence supported our previous hypothesis based on morphological analyses that AMF communities were more influenced by habitats compared with host preference. PMID:20015335

  4. Pigeonpea Hybrid-Proline-Rich Protein (CcHyPRP) Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice.

    PubMed

    Mellacheruvu, Sunitha; Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the overexpression of Cajanus cajan hybrid-proline-rich protein encoding gene (CcHyPRP) in rice which resulted in increased tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic rice lines, expressing CcHyPRP, exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity, and heat, as evidenced by increased biomass, chlorophyll content, survival rate, root, and shoot growth. Further, transgenic rice lines showed increased panicle size and grain number compared to the control plants under different stress conditions. The CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, revealed enhanced activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Expression pattern of CcHyPRP::GFP fusion-protein confirmed its predominant localization in cell walls. Moreover, the CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, exhibited increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea which causes blast disease in rice. Higher levels of bZIP and endochitinase transcripts as well as endochitinase activity were observed in transgenic rice compared to the control plants. The overall results demonstrate the intrinsic role of CcHyPRP in conferring multiple stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multipotent CcHyPRP seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants for enhanced tolerance/resistance to different stress factors. PMID:26834756

  5. Successive Use of Non-Host Plant Proteinase Inhibitors Required for Effective Inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Gut Proteinases and Larval Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Harsulkar, Abhay M.; Giri, Ashok P.; Patankar, Aparna G.; Gupta, Vidya S.; Sainani, Mohini N.; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K.; Deshpande, Vasanti V.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the efficacy of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from three host plants (chickpea [Cicer arietinum], pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan], and cotton [Gossypium arboreum]) and three non-host (groundnut [Arachis hypogea], winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) in retarding the growth of Helicoverpa armigera larvae, a devastating pest of important crop plants. Enzyme assays and electrophoretic analysis of interaction of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGPs) with PIs revealed that non-host PIs inhibited HGP activity efficiently whereas host PIs were ineffective. In the electrophoretic assay, trypsin inhibitor activity bands were detected in all of the host and non-host plants, but HGP inhibitor activity bands were present only in non-host plants (except cotton in the host plant group). H. armigera larvae reared on a diet containing non-host PIs showed growth retardation, a reduction in total and trypsin-like proteinase activity, and the production of inhibitor-insensitive proteinases. Electrophoretic analysis of PI-induced HGP showed differential regulation of proteinase isoforms. Interestingly, HGP activity induced in response to dietary potato PI-II was inhibited by winged bean PIs. The optimized combination of potato PI-II and winged bean PIs identified in the present study and their proposed successive use has potential in developing H. armigera-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:10517841

  6. Study the effect of insecticide dimethoate on photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea: Laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jitendra Kumar; Dubey, Gunjan; Gopal, R

    2015-10-01

    Pigeon pea is one of the most important legume crops in India and dimethoate is a widely used insecticide in various crop plants. We studied the effect of dimethoate on growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants over a short and long term exposure. Plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence response of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) plants treated with various concentrations of the insecticide dimethoate (10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm) have been compared for 30 days at regular intervals of 10 days each. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra and fluorescence-induction kinetics (FIK) curve of dimethoate treated pigeon pea plants were recorded after 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment. Fluorescence intensity ratio at the two fluorescence maxima (F685/F730) was calculated by evaluating curve-fitted parameters. The variable chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (Rfd) was determined from the FIK curves. Our study revealed that after 10 days of treatment, 10 ppm of dimethoate showed stimulatory response whereas 20, 40 and 80 ppm of dimethoate showed inhibitory response for growth and photosynthetic activity of pigeon pea plants, but after 20 and 30 days of treatment all the tested concentrations of dimethoate became inhibitory. This study clearly shows that dimethoate is highly toxic to the pigeon pea plant, even at very low concentration (10 ppm), if used for a prolonged duration. Our study may thus be helpful in determining the optimal dose of dimethoate in agricultural practices. PMID:25228224

  7. Effect of soaking, cooking and germination on the oligosaccharide content of selected Nigerian legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Oboh, H A; Muzquiz, M; Burbano, C; Cuadrado, C; Pedrosa, M M; Ayet, G; Osagie, A U

    2000-01-01

    The identity and quantity of and effect of processing on raffinose oligosaccharides in raw, mature seeds of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), African yam beans (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) and jackbeans (Canavalia ensiformis) were investigated. Sucrose, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose were identified by HPLC in all the legume seeds. The total alpha-galactoside contents of the seeds in decreasing order were African yam beans 3.84 mg/100 mg; white lima beans 3.62 mg/100 mg; cream pigeon peas 3.51 mg/100 mg; red lima beans 3.37 mg/100 mg; jackbeans 2.83 mg/100 mg and brown pigeon peas 2.34 mg/100 mg. The predominant oligosaccharide was verbascose in pigeon peas and stachyose in the other three legumes. Cooking unsoaked seeds brought about a greater reduction in the total alpha-galactoside content than soaking for nine hours. The removal of oligosaccharides was higher in legumes cooked in alkaline solution than in water. Germination quantitatively reduced raffinose, stachyose and verbascose while sucrose was increased in all seeds except red lima beans and jackbeans. PMID:10898479

  8. Emaravirus: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mielke-Ehret, Nicole; Mühlbach, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (Cajanus cajan) and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV), Fig mosaic virus (FMV), rose rosette virus (RRV), raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus Emaravirus was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses. PMID:23170170

  9. Assessment of flubendiamide residues in pigeon pea in different agro-climatic zones of India.

    PubMed

    Kale, V D; Walunj, A R; Battu, R S; Sahoo, Sanjay K; Singh, Balwinder; Paramasivam, M; Roy, Sankhajit; Banerjee, Tirthankar; Banerjee, Hemanta; Rao, Cherukuri Sreenivasa; Reddy, D Jagdishwar; Reddy, K Narasimha; Reddy, C Narendra; Tripathy, Vandana; Jaya, Maisnam; Pant, Shashi; Gupta, Monika; Singh, Geeta; Sharma, K K

    2012-07-01

    Supervised field trials were conducted at the research farms of four agricultural universities located at different agro-climatic zones of India to find out the harvest time residues of flubendiamide and its des-iodo metabolite on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) during the year 2006-2007. Two spray applications of flubendiamide 20 WDG at 50 g (T(1)) and 100 g (T(2)) a.i./ha were given to the crop at 15-days interval. The foliage samples at different time intervals were drawn at only one location, however, the harvest time samples of pigeon pea grain, shell, and straw were drawn at all the four locations. The residues were estimated by HPLC coupled with UV-VIS variable detector. No residues of flubendiamide and its des-iodo metabolite were found at harvest of the crop at or above the LOQ level of 0.05 μg/g. On the basis of the data generated, a pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 28 days has been recommended and the flubendiamide 20 WDG has been registered for use on pigeon pea by Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India and the MRL has been fixed by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India under Prevention of Food and Adulteration as 0.05 μg/g on pigeon pea grains. PMID:21811770

  10. Ethnomedical study and iron content of some medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine in Cote d'Ivoire for the treatment of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Kon, W Mamidou; Koffi, A G; Bomisso, E L; Tra Bi, F H

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been a source of succour in the control of many diseases in developing countries and anaemia is no exception. In this study, ethnomedical survey was carried out for recording medicinal plants used in Northern and South-Eastern Cte d'Ivoire against anaemia. Also iron content was determined for some of the recorded plants using phenanthroline method. Thirty (30) medicinal plants, covering 28 genera and 22 families were recorded. These plants were used to prepare 30 receipts for the treatment of anaemia and aggravating factors such as malaria and gastro-intestinal helminthes. Eleven (11) of these medicinal plants showed presence of iron in various quantities. The most promising were Tectona grandis, Amaranthus spinosus and Stylosanthes erecta which contained the highest iron contents viz; 266.6, 236.6 and 206.6 mg/100 g respectively. They were followed by Hoslundia opposita, Imperata cylindrica, Cajanus cajan, Thalia geniculata and Milicia excelsa. These results lend credence to the traditional use of these plants in Cote d'Ivoire's ethnomedicine for the treatment of anaemia. PMID:23983324

  11. LegumeIP 2.0—a platform for the study of gene function and genome evolution in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Zhuang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Patrick X.

    2016-01-01

    The LegumeIP 2.0 database hosts large-scale genomics and transcriptomics data and provides integrative bioinformatics tools for the study of gene function and evolution in legumes. Our recent updates in LegumeIP 2.0 include gene and protein sequences, gene models and annotations, syntenic regions, protein families and phylogenetic trees for six legume species: Medicago truncatula, Glycine max (soybean), Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) and two outgroup reference species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Poplar trichocarpa. Moreover, the LegumeIP 2.0 features the following new data resources and bioinformatics tools: (i) an integrative gene expression atlas for four model legumes that include 550 array hybridizations from M. truncatula, 962 gene expression profiles of G. max, 276 array hybridizations from L. japonicas and 56 RNA-Seq-based gene expression profiles for C. arietinum. These datasets were manually curated and hierarchically organized based on Experimental Ontology and Plant Ontology so that users can browse, search, and retrieve data for their selected experiments. (ii) New functions/analytical tools to query, mine and visualize large-scale gene sequences, annotations and transcriptome profiles. Users may select a subset of expression experiments and visualize and compare expression profiles for multiple genes. The LegumeIP 2.0 database is freely available to the public at http://plantgrn.noble.org/LegumeIP/. PMID:26578557

  12. Successive use of non-host plant proteinase inhibitors required for effective inhibition of helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases and larval growth

    PubMed

    Harsulkar; Giri; Patankar; Gupta; Sainani; Ranjekar; Deshpande

    1999-10-01

    We report on the efficacy of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from three host plants (chickpea [Cicer arietinum], pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan], and cotton [Gossypium arboreum]) and three non-host (groundnut [Arachis hypogea], winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) in retarding the growth of Helicoverpa armigera larvae, a devastating pest of important crop plants. Enzyme assays and electrophoretic analysis of interaction of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGPs) with PIs revealed that non-host PIs inhibited HGP activity efficiently whereas host PIs were ineffective. In the electrophoretic assay, trypsin inhibitor activity bands were detected in all of the host and non-host plants, but HGP inhibitor activity bands were present only in non-host plants (except cotton in the host plant group). H. armigera larvae reared on a diet containing non-host PIs showed growth retardation, a reduction in total and trypsin-like proteinase activity, and the production of inhibitor-insensitive proteinases. Electrophoretic analysis of PI-induced HGP showed differential regulation of proteinase isoforms. Interestingly, HGP activity induced in response to dietary potato PI-II was inhibited by winged bean PIs. The optimized combination of potato PI-II and winged bean PIs identified in the present study and their proposed successive use has potential in developing H. armigera-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:10517841

  13. Cover crops and natural vegetation mulch effect achieved by mechanical management with lateral rotary mower in weed population dynamics in citrus.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Hctor Alonso San Martn; Filho, Ricardo Victoria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on practical weed management in order to reduce the use of herbicides thereby contributing to the sustainable development of citrus crop. The experiment was carried out under field conditions at the experimental area of the Department of Vegetal Production at the College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz," Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, during the season 2002-2003. Influence of mulches produced by four types of vegetations on the dynamic population of weeds in the line of citrus crop (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) was evaluated. The experimental design was of factorial randomized blocks (4 x 2), where the treatments were: (i) four types of vegetation: Dolichos lablab L., Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp, Penisetum glaucum (L.) Leeke, and the natural infestation composed basically by Panicum maximum Jacq.; and (ii) two types of fertilization: directed under canopy and broadcast. Mechanical management of the different vegetations was accomplished using a lateral rotary mower, KAMAQ, I model NINJA MAC 260, projected to release the green cut material under crop canopy, forming a mulch layer. The studied parameters were: (i) counting of weeds per m2 in the crop line after 30, 60, 90, 180, and 210 days following the cutting of existing vegetation; (ii) percentage of covered area by weeds; and (iii) some chemical properties of the soil. It was observed that the natural infestation showed a better weed control when compared with the other treatments, and that the broadcast fertilization, regardless of coverage used, presented a lower number of weeds. PMID:15656179

  14. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cncer

    Cancer.gov

    Libro sobre el control del dolor en pacientes con cncer. Cubre los mtodos y medicinas, as como los efectos fsicos y emocionales del dolor. Es una adaptacin cultural para el pblico de habla hispana del libro en ingls Pain Control.

  15. Consejos para cuando le duelan la boca o la garganta

    Cancer.gov

    Informacin para personas que estn recibiendo radioterapia y consejos sobre cmo controlar las molestias en la boca y garganta, sentirse mejor durante el tratamiento y comunicarse con su doctor o enfermera.

  16. Terapias adyuvantes y neoadyuvantes para el cncer de seno

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que explica las terapias adyuvantes (tratamiento que se administra adems de la terapia primaria para aumentar la posibilidad de supervivencia a largo plazo) y las neoadyuvantes (terapia que se administra antes de la terapia principal).

  17. Autogua para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marn, A. H.

    Se est desarrollando un sistema de autogua para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizar aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular mvil de ste se vincular alguna cmara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visin del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo ser el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarn las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a travs de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cmara de visin, luego, la PC obtendr el offset entre la estrella de observacin y la estrella seleccionada como gua, este valor ser trasladado a los motores que posicionarn en forma automtica el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cmara (monitor de PC ) se correr el programa que guiar el telescopio automticamente.

  18. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  19. Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

  20. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in neutron thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L. L.; Brun, T. O.

    1998-01-01

    The large difference in neutron scattering cross-section at low neutron energies between ortho- and para-hydrogen was recognized early on. In view of this difference (more than an order of magnitude), one might legitimately ask whether the ortho/para ratio has a significant effect on the neutron thermalization properties of a cold hydrogen moderator. Several experiments performed in the 60`s and early 70`s with a variety of source and (liquid hydrogen) moderator configurations attempted to investigate this. The results tend to show that the ortho/para ratio does indeed have an effect on the energy spectrum of the neutron beam produced. Unfortunately, the results are not always consistent with each other and much unknown territory remains to be explored. The problem has been approached from a computational standpoint, but these isolated efforts are far from having examined the ortho/para-hydrogen problem in neutron moderation in all its complexity. Because of space limitations, the authors cannot cover, even briefly, all the aspects of the ortho/para question here. This paper will summarize experiments meant to investigate the effect of the ortho/para ratio on the neutron energy spectrum produced by liquid hydrogen moderators.

  1. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  2. El diseo final del espectrgrafo de banco (EBASIM) para CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, J.; Levato, H.

    Utilizando el cdigo de ptica ACCOS V se ha finalizado el diseo del espectrgrafo de banco para CASLEO. En una comunicacin anterior habamos indicado que utilizaramos un colimador de 150 mm de dimetro con un radio de curvatura de 1540 mm. Para el espejo cmara, que tiene un dimetro de 200 mm, el radio de curvatura es de 1200 mm, ambos radios con una tolerancia no mayor a los 3 mm. En la presente, se informa sobre los detalles finales del clculo del espectrgrafo que incluye el cmputo para 5 longitudes de onda diferentes y alrededor de 100 rayos. En todos los casos el 75 % de energa est dentro de un dimetro de 13 micrones. El diseo ha sido probado entre 3500 hasta 9000 con resultados satisfactorios.

  3. Astronomia para/com crianas carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Cincias Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatrio do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoo Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituio mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianas e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivncia Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criana e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianas e adolescentes em Centros Comunitrios de diversas reas da cidade. Esses projetos tm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianas no sentido de retir-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianas passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatrio. Este painel descreve as vrias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reunies de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianas ao Observatrio, proposta de construo de gnmons e relgios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitrios de Limeira e divulgao do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discusses sobre a aprendizagem de crianas carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinncia do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatrio e o que o nmero de crianas atendidas representou para as atividades da instituio desde o incio de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados so baseados na anlise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatrio, registros de visitas e matrias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliao do que tal projeto representou para as Instituies participantes. Para o Observatrio, em particular, foi feita uma anlise com relao s outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e pblico em geral. Tambm abordada a questo do compromisso social do Observatrio na educao do pblico em questo.

  4. "Espanol para ti": A Video Program That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Elena; Johnson, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of "Espanol para ti," a video program for teaching Spanish at the elementary school level. The program was designed for use in Clark County, Nevada elementary schools and is taught by a certified Spanish teacher via video twice a week, utilizing comprehensible input through visuals, games, and songs that are conducive to

  5. Linfoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del linfoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Mesotelioma maligno—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y las causas del mesotelioma maligno, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  7. Retinoblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del retinoblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Fatiga (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  9. Mensaje para alumnos y padres - Duration: 3 minutes, 1 second.

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  10. Neuroblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  11. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James P; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  12. "Espanol para ti": A Video Program That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Elena; Johnson, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of "Espanol para ti," a video program for teaching Spanish at the elementary school level. The program was designed for use in Clark County, Nevada elementary schools and is taught by a certified Spanish teacher via video twice a week, utilizing comprehensible input through visuals, games, and songs that are conducive to…

  13. Leucemia—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la leucemia, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  15. Delirio (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  16. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PARA-NONYLPHENOL TO SALTWATER ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...

  17. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  18. Melhoramentos no cdigo Wilson-Devinney para binrias eclipsantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A anlise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binrios eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vrios modelos. Um desses o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu vrias alteraes em seus cdigos principais, com a finalidade de torn-lo mais consistente tanto fisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de vrias maneiras em seus dois cdigos: um para a predio das curvas de luz terica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as solues destas curvas. Teoricamente, na fsica do modelo, ns introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, ns introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Mtodo SIMPLEX no procedimento da soluo, como uma alternativa para o j implementado Mtodo de Mnimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificaes, juntamente com outras j introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o cdigo mais eficiente na soluo das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binrias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pr-sequncia principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiar estes casos tambm. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificao do cdigo WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parmetros orbitais calculados por ns so coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Gimnez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementao do Mtodo SIMPLEX torna o cdigo mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Mtodo de Mnimos Quadrados, tais como impreciso no clculo das derivadas parciais e convergncia para mnimos locais.

  19. Induction of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) like activity with wounding and methyl jasmonate in pigeonpea (Cajanas cajan) suggests the role of these enzymes in plant defense in leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Lomate, Purushottam R; Hivrale, Vandana K

    2011-06-01

    Aminopeptidases are ubiquitous in nature and their activities have been identified in several plant species. Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are predominantly studied in solanaceous plants and are induced in response to wounding, herbivory and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The functions of plant aminopeptidases are still under discussion and it is likely that the different classes play various roles. In the present study we report the local and systemic induction of LAP-like activity upon mechanical wounding and MeJA treatment. Two proteins with LAP-like activity were detected in pigeonpea leaves. They were designated as AP1 and AP2. AP1 activity was significantly induced upon wounding and application of MeJA. The estimated molecular masses of AP1 and AP2 were ? 60 and 41 kDa respectively in SDS-PAGE. The pH optimum for LAP-like activity in control leaf extracts was found to be neutral (pH 7.0) however the enzymes showed highest activity at alkaline pH (pH 9.0) in the leaf extracts of treated plants. The temperature optimum for LAP-like activity was around 40-50 C. The enzymes were strongly inhibited by 1, 10 phenanthroline and bestatin. Heavy metal ions and EDTA inhibited LAP-like activities, whereas Mn(+2) and Mg(+2) activated the enzyme activities. Beside LpNA (33.5 U/mg/min) pigeonpea LAP-like enzymes also cleaved ApNA (15 U/mg/min) but were unable to cleave VpNA. Total proteolytic activity was also observed to be induced in treated plants. LAP-like activity was increased upto 19.5 fold after gel filtration chromatography. Results suggest that these enzymes may have functional defensive role in pigeonpea. PMID:21420308

  20. On Linear Differential Equations Involving a Para-Grassmann Variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Toufik; Schork, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    As a first step towards a theory of differential equations involving para-Grassmann variables the linear equations with constant coefficients are discussed and solutions for equations of low order are given explicitly. A connection to n-generalized Fibonacci numbers is established. Several other classes of differential equations (systems of first order, equations with variable coefficients, nonlinear equations) are also considered and the analogies or differences to the usual (''bosonic'') differential equations discussed.

  1. ParaGlide: interactive parameter space partitioning for computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Steven; Sedlmair, Michael; Mller, Torsten; Abdolyousefi, Sareh Nabi; Saad, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce ParaGlide, a visualization system designed for interactive exploration of parameter spaces of multidimensional simulation models. To get the right parameter configuration, model developers frequently have to go back and forth between setting input parameters and qualitatively judging the outcomes of their model. Current state-of-the-art tools and practices, however, fail to provide a systematic way of exploring these parameter spaces, making informed decisions about parameter configurations a tedious and workload-intensive task. ParaGlide endeavors to overcome this shortcoming by guiding data generation using a region-based user interface for parameter sampling and then dividing the model's input parameter space into partitions that represent distinct output behavior. In particular, we found that parameter space partitioning can help model developers to better understand qualitative differences among possibly high-dimensional model outputs. Further, it provides information on parameter sensitivity and facilitates comparison of models. We developed ParaGlide in close collaboration with experts from three different domains, who all were involved in developing new models for their domain. We first analyzed current practices of six domain experts and derived a set of tasks and design requirements, then engaged in a user-centered design process, and finally conducted three longitudinal in-depth case studies underlining the usefulness of our approach. PMID:23846095

  2. Base de linhas moleculares para sntese espectral estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

    2003-08-01

    A anlise das abundncias qu micas fotosfricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, atravs do clculo terico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resoluo e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atmicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrnicos de algumas molculas diatmicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construo de uma base de linhas moleculares para a s ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinaes dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das foras de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrnicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalizao. Usamos as foras de oscilador eletrnicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com xito, as absores espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrnicas-vibracionais das espcies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referncia como o Sol e Arcturus.

  3. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly. PMID:24976614

  4. Creating and managing lookmarks in ParaView.

    SciTech Connect

    Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.; Stanton, Eric T.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes the integration of lookmarks into the ParaView visualization tool. Lookmarks are pointers to views of specific parts of a dataset. They were so named because lookmarks are to a visualization tool and dataset as bookmarks are to a browser and the World Wide Web. A lookmark can be saved and organized among other lookmarks within the context of ParaView. Then at a later time, either in the same ParaView session or in a different one, it can be regenerated, displaying the exact view of the data that had previously been saved. This allows the user to pick up where they left off, to continue to adjust the view or otherwise manipulate the data. Lookmarks facilitate collaboration between users who wish to share views of a dataset. They enable more effective data comparison because they can be applied to other datasets. They also serve as a way of organizing a user's data. Ultimately, a lookmark is a time-saving tool that automates the recreation of a complex view of the data.

  5. Electronic structure of the para-benzoquinone radical anion revisited.

    PubMed

    Kunitsa, Alexander A; Bravaya, Ksenia B

    2016-01-27

    Photoinduced dynamics of the para-benzoquinone anion features a subtle interplay between autodetachment and non-adiabatic transitions involving a dense manifold of resonances. We report the results of a multistate multireference perturbation theory study of the electronic structure of the para-benzoquinone anion in the ground, several low-lying excited electronic states, and in the lowest electron-detached state (the ground state of the neutral molecule). The electronic structure calculations revealed non-planar equilibrium geometry of the (2)Au excited state of the anion, but the effects of non-planarity on the shape of the absorption spectrum are found to be minor. Despite the large differences in the vertical excitation energies for the two lowest bright excited states, (2)Au (2.55 eV) and (2)B3u (2.93 eV), the simulated absorption spectra significantly overlap for the photon energies below 2.7 eV. Relevant minimum energy crossing points have been located using the CASSCF method. Excited-state deactivation channels are discussed in the context of accurate energetics and recent spectroscopic studies of the para-benzoquinone anion. PMID:26750380

  6. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  7. Un vistazo al auge de la ciruga robtica para el cncer de prstata

    Cancer.gov

    El uso de la ciruga robtica para el cncer de prstata ha aumentado en forma acelerada. Lo que esta tendencia significa para los pacientes y el sistema de salud todava sigue siendo objeto de estudio y debate.

  8. Laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy with para-aortic lymphadenectomy after palliative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with isolated para-aortic lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sang-Yong; Lee, Chang Min; Lee, Ju-Hee; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Jin Won; Lee, Kuhn-Uk; Park, Do Joong

    2013-01-01

    Prophylactic para-aortic lymphadenectomy is not recommended in curable advanced gastric cancer. However, there are few reports on therapeutic para-aortic lymphadenectomy after palliative chemotherapy in far advanced gastric cancer. We report three cases of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy with para-aortic lymphadenectomy after palliative chemotherapy for the first time in Korea. Three gastric cancer patients with isolated para-aortic lymph node (PAN) metastasis showed partial response to capecitabine-based chemotherapy, and laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy with para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed with curative intent. The mean total operation time was 365 minutes (range, 310 to 415 minutes), and the mean estimated blood loss was 158 mL (range, 125 to 200 mL). The mean number of retrieved PAN was 9 (range, 8 to 11), and all pathologic results showed no metastasis of para-aortic region. All patients recovered and were discharged without any significant complications. PMID:23646317

  9. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  10. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

  11. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  12. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  13. Ortho-to-para ratio of interstellar heavy water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastel, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caux, E.; Coutens, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Bottinelli, S.; Demyk, K.; Faure, A.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Scribano, Y.; Bacmann, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Maret, S.; Walters, A.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G. A.; Castets, A.; Crimier, N.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Gérin, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Kahane, C.; Klotz, A.; Melnick, G.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Wakelam, V.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Benedettini, M.; Boogert, A.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Comito, C.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Helmich, F.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Jacq, T.; Kama, M.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, X.; van der Tak, F.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Viti, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Cais, P.; Krieg, J. M.; Olberg, M.; Ravera, L.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Despite the low elemental deuterium abundance in the Galaxy, enhanced molecular D/H ratios have been found in the environments of low-mass star-forming regions, and in particular the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Aims: The CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) key program aims to study the molecular complexity of the interstellar medium. The high sensitivity and spectral resolution of the Herschel/HIFI instrument provide a unique opportunity to observe the fundamental 11,1-00,0 transition of the ortho-D2O molecule, which is inaccessible from the ground, and determine the ortho-to-para D2O ratio. Methods: We detected the fundamental transition of the ortho-D2O molecule at 607.35 GHz towards IRAS 16293-2422. The line is seen in absorption with a line opacity of 0.62 ± 0.11 (1σ). From the previous ground-based observations of the fundamental 11,0-10,1 transition of para-D2O seen in absorption at 316.80 GHz, we estimate a line opacity of 0.26 ± 0.05 (1σ). Results: We show that the observed absorption is caused by the cold gas in the envelope of the protostar. Using these new observations, we estimate for the first time the ortho-to-para D2O ratio to be lower than 2.6 at a 3σ level of uncertainty, which should be compared with the thermal equilibrium value of 2:1. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize andmore » enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between selected wells, simplified volumetric calculations, global vertical exaggeration adjustments, ingestion of UTChem simulation results, ingestion of Isatis geostatistical framework models, interrogation of joint geologic and reservoir modeling results, joint visualization and analysis of well history files, location-targeted visualization, advanced correlation analysis, visualization of flow paths, and creation of static images and animations highlighting targeted reservoir features.« less

  15. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between selected wells, simplified volumetric calculations, global vertical exaggeration adjustments, ingestion of UTChem simulation results, ingestion of Isatis geostatistical framework models, interrogation of joint geologic and reservoir modeling results, joint visualization and analysis of well history files, location-targeted visualization, advanced correlation analysis, visualization of flow paths, and creation of static images and animations highlighting targeted reservoir features.

  16. Ortho-Para Selection Rules in the Gas-phase Chemistry of Interstellar Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.; Pineau des Forts, G.

    2013-06-01

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH3 were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the "anomalous" ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia (~0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H2 gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of ~2.3 for NH2. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H2 naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  17. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  18. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  19. The infrared dielectric function of solid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettwich, Sharon C.; Anderson, David T.; Walker, Mark A.; Tuntsov, Artem V.

    2015-06-01

    We report laboratory measurements of the absorption coefficient of solid para-H2, within the wavelength range from 1 to 16.7 ?m, at high spectral resolution. In addition to the narrow rovibrational lines of H2 which are familiar from gas-phase spectroscopy, the data manifest double transitions and broad phonon branches that are characteristic specifically of hydrogen in the solid phase. These transitions are of interest because they provide a spectral signature which is independent of the impurity content of the matrix. We have used our data, in combination with a model of the ultraviolet absorptions of the H2 molecule, to construct the dielectric function of solid para-H2 over a broad range of frequencies. Our results will be useful in determining the electromagnetic response of small particles of solid hydrogen. The dielectric function makes it clear that pure H2 dust would contribute to infrared (IR) extinction predominantly by scattering starlight, rather than absorbing it, and the characteristic IR absorption spectrum of the hydrogen matrix itself will be difficult to observe.

  20. Sensitivity to para-phenylenediamine and intolerance to hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Zapolanski, Tamar; Chayavichitsilp, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a contact allergen that cross-reacts with a variety of medications, including thiazide diuretics and sulfonamides. We present the case of a 52-year-old African American atopic woman who came for evaluation of a severe eyelid dermatitis and recurrent outbreaks of acneiform (follicular-based) pruritic papules on her face, chest, and back. These symptoms presented after the patient was started on hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension. The patient also reported a history of eyelid dermatitis associated with "black hair dye." Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to para-phenylenediamine (1+) and Disperse Blue 106 (1+). It was suspected that the patient might be demonstrating cross-reactivity to hydrochlorothiazide and a flare-up reaction of the eyelid dermatitis. After her cardiologist changed her blood pressure medication, the patient's eyelid dermatitis and eruption cleared. This case highlights the impact of PPD sensitization on the medical care of a patient with hypertension and the importance of choosing safer PPD-free alternatives and minimizing PPD exposures. PMID:19134428

  1. Laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection for patients with primary colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung Ho; Park, Soo Yeun; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Chun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Treatment of patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer is controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility of laparoscopic intrarenal para-aortic lymph node dissection in patients with colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph node dissection. Methods The inclusion criteria for the laparoscopic approach were patients with infrarenal para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer. Patients who had any other distant metastatic lesion or metachronous para-aortic lymph node metastasis were excluded from this study. Perioperative outcomes and survival outcomes were analyzed. Results Between November 2004 and October 2013, 40 patients underwent laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection. The mean operating time was 192.3 ± 68.8 minutes (range, 100-400 minutes) and the mean estimated blood loss was 65.6 ± 52.6 mL (range, 20-210 mL). No patient required open conversion. The postoperative complication rate was 15.0%. Sixteen patients (40.0%) had pathologically positive lymph nodes. In patients with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes, the 3-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 65.7% and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that a laparoscopic approach for patients with colorectal cancer with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes can be a reasonable option for selected patients. PMID:26793690

  2. Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI anuncia becas de investigación para tecnologías portátiles

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI (CGH) anunció el otorgamiento de subvenciones que apoyarán el desarrollo y la validación de tecnologías portátiles y de bajo costo para mejorar la detección temprana, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del cáncer.

  3. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radimetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las caractersticas ms importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolucin (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contnuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna tcnica de sntesis digital directa. Por ltimo, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisicin de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la seleccin de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  4. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  5. Proyecto para la medicin sistemtica de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronmico es ciertamente uno de los parmetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeracin del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consisti en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propsito y la adquisicin de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  6. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  7. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  8. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  9. Features of the ancestral bilaterian inferred from Platynereis dumerilii ParaHox genes

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Jerome HL; Raible, Florian; Korchagina, Natalia; Dray, Nicolas; Samain, Sylvie; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Jubin, Claire; Segurens, Béatrice; Balavoine, Guillaume; Arendt, Detlev; Ferrier, David EK

    2009-01-01

    Background The ParaHox gene cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Whilst the role of the Hox cluster in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals is well established, and the organisation of vertebrate Hox clusters is intimately linked to gene regulation, much less is known about the more recently discovered ParaHox cluster. ParaHox gene clustering, and its relationship to expression, has only been described in deuterostomes. Conventional protostome models (Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans) are secondarily derived with respect to ParaHox genes, suffering gene loss and cluster break-up. Results We provide the first evidence for ParaHox gene clustering from a less-derived protostome animal, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii. Clustering of these genes is thus not a sole preserve of the deuterostome lineage within Bilateria. This protostome ParaHox cluster is not entirely intact however, with Pdu-Cdx being on the opposite end of the same chromosome arm from Pdu-Gsx and Pdu-Xlox. From the genomic sequence around the P. dumerilii ParaHox genes the neighbouring genes are identified, compared with other taxa, and the ancestral arrangement deduced. Conclusion We relate the organisation of the ParaHox genes to their expression, and from comparisons with other taxa hypothesise that a relatively complex pattern of ParaHox gene expression existed in the protostome-deuterostome ancestor, which was secondarily simplified along several invertebrate lineages. Detailed comparisons of the gene content around the ParaHox genes enables the reconstruction of the genome surrounding the ParaHox cluster of the protostome-deuterostome ancestor, which existed over 550 million years ago. PMID:19627570

  10. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production

    PubMed Central

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  11. Genotypic variability in physiological, biomass and yield response to drought stressin pigeonpea.

    PubMed

    Vanaja, M; Maheswari, M; Sathish, P; Vagheera, P; Jyothi Lakshmi, N; Vijay Kumar, G; Yadav, S K; Razzaq, Abdul; Singh, Jainender; Sarkar, B

    2015-10-01

    Three pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) genotypes- GT-1, AKP-1 and PRG-158 with varying crop duration, growth habit and flowering pattern were evaluated for variability in their response for drought stress. Drought stress was imposed at initiation of flowering and the observations on biomass and seed yield parameters were recorded at harvest. The magnitude of response of individual component to drought stress was found to be genotype specific. Drought stress significantly decreased photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration rate (Tr) and relative water content (RWC) in all the genotypes, however the magnitude of reduction differed with genotype. With drought stress, the reduction of PN was highest in GT-1 while reduction in Tr was highest inPRG-158. The genotype AKP-1, accumulated significantly higher concentrations of osmotic solutes especially proline under water deficit stress, this facilitated it to maintain higher relative water content (RWC) and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content as compared to other genotypes. Drought stress also impacted biomass production and their partitioning to vegetative and reproductive components at harvest. There was significant variability between the genotypes for seed yield under drought stress while it was non-significant under well-watered condition. Drought stress enhanced flower drop and decreased flower to pod conversion resulting in reduced pod number and seed number in PRG-158 and GT-1. The genotype AKP-1 recorded superior performance for seed yield under stress environment due to its ability in maintaining pod and seed number as well as improved test weight (100 seed weight). Under drought stress, significant positive association of seed yield with proline, seed number, pod number and test weight clearly indicating their role in drought tolerance. PMID:26600680

  12. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  13. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    PubMed

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-Andr

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  14. Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Meale, S. J.; Chaves, A. V.; Baah, J.; McAllister, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

  15. Legume genomics: understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approx. 17 000 species. A few of these species, including, but not limited to, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing protein for approx. 300 million people worldwide. Additional species, including soybean (Glycine max) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), are important crops utilized mainly in animal feed. In addition, legumes are important contributors to biological nitrogen, forming symbiotic relationships with rhizobia to fix atmospheric N2 and providing up to 30 % of available nitrogen for the next season of crops. The application of high-throughput genomic technologies including genome sequencing projects, genome re-sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) by the legume research community has provided major insights into genome evolution, genomic architecture and domestication. Scope and Conclusions This review presents an overview of the current state of legume genomics and explores the role that next-generation sequencing technologies play in advancing legume genomics. The adoption of next-generation sequencing and implementation of associated bioinformatic tools has allowed researchers to turn each species of interest into their own model organism. To illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing, an in-depth overview of the transcriptomes of both soybean and white lupin (Lupinus albus) is provided. The soybean transcriptome focuses on analysing seed development in two near-isogenic lines, examining the role of transporters, oil biosynthesis and nitrogen utilization. The white lupin transcriptome analysis examines how phosphate deficiency alters gene expression patterns, inducing the formation of cluster roots. Such studies illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in elucidating the gene networks underlying biological processes. PMID:24769535

  16. Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; Baah, J; McAllister, T A

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall's buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

  17. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

  18. The first draft of the pigeonpea genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nagendra K; Gupta, Deepak K; Jayaswal, Pawan K; Mahato, Ajay K; Dutta, Sutapa; Singh, Sangeeta; Bhutani, Shefali; Dogra, Vivek; Singh, Bikram P; Kumawat, Giriraj; Pal, Jitendra K; Pandit, Awadhesh; Singh, Archana; Rawal, Hukum; Kumar, Akhilesh; Rama Prashat, G; Khare, Ambika; Yadav, Rekha; Raje, Ranjit S; Singh, Mahendra N; Datta, Subhojit; Fakrudin, Bashasab; Wanjari, Keshav B; Kansal, Rekha; Dash, Prasanta K; Jain, Pradeep K; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan; Gaikwad, Kishor; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Srinivasan, R; Sharma, Tilak R

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an important grain legume of the Indian subcontinent, South-East Asia and East Africa. More than eighty five percent of the world pigeonpea is produced and consumed in India where it is a key crop for food and nutritional security of the people. Here we present the first draft of the genome sequence of a popular pigeonpea variety 'Asha'. The genome was assembled using long sequence reads of 454 GS-FLX sequencing chemistry with mean read lengths of >550bp and >10-fold genome coverage, resulting in 510,809,477bp of high quality sequence. Total 47,004 protein coding genes and 12,511 transposable elements related genes were predicted. We identified 1,213 disease resistance/defense response genes and 152 abiotic stress tolerance genes in the pigeonpea genome that make it a hardy crop. In comparison to soybean, pigeonpea has relatively fewer number of genes for lipid biosynthesis and larger number of genes for cellulose synthesis. The sequence contigs were arranged in to 59,681 scaffolds, which were anchored to eleven chromosomes of pigeonpea with 347 genic-SNP markers of an intra-species reference genetic map. Eleven pigeonpea chromosomes showed low but significant synteny with the twenty chromosomes of soybean. The genome sequence was used to identify large number of hypervariable 'Arhar' simple sequence repeat (HASSR) markers, 437 of which were experimentally validated for PCR amplification and high rate of polymorphism among pigeonpea varieties. These markers will be useful for fingerprinting and diversity analysis of pigeonpea germplasm and molecular breeding applications. This is the first plant genome sequence completed entirely through a network of Indian institutions led by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and provides a valuable resource for the pigeonpea variety improvement. PMID:24431589

  19. Behavioral and developmental effects of neem extracts on Clavigralla scutellaris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae) and its egg parasitoid, Gryon fulviventre (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Paula Levin; Gupta, Reetika; Singh, Ashok K; Kumar, Pradyumn

    2004-06-01

    Extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, negatively affected feeding and development of Clavigralla scutellaris (Westwood), a coreid pest of pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh. Labial dabbing, pod wall penetration, and seed damage by fifth instars were significantly reduced on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), that had been dipped in aqueous, methanolic, or hexane extracts of neem seed kernel. When fourth instars were dipped directly into aqueous extract, developmental abnormalities of the wings occurred at all levels tested and fecundity dropped to zero at concentrations above 0.3125%. The LC50 value was 3.14% (220 ppm azadirachtin) at 8 d. The scelionid wasp Gryon fulviventre (Crawford) is an important natural enemy of Clavigralla spp.; egg mortality from this parasitoid ranged from 37 to 85% during the fall cropping season. Feeding by newly emerged wasps was dramatically reduced when honey was mixed with aqueous neem suspension, but 6-d survivorship of adults did not differ significantly from that of the control. Wasp oviposition behavior was altered slightly when coreid eggs were treated with neem: the period of antennation was significantly extended, but time for drilling, oviposition, and marking was unaffected. Neem-dipped eggs were accepted for oviposition and progeny emerged successfully from these treated eggs. Exposure of already parasitized eggs to neem did not interfere with progeny emergence, longevity, or sex ratio. Thus, neem extract and egg parasitoids seem to be compatible and promising control strategies for C. scutellaris. Our results suggest that use of neem against pod-sucking bugs will not interfere with natural control provided by G. fulviventre. PMID:15279272

  20. Activity of the antiestrogenic cajanin stilbene acid towards breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yujie; Kadioglu, Onat; Wiench, Benjamin; Wei, Zuofu; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Yang, Xiaohe; Gu, Chengbo; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Antiestrogenic therapy is a mainstay for estrogen receptor (ERα)-positive breast cancer. Due to the development of resistance to established antihormones such as tamoxifen, novel compounds are required. The low abundant cajanin stilbene acid (CSA) recently isolated by us from Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) has structural similarities with estrogen. We analyzed the cytotoxic and anticancer activity of CSA in ERα-positive and -negative human breast cancer cells in vitro, in vivo and in silico. CSA exerts anticancer and antiestrogenic activities towards ERα-positive breast cancer, and it showed cytotoxicity towards tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cells, implying that CSA may be active against tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. CSA showed low cytotoxicity in ERα-negative breast tumor cells as expected. Comparable cytotoxicity was observed towards p53 negative MCF-7 cells, implying that CSA is effective independent of the p53 status. Xenografted MCF-7 cells in nude mice were better inhibited by CSA than by cyclophosphamide. Testing of 8 primary cell cultures derived from human breast cancer biopsies showed that cell cultures from ER-positive tumors were more sensitive than from ER-negative ones. Dose-dependent decrease in ERα protein levels was observed upon CSA treatment. Synergistic effect with tamoxifen was observed in terms of increased p53 protein level. CSA affected pathways related to p53, cancer and cell proliferation. Gene promoter analyses supported the ERα regulation. CSA bound to the same site as 17β-estradiol and tamoxifen on ERα. In conclusion, CSA exerts its anticancer effects in ERα-positive breast cancer cells by binding and inhibiting ERα. PMID:26365581

  1. Genotypic characterization of phage-typed indigenous soybean bradyrhizobia and their host range symbiotic effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sanjay Kumar; Anand, Akhil; Dhar, Banshi; Vaishampayan, Akhouri

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of genetic diversity among indigenous rhizobia and its symbiotic effectiveness with soybean cultivar is important for development of knowledge about rhizobial ecology. In India, little is known about the genetic resources and diversity of rhizobia nodulating soybean. Indigenous bradyrhizobia isolated from root nodules of soybean plants, collected from traditional cultivating regions of two states (Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh) of India, were screened for bacteriophage sensitivity to identify successful broad host range symbiotic effectivity. Of 172 rhizobial isolates, 91 showed sensitivities to eight lytic phages and form ten groups on the basis of sensitivity patterns. The genetic diversity of 23 isolates belonging to different phage groups was assessed along with that of strains USDA123 and USDA94 by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rDNA, intergenic spacer (IGS) (16S-23S rDNA), and DnaK regions. RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA formed 5 groups, whereas 19 and 9 groups were revealed by IGS and the DnaK genes, respectively. The IGS regions showed many amplified polymorphic bands. Nine isolates which revealed high RFLP polymorphism in the abovementioned regions (16S rRNA, IGS, DnaK) were used for 16S rRNA sequence analyses. The results indicate that taxonomically, all isolates were related to Rhizobium etli, Bradyrhizobium spp., and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense. The doubling time of isolates varied from 9h (MPSR155) to 16.2h (MPSR068) in YM broth. Five isolates which did not show cross infectivity with isolated phage strains were studied for symbiotic efficiency. All isolates showed broad host range symbiotic effectiveness forming effective nodules on Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Vigna unguiculata, and Cajanus cajan. The present study provides information on genetic diversity and host range symbiosis of indigenous soybean rhizobia typed by different phages. PMID:21984348

  2. Deep sequencing of dsRNAs recovered from mosaic-diseased pigeonpea reveals the presence of a novel emaravirus: pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2.

    PubMed

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Digiaro, Michele; Uppala, Mangala; Sudini, Harikishan

    2015-08-01

    Deep-sequencing analysis of double-stranded RNA extracted from a mosaic-diseased pigeonpea plant (Cajanus cajan L., family Fabaceae) revealed the complete sequence of six emaravirus-like negative-sense RNA segments of 7009, 2229, 1335, 1491, 1833 and 1194 nucleotides in size. In the order from RNA1 to RNA6, these genomic RNAs contained ORFs coding for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, p1 of 266 kDa), the glycoprotein precursor (GP, p2 of 74.5 kDa), the nucleocapsid (NC, p3 of 34.9 kDa), and the putative movement protein (MP, p4 of 40.7 kDa), while p5 (55 kDa) and p6 (27 kDa) had unknown functions. All RNA segments showed distant relationships to viruses of the genus Emaravirus, and in particular to pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV), with which they shared nucleotide sequence identity ranging from 48.5 % (RNA3) to 62.5 % (RNA1). In phylogenetic trees constructed from the sequences of the proteins encoded by RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3 (p1, p2 and p3), this new viral entity showed a consistent grouping with fig mosaic virus (FMV) and rose rosette virus (RRV), which formed a cluster of their own, clearly distinct from PPSMV-1. In experimental greenhouse trials, this novel virus was successfully transmitted to pigeonpea and French bean seedlings by the eriophyid mite Aceria cajani. Preliminary surveys conducted in the Hyderabad region (India) showed that the virus in question is widespread in pigeonpea plants affected by sterility mosaic disease (86.4 %) but is absent in symptomless plants. Based on molecular, biological and epidemiological features, this novel virus is the second emaravirus infecting pigeonpea, for which the provisional name pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2 (PPSMV-2) is proposed. PMID:26060057

  3. Cajaninstilbene acid protects corticosterone-induced injury in PC12 cells by inhibiting oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yamin; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Zongyang; Jiang, Yumao; Si, Jianyong; Chang, Qi; Liu, Xinmin; Pan, Ruile

    2014-12-01

    It has been reported that high corticosterone level could damage the normal hippocampal neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, high concentration of corticosterone induced impair in PC12 cells has been widely used as in vitro model to screen neuroprotective agents. Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA), a natural stilbene isolated from Cajanus cajan leaves, has various activities. In present study, we investigated the effect of CSA on corticosterone-induced cell apoptosis and explored its possible signaling pathways in PC12 cells. We demonstrated that pretreatment with CSA at the concentrations of 1-8 ?mol/L remarkably reduced the cytotoxicity induced by 200 ?mol/L of corticosterone in PC12 cells by MTT, and further confirmed the neuroprotection by Hoechst 33342 and PI double staining and lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH) assay at the concentration of 8 ?mol/L. Moreover, the cytoprotection of CSA was proved to be associated with the homeostasis of intracellular Ca(2+), relieving corticosterone-induced oxidative stress by decreasing the contents of ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA), increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the stabilization of ER stress via down-regulating the expression of ER chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), ER stress associated transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP/GADD153), and the X box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), as well as the expression of ER stress-specific protein caspase-12 and its downstream protein caspase-9. Considering all the findings, it is suggested that the neuroprotective activity of CSA against the impairment induced by corticosterone in PC12 cells was through the inhibition of oxidative stress and ER stress-mediated pathway. PMID:25193317

  4. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M; Saxena, Deep R; Jain, Yogendra K

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  5. Preliminary evaluation of hepatoprotective potential of the polyherbal formulation

    PubMed Central

    Arka, Ghosh; Anindita, Kundu; Ankit, Seth; Kumar, Singh Anil; Kumar, Maurya Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the polyherbal formulation (PHF)containing Cajanus cajan (L.)Millsp., Lawsonia inermis L. Linn, Mimosa pudica L., Uraria picta (Jacq.)DC. and Operculina turpethum (L.)Silva Manso on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)induced acute liver damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The groups of animals were administered with PHF at the doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. (per oral [p.o.])once in a day for 7 days and at day 6th and 7th the animals were administrated with Carbon tetrachloride (1.0 mL/kg b.w. 50% v/v with olive oil,; p.o.). The effect of PHF on serum glutamine pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamine oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)and total bilirubin were determined in CCl4 - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Further, the effects of PHF on glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD)level and lipid peroxidation (LPO)activity were also investigated. Results: The results demonstrated that PHF (400 mg/kg b.w.)significantly reduces the CCl4 induced increase in level of serum SGPT, serum ALP and total bilirubin. PHF (400 mg/kg b.w.)prevents the depletion level of GSH and decrease in the activity of SOD in CCl4 -induced liver injury in rats. In addition, PHF also showed a significant decrease in the LPO levels signifying the potent antioxidant activity. Conclusion: All our findings suggest that PHF could protect the liver cells from CCl4 - induced liver damages and the mechanism may be through the anti-oxidative effect of PHF. PMID:26401397

  6. A survey of the nutritional and haemagglutination properties of legume seeds generally available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; More, L J; McKenzie, N H; Stewart, J C; Pusztai, A

    1983-09-01

    Eighty-five samples from fifteen different legume seed lines generally available in the UK were examined by measurements of their net protein utilization by rats and by haemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from a number of different animal species. From these results the seeds were classified into four broad groups. Group a seeds from most varieties of kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris), runner (Phaseolus coccineus) and tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) beans showed high reactivity with all cell types and were also highly toxic. Group b, which contained seeds from lima or butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), agglutinated only human and pronase-treated rat erythrocytes. These seeds did not support proper growth of the rats although the animals survived the 10 d experimental period. Group c consisted of seeds from lentils (Lens culinaris), peas (Pisum sativum), chick-peas (Cicer arietinum), blackeyed peas (Vigna sinensis), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), field or broad beans (Vicia faba) and aduki beans (Phaseolus angularis). These generally had low reactivity with all cells and were non-toxic. Group d, represented by soya (Glycine max) and pinto (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans, generally had low reactivity with all cells but caused growth depression at certain dietary concentrations. This growth depression was probably mainly due to antinutritional factors other than lectins. Lectins from group a seeds showed many structural and immunological similarities. However the subunit composition of the lectin from the tepary bean samples was different from that of the other bean lectins in this or any other groups. PMID:6615758

  7. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2007-01-31

    We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

  8. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  9. Acute toxicity and primary irritation of para-tertiary butylphenol.

    PubMed

    Klonne, D R; Myers, R C; Nachreiner, D J; Homan, E R

    1988-01-01

    Para-tertiary butylphenol [(PTBP); the Union Carbide Corporation trademark for this chemical is UCAR Butylphenol 4-T Flake] has applications as a raw material in the manufacture of resins and also as an industrial intermediate. Acute peroral LD50 values (95% confidence limits) of 5.4 (3.6-7.9) g/kg and 3.6 (3.0-4.4) g/kg were obtained for male and female albino rats, respectively. Occluded cutaneous applications of moistened PTBP at 16 g/kg for 24 hr produced no mortalities in male or female rabbits, but signs of local toxicity and irritation were apparent at the site of application. A 6 hr exposure to a substantially saturated vapor under static conditions produced no mortality, while a 4 hr exposure to a dynamically generated respirable dust aerosol at a concentration of 5.6 mg/L produced 20% mortality. Occluded dermal contact (4 hr) with 0.5 g moistened PTBP produced a range of effects from no reaction to necrosis. PTBP placed in the conjunctival sac of rabbits produced severe ocular injury which generally persisted for 21 days after exposure. The major hazard associated with acute exposure to PTBP appears to be the irritation produced by dermal or ocular contact. PMID:3378509

  10. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ye, D; Quensen, J I; Tiedje, J M; Boyd, S A

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. PMID:16535042

  12. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  13. The ortho to para transition in muonic molecular hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jessica Higgins Deseret

    A precise measurement of the induced weak pseudoscalar coupling constant of the proton, gp, is of interest as a basic test of chiral symmetry breaking. This is the least well-known weak form factor of the nucleon. Muon capture experiments [Jonkmans et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(1996)4512] have been used to measure gp. However, the interpretation of these muon capture experiments requires knowledge of the relative population of the muonic atomic and molecular states for muons in liquid hydrogen. In particular, lambda op, the transition rate between the ortho- and para-molecular states of the pmup molecule, needs to be known with precision. The only previous measurement [Bardin et al., Phys. Lett. 104B(1981)320.] of lambda op yielded a value of (4.1 +/- 1.4) x 10 4 s-1, significantly different than the theoretical prediction [Bakalov et al., Nucl. Phys. A384(1982)302.] of 7.1 x 104 s-1. A measurement of lambdaop using the time distribution of neutrons from muon capture was performed at TRIUMF during June--July 1999 and November 1999. The lambdaop measured in this experiment is (13.8 +/- 1.6) x 104 s-1 . The uncertainty is dominated by the statistical precision of the fit and the background due to the deuterium contamination in the protium target. The implications of this result for gp are discussed.

  14. Publicacin de Propuesta Presupuestaria del NCI para el Ao Fiscal 2017

    Cancer.gov

    Ayer, tuve el honor de presentar al Presidente Barack Obama el Plan Anual del NCI y Propuesta Presupuestaria para el Ao Fiscal 2017. Creo que la Propuesta Presupuestaria, como se conoce ahora, es especialmente importante este ao para la investigacin oncolgica por dos razones.

  15. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  16. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  17. [The place of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in gynaecological malignancies. An old debate].

    PubMed

    Philippe, Anne-Ccile; Dauplat, Jacques; Martinez, Alejandra; Canis, Michel; Bourdel, Nicolas; Ferron, Gwenal; Pomel, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    There is a lack of prospective randomized trial and scientific evidence for the use of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in gynaecological malignancies. This results in variations between countries for its utility. Based on the recommandations of the French Institute of Cancer (INCa), we open the debate of the place of para-aortic lymphadenectomy. PMID:24793624

  18. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  19. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  20. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  1. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  2. Diffusion Monte Carlo Study of Para-Diiodobenzene Polymorphism Revisited.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Kenta; Watson, Mark A; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Maezono, Ryo

    2015-03-10

    We revisit our investigation of the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) simulation of para-diiodobenzene (p-DIB) molecular crystal polymorphism. [See J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1789-1794.] We perform, for the first time, a rigorous study of finite-size effects and choice of nodal surface on the prediction of polymorph stability in molecular crystals using fixed-node DMC. Our calculations are the largest that are currently feasible using the resources of the K-computer and provide insights into the formidable challenge of predicting such properties from first principles. In particular, we show that finite-size effects can influence the trial nodal surface of a small (1 × 1 × 1) simulation cell considerably. Therefore, we repeated our DMC simulations with a 1 × 3 × 3 simulation cell, which is the largest such calculation to date. We used a density functional theory (DFT) nodal surface generated with the PBE functional, and we accumulated statistical samples with ∼6.4 × 10(5) core hours for each polymorph. Our final results predict a polymorph stability that is consistent with experiment, but they also indicate that the results in our previous paper were somewhat fortuitous. We analyze the finite-size errors using model periodic Coulomb (MPC) interactions and kinetic energy corrections, according to the CCMH scheme of Chiesa, Ceperley, Martin, and Holzmann. We investigate the dependence of the finite-size errors on different aspect ratios of the simulation cell (k-mesh convergence) in order to understand how to choose an appropriate ratio for the DMC calculations. Even in the most expensive simulations currently possible, we show that the finite size errors in the DMC total energies are much larger than the energy difference between the two polymorphs, although error cancellation means that the polymorph prediction is accurate. Finally, we found that the T-move scheme is essential for these massive DMC simulations in order to circumvent population explosions and large time-step biases. PMID:26579744

  3. Para-Tyrosine Supplementation Improves Insulin- and Liraglutide- Induced Vasorelaxation in Cholesterol-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Slley, Eszter; Kun, Szilrd; Krthy, Mria; Kovcs, Tibor; Wittmann, Istvn; Molnr, Gergo A

    2015-01-01

    Former data of our workgroup indicated that the accumulation of oxidized amino acids (meta- and ortho-tyrosine) due to oxidative stress may play an important role in the impaired insulininduced vasoactive properties of different arterial segments. There are evidences, that incorporation of these amino acids into cellular proteins leads to certain hormonal resistances, which might be restored by supplementation with the physiologic isoform, para-tyrosine. Rats in the control group were kept on a regular diet, rats in the cholesterol-fed group received high-fat diet, while the third group of rats received high-fat diet with para-tyrosine supplementation for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol level was significantly higher in the cholesterol-fed group, while the level of cholesterol in the cholesterol+para-tyrosine group did not differ significantly from that of the controls. Plasma level of insulin after glucose stimulation was decreased in the cholesterol-fed group, while that in the para-tyrosine supplemented group did not differ significantly from the controls. Vascular para-, meta- and ortho-tyrosine content was measured with HPLC. Elevated vascular meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio of cholesterol fed rats could be avoided by para-tyrosine supplementation. Vascular response of the thoracic aorta to insulin and liraglutide was assessed by a DMT multi-myograph. Cholesterol feeding resulted in vascular insulin-and liraglutide resistance, which was restored by para-tyrosine supplementation. Incorporation of the oxidative stress induced pathological tyrosine isoforms leads to vascular-hormone-resistances. We show that the physiological amino acid para-tyrosine is capable of restoring hypercholesterolemia-induced increased meta-tyrosine content of the vascular wall, thus attenuating functional vascular damage. PMID:26202368

  4. Um enfoque antropolgico para o ensino de astronomia no nvel mdio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    H uma enorme carncia de materiais didtico-pedaggicos em astronomia para professores do ensino mdio, sobretudo materiais que explorem tambm aspectos humansticos. A origem do Universo um bom exemplo desta constatao central. Embora tal origem teve explicaes culturais diversas, os professores no tm informaes sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes vises de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abord-las devidamente. Conseqentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas vises de Universo: espontneas, autctones e cientficas. Desenvolvemos prticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoo de um enfoque antropolgico para o ensino de astronomia no nvel mdio, no qual as culturas humanstica e cientfica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pblica de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores abordagem proposta e os resultados alcanados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produo de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de prticas didtico-pedaggicas especficas (e.g., encenao de mitos; dana primordial guarani; "criao" de constelaes e interpretaes pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestes concretas para a efetiva realizao de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questes cosmognicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e histricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temticos/FAPESP)

  5. Descripcin de la zona de alta difusin en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

    Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetra no suministran una descripcin detallada de las regiones donde la difusin es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la dcada del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicacin presentamos una solucin de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes fsicas involucradas. Valindonos de la alta simetra y de las caractersticas del problema, logramos reducir el nmero de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el clculo a regiones vecinas con difusin moderada o despreciable.

  6. In vitro dehalogenation of para-substituted aromatic halides in rat liver preparations.

    PubMed

    Scott, M T; Sinsheimer, J E

    1984-08-01

    The in vitro dehalogenation of a series of para-substituted halobenzenes was studied using HPLC separation followed by scintillation counting or neutron-activation analysis. Microsomal and cytosolic deiodination were established for iodobenzene substrates whose para-substituents were CO2H, CHO, NO2, OH, and C6H5 but not for para-iodobenzonitrile. A nonglutathione cytosolic deiodinase was only indicated with 4-iodobiphenyl as the substrate. In vitro dehalogenation could not be established for 4-bromobiphenyl using neutron-activation analysis. PMID:6387082

  7. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  8. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

    PubMed

    Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

    2006-03-15

    The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa. PMID:16331637

  9. Use of UV ParaLens adapter for detection of acid-fast organisms.

    PubMed

    Patterson, K V; McDonald, C L; Miller, B F; Chapin, K C

    1995-01-01

    Auramine-stained mycobacterial smears from 136 clinical specimens were interpreted by using the UV ParaLens adapter (Beckton Dickinson), and results were compared with smear interpretations using a traditional fluorescent microscope and culture. The sensitivity and specificity of the ParaLens were 84 and 93%, respectively. Smears yielding discrepant results were overstained by the Kinyoun method. Overall, the sensitivity of auramine-stained smears interpreted with the UV ParaLens was comparable to that of Kinyoun-stained smears. PMID:7535314

  10. Aplicacin del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecnica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Nez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecnica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinacin de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un mtodo para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables accin-ngulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotacin tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separacin en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  11. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  12. Pd-on-Si catalysts prepared via galvanic displacement for the selective hydrogenation of para-chloronitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qian; Shi, Yu-Sheng; Sun, Ke-Qiang; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2016-02-01

    The direct redox reaction (galvanic displacement) between Pd(2+) and substrate Si was used to deposit Pd on Si, and the Pd-Si catalysts enabled a chemoselective hydrogenation of para-chloronitrobenzene with the selectivity for para-chloroaniline higher than 99.9% at complete conversion of para-chloronitrobenzene. PMID:26788556

  13. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  14. Lo que usted debe saber antes de dar sus tejidos para investigacin mdica

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene informacin sobre las cosas que usted debe saber y tener en cuenta al tomar una decisin de donar sus tejidos para investigacin. El tejido puede incluir materiales de su cuerpo tales como piel, cabello, uas, sangre y orina.

  15. Infografa: beneficios y perjuicios de la prueba del PSA para la deteccin del cncer de prstata

    Cancer.gov

    Infografa que muestra los beneficios y perjuicios de la prueba del PSA para la deteccin del cncer de prstata, segn estimaciones de dos estudios sobre exmenes de deteccin del cncer de prstata.

  16. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  17. Genomic organisation of the seven ParaHox genes of coelacanths

    PubMed Central

    Mulley, John F; Holland, Peter WH

    2014-01-01

    Human and mouse genomes contain six ParaHox genes implicated in gut and neural patterning. In coelacanths and cartilaginous fish, an additional ParaHox gene existsPdx2that dates back to the genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. Here we examine the genomic arrangement and flanking genes of all ParaHox genes in coelacanths, to determine the full complement of these genes. We find that coelacanths have seven ParaHox genes in total, in four chromosomal locations, revealing that five gene losses occurred soon after vertebrate genome duplication. Comparison of intergenic sequences reveals that some Pdx1 regulatory regions associated with development of pancreatic islets are older than tetrapods, that Pdx1 and Pdx2 share few if any conserved non-coding elements, and that there is very high sequence conservation between coelacanth species. PMID:23775937

  18. Para-Selective Halogenation of Nitrosoarenes with Copper(II) Halides.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, Angela; Selander, Nicklas

    2015-12-18

    The para-selective direct bromination and chlorination of nitrosoarenes with copper(II) bromide and chloride is reported. Under mild reaction conditions, a range of halogenated arylnitroso compounds are obtained in moderate to good yields with high regioselectivity. Additionally, the versatility of the method is demonstrated by the development of a one-pot procedure to obtain the corresponding para-halogenated aniline- and nitrobenzene derivatives. PMID:26606695

  19. Efficient ortho-para conversion of H2 on interstellar grain surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bron, Emeric; Le Petit, Franck; Le Bourlot, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Context. Fast surface conversion between ortho- and para-H2 has been observed in laboratory studies, and it has been proposed that this mechanism plays a role in the control of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium. Observations of rotational lines of H2 in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) have indeed found significantly lower ortho-para ratios than expected at equilibrium. The mechanisms controlling the balance of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium thus remain incompletely understood, while this ratio can affect the thermodynamical properties of the gas (equation of state, cooling function). Aims: We aim to build an accurate model of ortho-para conversion on dust surfaces based on the most recent experimental and theoretical results, and to validate it by comparison to observations of H2 rotational lines in PDRs. Methods: We propose a statistical model of ortho-para conversion on dust grains with fluctuating dust temperatures. It is based on a master equation approach. This computation is then coupled to full PDR models and compared to PDR observations. Results: We show that the observations of rotational H2 lines indicate a high conversion efficiency on dust grains and that this high efficiency can be accounted for if taking dust temperature fluctuations into account with our statistical model of surface conversion. Simpler models that neglect the dust temperature fluctuations do not reach the high efficiency deduced from the observations. Moreover, this high efficiency induced by dust temperature fluctuations is very insensitive to the values of the model's microphysical parameters. Conclusions: Ortho-para conversion on grains is thus an efficient mechanism in most astrophysical conditions and can play a significant role in controlling the ortho-para ratio.

  20. Two anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl-dehalogenating enrichments that exhibit different para-dechlorination specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q; Wiegel, J

    1997-01-01

    Two anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating enrichments with distinct substrate specificities were obtained: a 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2346-CB) para-dechlorinating enrichment derived from Aroclor 1260-contaminated Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.) sediment and a 2,4,6-trichlorobiphenyl (246-CB) unflanked para-dechlorinating enrichment derived from PCB-free Sandy Creek Nature Center (Athens, Ga.) sediment. The enrichments have been successfully transferred to autoclaved soil slurries over 20 times by using 300 to 350 microM 2346-CB or 246-CB. Both enrichments required soil for successful transfer of dechlorination activity. The 2346-CB enrichment para dehalogenated, in the absence or presence of 2346-CB, only 4 of 25 tested para halogen-containing congeners: 234-CB, 2345-CB, 2346-CB, and 2,4,6-tribromobiphenyl (246-BrB). In the presence of 246-CB, the 246-CB enrichment para dehalogenated 23 of the 25 tested congeners. However, only three congeners (34-CB, 2346-CB, and 246-BrB) were dehalogenated in the absence of 246-CB, indicating that these specific congeners initiate dehalogenation in this enrichment culture. The addition of the 2346-CB (para)-dechlorinating enrichment did not further stimulate the 2346-CB-primed dechlorination of the Aroclor 1260 residue in Woods Pond sediment samples. Compared to the addition of the primer 246-CB or the 246-CB unflanked para-dechlorinating enrichment alone, the addition of both 246-CB (300 microM) and the 246-CB enrichment stimulated the unflanked para dechlorination of the Aroclor 1260 residue in Woods Pond sediments. These results indicate that the two enrichments contain different PCB-dechlorinating organisms, each with high substrate specificities. Furthermore, bioaugmentation with the enrichment alone did not stimulate the desired dechlorination in PCB-contaminated Woods Pond sediment. PMID:9406402

  1. A Diagnostic Assessment for the Teaching of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Una Evaluacin Diagnstica Para la Enseanza de la Astronomia.) Uma Avaliao Diagnstica Para o Ensino da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira, Felipa; Soares Gomes de Sousa, Clia Maria; Moreira, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    This article aims to present the results of a diagnostic evaluation, used as a tool for collecting data on prior knowledge of scientific concepts needed to understand the topic "Earth and Universe", from a group comprised of 47 students of 6th grade. The educational method of diagnosing the student's prior knowledge before teaching them is founded on the Meaningful Learning theory, proposed by David Ausubel. The diagnostic evaluation consisted of 25 questions; the answers were analyzed and categorized, making possible their interpretation, which allows us to understand the meanings assigned by the student to these concepts. It follows from the diagnostic evaluation, that the majority of students surveyed had difficulties in exposing scientific concepts on the topic "Earth and Universe" when starting the 6th grade. However, we identified relevant ideas and representations that contributed to the re-signification of scientific concepts proposed for the teaching of the subject in this grade. The results of diagnostic evaluation served as reference to the organization of the syllabus, making possible the learning process by matching the sequence of teaching to the students" characteristics and context of the classroom. It is expected that other researchers in this topic can also use the instrument presented in this paper. Este artculo tiene como objetivo presentar los resultados de una evaluacin diagnstica, utilizada como una herramienta para recoger datos sobre el conocimiento previo de los conceptos cientficos necesarios para comprender el tema "Tierra y Universo", de un grupo compuesto por 47 alumnos de 6 grado de la escuela primaria. La accin pedaggica del diagnstico de los conocimientos previos del estudiante antes de ensearles est justificada por la teora del Aprendizaje Significativo, propuesta por David Ausubel. La evaluacin de diagnstico consisti en 25 preguntas, las respuestas fueron analizadas y clasificadas objetivando-se su interpretacin, lo que nos permite comprender los significados asignados por el estudiante a estos conceptos. Se desprende de la evaluacin diagnstica que la mayora de los encuestados ha tenido dificultades para exponer los conceptos cientficos sobre el Universo y la Tierra, para iniciar el 6 grado. Sin embargo, se identificaron ideas relevantes y las representaciones que contribuyeron a la re-significacin de los conceptos cientficos propuestos para la enseanza del tema en esta serie. Los resultados de la evaluacin diagnstica han servido como referencia para la organizacin del Programa, facilitando el proceso de aprendizaje, haciendo coincidir la secuencia didctica a las caractersticas de los estudiantes y el contexto del aula. Se espera que el instrumento presentado en este documento tambin pueda ser utilizado por otros investigadores en investigaciones relacionadas con el tema. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma avaliao diagnstica, utilizada como instrumento para a coleta de dados sobre o conhecimento prvio de conceitos cientficos, necessrios compreenso do tema Terra e Universo, de um grupo composto por 47 estudantes, da 6 srie do Ensino Fundamental. A ao pedaggica de diagnosticar os conhecimentos prvios, do estudante, antes de ensin-los, tem fundamento na teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, proposta por David Ausubel. Essa avaliao diagnstica foi composta por 25 questes, cujas respostas foram analisadas e categorizadas visando sua interpretao, o que permitiu compreender os significados atribudos pelo estudante a esses conceitos. Conclui-se, a partir da avaliao diagnstica, que a maioria dos estudantes pesquisados apresentou dificuldades em expor conceitos cientficos sobre o tema Terra e Universo ao iniciar a 6 srie. Entretanto, foram identificadas ideias e representaes relevantes que contriburam para a (re)significao dos conceitos cientficos propostos para o ensino do tema nessa srie. Os resultados da avaliao diagnstica serviram como referncia para a organizao do plano de ensino, viabilizando o processo de aprendizagem, por adequar a sequncia didtica s caractersticas dos estudantes e ao contexto da sala de aula. esperado que o instrumento apresentado nesse artigo possa ser utilizado tambm por outros pesquisadores em investigaes relacionadas ao tema.

  2. Competing ParA Structures Space Bacterial Plasmids Equally over the Nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, Kenn; Howard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Low copy number plasmids in bacteria require segregation for stable inheritance through cell division. This is often achieved by a parABC locus, comprising an ATPase ParA, DNA-binding protein ParB and a parC region, encoding ParB-binding sites. These minimal components space plasmids equally over the nucleoid, yet the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we investigate a model where ParA-ATP can dynamically associate to the nucleoid and is hydrolyzed by plasmid-associated ParB, thereby creating nucleoid-bound, self-organizing ParA concentration gradients. We show mathematically that differences between competing ParA concentrations on either side of a plasmid can specify regular plasmid positioning. Such positioning can be achieved regardless of the exact mechanism of plasmid movement, including plasmid diffusion with ParA-mediated immobilization or directed plasmid motion induced by ParB/parC-stimulated ParA structure disassembly. However, we find experimentally that parABC from Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 increases plasmid mobility, inconsistent with diffusion/immobilization. Instead our observations favor directed plasmid motion. Our model predicts less oscillatory ParA dynamics than previously believed, a prediction we verify experimentally. We also show that ParA localization and plasmid positioning depend on the underlying nucleoid morphology, indicating that the chromosomal architecture constrains ParA structure formation. Our directed motion model unifies previously contradictory models for plasmid segregation and provides a robust mechanistic basis for self-organized plasmid spacing that may be widely applicable. PMID:25521716

  3. Spontaneous Emission Between - and Para-Levels of Water-Ion H_2O^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Oka, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear spin conversion interaction of water ion, H_2O^+, has been studied to derive spontaneous emission lifetime between ortho- and para-levels. H_2O^+ is a radical ion with the ^2B_1 electronic ground state. Its off-diagonal electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(S_a? I_b + S_b? I_a), connects para and ortho levels, because ? I = I_1 - I_2 has nonvanishing matrix elements between I = 0 and 1. The mixing by this term with Tab = 72 MHz predicted by ab initio theory in the MRD-CI/Bk level, is many orders of magnitude larger than for closed shell molecules because of the large magnetic interaction due to the un-paired electron. Using the molecular constants reported by Mrtz et al. by FIR-LMR, we searched for ortho and para coupling channels below 1000 cm-1 with accidental near degeneracy between para and ortho levels. For example, hyperfine components of the 42,2(ortho) and 33,0(para) levels mix by 1.2 10-3 due to their near degeneracy (? E = 0.417 cm-1), and give the ortho-para spontaneous emission lifetime of about 0.63 year. The most significant low lying 10,1(para) and 11,1(ortho) levels, on the contrary, mix only by 8.7 10-5 because of their large separation (? E = 16.267 cm-1) and give the spontaneous emission lifetime from 10,1(para) to 00,0(ortho) of about 100 year.These results qualitatively help to understand the observed high ortho- to para- H_2O^+ ratio of 4.8 0.5 toward Sgr B2 but they are too slow to compete with the conversion by collision unless the number density of the region is very low (n 1 cm-3) or radiative temperature is very high (T_r > 100 K). M. Staikova, B. Engels, M. Peric, and S.D. Peyerimhoff, Mol. Phys. 80, 1485 (1993) P. Mrtz, L.R. Zink, K.M. Evenson, and J.M. Brown J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9744 (1998). LP. Schilke, et al., A&A 521, L11 (2010).

  4. The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

  5. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete aos y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseo Ritchey-Chretin corresponde a la razn focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consider como utilizable para fotografa directa. En el Instituto de Astronoma de la UNAM, se dise y construy un sistema corrector de campo para la razn focal F/7.5, que actualmente est en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboracin en diseflo y evaluacin de sistemas pticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronoma de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseo de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del t?lescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideracin de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicara su instalacin y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrn cuya rea sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cmara directa para foco primario

  6. Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, X.; Altan, H.; Saint, A.; Matten, D.; Alfano, R. R.

    2006-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor in 0.2-2.4THz range from low to high humidity at room temperature. The observed absorption lines are due to the water molecular rotations in the ground vibrational state. We find that the absorption strength of para transitions increases as humidity increases, while the absorption strength of ortho transitions increases and then decreases in intensity with increasing humidity. We explain this difference based on the nuclear spin statistics based ratio of ortho to para water monomer populations at room temperature. The preferential adsorption on the solid surfaces of para water leads to an ortho dominated vapor cloud whose monomer rotational absorption intensity decreases due to the effects of dimerization, molecular collisions, clustering, and interactions with liquid droplets at high concentrations.

  7. Electrical detection of orthopara conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistr, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to orthopara conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.510.05?Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon. PMID:26299447

  8. Electrical detection of ortho-para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistr, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-08-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho-para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51+/-0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon.

  9. Superfluid Effects in PARA-H_2 Clusters Probed by CO_2 Rotation-Vibration Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas; McKellar, A. R. W.

    2010-06-01

    The prospect of directly observing superfluidity in para-H_2 is a tantalizing but elusive goal. Like ^4He, para-H_2 is a light zero-spin boson. However, H_2-H_2 intermolecular interactions, though weak, are stronger than He-He interactions, and hydrogen is a solid below about 14 K. This makes detection of superfluidity in bulk hydrogen problematical, to say the least. But there are still possibilities for para-H_2 in the form of clusters or in nano-confined environments, and superfluid transition temperatures as high as 6 K have been predicted. Spectroscopic observations of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters were at first very difficult to interpret for N > 5. However, with the help of path integral Monte Carlo simulations and an accurate new H_2-CO_2 intermolecular potential surface which explicitly incorporates dependence on the CO_2 ?b{3} asymmetric stretch, it is now possible to achieve a remarkably consistent picture of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters in the size range N = 1 20. By combining the experimental spectroscopic measurements and theoretical simulations, we determine the size evolution of the superfluid response of the CO_2-doped para-H_2 clusters, which peaks for the "magic" number N = 12. V. L. Ginzburg and A. A. Sobyanin, JETP Lett. 15, 343 (1972). A. R. W. McKellar, Paper WH04, 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, June 16-20, 2008. H. Li, P.-N. Roy, and R. J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys., submitted.

  10. Low temperature HD+ortho-/para-H2 inelastic scattering of astrophysical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanov, Renat A.; Guster, Dennis; Adhikari, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    State-selected total cross sections and thermal rate coefficients are computed for the HD + ortho-/para-H2 rotational energy transfer collision at low temperatures: 2 K ? T ? 300 K. A modified H2-H2 potential energy surface (PES) devised by Hinde is used for this pure quantum-mechanical dynamical computation. A comparison of the new results for the HD + ortho-/para-H2 scattering problem and previous calculations computed with the use of other older PESs is presented and discussed.

  11. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage

    PubMed Central

    Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng

    2012-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment. PMID:22837402

  12. Organocatalyzed Asymmetric 1,6-Conjugate Addition of para-Quinone Methides with Dicyanoolefins.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuanyi; Xu, Xiuyan; Wei, Weiwei; Lin, Aijun; Yao, Hequan

    2016-02-01

    A chiral thiourea catalyzed asymmetric 1,6-conjugate addition of para-quinone methides with dicyanoolefins has been developed. The reaction provided an efficient approach to the synthesis of chiral diarylmethine skeletons in good yields (up to 99% yield) with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity (>20:1 dr and up to 99.5:0.5 er), also on a gram scale. The preliminary mechanistic study showed that the remote stereocontrol was achieved through intermolecular hydrogen-bond interaction between the chiral thiourea catalyst and the para-quinone methides directly for the first time. PMID:26760214

  13. Le lipome para testiculaire: à propos d'un cas rare

    PubMed Central

    Lasri, Abdelouahed; Lamchahab, Hamza; Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2015-01-01

    Les tumeurs para testiculaires sont des tumeurs rares et complexes qui ont une symptomatologie insidieuse et pauvre. Les formes bénignes représentent 70%. Le lipome para testiculaire étant le type le plus fréquent. L'examen clinique est peu spécifique. L'examen échographique est la pierre angulaire pour assoir le diagnostic. Le traitement chirurgical s'impose en cas de tumeur symptomatique, l'histologie étant habituellement typique permet la confirmation diagnostique. Le pronostic est bon malgré d’éventuelles récidives. PMID:26175802

  14. Large scale visualization on the Cray XT3 using ParaView.

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, David; Geveci, Berk; Eschenbert, Kent; Neundorf, Alexander; Marion, Patrick; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Greenfield, John

    2008-05-01

    Post-processing and visualization are key components to understanding any simulation. Porting ParaView, a scalable visualization tool, to the Cray XT3 allows our analysts to leverage the same supercomputer they use for simulation to perform post-processing. Visualization tools traditionally rely on a variety of rendering, scripting, and networking resources; the challenge of running ParaView on the Lightweight Kernel is to provide and use the visualization and post-processing features in the absence of many OS resources. We have successfully accomplished this at Sandia National Laboratories and the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center.

  15. Evaluation of an immobilized cell bioreactor for degradation of meta- and para-nitrobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretti, Steven W.; Thomas, Stuart M.

    1994-01-01

    Meta- and para-nitrobenzoic acid are pollutants found in waste streams from metal-stripping processes using cyanide-free solvents. The Kelly AFB industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) is currently incapable of removing these compounds from its wastewaters because of the presence of significant quantities of ethylenediamine, a preferred substrate and upper limit of 4-5 hours on the hydraulic residence time in the IWTP. This report describes the enrichment and preliminary characterization of a microbial consortium capable of utilizing both Meta- and Para-Nitrobenzoate as sole carbon sources.

  16. Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de sntesis de apertura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transicin del hidrgeno neutro a ?~21-cm han contribudo a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galctico o extragalctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolucin angular. Aqu se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interfermetro, que permitir abrir nuevas lneas de investigacin. Este instrumento combinar la tcnica de sntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopa de correlacin digital, para alcanzar una resolucin angular de 1' y un campo de visin de ~1o.7.

  17. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  18. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions

  19. Fatiga (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  20. Evaluation of Modified Formalin-Ether Concentration Method Using Para Tube in Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Conventional formalin-ether concentration method is a gold standard for the diagnosis of parasite infection. However, it may be time-consuming and laborious. We aimed to reveal the clinical usefulness of a modified formalin-ether concentration method using the Para Tube (KS Corporation, Korea) compared with the conventional method. A total of 117 fresh, unpreserved fecal samples composed to 90 negative controls and 27 positive controls with ova of Diphyllobothrium latum/D. nihonkaiense, ova of Clonorchis sinensis and cysts of Giardia lamblia were used in this study. Both methods showed comparable correct identification rate (87.2% for the Para Tube vs. 86.3% for the conventional method).When five samples were examined at once, the Para Tube method reduced the procedure time compared with the conventional method (19 min 58 sec vs. 23 min 18 sec, P=0.0286). We concluded that the modified formalin-ether concentration method using the Para Tube is a rapid, simple, and reliable fecal concentration method for clinical use. PMID:26131417

  1. Evaluation of Modified Formalin-Ether Concentration Method Using Para Tube in Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Jin; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2015-07-01

    Conventional formalin-ether concentration method is a gold standard for the diagnosis of parasite infection. However, it may be time-consuming and laborious. We aimed to reveal the clinical usefulness of a modified formalin-ether concentration method using the Para Tube (KS Corporation, Korea) compared with the conventional method. A total of 117 fresh, unpreserved fecal samples composed to 90 negative controls and 27 positive controls with ova of Diphyllobothrium latum/D. nihonkaiense, ova of Clonorchis sinensis and cysts of Giardia lamblia were used in this study. Both methods showed comparable correct identification rate (87.2% for the Para Tube vs. 86.3% for the conventional method).When five samples were examined at once, the Para Tube method reduced the procedure time compared with the conventional method (19 min 58 sec vs. 23 min 18 sec, P=0.0286). We concluded that the modified formalin-ether concentration method using the Para Tube is a rapid, simple, and reliable fecal concentration method for clinical use. PMID:26131417

  2. Cáncer de la corteza suprarrenal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de corteza suprarrenal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  3. Cáncer de útero—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  4. Cáncer colorrectal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de colon y recto, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas.

  5. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo,

  6. Para-Professionals in Further Education: Changing Roles in Vocational Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Roles and structures within further education colleges seem to be in constant change and development; roles are becoming blurred, and lecturers are taking on more management tasks. Alongside this has been the development of para-professional roles, using non-lecturers to undertake teaching tasks. This can allow for the greater involvement of

  7. Preguntas para hacerle al doctor acerca del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacer al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.

  8. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  10. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to assess this

  11. Resultados de estudio para cáncer de pulmón indica

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre métodos de detección para reducir el número de muertes por cáncer de pulmón al detectar cánceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

  12. Can para-aryl-dithiols cross-link two plasmonic noble nanoparticles as monolayer dithiolate spacers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Para-aryl-dithiols (PADTs, HS-(C6H4)n-SH, n = 1, 2, and 3) have been used extensively in molecular electronics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and quantum electron tunneling between two gold or silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). One popular belief is that these dithiols cross-link ...

  13. Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

  14. Delirio (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  15. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  16. Fabrication of multipotent poly-para-xylylene particles in controlled nanoscopic dimensions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ruei-Hung; Li, Yi-Jye; Sun, Ho-Yi; Wu, Chih-Yu; Guan, Zhen-Yu; Ho, Hsin-Ying; Fang, Cheng-Yuan; Chen, Hsien-Yeh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, poly-para-xylylene-based multifunctional nanoparticles (PPX-NPs) were fabricated. Based on the solubility characteristics determined for asymmetrically substituted poly-para-xylylenes in polar solvents, well-dispersed nanocolloids with a controllable size ranging from 50 to 800nm were produced in solution by the displacement of the solvent (water). These size ranges were found to have acceptable cellular compatibility through examinations of cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and adipose-derived stem cells treated with the PPX-NPs. In addition, these nanoscale PPX-NPs exhibited versatile bioconjugation properties in that a variety of available functional groups can be adopted from their counterpart, thin-film poly-para-xylylenes, during the production of these nanoparticles. For instance, bifunctional PPX-NPs with maleimide and benzoyl moieties were produced to enable immobilization via a maleimide-thiol reaction concurrent with a photochemical reaction. A cleavable PPX-NP was also produced with a thiol-exchangeable surface property. Additionally, by performing electrohydrodynamic jetting of parallel polymer solutions of selected poly-para-xylylenes, Janus-type or multicompartment PPX-NPs were created. The PPX-NPs can potentially be used for various biomedical applications such as combined diagnostics and drug delivery, multiplexing of detection, multiple-drug loading, and the targeted delivery of biomolecules or drugs. PMID:26724467

  17. Tumores de hipófisis—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor de hipófisis, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados.

  18. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  19. Experimental and theoretical investigation of para-aminophenol ionization in corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, H.; Salehabadi, H.

    2015-03-01

    Ionization of para-aminophenol was investigated using an ion mobility spectrometer equipped with a corona discharge as ionization source. The experimental results were confirmed with the use of theoretical method, based on density functional theory. Two peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum in the positive ion mode which was corresponded to the protonated isomers of para-aminophenol. It was observed that the relative intensities of the peaks depend on the sample concentration and the nature of the reactant ions. The relative energies of ions derived from protonation of para-aminophenol and its topical proton affinities were determined for different sites in the gas phase. The peak with the lower drift time was assigned to the oxygen protonated isomer and the other peak was ascribed to the nitrogen protonated isomer of para-aminophenol. The calculated dipole moment and localized charge of each isomer were used to verify the ion mobility peak separation. It was shown that combination of theoretical and experimental tools leads to reliable prediction of reactive protonation sites of chemicals in a corona discharge.

  20. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  1. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  2. Performance characteristics of magnesium/para-nitrophenol cells in 2:1 magnesium electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G.; Sivashanugam, A.; Sridharan, R. )

    1993-11-01

    1 V/1 Ah magnesium/para-nitrophenol (PNP) reserve cells were fabricated and their performance was evaluated in different electrolytes [2M aqueous solutions of Mg(C1O[sub 4])[sub 2], MgCl[sub 2], and MgBr[sub 2

  3. Ortho-para conversion of endohedral water in the fullerene C60 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugai, Anna; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Mamone, S.; Concistrè, M.; Meier, B.; Krachmalnicoff, A.; Whitby, R. J.; Levitt, M. H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Turro, N. J.

    2015-03-01

    Water displays the phenomenon of spin isomerism in which the two proton spins either couple to form a triplet (ortho water, I = 1) or a singlet nuclear spin state (para water, I = 0). Here we study the interconversion of para and ortho water. The exact mechanism of this process is still not fully understood. In order to minimize interactions between molecules we use a sample where a single H2O is trapped in the C60 molecular cage (H2O@C60)andH2O@C60iscrystallized.H2O@C60 has long-lived ortho state and ortho-para conversion kinetics is non-exponential at LHeT. We studied mixtures of H2O@C60, D2O@C60 and C60 using IR absorption, NMR and dielectric measurements. We saw the speeding up of the interconversion with the growth of H2O@C60 concentration in C60 or when D2O@C60 was added. At some temperatures the kinetics is exponential. Models are discussed in order to explain the T and concentration dependence of ortho-para interconversion kinetics. This work was supported by institutional research funding IUT23-3 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.

  4. Estudios ALCHEMIST para el cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial

    Cancer.gov

    ALCHEMIST comprende tres estudios clínicos integrados de medicina de precisión diseñados para identificar a personas con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores tienen ciertos cambios genéticos poco comunes.

  5. Cáncer de intestino delgado—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de intestino delgado, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Cáncer de riñón—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de riñón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  7. Cáncer de uretra—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de uretra, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Cáncer de vejiga—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de vejiga, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  9. Cáncer de ano—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de ano, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  10. Cáncer de paratiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de paratiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  11. Cáncer de hueso—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de hueso (óseo), así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  12. Cáncer de vulva—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vulva, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  13. Cáncer de testículo—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de testículo, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  14. Cáncer de vagina—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vagina, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Cáncer de piel—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de piel, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  16. Cáncer de tiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de tiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  17. Cáncer de páncreas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de páncreas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  18. Sarcoma de tejido blando—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del sarcoma de tejido blando, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  19. Cáncer de pene—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de pene, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  20. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  1. Intact cluster and chordate-like expression of ParaHox genes in a sea star

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParaHox genes are thought to be major players in patterning the gut of several bilaterian taxa. Though this is a fundamental role that these transcription factors play, their activities are not limited to the endoderm and extend to both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues. Three genes compose the ParaHox group: Gsx, Xlox and Cdx. In some taxa (mostly chordates but to some degree also in protostomes) the three genes are arranged into a genomic cluster, in a similar fashion to what has been shown for the better-known Hox genes. Sea urchins possess the full complement of ParaHox genes but they are all dispersed throughout the genome, an arrangement that, perhaps, represented the primitive condition for all echinoderms. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this group of genes we cloned and characterized all ParaHox genes, studied their expression patterns and identified their genomic loci in a member of an earlier branching group of echinoderms, the asteroid Patiria miniata. Results We identified the three ParaHox orthologs in the genome of P. miniata. While one of them, PmGsx is provided as maternal message, with no zygotic activation afterwards, the other two, PmLox and PmCdx are expressed during embryogenesis, within restricted domains of both endoderm and ectoderm. Screening of a Patiria bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library led to the identification of a clone containing the three genes. The transcriptional directions of PmGsx and PmLox are opposed to that of the PmCdx gene within the cluster. Conclusions The identification of P. miniata ParaHox genes has revealed the fact that these genes are clustered in the genome, in contrast to what has been reported for echinoids. Since the presence of an intact cluster, or at least a partial cluster, has been reported in chordates and polychaetes respectively, it becomes clear that within echinoderms, sea urchins have modified the original bilaterian arrangement. Moreover, the sea star ParaHox domains of expression show chordate-like features not found in the sea urchin, confirming that the dynamics of gene expression for the respective genes and their putative regulatory interactions have clearly changed over evolutionary time within the echinoid lineage. PMID:23803323

  2. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria. PMID:11324016

  3. Rotational excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, Mario Hernández; Kalugina, Yulia; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Lique, François

    2014-06-14

    Rotational excitation of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule by collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0, 2) and ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) is investigated at low temperatures using a quantum time independent approach. Both molecules are treated as rigid rotors. The scattering calculations are based on a highly correlated ab initio 4-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface recently published. Rotationally inelastic cross sections among the 13 first rotational levels of HCN were obtained using a pure quantum close coupling approach for total energies up to 1200 cm{sup −1}. The corresponding thermal rate coefficients were computed for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The HCN rate coefficients are strongly dependent on the rotational level of the H{sub 2} molecule. In particular, the rate coefficients for collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) are significantly lower than those for collisions with ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) and para-H{sub 2}( j = 2). Propensity rules in favor of even Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) whereas propensity rules in favor of odd Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with H{sub 2}( j ⩾ 1). The new rate coefficients were compared with previously published HCN-para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) rate coefficients. Significant differences were found due the inclusion of the H{sub 2} rotational structure in the scattering calculations. These new rate coefficients will be crucial to improve the estimation of the HCN abundance in the interstellar medium.

  4. In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcato, Carla

    1997-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

  5. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. he data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. ull-sc...

  6. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

  7. Relacin masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretacin de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un ncleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxgeno como predice la teora standard de evolucin estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aqu, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones qumicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el cdigo de evolucin estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho cdigo resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolucin estelar mediante la tcnica de relajacin de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripcin fsica muy detallada y actualizada.

  8. Saturns Tropospheric Temperatures and Para-Hydrogen Distribution from Ten Years of Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, Patrick G.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Barstow, Joanna; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/CIRS observations of Saturns 10-1400 cm-1 spectrum have been inverted to construct a global record of tropospheric temperature and para-hydrogen variability over the ten-year span of the Cassini mission. The data record the slow reversal of seasonal asymmetries in tropospheric conditions from northern winter (2004, Ls=293), through northern spring equinox (2009, Ls=0) to the present day (2014, Ls=60). Mid-latitude tropospheric temperatures have cooled by approximately 4-6 K in the south and warmed by 2-4 K in the north, with the seasonal contrast decreasing with depth. CIRS detected the north polar minimum 100-mbar temperatures 6-8 years after winter solstice, whereas the south polar maximum occurred 1-2 years after summer solstice, consistent with the lag times predicted by radiative equilibrium models. Warm polar cyclones and the northern hexagon persist throughout the mission, suggesting that they are permanent features of Saturns tropospheric circulation. The 200-mbar thermal enhancement (knee) that was strongest in the summer but weak or absent in winter in 2004-2006 (Fletcher et al., 2007, Icarus 189, p.457-478) has now shifted northward and is present globally in 2014, suggestive of radiative heating in Saturns tropospheric haze layer. Saturns para-H2 fraction, which serves as a tracer of both tropospheric mixing and the efficiency of re-equilibration between the ortho- and para-hydrogen states, is slowly altering: super-equilibrium conditions (para-H2 fraction exceeding equilibrium expectations and suggestive of subsiding airmasses) that dominated the southern summer hemisphere are now weakening, whereas the sub-equilibrium conditions (suggestive of uplift) of the northern winter are being replaced by equilibrium or super-equilibrium conditions in spring. The thermal knee and the para-H2 distribution are tracking both the increased spring illumination and the increasing tropospheric haze opacity of the springtime hemisphere observed via colour changes in visible light, suggesting a close connection between the tropospheric temperatures, para-H2 and haze characteristics.

  9. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  10. A Density Functional Approach to Para-hydrogen at Zero Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancilotto, Francesco; Barranco, Manuel; Navarro, Jesús; Pi, Marti

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a density functional (DF) which reproduces by constructing either the metastable liquid or the solid equation of state of bulk para-hydrogen, as derived from quantum Monte Carlo zero temperature calculations. As an application, we have used it to study the structure and energetics of small para-hydrogen clusters made of up to N=40 molecules. We compare our results for liquid clusters with diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations and find a fair agreement between them. In particular, the transition found within DMC between hollow-core structures for small N values and center-filled structures at higher N values is reproduced. The present DF approach yields results for (pH_2 )_N clusters indicating that for small N values a liquid-like character of the clusters prevails, while solid-like clusters are instead energetically favored for N ≥ 15.

  11. Molecular characterization of neurally expressing genes in the para sodium channel gene cluster of Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Chang-Sook; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. 76 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Copolymers containing meta-pyridylvinylene and para-arylenevinylene fragments: synthesis, quaternization reaction, and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barashkov, Nikolay N.; Olivos, Hernando J.; Ferraris, John P.

    1997-12-01

    We report the Wittig reaction of the diphosphonium salt of 2,6-bis(chloromethyl)pyridine with terephthaldehyde, 2.5- dioctyloxyterephthaldehyde, or 9,10-anthracenedicarbaldehyde to form conjugated copolymers with fragments of 2,6 - pyridylene and para-arylenevinylene. The protonation reaction of poly(para-arylenevinylene)-co-(meta- pyridylvinylene) with hydrochloric acid and the quaternization reaction of poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-1,4- phenylenevinylene)-co-(2,6-pyridylvinylene) with methyl triflate have been investigated by spectrophotometric and fluorescent methods. The absorption, excitation and fluorescence spectra of these copolymers as well as their corresponding model compounds were studied and compared. The photophysical properties of the investigated polymers suggest that these materials could be good candidates for the fabrication of efficient blue and green light-emitting diodes.

  13. Control of Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanodots via Surface Functionalization using Para-substituted Anilines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Kim, Ji-Hee; Seok Jeong, Mun; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-07-01

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, composed of polyaromatic carbon domains surrounded by amorphous carbon frames, and have attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting properties. There are still, however, challenges ahead such as blue-biased photoluminescence, spectral broadness, undefined energy gaps and etc. In this report, we chemically modify the surface of C-dots with a series of para-substituted anilines to control their photoluminescence. Our surface functionalization endows our C-dots with new energy levels, exhibiting long-wavelength (up to 650?nm) photoluminescence of very narrow spectral widths. The roles of para-substituted anilines and their substituents in developing such energy levels are thoroughly studied by using transient absorption spectroscopy. We finally demonstrate light-emitting devices exploiting our C-dots as a phosphor, converting UV light to a variety of colors with internal quantum yields of ca. 20%.

  14. Chirality driven crystallization behavior of ortho, meta, and para-cyanophenyl glycerol ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredikhin, Alexander A.; Litvinov, Igor A.; Krivolapov, Dmitry B.; Fattahov, Bulat R.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Akhatova, Flyura S.; Bredikhina, Zemfira A.

    2010-09-01

    Enantiopure and racemic samples of ortho, meta, and para CN-substituted phenyl glycerol ethers 1- 3 were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute configuration for ( S)- 1 was established through Flack parameter method. Whereas ortho-derivative 1 demonstrates spontaneous resolution upon crystallization, homochiral lattice for scalemic meta-derivative 2 is exceeded in stability by heterochiral lattice of racemic compound. This tendency becomes all the more evident for the para-derivative 3, in which case the difference in Gibbs free energy between rac and scal lattices amounts Δ G0 = -4.48 kJ mol -1. Most of these phenomena could be understood by reference to crystal packing details.

  15. Kyste géant para-urétral feminine

    PubMed Central

    Kassogué, Amadou; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Ouattara, Zanafon; Diarra, Alkadri; Tembely, Aly; Ouattara, Kalilou; Farih, My Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Le kyste géant para-urétral féminin infecté est rarement rapporté dans la littérature. Ce kyste est différent du diverticule sous urétral sur le plan clinique, diagnostique et thérapeutique. Sa pathogénie se confond avec celle des diverticules sous urétraux. Son traitement n'est pas bien codifié, vu sa rareté. Nous rapportons un cas atypique de kyste géant para urétral infecté chez une jeune femme de 26 ans. Le kyste était symptomatique et la patiente a eu un traitement chirurgical. Nous discutons les aspects cliniques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare à travers une revue de la littérature.

  16. ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CO-PARA-H{sub 2} MOLECULAR COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, A. V.; Surin, L. A.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Panfilov, V. A.; Dumesh, B. S.; Raston, P. L.; Jaeger, W.

    2009-10-01

    The rotational spectrum of the CO-para-H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, produced using a molecular jet expansion, was observed with two different techniques: OROTRON intracavity millimeter-wave spectroscopy and pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Thirteen transitions in the frequency range from 80 to 130 GHz and two transitions in the 14 GHz region were measured and assigned, allowing for a precise determination of the corresponding energy level positions of CO-para-H{sub 2}. The data obtained enable further radio astronomical searches for this molecular complex and provide a sensitive test of the currently best available intermolecular potential energy surface for the CO-H{sub 2} system.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

  18. Action spectra for ultraviolet photosensitized killing of mammalian cells by misonidazole and para-nitroacetophenone

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.J.; Sutherland, B.M.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1983-05-01

    Chinese hamster fibroblasts in monolayer culture were exposed to ulraviolet radiation at 313, 334, 365, 380, and 405 nm in the presence of either misonidazole or para-nitroacetophenone, drugs which act as both photosensitizers and radiosensitizers of cell killing. Survival was measured by a colony-forming assay. The resulting action spectra for cell death photosensitized by the drugs (the reciprocals of the exposures required at each wavelength to reduce cell survival to a given level) closely match their absorption spectra over a range of three orders of magnitude. These results demonstrate that cells can be killed upon excitation of misonidazole or para-nitroacetophenone in the absence of any other types of energy deposition or biomolecular damage.

  19. Control of Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanodots via Surface Functionalization using Para-substituted Anilines

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Kim, Ji-Hee; Seok Jeong, Mun; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, composed of polyaromatic carbon domains surrounded by amorphous carbon frames, and have attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting properties. There are still, however, challenges ahead such as blue-biased photoluminescence, spectral broadness, undefined energy gaps and etc. In this report, we chemically modify the surface of C-dots with a series of para-substituted anilines to control their photoluminescence. Our surface functionalization endows our C-dots with new energy levels, exhibiting long-wavelength (up to 650 nm) photoluminescence of very narrow spectral widths. The roles of para-substituted anilines and their substituents in developing such energy levels are thoroughly studied by using transient absorption spectroscopy. We finally demonstrate light-emitting devices exploiting our C-dots as a phosphor, converting UV light to a variety of colors with internal quantum yields of ca. 20%. PMID:26218869

  20. Regioselective Enzymatic β-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the β-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the β-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  1. Repeated Topical Application of para-Phenylenediamine Induces Renal Histopathological Changes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bharali, Manuj Kr.; Basumatary, Rajeev; Rahman, Taibur; Dutta, Karabi

    2012-01-01

    Hemolytic anemia and rhabdomyolysis have been often reported to be an adverse effect of drug- and chemical-induced toxicity both in experimental and real-life scenario. para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a derivative of para-nitroaniline and has been found as an ingredient of almost all hair dye formulations in varying concentrations from 2% to 4% w/v. Earlier studies have reported that the accidental oral ingestion of PPD in humans can lead to acute renal failure because of rhabdomyolysis. In the present investigation, we have tested the chronic topical application of PPD and its effect on the renal histology of Sprague-Dawley rats. The experiment provides clear evidence that topically applied PPD induces hemolytic anemia as evident from the decrease in the total RBC count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin content apart from rhabdomyolysis which subsequently causes acute renal failure in rats. PMID:22778510

  2. Complexation and determination of palladium (II) ion with para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid spectrophotometrically.

    PubMed

    Hanna, W G

    1999-11-15

    The complexation of para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid azo dye with Pd(II) has been studied spectrophotometrically. Protonation constant (pK(a)) of the ligand has been calculated and the stability conditional constants of para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid ligand with palladium ion has been determined at a constant temperature (25.0 degrees C), where the molar ratio of this complex is 1:1 (metal:ligand) with logbeta(1)=3.75, and 1:2 with logbeta(2)=8.55. Solid complex of para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid has been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and FTIR spectral data. A procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of Pd(II) using para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid as a new azo chromophore is proposed where it is rapid, sensitive and highly specific. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 0.50-10.00 ppm at pH 5.0-6.0 to form a violet-red complex (epsilon=7.7 x 10(4) l(-1) mol(-1) cm(-1) at lambda(max)=560 nm). Metal ions such as Cu(II), Cr(III), La(III), Yb(III), Y(III), and Rh(III) interfere with the complex. Ammonium salt of trimellitic acid is used to precipitate some of the interfering ions and a scheme for separation of Pd(II) from a synthetic mixture similar in composition to platinum ore or deposit was made. PMID:18967771

  3. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiao dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg est sendo projetado e construdo pelo grupo Grviton. Sua construo est ocorrendo no Laboratrio de Estado Slido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de So Paulo, na cidade de So Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esfrica de cobre-alumnio, com 65 cm de dimetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficcia desse sistema, entretanto, s poder ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecnico de altssima sensibilidade acoplado massa ressonante. Neste momento, no s este sistema de isolamento vibracional ser posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiao que transporta os sinais de microondas at os transdutores e destes para a pr-amplificao. Apesar dessa fiao ter sido projetada para no apresentar nenhum contato com a superfcie esfrica da antena, de maneira a no haver nenhuma transmisso de rudo vibracional do laboratrio para esta, deve-se minimizar o rudo microfnico produzido nessa fiao por oscilaes mecnicas, uma vez que ela no utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual no ter nenhuma ressonncia mecnica na faixa de freqncias de interesse para deteco (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibraes nessa faixa no sero amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Atravs de simulaes feitas neste programa, determinamos os parmetros geomtricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior regio espectral de interesse livre de ressonncias.

  4. Synthesis of icariin from kaempferol through regioselective methylation and para-ClaisenCope rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Qinggang; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yuan, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary The hemisynthesis of the naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid glycoside icariin (1) has been accomplished in eleven steps with 7% overall yield from kaempferol. The 4?-OH methylation of kaempferol, the 8-prenylation of 3-O-methoxymethyl-4?-O-methyl-5-O-prenyl-7-O-benzylkaempferol (8) via para-ClaisenCope rearrangement catalyzed by Eu(fod)3 in the presence of NaHCO3, and the glycosylation of icaritin (3) are the key steps. PMID:26425179

  5. Iodine(III)-Mediated para-Selective Direct Imidation of Anilides.

    PubMed

    Pialat, Amélie; Bergès, Julien; Sabourin, Axel; Vinck, Robin; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    The direct, nucleophilic imidation of acetanilide derivatives has been performed under mild, iodine(III)-mediated or -catalyzed conditions, employing lithium triflimide as the nitrogen source. The reaction exhibits exclusive regioselectivity for the para position and shows a good tolerance for varied functional groups at both the ortho or meta positions. Preliminary mechanistic data suggest that the LiNTf2 reagent plays a key role in the reactivity. PMID:26095155

  6. Conformerism, enantiomorphism and double catemer motifs in para-substituted nostoclide analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Almeida; Valero Antolinez, Isabel; de Souza Corrêa, Rodrigo; Martins, Felipe Terra; Doriguetto, Antônio Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We have here elucidated the crystal structures of five nostoclide analogues. A common feature in all compounds is a substituent at the para-position of the benzylidene group. Compounds with either bromine (3) or hydroxyl (4) as para-substituent crystallizes with Z' = 2 as result of conformerism. It was also observed that Z' > 1 in the compound with a para-dimethylamino substituent (1). However, its four crystallographically independent molecules are conformationally similar. They are not related by crystallographic symmetry due to the offset packing of their C-H … Odbnd C nonclassical hydrogen bonded double chains. This compound (1) has also crystallized in a chiral space group (P21) despite the lack of a stereocenter. Such enantiomorphism phenomenon is related to the presence of only one of the two mirror benzyl conformations with phenyl ring at the equatorial position opposite the lactone oxygen atom. The molecular mean plane of nostoclide analogues has been featured by high level of planarity, except in the brominated compound where two twisted conformations occurred due to rotations on the single bond axis into benzylidene group. The benzyl conformation has been the greatest difference between the two crystallographically independent molecules of the para-hydroxylated compound (4). The crystal packing of the compounds is marked by double catemer motif assembled through C-H … Odbnd C non-classical hydrogen bonds, although C-H … π interactions do play an important role in stabilizing the crystal packing of some compounds of the series.

  7. [A case of para-cerebral abscess as a complication of middle ear purulent inflammation].

    PubMed

    Ko?ody?ski, Piotr; Ja?wiec, Przemys?aw; Barna?, Szczepan; Wilczy?ski, Krzysztof; Ca?ka, Karol; Kedzierski, Bart?omiej; Bojarski, Boles?aw; Chudzik, Maciej

    2002-01-01

    We reported the case of para-cerebral abscess in the left temporal region, being a complication of exacerbation of chronic middle ear inflammation with cholesteatoma. Computed tomography was performed, which helped in the diagnosis. The patient was treated conservatively by aimed antibiotic therapy. We performed surgery of the middle ear, with abscess removal through trepan apertura attaining good results. We have presented principles of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures which help in prevention of intracranial complications in ear diseases. PMID:12418291

  8. 4-Amino-12-methylsulfonyloxy-[2.2]paracyclophane

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangchao; Duan, Wenzeng; Han, Yinfeng

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C17H19NO3S, was synthesized from 4-benzhydrylideneamino-12-hydroxy-[2.2]paracyclophane and methanesulfonyl chloride. In the molecule, the distance between the centroids of two aromatic rings is 2.960?(5)?. In the crystal, weak NH?O and CH?O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into layers parallel to the ac plane. PMID:24526969

  9. Nickel-catalysed para-CH activation of pyridine with switchable regioselective hydroheteroarylation of allylarenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Chih; Chen, Chien-Hung; Liu, Cheng-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Shiuan; Lin, Yung-Huei; Ong, Tiow-Gan

    2015-12-14

    para-CH activation of pyridine with allylbenzene is described by Ni/Al cooperative catalysis in combination with a bulkier NHC ligand and a Lewis acid, leading to linear hydroheteroarylation products. Interestingly, the branch selectivity can be achieved by using the combination of a less sterically hindered amino-NHC ligand and AlMe3 through tandem reaction of facile alkene isomerization followed by a slow CH bond activation process. PMID:26451893

  10. Parallel Visualization and Analysis with ParaView on a Cray XT4

    SciTech Connect

    Patchett, John; Ahrens, James; Ahern, Sean; Pugmire, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Scienti c data sets produced by modern supercomputers like ORNL s Cray XT 4, Jaguar, can be extremely large, making visualization and analysis more di cult as moving large resultant data to dedicated analysis systems can be pro- hibitively expensive. We share our continuing work of integrating a parallel visu- alization system, ParaView, on ORNL s Jaguar system and our e orts to enable extreme scale interactive data visualization and analysis. We will discuss porting challenges and present performance numbers.

  11. An Unusual Case of Bilateral Maxillary and Mandibular Para Premolar: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chanagay, Sunil Kumar Vishwanath; Singh, Vikram; Bantwal, Sunil Rao; Muniyappa, Manjunatha

    2013-01-01

    The presence of supernumerary teeth is not uncommon in the general population. They occur more frequently in patients with a family history of such teeth. It is rare to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. There have been very few documented cases of bilateral maxillary and mandibular supernumeraries in the premolar region. An unusual case of a 35-year-old man with six para premolars and complete dentition is presented. PMID:24396358

  12. Cáncer de pulmón—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de pulmón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas

  13. Cáncer de cuello uterino—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  14. Consistent assignment of the vibrations of symmetric and asymmetric para-disubstituted benzene molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejeva, Anna; Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William D.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2016-03-01

    We give a description of the phenyl-ring-localized vibrational modes of the ground states of the para-disubstituted benzene molecules including both symmetric and asymmetric cases. In line with others, we quickly conclude that the use of Wilson mode labels is misleading and ambiguous; we conclude the same regarding the related ones of Varsányi. Instead we label the modes consistently based upon the Mulliken (Herzberg) method for the modes of para-difluorobenzene (pDFB). Since we wish the labelling scheme to cover both symmetrically- and asymmetrically-substituted molecules, we apply the Mulliken labelling under C2v symmetry. By studying the variation of the vibrational wavenumbers with mass of the substituent, we are able to identify the corresponding modes across a wide range of molecules and hence provide consistent assignments. Particularly interesting are pairs of vibrations that evolve from in- and out-of-phase motions in pDFB to more localized modes in asymmetric molecules. We consider the para isomers of the following: the symmetric dihalobenzenes, xylene, hydroquinone, the asymmetric dihalobenzenes, halotoluenes, halophenols and cresol.

  15. Theoretical study of the design of a catalyst for para to ortho hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of Petzinger and Scalapino (1973) was thoroughly reviewed, and all of the basic equations for paramagnetic para to ortho hydrogen catalysis re-derived. There are only a few minor phase errors and errors of omission in the description of the theory. Three models (described by Petzinger and Scalapino) for the rate of para to ortho H2 catalysis were worked out, and uniform agreement obtained to within a constant factor of 2 pi. The analytical methods developed in the course of this study were then extended to two new models, which more adequately describe the process of surface catalysis including transfer of hydrogen molecules onto and off of the surface. All five equations for the para to ortho catalytic rate of conversion are described. The two new equations describe the catalytic rate for these models: H2 on the surface is a 2-D gas with lifetime tau; and H2 on the surface is a 2-D liquid undergoing Brownian motion (diffusion) with surface lifetime tau.

  16. Fragrance material review on 1-(para-menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization, data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) [Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013 A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.] for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. PMID:24246181

  17. Para-GMRF: parallel algorithm for anomaly detection of hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Na; Wang, Wei

    2007-12-01

    The hyperspectral imager is capable of collecting hundreds of images corresponding to different wavelength channels for the observed area simultaneously, which make it possible to discriminate man-made objects from natural background. However, the price paid for the wealthy information is the enormous amounts of data, usually hundreds of Gigabytes per day. Turning the huge volume data into useful information and knowledge in real time is critical for geoscientists. In this paper, the proposed parallel Gaussian-Markov random field (Para-GMRF) anomaly detection algorithm is an attempt of applying parallel computing technology to solve the problem. Based on the locality of GMRF algorithm, we partition the 3-D hyperspectral image cube in spatial domain and distribute data blocks to multiple computers for concurrent detection. Meanwhile, to achieve load balance, a work pool scheduler is designed for task assignment. The Para-GMRF algorithm is organized in master-slave architecture, coded in C programming language using message passing interface (MPI) library and tested on a Beowulf cluster. Experimental results show that Para-GMRF algorithm successfully conquers the challenge and can be used in time sensitive areas, such as environmental monitoring and battlefield reconnaissance.

  18. Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmannov, Lenka; Luke, Vladimr; Il?in, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Koek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik

    2013-10-01

    The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Mller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol-1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

  19. The ortho:para-H_2 ratio in C- and J-type shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgenbus, D.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forts, G.; Flower, D. R.

    2000-04-01

    We have computed extensive grids of models of both C- and J-type planar shock waves, propagating in dark, cold molecular clouds, in order to study systematically the behaviour of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio. Careful attention was paid to both macroscopic (dynamical) and microscopic (chemical reactions and collisional population transfer in H_2) aspects. We relate the predictions of the models to observational determinations of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio using both pure rotational lines and rovibrational lines. As an illustration, we consider ISO and ground-based H_2 observations of HH 54. Neither planar C-type nor planar J-type shocks appear able to account fully for these observations. Given the additional constraints provided by the observed ortho:para H_2 ratios, a C-type bowshock, or a C-type precursor followed by a J-type shock, remain as plausible models. Tables~2a-f and 4a-f are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  20. Developmental validation of the ParaDNA() Intelligence System-A novel approach to DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Stephen; Dawnay, Nick; Ball, Glyn; Stafford-Allen, Beccy; Tribble, Nicholas; Rendell, Paul; Neary, Kelsey; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack; Kallifatidis, Beatrice; Mendel, Julian; Mills, DeEtta K; Wells, Simon

    2015-07-01

    DNA profiling through the analysis of STRs remains one of the most widely used tools in human identification across the world. Current laboratory STR analysis is slow, costly and requires expert users and interpretation which can lead to instances of delayed investigations or non-testing of evidence on budget grounds. The ParaDNA() Intelligence System has been designed to provide a simple, fast and robust way to profile DNA samples in a lab or field-deployable manner. The system analyses 5-STRs plus amelogenin to deliver a DNA profile that enables users to gain rapid investigative leads and intelligent prioritisation of samples in human identity testing applications. Utilising an innovative sample collector, minimal training is required to enable both DNA analysts and nonspecialist personnel to analyse biological samples directly, without prior processing, in approximately 75min. The test uses direct PCR with fluorescent HyBeacon() detection of STR allele lengths to provide a DNA profile. The developmental validation study described here followed the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines and tested the sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy, inhibitor tolerance, and performance of the ParaDNA Intelligence System on a range of mock evidence items. The data collected demonstrate that the ParaDNA Intelligence System displays useful DNA profiles when sampling a variety of evidence items including blood, saliva, semen and touch DNA items indicating the potential to benefit a number of applications in fields such as forensic, military and disaster victim identification (DVI). PMID:25980941

  1. Otimizao de procedimento de manobra para induo de reentrada de um satlite retornvel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, W.; Suarez, M.

    2003-08-01

    Veculos espaciais que retornam Terra passam por regimes de velocidade e condies de vo distintos. Estas diferenas dificultam sua concepo aerodinmica e o planejamento de seu retorno. A partir de uma proposta de um veculo orbital retornvel (satlite SARA, em desenvolvimento no IAE/CTA) para realizao de experimentos cientficos e tecnolgicos em ambiente de baixa gravidade, surge a necessidade de realizarem-se estudos considerando-se os aspectos relativos sua aerodinmica. Aps o lanamento, o veculo deve permanecer em rbita pelo tempo necessrio para a conduo de experimentos, sendo depois direcionado Terra e recuperado em solo. A concepo aerodinmica de importncia para o vo em suas diversas fases e deve considerar aspectos relativos estabilizao Aerodinmica e ao arrasto atmosfrico, sendo este ltimo de importncia crucial na anlise do aquecimento a ser enfrentado. A manobra de retorno inclui consideraes sobre as condies atmosfricas e dinmica de reentrada, devendo ser calculada de forma mais precisa possvel. O trabalho proposto avalia estudos da dinmica de vo de um satlite recupervel considerando aspectos relativos determinao orbital com GPS, tcnica utilizada com sucesso na CONAE, e seu comportamento aerodinmico em vo balstico de retorno, com nfase em sua fase de reentrada atmosfrica. Busca-se otimizar a manobra de reentrada de tal forma que a utilizao do sistema GPS garanta minimizar a rea de impacto com o solo.

  2. Comparao de modelos para o clculo de perturbaes orbitais devidas mar terrestre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Pinto, J.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Aplicaes recentes de satlites artificiais com finalidades geodinmicas requerem rbitas determinadas com bastante preciso. Em particular mars terrestres influenciam o potencial terrestre causando perturbaes adicionais no movimento de satlites artificiais, as quais tem sido medidas por diversos processos. A atrao exercida pela lua e pelo sol sobre a terra produz deslocamentos elsticos em seu interior e uma protuberncia em sua superfcie. O resultado uma pequena variao na distribuio da massa na terra, consequentemente no geopotencial. As perturbaes nos elementos orbitais de satlites artificiais terrestres devidas a mar terrestre podem ser estudadas a partir das equaes de Lagrange, considerando-se um conveniente potencial. Por outro lado, como tem sido feito pelo IERS, as mudanas induzidas pela mar terrestre no geopotencial podem ser convenientemente modeladas como variaes nos coeficientes Cnm e Snm do geopotencial. As duas teorias ainda no foram comparados para um mesmo satlite. Neste trabalho so apresentadas e comparadas as variaes de longo perodo e seculares nas perturbaes orbitais devidas mar terrestre, calculadas por um modelo simples, o de Kozai, e pelo modelo do IERS. Resultados preliminares mostram, para os satlites SCD2 e CBERS1, e para a Lua em movimento elptico e precessionando, as perturbaes seculares no argumento do perigeu e na longitude do nodo ascendente.

  3. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference. PMID:22897105

  4. The ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-22

    The discovery of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the diffuse interstellar medium has dramatically changed our view of the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse molecular clouds. However, another surprise has been that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in these clouds is inconsistent with the temperature derived from the excitation of H{sub 2}, the dominant species in these clouds. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we have embarked on an experimental program to measure the nuclear spin dependence of the dissociative electron recombination rate of H{sub 3}{sup +} using the CRYRING and TSR ion storage rings. We have also performed the first measurements of the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +}+H{sub 2}?H{sub 2}+H{sub 3}{sup +} below room temperature. This reaction is likely the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe, and plays an important role in interconverting ortho- and para-H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we have constructed a steady-state chemical model for diffuse clouds, which takes into account the spin-dependence of the formation of H{sub 3}{sup +}, its electron recombination, and its reaction with H{sub 2}. We find that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in diffuse clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination and thermalization by reactive collisions.

  5. Enhanced mitigation of para-chlorophenol using stratified activated carbon adsorption columns.

    PubMed

    Sze, Michael Fan Fu; McKay, Gordon

    2012-03-01

    The adsorptive removal of toxic para-chlorophenol using activated carbon adsorption columns is a proven effective engineering process. This paper examined the possibility to stratify an adsorbent bed into layers, in order to enhance the adsorption process performance in terms of increased column service time and adsorbent bed saturation. Four different types of fixed-bed adsorption columns are used and compared under the same operating conditions, but with the variation of column geometry and activated carbon particle size stratification. The Type 3 column - a cylindrical column with particle stratification packing, is found to be the most efficient choice, as the extent of column service time and adsorbent bed saturation are the largest. This could eventually decrease the frequency of adsorbent replacement/regeneration and hence reduce the operating cost of the fixed-bed adsorption process. The Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model (HSDM) was applied successfully to describe the dynamic adsorption of para-chlorophenol onto Filtrasorb 400 (F400) activated carbon in different types of columns. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm model equation, an experimentally derived external mass transfer correlation and a constant surface diffusivity are used in the HSDM. The optimised surface diffusivity of para-chlorophenol is found to be 1.20E-8 cm(2)/s, which is in good agreement with other phenolics/F400 carbon diffusing systems in literature. PMID:22154109

  6. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  7. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of Para red in foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wei, Keyi; Li, Hao; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

    2012-05-01

    Para red is a synthetic dye and a potential genotoxic carcinogen. A hapten mimicking Para red structure was synthesized by introducing a carboxyl to the naphthol part of Para red and coupled to carrier protein to form an immunogen for the production of specific antibodies. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Para red in food samples. The limit of detection and inhibition half-maximum concentrations of Para red in phosphate buffered saline with 10% methanol were 0.06 and 2.2 ng mL(-1), respectively. Cross-reactivity values of the ELISA with the tested compounds including Sudan red I, II, III, IV, and G, sunset yellow, 2-naphthol, and 4-nitroaniline were ?0.2%. This assay was used to determine Para red in tomato sauce, chilli sauce, chilli powder and sausage samples after ultrasonic extraction, cleanup and concentration steps. The average recoveries, repeatability (intraday extractions and analysis), and intra-laboratory reproducibility (interday extractions and analysis) were in the range 90-108%, 4-12% and 8-17%, respectively. This assay was compared to a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for 28 samples, displaying a good correlation (R(2) = 0.95). Para red residues in 53 real world samples determined by ELISA were below the limit of detection. PMID:22439137

  8. Identification of an intact ParaHox cluster with temporal colinearity but altered spatial colinearity in the hemichordate Ptychodera flava

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ParaHox and Hox genes are thought to have evolved from a common ancestral ProtoHox cluster or from tandem duplication prior to the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians. Similar to Hox clusters, chordate ParaHox genes including Gsx, Xlox, and Cdx, are clustered and their expression exhibits temporal and spatial colinearity. In non-chordate animals, however, studies on the genomic organization of ParaHox genes are limited to only a few animal taxa. Hemichordates, such as the Enteropneust acorn worms, have been used to gain insights into the origins of chordate characters. In this study, we investigated the genomic organization and expression of ParaHox genes in the indirect developing hemichordate acorn worm Ptychodera flava. Results We found that P. flava contains an intact ParaHox cluster with a similar arrangement to that of chordates. The temporal expression order of the P. flava ParaHox genes is the same as that of the chordate ParaHox genes. During embryogenesis, the spatial expression pattern of PfCdx in the posterior endoderm represents a conserved feature similar to the expression of its orthologs in other animals. On the other hand, PfXlox and PfGsx show a novel expression pattern in the blastopore. Nevertheless, during metamorphosis, PfXlox and PfCdx are expressed in the endoderm in a spatially staggered pattern similar to the situation in chordates. Conclusions Our study shows that P. flava ParaHox genes, despite forming an intact cluster, exhibit temporal colinearity but lose spatial colinearity during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis, partial spatial colinearity is retained in the transforming larva. These results strongly suggest that intact ParaHox gene clustering was retained in the deuterostome ancestor and is correlated with temporal colinearity. PMID:23802544

  9. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of Vibrational Frequency Shifts of CO in Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Stimulated by Fajardo's remarkable study of the rovibrational spectra of CO isotopologues trapped in solid para-hydrogen, we have performed quantum Monte Carlo simulations to predict his observed vibrational frequency shifts and inertial rotational constants using 2-body potentials based on the best available models for the pH_2-pH_2 and CO-pH_2, potential energy functions. We started by fitting an analytic `Morse/Long-Range' (MLR) function to the 1D ``adiabaic hindered rotor" version of Hinde's 5D pH_2-pH_2 potential developed by Faruk et al. We then modified it to take account of many-body effects by scaling it until it yielded the correct equilibrium lattice parameters for the fcc and hcp structures of pure solid para-hydrogen. A CO molecule was then placed at different interstitial or substitution sites in large equilibrated fcc or hcp para-hydrogen lattices, and the structural and dynamical behaviors of the micro-solvation environment around CO were simulated with a PIMC algorithm using a 2D effective pH_2-CO potential based on the 5D H_2--CO potential energy surface recently reported by Li et al., with a lattice sum of values of the 2D CO vibrational difference potential being use to predict the vibrational frequency shift. The effective rotational constants Beff for CO in different solid para-hydrogen structures were also calculated and compared with the experimental observations and with predicted Beff values for CO in large-sized para-hydrogen--CO clusters. M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). R. Hinde, J. Chem. Phys., 128, 154308 (2008). H. Li, X-L. Zhang, R.J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 164315 (2013). R.J. Le Roy, C.C. Haugen, J. Tao and Hui Li, Mol. Phys., 109, 435 (2011) N. Faruk, R.J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. (submitted December 2013). Y. Mizumoto and Y. Ohtsuki, Chem. Phys. Lett. 501, 304 (2011).

  11. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

    2008-07-29

    The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source repository and issued as part of its Version 8.1 beta release. This source was transmitted to NSWC-IHD and in collaboration with LLNL personnel the entire ParaDyn software suite successfully installed and demonstrated on its new SGI Altix machine. The ability of even minor numbers of processors for the structural dynamics to impact overall time-to-solution for DYSMAS has been demonstrated. Assessments of combined parallel efficiencies are beginning to highlight areas for further DYSMAS optimizations.

  12. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  13. Dicopper(II) Metallacyclophanes with Electroswitchable Polymethyl-Substituted para-Phenylene Spacers.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Soria, Jess; Castellano, Mara; Ruiz-Garca, Rafael; Cano, Joan; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Ruiz-Prez, Catalina; Pasn, Jorge; Caadillas-Delgado, Laura; Armentano, Donatella; Journaux, Yves; Pardo, Emilio

    2013-09-01

    Double-stranded anionic dinuclear copper(II) metallacyclic complexes of the paracyclophane type [Cu2L2](4-) have been prepared by the Cu(II)-mediated self-assembly of different para-phenylenebis(oxamato) bridging ligands with either zero-, one-, or four-electron-donating methyl substituents (L=N,N'-para-phenylenebis(oxamate) (ppba; 1), 2-methyl- N,N'-para-phenylenebis(oxamate) (Meppba; 2), and 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl- N,N'-para-phenylenebis(oxamate) (Me4ppba; 3)). These complexes have been isolated as their tetra-n-butylammonium (1 a-3 a), lithium(I) (1 b-3 b), and tetraphenylphosphonium salts (1 c-3 c). The X-ray crystal structures of 1 a and 3 c show a parallel-displaced ?-stacked conformation with a smaller deviation from perpendicularity between the two benzene rings and the basal planes of the square planar Cu(II) ions when increasing the number of methyl substituents (average dihedral angles (?) of 58.72(7) and 73.67(5) for 1 a and 3 c, respectively). Variable-temperature (2.0-300 K) magnetic-susceptibility measurements show an overall increase of the intramolecular antiferromagnetic coupling with the number of methyl substituents onto the para-phenylene spacers (-J=75-95, 100-124, and 128-144 cm(-1) for 1 a-c, 2 a-c, and 3 a-c, respectively; H=-JS1S2). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements show a reversible one-electron oxidation of the double polymethyl-substituted para-phenylenediamidate bridging skeleton at a relatively low formal potential that decreases with the number of methyl substituents (E1=+0.33, +0.24, and +0.15 V vs. SCE for 1-3, respectively). The monooxidized dicopper(II) ?-radical cation species 3' prepared by the chemical oxidation of 3 with bromine exhibits intense metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) transitions in the visible and near-IR (?max=595 and 875 nm, respectively) regions together with a rhombic EPR signal with a seven-line splitting pattern due to hyperfine coupling with the nuclear spin of the two Cu(II) ions. Density functional (DF) calculations for 3' evidence a characteristic iminoquinonoid-type short-long-short alternating sequence of C-N and C-C bonds for both tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamidate bridges and a large amount of spin density of negative sign mainly delocalized along each of the four benzene C atoms directly attached to the amidate N atoms, which is in agreement with a fully delocalized ?-stacked monoradical ligand description. Hence, the spins of the two Cu(II) ions (SCu=1/2) that are antiparallel aligned in 3 (OFF state) become parallel in 3' (ON state). Further developments may be then envisaged for this new permethylated dicopper(II) paracyclophane with a redox noninnocent ligand as a prototype for molecular magnetic electroswitch. PMID:23873803

  14. IN VITRO EMBRYOTOXICITY OF A SERIES OF PARA-SUBSTITUTED PHENOLS: STRUCTURE, ACTIVITY AND CORRELATION WITH IN VIVO DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The embryotoxicity of phenol and twelve para-substituted congeners on mid-gestation rat embryos was evaluated in vitro. hrough application of correlative procedures and stepwise regression, equation describing the relationship between physical-chemical properties and various meas...

  15. Neoplasias mieloproliferativas y síndromes mielodisplásicos—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de las neoplasias mieloproliferativas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  16. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

  17. Supported transition metal catalysts for para- to ortho-hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Christopher J.; Wang, Wei; Eyman, Darrell P.

    1994-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and improve on existing catalysts for the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen. Starting with a commercially available Air Products nickel silicate, which had a beta value of 20, we were trying to synthesize catalysts that would be an improvement to AP. This was accomplished by preparing silicates with various metals as well as different preparation methods. We also prepared supported ruthenium catalysts by various techniques using several metal precursors to improve present technology. What was also found was that the activation conditions prior to catalytic testing was highly important for both the silicates and the supported ruthenium catalysts. While not the initial focus of the research, we made some interesting observations into the adsorption of H2 on ruthenium. This helped us to get a better understanding of how ortho- to para-H2 conversion takes place, and what features in a catalyst are important to optimize activity. Reactor design was the final area in which some interesting conclusions were drawn. As discussed earlier, the reactor catalyst bed must be constructed using straight 1/8 feet OD stainless steel tubing. It was determined that the use of 1/4 feet OD tubing caused two problems. First, the radius from the center of the bed to the wall was too great for thermal equilibrium. Since the reaction of ortho- to para-H2 is exothermic, the catalyst bed center was warmer than the edges. Second, the catalyst bed was too shallow using a 1/4 feet tube. This caused reactant blow-by which was thought to decrease the measured activity when the flow rate was increased. The 1/8 feet tube corrected both of these concerns.

  18. Contextual influence on the tilt after-effect in foveal and para-foveal vision.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Chen, Xianghui; Gao, Min; Yang, Qiong; Yan, Hongmei

    2015-06-01

    A sensory stimulus can only be properly interpreted in light of the stimuli that surround it in space and time. The tilt illusion (TI) and tilt after-effect (TAE) provide good evidence that the perception of a target depends strongly on both its spatial and temporal context. In previous studies, the TI and TAE have typically been investigated separately, so little is known about their co-effects on visual perception and information processing mechanisms. Here, we considered the influence of the spatial context and the temporal effect together and asked how center-surround context affects the TAE in foveal and para-foveal vision. Our results showed that different center-surround spatial patterns significantly affected the TAE for both foveal and para-foveal vision. In the fovea, the TAE was mainly produced by central adaptive gratings. Cross-oriented surroundings significantly inhibited the TAE, and iso-oriented surroundings slightly facilitated it; surround inhibition was much stronger than surround facilitation. In the para-fovea, the TAE was mainly decided by the surrounding patches. Likewise, a cross-oriented central patch inhibited the TAE, and an iso-oriented one facilitated it, but there was no significant difference between inhibition and facilitation. Our findings demonstrated, at the perceptual level, that our visual system adopts different mechanisms to process consistent or inconsistent central-surround orientation information and that the unequal magnitude of surround inhibition and facilitation is vitally important for the visual system to improve the detectability or discriminability of novel or incongruent stimuli. PMID:25895001

  19. Unprecedented new nonadecyl para-hydroperoxycinnamate isolated from Erythrina excelsa and its cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Kwamou, Guy M N; Sandjo, Louis P; Kuete, Victor; Wandja, Anaelle A K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Efferth, Thomas; Nkengfack, Augustin E

    2015-01-01

    A new unprecedented cinnamate derivative (1) was obtained from Erythrina excelsa (Leguminosae) and identified as nonadecyl para-hydroperoxycinnamate. This compound was isolated together with three known compounds, namely lupeol (2), mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol (3), and isoneorautenol (4). Their structures were established on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopic data in conjunction with those reported in the literature. Compound 1 was evaluated for its capability of inhibiting cancer cell lines and growth of a panel of microbial strains. It turned out that 1 is moderately to significantly cytotoxic against six cancer cell lines and shows weak to no antimicrobial activity. PMID:25220189

  20. Salud Para Su Carozn--a Latino promotora-led cardiovascular health education program.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Jovonni R; Alvarado, Matilde

    2012-01-01

    Salud Para Su Carozn is a culturally sensitive, community-based program to increase heart healthy knowledge and behaviors among Latinos. Promotoras were trained using a 10-session manual to teach participants from 7 communities about heart disease risk factors and skills to achieve heart healthy behaviors. In 435 participants with pre-to-post self-reported data, there were increases in physical activity outside of work (57%-78%), heart health knowledge (49%-76%), and confidence in preparing heart healthy meals (66%-81%) (all Ps < .001). Results suggest that promotoras can provide effective health education to improve heart health risk behaviors in select Latino communities. PMID:22367258

  1. ortho-, meta-, and para-dihydroindenofluorene derivatives as host materials for phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Romain, Maxime; Thiery, Sébastien; Shirinskaya, Anna; Declairieux, Céline; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Métivier, Rémi; Poriel, Cyril

    2015-01-19

    This work reports the first structure-properties relationship study of ortho [2,1-c]-, meta [1,2-a]-, and para [1,2-b]dihydroindenofluorenes, highlighting the influence of bridge rigidification on the electronic properties. This study has made it possible to devise an extended π-conjugated molecule with both a high triplet state energy level and excellent thermal and morphological stability. As a proof of concept, dihydroindenofluorenes were used as the host in sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) with high performance. PMID:25469476

  2. Photochemical transformation of nitrate in the presence of para-halogenated phenols in frozen solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abida, O.; Osthoff, H. D.; Sutherland, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photochemical reactions leading to the chemical transformation of trace compounds in the atmosphere do not only occur in the atmospheric gas and liquid phases, but also in the tropospheric ice phase. The photochemical reactions of trace compounds embedded in ice have important implications for the composition of the atmospheric boundary layer in ice and snow covered regions and for interpretation of concentration profiles in snow and ice in the context of the composition of the past atmosphere. One of the prominent reactions is the photolysis of nitrate. This reaction is well established in natural waters, and is of interest since formation of highly mutagenic/carcinogenic nitro-compounds is possible. In contrast, the photochemical behaviour of nitrate in ice and snow is more complex. The photolysis of nitrate embedded in ice has been shown to generate OH radical, NO2(g) and NO(g) as primary photoproducts, but little is known how this photochemistry is affected by the presence of organic impurities embedded in the ice surface. In this work, we studied the effect of the presence of para-halogenated phenols on the photo-transformation of frozen nitrate solutions by Diffuse Reflective Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Moreover, the evolution of volatile nitrogen oxides to the gas phase was monitored by a commercial chemiluminescence NO/NOy monitor, chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS), and thermal-dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS). In addition, some of the organic intermediate products were characterized by GC/MS and HPLC/PDA. We show that DRIFTS can provide a qualitative picture of the chemical transformations that take place at the ice surface and kinetic data on the phototransformation of nitrate. The photochemistry of frozen solutions of nitrate in the presence of various para-halogenated phenols was found to be dependent on the ice temperature, pH, the light intensity, and the concentration and nature of para-halogenated phenols added. The release of NOy species to the gas-phase was dramatically accelerated by low pH values as well as the nature of para-halogen, in the order Cl>Br>F. The major species released were identified as NO2 and HONO.

  3. Salud Para Su Corazon (Health for Your Heart) Community Health Worker Model

    PubMed Central

    Balcazar, H.; Alvarado, M.; Ortiz, G.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy. PMID:21914992

  4. Rational extensions of the trigonometric Darboux-Pschl-Teller potential based on para-Jacobi polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, B.; Grandati, Y.; Quesne, C.

    2015-06-01

    The possibility for the Jacobi equation to admit, in some cases, general solutions that are polynomials has been recently highlighted by Calogero and Yi, who termed them para-Jacobi polynomials. Such polynomials are used here to build seed functions of a Darboux-Bcklund transformation for the trigonometric Darboux-Pschl-Teller potential. As a result, one-step regular rational extensions of the latter depending both on an integer index n and on a continuously varying parameter ? are constructed. For each n value, the eigenstates of these extended potentials are associated with a novel family of ?-dependent polynomials, which are orthogonal on [-1,1].

  5. Effect of nuclear spin symmetry in cold and ultracold reactions: D + para/ortho-H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbotin, Ionel; Ct, Robin

    2015-06-01

    We report results for reaction and vibrational quenching of the collision D with para-H2(v,j=0) and ortho-H2(v,j=1) at cold and ultracold temperatures. We investigate the effect of nuclear spin symmetry for barrier dominated processes (0?slant v?slant 4) and for one barrierless case (v = 5). We find resonant structures for energies in the range corresponding to 0.01-10 K, which depend on the nuclear spin of H2, arising from contributions of specific partial waves. We discuss the implications on the results in this benchmark system for ultracold chemistry.

  6. The Ortho:Para Ratio of H3+ in Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holder; Tom, Brian A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2010-11-01

    Since its first interstellar detection in the mid 1990s, H3+ has proved to be a powerful probe of astrophysical conditions. In cold molecular clouds, only the lowest two rotational energy levels of H3+ are populated: the (J,K) = (1,1) para state and the (1,0) ortho state. The relative populations of these levels can be used to calculate an excitation temperature, Tex. In dense molecular clouds, Tex agrees well with the estimated cloud kinetic temperature. However, in diffuse molecular clouds, Tex is found to be 30 K, while the kinetic temperature, as determined from the excitation temperature T01 (given by the relative populations of the J = 0 and J = 1 rotational levels of H2) is on average 60-70 K in these environments. Because the (1,1) state of H3+ is the lower-energy state, this indicates that there is more para-H3+ in diffuse molecular clouds than would be expected based on the cloud kinetic temperature. To understand the excess para-H3+ (or the lower-than-expected Tex), we have constructed a chemical model that takes into account the nuclear spin dependence of H3+ formation, proton scrambling via collisions with H2, and dissociative recombination with electrons. At the heart of this model is the reaction H3+ + H2 → H2 + H3+ , which can proceed by one of three pathways: the identity, proton hop, and hydrogen exchange. The branching fractions for the three pathways, Sid, Shop, and Sexch, influence the nature and extent of the proton scrambling. We use the microcanonical statistical model of Park and Light (J. Chem. Phys. 126, 044305, 1997) to calculate nuclear-spin-dependent rate coefficients that describe the extent of proton scrambling as a function of temperature and the aforementioned branching fractions. As a result, our model predicts, based on these parameters, what the observed Tex should be for a certain cloud kinetic temperature. Our model suggests that on its own, the H3+ + H2 reaction would effectively thermalize the ortho:para H3+ ratio (i.e., Tex = T01). However, dissociative recombination is taken into account, this thermalization is incomplete, and the resultant competition between thermalization and dissociative recombination seems to reproduce the astronomical observations for Sid ~ 0.8-0.9. However, the details of the spin-dependence of H3+ dissociative recombination are important, and at present, experimentally uncertain. More information about this process is needed to determine the validity of our modeling results.

  7. Photophysical and acid-base properties of para-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabelski, Mariusz; Bojarski, Piotr; Wieczorek, Zbigniew

    2013-05-01

    Ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectra were collected for para-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines in aqueous solution at various pH conditions. Two fluorescing forms were observed for all studied compounds, one protonated (ANsH+) and the second unprotonated (ANs) each of them with specific spectroscopic properties. Changing pH of solution results in the displacement of the equilibrium between two forms. It was found that protonated aniline derivatives in aqueous solutions undergo very fast excited-state proton dissociation and the pKa values obtained from absorption and fluorescence spectra are similar. The excited state pKa? values were calculated using the Frster cycle method.

  8. Ortho-to-para Ratio of Cometary Ammonia in Comet Hale-Bopp: What is Indicated by Ortho-to-para Ratio of Cometary Molecules?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, H.; Watanabe, J.

    The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is thought to be a primordial characteristic of comets. However, the real meaning of the OPR is not clear. A spin temperature derived from the OPR possibly reflects the formation conditions of the molecule. For the comet Hale-Bopp, there are many studies about the formation conditions of the comet and cometary materials, e.g., the OPR of water, D/H ratios in water and hydrogen cyanide, argon and neon abundances, and so on. We demonstrated that the OPR of ammonia could be determined from cometary NH2 observations for comet LINEAR (C/1999S4). In this presentation, we determine the OPR of cometary ammonia in comet Hale -Bopp based on the high-dispersion, optical spectra taken by Zhang et al. (2001). We compare the spin temperature of ammonia with that of water derived in comet Hale - Bopp, and the spin temperatures are compared with other temperature ranges indicated by other observations of the same comet.

  9. The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hanala, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural IgM event entitled “The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic” brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23–24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany. PMID:22864407

  10. Determining the Conformational Landscape of ? and ? Coupling Using para-Phenylene and "Aviram-Ratner" Bridges.

    PubMed

    Stasiw, Daniel E; Zhang, Jinyuan; Wang, Guangbin; Dangi, Ranjana; Stein, Benjamin W; Shultz, David A; Kirk, Martin L; Wojtas, Lukasz; Sommer, Roger D

    2015-07-29

    The torsional dependence of donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) electronic coupling matrix elements (H(DA), determined from the magnetic exchange coupling, J) involving a spin SD = 1/2 metal semiquinone (Zn-SQ) donor and a spin S(A) = 1/2 nitronylnitroxide (NN) acceptor mediated by the ?/?-systems of para-phenylene and methyl-substituted para-phenylene bridges and by the ?-system of a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) bridge are presented and discussed. The positions of methyl group(s) on the phenylene bridge allow for an experimentally determined evaluation of conformationally dependent (?) and conformationally independent (?) contributions to the electronic and magnetic exchange couplings in these D-B-A biradicals at parity of D and A. The trend in the experimental magnetic exchange couplings are well described by CASSCF calculations. The torsional dependence of the pairwise exchange interactions are further illuminated in three-dimensional, "Ramachandran-type" plots that relate D-B and B-A torsions to both electronic and exchange couplings. Analysis of the magnetic data shows large variations in magnetic exchange (J ? 1-175 cm(-1)) and electronic coupling (H(DA) ? 450-6000 cm(-1)) as a function of bridge conformation relative to the donor and acceptor. This has allowed for an experimental determination of both the ?- and ?-orbital contributions to the exchange and electronic couplings. PMID:26153657

  11. Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Departamento de Física, Universidad de Matanzas, Matanzas 40100 ; Stoecklin, Thierry Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2013-11-28

    Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H{sub 2} colliding with CS in the j = 0–15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 3} cm{sup −1}. The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm{sup −1}. Above 10 cm{sup −1}, the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H{sub 2} from the data available with {sup 4}He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement.

  12. In-Situ Visualization Experiments with ParaView Cinema in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2015-10-15

    A previous paper described some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation. One challenge of the in-situ approach apparent in these experiments was the difficulty of choosing parameters likes isosurface values for the visualizations to be produced from the running simulation without the benefit of prior knowledge of the simulation results and the resultant cost of recomputing in-situ generated images when parameters are chosen suboptimally. A proposed method of addressing this difficulty is to simply render multiple images at runtime with a range of possible parameter values to produce a large database of images and to provide the user with a tool for managing the resulting database of imagery. Recently, ParaView/Catalyst has been extended to include such a capability via the so-called Cinema framework. Here I describe some initial experiments with the first delivery of Cinema and make some recommendations for future extensions of Cinema’s capabilities.

  13. Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and feedback devices have been regularly used in technique training in high-performance sports. Biomechanical analysis is mainly visually based and so can exclude athletes with visual impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes. The German National Para-Rowing team (six athletes, mean ± s, age 34.8 ± 10.6 years, body mass 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, stature 179.3 ± 8.6 cm) participated in the study. Kinematics included boat acceleration and distance travelled, collected with Sofirow at two intensities of training. The boat acceleration-time traces were converted online into acoustic feedback and presented via speakers during rowing (sections with and without alternately). Repeated-measures within-participant factorial ANOVA showed greater boat speed with acoustic feedback than baseline (0.08 ± 0.01 m·s(-1)). The time structure of rowing cycles was improved (extended time of positive acceleration). Questioning of athletes showed acoustic feedback to be a supportive training aid as it provided important functional information about the boat motion independent of vision. It gave access for visually impaired athletes to biomechanical analysis via auditory information. The concept for adaptive athletes has been successfully integrated into the preparation for the Para-Rowing World Championships and Paralympics. PMID:25105858

  14. Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs. PMID:26113553

  15. Molecularly imprinted polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonic acid composite based sensor for para-nitrophenol detection.

    PubMed

    Roy, Abhijit Chandra; Nisha, V S; Dhand, Chetna; Ali, Md Azahar; Malhotra, B D

    2013-05-13

    We report results of the studies relating to the fabrication and characterization of a conducting polymer based molecularly imprinted para-nitrophenol (PNP) sensor. A water pollutant, para-nitrophenol is electrochemically imprinted with polyvinyl sulphonic acid (PVSA) doped polyaniline onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate. This PNP imprinted electrode (PNPI-PANI-PVSA/ITO) prepared via chronopotentiometric polymerization and over-oxidation is characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, contact angle (CA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies. The response studies of PNPI-PANI-PVSA/ITO electrode carried out using DPV reveal a lower detection limit of 1×10(-3) mM, improved sensitivity as 1.5×10(-3) A mM(-1) and stability of 45 days. The PNPI-PANI-PVSA/ITO electrode shows good precision with relative standard deviation of 2.1% and good reproducibility with standard deviation of 3.78%. PMID:23622966

  16. [Morbidity of pelvic lymphadenectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer].

    PubMed

    Agar, Nicolas; Philippe, Anne-Ccile; Bourdel, Nicolas; Rabischong, Benot; Canis, Michel; Le Bouedec, Guillaume; Mulliez, Aurlien; Dauplat, Jacques; Pomel, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the complication rate of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in the management of endometrial cancer following the changes to the recommendations of INCa 2010. This is a retrospective study of 208 patients operated for endometrial cancer between July 2010 and March 2014 in two referral centers. Eighty lymphadenectomy were performed, 65 with hysterectomy and bilateral annexectomy and 18 lymphadenectomy were performed for restaging. Complications assessment is based on the Dindo Clavien classification. We report 17 severe complications (grade 3a and over) (P<0.001), including 14 among patients receiving lymphadenectomy. Morbidity increases with the number of lymphnodes removed and their positivity (P<0.001). The para-aortic lymphadenectomy is primarily responsible for complications (P <0.001). We describe 7 lower limbs lymphedema, 12 nerve injuries, 8 ileus, 5 venous or arterial thromboembolism, 17 blood transfusions, 13 lymphoceles including 9 infected. The rate of intraoperative complications on a first lymphadenectomy is 8% while it reached 22% for restaging. Restaging is significantly more at risk of serious complications (P=0.03) with two deaths. Twenty-four chronic disorders with impaired quality of life (2 without lymphadenectomy) are reported. They are present in 50% of restaging (P=0.033 compared to first lymphadenectomy). Lymphadenectomy is a source of severe morbidity (17.5%) with 2.5% mortality. The benefit of this surgery should probably be discussed again. PMID:25956349

  17. Ortho-to-para ratio in interstellar water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N).

    PubMed

    Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here. PMID:23656468

  18. Construction and characterization of two recombinant bacteria that grow on ortho- and para-substituted chlorobiphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Hrywna, Y.; Tsoi, T.V.; Maltseva, O.V.; Quensen, J.F. III; Tiedje, J.M.

    1999-05-01

    Cloning and expression of the aromatic ring dehalogenation genes in biphenyl-growing, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-cometabolizing Comamonas testosteroni VP44 resulted in recombinant pathways allowing growth on ortho- and para-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) as a sole carbon source. The recombinant variants were constructed by transformation of strain VP44 with plasmids carrying specific genes for dehalogenation of chlorobenzoates (CBAs). Plasmid pE43 carries the Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142 ohb genes coding for the terminal oxygenase (ISP{sub OHB}) of the ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, whereas plasmid pPC3 contains the Arthrobacter globiformis KZT1 fcb genes, which catalyze the hydrolytic para-dechlorination of 4-CBA. The parental strain, VP44, grew only on low concentrations of 2- and 4-CB by using the products from the fission of the nonchlorinated ring of the CBs (pentadiene) and accumulated stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding CBAs. The recombinant strains VP44(pPC3) and VP44(pE43) grew on, and completely dechlorinated high concentrations (up to 10 mM), of 4-CBA and 4-CB and 2-CBA and 2-CB, respectively. Cell protein yield corresponded to complete oxidation of both biphenyl rings, thus confirming mineralization of the CBs. Hence, the use of CBA dehalogenase genes appears to be an effective strategy for construction of organisms that will grow on at least some congeners important for remediation of PCBs.

  19. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada para posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes para controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, para el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador para cada uno de los tres metodos de control. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto para el modo continuo como para el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo se plantea el correspondiente modelo de gran senal aplicado a un nuevo prototipo experimental, de mayor tension de entrada y mayores corrientes de salida. El final del Capitulo contrasta los resultados experimentales con los teoricos confirmando la utilidad del modelo de gran senal como una herramienta basica de diseno. Finalmente, en el Capitulo 5, se presentan las conclusiones y la valoracion de los diferentes estudios plateados a lo largo de la Tesis Doctoral.

  20. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M

    2006-03-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn < pigeon pea < plantain starch while the ranking for P(k), an inverse measure of the amount of plasticity, was pigeon pea < plantain < corn starch, which indicated that formulations containing corn starch generally exhibited the fastest onset of plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain < pigeon pea < corn starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain starch, on the other hand, would be more useful where faster disintegration of tablet is desired. The results show that the starches could be useful in various formulations depending on the intended use of the tablets with the implication that the experimental starches can be developed for commercial purposes. PMID:16556540

  1. SNP marker discovery, linkage map construction and identification of QTLs for enhanced salinity tolerance in field pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a self-pollinating, diploid, cool-season food legume. Crop production is constrained by multiple biotic and abiotic stress factors, including salinity, that cause reduced growth and yield. Recent advances in genomics have permitted the development of low-cost high-throughput genotyping systems, allowing the construction of saturated genetic linkage maps for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of interest. Genetic markers in close linkage with the relevant genomic regions may then be implemented in varietal improvement programs. Results In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were developed and used to generate comprehensive linkage maps for field pea. From a set of 36,188 variant nucleotide positions detected through in silico analysis, 768 were selected for genotyping of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A total of 705 SNPs (91.7%) successfully detected segregating polymorphisms. In addition to SNPs, genomic and EST-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were assigned to the genetic map in order to obtain an evenly distributed genome-wide coverage. Sequences associated with the mapped molecular markers were used for comparative genomic analysis with other legume species. Higher levels of conserved synteny were observed with the genomes of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) than with soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), Lotus japonicus L. and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.). Parents and RIL progeny were screened at the seedling growth stage for responses to salinity stress, imposed by addition of NaCl in the watering solution at a concentration of 18 dS m-1. Salinity-induced symptoms showed normal distribution, and the severity of the symptoms increased over time. QTLs for salinity tolerance were identified on linkage groups Ps III and VII, with flanking SNP markers suitable for selection of resistant cultivars. Comparison of sequences underpinning these SNP markers to the M. truncatula genome defined genomic regions containing candidate genes associated with saline stress tolerance. Conclusion The SNP assays and associated genetic linkage maps developed in this study permitted identification of salinity tolerance QTLs and candidate genes. This constitutes an important set of tools for marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs aimed at performance enhancement of field pea cultivars. PMID:24134188

  2. Influence of Host Origin on Host Choice of the Parasitoid Dinarmus basalis: Does Upbringing Influence Choices Later in Life?

    PubMed Central

    Sankara, F.; Dabiré, L. C. B.; Ilboudo, Z.; Dugravot, S.; Cortesero, A. M.; Sanon, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of volatile compounds from four secondary host plants on the ability of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate, recognize, and parasitize its host, 4th instar larvae or pupae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). To examine this, strains of D. basalis were transferred from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)) to pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and two varieties of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds. The ability of D. basalis females to recognize the volatile compounds emanating from their complex host plant was tested by using a Y-tube olfactometer and a three-dimensional device. The results suggest that when females have a choice between pure air and the air emanating from their complex host of origin, they are attracted to the air tainted by the volatile compounds they have become accustomed to. They spent significantly more time (p < 0.0001) in the branch of the tube leading to the odorous air than in the tube leading to the pure air. When females from pigeon pea seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4th instar larvae, the familiar odor of pigeon pea seeds were most attractive. When females from Bambara groundnut (white and striped) seed hosts were offered a choice between cowpea and pigeon pea seeds, all containing 4th instar larvae, they were significantly attracted to the odour of cowpea seeds. In the three-dimensional system, the females from the four strains did not appear to have any preference for a given type of seed containing 4th instar larvae or pupae. The parasitism rate remained high on all four types of seeds used. These results show that the use of D. basalis as a biological control agent is possible in host changing situations where C. maculatus starts to attack other legumes. The results of this study also provide information supporting the behavioral plasticity of D. basalis. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the adaptive phenomena of biological control agents is discussed in the context of the development of adequate methods of pest control. PMID:25373173

  3. Compositional evaluation of some cowpea varieties and some under-utilized edible legumes in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aletor, V A; Aladetimi, O O

    1989-01-01

    The nutritive potentials of some cowpea varieties such as Ife Brown, Ife Bimpe, IT84E-124, K59 and TVX716 and some under-utilized edible legumes grown in Nigeria such as pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), lablab bean (Dolichos lablab), mucuna bean (Mucuna sp.) and Sphenostilis sternocarpa have been evaluated with respect to their proximate chemical composition, mineral content and some endogenous toxic constituents. The cowpea varieties contained on the average 22.5 g crude protein (CP), 2.60 g crude fibre (CF), 5.89 g either extract (EE) and 3.36 g ash/100 g DM while the under-utilized legumes contained 21.7, 6.10, 2.86, and 3.56 g/100 g DM for CP, CF, EE and ash respectively. Distinct varietal differences were observed for EE values as indicated by the coefficients of variation (CV) of 102% for cowpea and 60.8% for the under-utilized legumes. The CF content of the under-utilized legumes were generally higher than those of the cowpea varieties. Potassium was the most abundant mineral in both the cowpea varieties and the under-utilized legumes with mean values of 1.45 and 1.66% respectively, while P was the least abundant with 13.1 and 8.50 ppm, respectively. There were marked intra-varietal differences in the P content as shown by the high CV of 84.0 and 73.9% for the cowpea varieties and the other legumes. The cowpea varieties generally had higher levels of thioglucosides, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and lower haemagglutinating activity (mean values of thioglucosides: 3.86%, of TIA: 13.9 mg/g protein and of haemagglutinating activity: 13.0 HU/mg N respectively), than the under-utilized legumes with mean respective values of 1.22%, 9.84 mg/g protein and 22.7 HU/mg N. The nutritional implications of these anti-nutritional components were discussed and some reasons adduced for the under-utilization of some of these legumes inspite of their apparent similarity in nutritional quality to the more commonly consumed grain legumes. PMID:2561305

  4. Para-phenylenediamine-specific lymphocyte activation test: a sensitive in vitro assay to detect para-phenylenediamine sensitization in patients with severe allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Kneilling, Manfred; Caroli, Ulrich; Grimmel, Cornelia; Fischer, Jrg; Eichner, Martin; Wieder, Thomas; Maier, Florian C; Rcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo

    2010-05-01

    Patients sensitized to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) by semi-permanent tattoos increasingly develop threatening allergic reactions in response to black hair dye. The gold standard to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis is to perform epicutaneous patch tests, however, iatrogenic sensitizations and severe patch test reactions to PPD have been described, the latter especially in patients with severe allergic reactions. We examined nine patients with severe allergic reactions in response to permanent hair dyes. Patch tests using the standard concentration of 1% or 0.5% PPD resulted in severe and sometimes even bullous reactions in all patients responsive to PPD. Titration revealed that at 1% of the standard concentration (0.01% PPD), patch test sensitivity decreased and only 50% of patients responded. Consequently, we established an in vitro assay to diagnose PPD allergy. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with titrated concentrations of PPD with or without IL-2 supplementation, and cell proliferation was determined by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Lymphocyte activation test (LAT) detected PBMC cell proliferation specific to PPD, with at least 3.5-fold increase in [3H]-thymidine uptake in all PPD allergic patients. Most importantly, PPD-LAT without IL-2 supplementation remained negative in three out of eight PPD allergic patients. Thus, PPD-LAT with IL-2 supplementation demonstrated a sensitivity of 100%, remained unresponsive in controls not sensitized to PPD, and in one patient sensitive to other p-amino compounds. These data demonstrate that LAT with PPD can be used to detect PPD sensitization as a possible alternative to patch testing at least in patients with severe allergic reactions to PPD. PMID:20113350

  5. ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER ION IN COMET C/2001 Q4 (NEAT): IMPLICATION FOR ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E.

    2012-04-20

    The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

  6. Sensitization to para-amino compounds in swim fins in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Florian; Krautheim, Andrea; Schliemann, Sibylle; Elsner, Peter

    2009-09-01

    A ten-year-old boy presented with recurrent eczema on the dorsal of both feet and the thighs. His symptoms became worse when he used racing swim fins. Patch testing included the standard, ointments, preservatives, leather, textile dyes, rubber component, and corticosteroid series of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) as well as the patient's own materials (fin material). At 72 hours positive reactions were observed to blue flipper material, Acid Yellow 36, Bismarck Brown R, and DPPD. DPPD is widely used as an antioxidant in the rubber industries. Therefore, the dermatitis was most probably attributable to DPPD in the blue flipper material, although we were not able to prove this due to lack of cooperation of the manufacturer. Sensitization to Acid Yellow 36 and Bismarck Brown R are interpreted as cross sensitizations, since all substances are para-amino compounds. PMID:19386021

  7. The barrier to internal rotation and electronic effects in para-halogenophenols: theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Michalska, Danuta; Hobza, Pavel

    2004-03-01

    The OH rotational barrier height in phenol and para-halogenophenols systematically decreases in the series Br, Cl and F, while the changes in the CO bond length and CO bond strength do not follow this order. On the basis of the NBO analysis it is suggested that lowering of the barrier height in p-halogenophenols is caused by the decrease of electron density in the sigma antibonding orbital, σ *(CO), and a weak occupancy of this orbital is due to the electron delocalization from the σ(CC) ring orbitals. This effect can be either reinforced or reduced, depending on the extent of conjugation between the p z-type lone electron pair on the oxygen atom and the π *(CC) acceptor orbitals in the aromatic ring.

  8. Severe inflammatory and keloidal, allergic reaction due to para-phenylenediamine in temporary tattoos.

    PubMed

    Gunasti, Suhan; Aksungur, Varol Lutfu

    2010-01-01

    Hair coloring with henna has been popular in Turkey for years. In recent years since the tattoos are applied by the street vendors in most of the beach places in Turkey, skin coloring with henna has also increased. Henna can be used alone or in combination with other coloring agents. Henna alone can be safe but due to additives such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD), p-toluenediamine and various essential oils, allergic contact reactions may occur. We report a 22-year-old man who developed severe inflammatory and keloidal, moderately bullous allergic reaction after henna paint-on tattoo. We did a patch test separately with these painting products (henna powder, PPD) and with the European standard series. PPD was strongly positive (+++) on day 2 and remained positive for following days. After treating with topical clobetasol-17 butyrate, resolution was obtained in two weeks. But some keloidal reaction remained. PMID:20228546

  9. Exo Diels-Alder adducts between ortho- and para-N-acetoxyphenylmaleimides and furan.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Ferrara, Jose G; Garca-Bez, Efrn V; Padilla-Martnez, Itzia I; Martnez-Martnez, Francisco J; Farfan-Garca, Norberto

    2004-06-01

    In exo-2-(3,5-dioxo-10-oxa-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]dec-8-en-4-yl)phenyl acetate, C(16)H(13)NO(5), the plane of the acetoxy group lies almost perpendicular to that of the phenyl ring [dihedral angle = 89.8 (1) degrees ], in contrast with the smaller deviations found in the para isomer exo-4-(3,5-dioxo-10-oxa-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]dec-8-en-4-yl)phenyl acetate, C(16)H(13)NO(5), these being 63.6 (1) and 37.0 (1) degrees for the two crystallographically independent molecules. Irrespective of the position of the acetoxy group, both compounds pack through soft C-H.X (X is O or phenyl) interactions, forming interlinked centrosymmetric tetramers in the bc plane. PMID:15178871

  10. High-pressure dissociation of crystalline para-diiodobenzene: optical experiments and Car-Parrinello calculations.

    PubMed

    Brillante, Aldo; Della Valle, Raffaele G; Farina, Luca; Venuti, Elisabetta; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Emerson, Andrew P J; Syassen, Karl

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated the high-pressure properties of the molecular crystal para-diiodobenzene, by combining optical absorption, reflectance, and Raman experiments with Car-Parrinello simulations. The optical absorption edge exhibits a large red shift from 4 eV at ambient conditions to about 2 eV near 30 GPa. Reflectance measurements up to 80 GPa indicate a redistribution of oscillator strength toward the near-infrared. The calculations, which describe correctly the two known molecular crystal phases at ambient pressure, predict a nonmolecular metallic phase, stable at high pressure. This high-density phase is characterized by an extended three-dimensional network, in which chemically bound iodine atoms form layers connected by hydrocarbon bridges. Experimentally, Raman spectra of samples recovered after compression show vibrational modes of elemental solid iodine. This result points to a pressure-induced molecular dissociation process which leads to the formation of domains of iodine and disordered carbon. PMID:15740142

  11. Coordination nano-space as stage of hydrogen ortho-para conversion.

    PubMed

    Kosone, Takashi; Hori, Akihiro; Nishibori, Eiji; Kubota, Yoshiki; Mishima, Akio; Ohba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jungeun; Real, Jos Antonio; Kitagawa, Susumu; Takata, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    The ability to design and control properties of nano-sized space in porous coordination polymers (PCPs) would provide us with an ideal stage for fascinating physical and chemical phenomena. We found an interconversion of nuclear-spin isomers for hydrogen molecule H2 adsorbed in a Hofmann-type PCP, {Fe(pz)[Pd(CN)4]} (pz=pyrazine), by the temperature dependence of Raman spectra. The ortho (o)-para (p) conversion process of H2 is forbidden for an isolated molecule. The charge density study using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction reveals the electric field generated in coordination nano-space. The present results corroborate similar findings observed on different systems and confirm that o-p conversion can occur on non-magnetic solids and that electric field can induce the catalytic hydrogen o-p conversion. PMID:26587262

  12. Genomic organization of Hox and ParaHox clusters in the echinoderm, Acanthaster planci.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Kenneth W; McDougall, Carmel; Cummins, Scott F; Hall, Mike; Degnan, Bernard M; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    The organization of echinoderm Hox clusters is of interest due to the role that Hox genes play in deuterostome development and body plan organization, and the unique gene order of the Hox complex in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, which has been linked to the unique development of the axial region. Here, it has been reported that the Hox and ParaHox clusters of Acanthaster planci, a corallivorous starfish found in the Pacific and Indian oceans, generally resembles the chordate and hemichordate clusters. The A. planci Hox cluster shared with sea urchins the loss of one of the medial Hox genes, even-skipped (Evx) at the anterior of the cluster, as well as organization of the posterior Hox genes. PMID:25394327

  13. Analysis of the thermal reaction products of para polyphenylene by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the volatiles and sublimate produced when para-polyphenylene is pyrolyzed to constant weight under vacuum in the temperature range from 380 to 1000 C indicates that the polymer undergoes thermal degradation in two stages. The first stage involved dehydrohalogenation, which is essentially a curing reaction that produces crosslinking between polyphenylene chains resulting from the loss of chlorine from the polymer in the form of hydrogen chloride. The second stage of the thermal degradation is dehydrogenation because hydrogen is the major volatile species. Increasing amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and 9, 10 benzphenanthrene) in the sublimate, concomitant with increasing C/H ratios of the polymeric residue with pyrolysis temperature, is consistent with the buildup of polynuclear structures in the polymer matrix.

  14. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework. PMID:25739746

  15. A method to obtain a well-defined fraction of respirable para-aramid fibers.

    PubMed

    Schins, R P; Gaudichet, A; Jaurand, M C

    1993-10-01

    We developed a preparation method to obtain respirable-sized fractions of para-aramid fibers. The procedure, based on floatability, consists of stirring and subsequent settling of p-aramid pulp in distilled water. Two distinct phases are obtained, with small fibers in the upper part of the suspension, which represents about 33% of the total volume. Optimal results were obtained when 2.0 g pulp was stirred for 15 hr in 800 ml distilled water containing 0.125% ethanol and settled for 5 hr. The mass yield ranged between 0.4 and 0.6%, more than 90% of the particles had an aspect ratio > or = 3:1. The mean fiber length was about 6 microns, and the mean fiber diameter was about 0.4 microns as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The number of fibers obtained was 4 x 10(6) fibers/micrograms under our standard conditions. PMID:8119251

  16. Surface treatment of para-aramid fiber by argon dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ruxi; Yu, Junrong; Hu, Chengcheng; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Jing; Hu, Zuming

    2012-10-01

    This paper is focused on influence of argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on the adhesive performance and wettability of para-aramid fibers and three parameters including treated power, exposure time and argon flux were detected. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was greatly increased by 28% with 300 W, 60 s, 2 L min-1 argon flux plasma treatment. The content of oxygen atom and oxygen-containing polar functional groups were enhanced after the argon plasma treated, so as the surface roughness, which contributed to the improvement of surface wettability and the decrease of contact angle with water. However, long-time exposure, exorbitant power or overlarge argon flux could partly destroy the prior effects of the treatment and damage the mechanical properties of fibers to some degree.

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Nonlinear Optical Chromophore para Bromoacetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jothy, V. Bena; Vijayakumar, T.; Jayakumar, V. S.; Udayalekshmi, K.; Ramamurthy, K.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2008-11-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis of the hydrogen bonded non-linear optical (NLO) material para Bromo Acetanilide (PBA) is carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Ab initio molecular orbital computations have been performed at HF/6-31G(d) level to derive equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, intensities and first hyperpolarizability. The lowering of the imino stretching wavenumbers suggests the existence of strong intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding substantiated by the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Blue shifting CH stretching wavenumbers, simultaneous activation of carbonyl stretching mode and the strong activation of low wavenumber H-bond stretching vibrations shows the presence of intramolecular charge transfer in the molecule.

  18. Statistical ortho-to-para ratio of water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin.

    PubMed

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The anomalously low ortho-to-para ratios (OPRs) exhibited by gaseous water in space have been used to determine the formation temperature (<50 kelvin) of ice on cold interstellar dust. This approach assumes that the OPR of water desorbed from ice is related to the ice formation temperature on the dust. However, we report that water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin shows a statistical high-temperature OPR of 3, even when the ice is produced in situ by hydrogenation of O2, a known formation process of interstellar water. This invalidates the assumed relation between OPR and temperature. The necessary reinterpretation of the low OPRs will help elucidate the chemical history of interstellar water from molecular clouds and processes in the early solar system, including comet formation. PMID:26721994

  19. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer for investigation of the interaction of Para Red with serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zeng, Xiaodan; Zhang, Fusheng

    2016-03-01

    Para Red (PR) has been isolated from food additives, and shown to be toxic to humans. To facilitate examination of its toxicity, the interaction between PR and serum albumins (SA) was studied using fluorescence quenching and circular dichroism (CD) spectrophotometry. The experiments showed that the fluorescence intensity of serum albumins decreased with increasing concentrations of PR, which resulted from the binding of PR and SA. The binding constant, number of binding sites and thermodynamic parameters were calculated and hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions were shown to play a key role in the binding process. Competition experiments indicated that PR mainly binds to Trp residues of SA within the site I. As the CD and three-dimensional spectra revealed, the addition of PR induced a conformational change in SA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26178918

  20. Searching for auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    2005-03-01

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node Shell elements and eight-node Brick elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes - DYNA3D and ParaDyn - which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  1. Searching for Auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W G; Hoover, C G

    2004-09-11

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node 'Shell' elements and eight-node 'Brick' elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes--DYNA3D and ParaDyn--which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  2. Coordination nano-space as stage of hydrogen ortho–para conversion

    PubMed Central

    Kosone, Takashi; Hori, Akihiro; Nishibori, Eiji; Kubota, Yoshiki; Mishima, Akio; Ohba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jungeun; Real, José Antonio; Kitagawa, Susumu; Takata, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    The ability to design and control properties of nano-sized space in porous coordination polymers (PCPs) would provide us with an ideal stage for fascinating physical and chemical phenomena. We found an interconversion of nuclear-spin isomers for hydrogen molecule H2 adsorbed in a Hofmann-type PCP, {Fe(pz)[Pd(CN)4]} (pz=pyrazine), by the temperature dependence of Raman spectra. The ortho (o)–para (p) conversion process of H2 is forbidden for an isolated molecule. The charge density study using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction reveals the electric field generated in coordination nano-space. The present results corroborate similar findings observed on different systems and confirm that o–p conversion can occur on non-magnetic solids and that electric field can induce the catalytic hydrogen o–p conversion. PMID:26587262

  3. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  4. Photocarcinogenesis is retarded by a partly photodegraded solution of para-aminobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Flindt-Hansen, H; Thune, P; Nielsen, C J

    1989-12-01

    A solution of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted from a Philips TL 40 W/12 sunlamp and the degree of photodegradation following an exposure of 27 J/cm2 was estimated to be approximately 40%. The formation of the photoproducts was confirmed by mass spectroscopy and UV spectroscopy. The solution was painted on the backs of hairless light-pigmented mice prior to daily UV irradiation by the above sunlamp, and this procedure was continued for 30 weeks. The preirradiated solution of PABA significantly retarded the tumor induction time and reduced significantly the number of squamous cell carcinomas compared with nonprotected controls. This tumor-retarding ability did not differ significantly from the effect achieved when using nonirradiated PABA. PMID:2636981

  5. Perspectivas Futuras para o Observatório do Pico dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2004-02-01

    Com o Observatório Gemini plenamente operacional e o telescópio SOAR iniciando suas operações em breve, a astronomia observacional brasileira encontra-se no auge de uma transformação profunda que terá um impacto grave no Observatório do Pico dos Dias - OPD. Refletimos aqui sobre a natureza desse impacto e estratégias para manter a competitividade do OPD. Não queremos apresentar receitas prontas, mas idéias que poderão servir como base de discussão sobre o uso inteligente dos telescópios do OPD como parte do conjunto de instrumentos disponíveis à comunidade astronômica brasileira.

  6. Statistical ortho-to-para ratio of water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The anomalously low ortho-to-para ratios (OPRs) exhibited by gaseous water in space have been used to determine the formation temperature (<50 kelvin) of ice on cold interstellar dust. This approach assumes that the OPR of water desorbed from ice is related to the ice formation temperature on the dust. However, we report that water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin shows a statistical high-temperature OPR of 3, even when the ice is produced in situ by hydrogenation of O2, a known formation process of interstellar water. This invalidates the assumed relation between OPR and temperature. The necessary reinterpretation of the low OPRs will help elucidate the chemical history of interstellar water from molecular clouds and processes in the early solar system, including comet formation.

  7. Prevalence of oral trauma in Para-Pan American Games athletes.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rafaela Amarante; Modesto, Adriana; Evans, Patricia Louise Scabell; Almeida, Anne Louise Scabell; da Silva, Juliana de Jesus Rodrigues; Guedes, Aurelino Machado Lima; Guedes, Fbio Ribeiro; Ranalli, Dennis N; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiological survey was to assess the prevalence of oral trauma in athletes representing 25 countries competing at the most recent Para-Pan American Games (III PARAPAN) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was approved by the appropriate institutional review board. The examiners participated in standardization and calibration training sessions before the field phase began. Invitations were sent to >1200 participating athletes competing in eight sports and to the Medical Committee of the Para-Pan American Sports Organization before and during the III PARAPAN. A convenience sample of 120 athletes was recruited. After signing an informed consent, all athletes answered a questionnaire. Data were collected at the clinical examination and recorded in a specific trauma form. The mean age of the athletes was 32.5 years. Males comprised 79.2% of the sample; females 20.8%. The prevalence of oral trauma among the athletes was 47.5% (N = 57). However, only 15 athletes reported that these traumatic injuries were sports-related. The sport with the highest prevalence of oral trauma was judo (75%); the least was volleyball with no reported traumatic injuries. The most common traumatic injury was enamel fracture (27.4%). The teeth most affected were the maxillary permanent central incisors (N = 19), followed by the maxillary premolars (N = 8). On the basis of the results of this study of oral trauma among athletes examined at the III PARAPAN, a recommendation for enhanced educational efforts and the use of properly fitted mouthguards to prevent traumatic injuries among high-performance athletes with disabilities seems warranted. PMID:22882839

  8. Cost-effectiveness of para-aortic lymphadenectomy before chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Tae-Jin; Jeon, Yong Woo; Kim, Kidong; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Jae-Weon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nodal staging surgery before chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer in the era of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods A modified Markov model was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of para-aortic staging surgery before definite CRT when no uptake is recorded in the para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) on PET/CT. Survival and complication rates were estimated based on the published literature. Cost data were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Strategies were compared using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity analyses were performed, including estimates for the performance of PET/CT, postoperative complication rate, and varying survival rates according to the radiation field. Results We compared two strategies: strategy 1, pelvic CRT for all patients; and strategy 2, nodal staging surgery followed by extended-field CRT when PALN metastasis was found and pelvic CRT otherwise. The ICER for strategy 2 compared to strategy 1 was $19,505 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Under deterministic sensitivity analyses, the model was relatively sensitive to survival reduction in patients who undergo pelvic CRT alone despite having occult PALN metastasis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the case results, with a 91% probability of cost-effectiveness at the willingness-to-pay thresholds of $60,000/QALY. Conclusion Nodal staging surgery before definite CRT may be cost-effective when PET/CT imaging shows no evidence of PALN metastasis. Prospective trials are warranted to transfer these results to guidelines. PMID:25925292

  9. Monomers that form conducting polymers as structure-directing agents: synthesis of microporous molecular sieves encapsulating poly-para-phenylenevinylene.

    PubMed

    Atienzar, Pedro; Díaz-Cabañas, María J; Moliner, Manuel; Peris, Encarna; Corma, Avelino; García, Hermenegildo

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a novel concept that uses monomers required for making conducting polymers as organic structure-directing agents, for the synthesis of microporous molecular sieves. We show that these monomers facilitate the formation of crystalline and amorphous molecular sieves depending on the synthesis procedure. The monomers filling the pores of the silicates can be polymerized under certain conditions, resulting in a polymer immobilized and protected inside the matrix. The concept was exemplified with para-phenylenemethylene-bis(1-tetrahydrothiophenium) and para-phenylenemethylene-bis(trimethylammonium) that were used to template microporous molecular sieves and subsequently to obtain poly-para-phenylenevinylene (PPV) inside the matrix. The organic self-assembled organic-inorganic material was extensively characterized and the implication on electrical conductivity is presented. PMID:17665376

  10. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Liese-Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; Renneke, Richard M.

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. The successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  11. Experimental verification of equilibrium para-hydrogen levels in hydrogen moderators irradiated by spallation neutrons at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Takada, H.; Futakawa, M.; Ikeda, Y.

    2016-02-01

    By sampling gaseous hydrogen from a circulating liquid hydrogen loop for Laser Raman spectroscopy, we measured the para-/ortho-hydrogen fractions in liquid hydrogen under neutron irradiation for the first time to identify whether irradiated hydrogen has an elevated ortho-hydrogen fraction. This measurement indicates that para-hydrogen equilibrium persists at 300 kW proton power in the presence of an iron(III) oxide hydroxide [Fe(OH)3] catalyst. The measurements will be repeated as the power at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) increases to the MW level.

  12. Evaluation of para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant as a source of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Krebs, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. The data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the emission rate is controlled by gas-phase mass transfer. Results indicate that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. Full-scale house tests were also conducted to measure mass transfer coefficients based on the model developed. The values of the mass transfer coefficient obtained are very comparable to those estimated by theoretical heat transfer studies.

  13. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, Liese -Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; Renneke, Richard M.

    2015-12-17

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. As a result, the successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  14. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente descubierta, que va en contra de lo esperado en otros sistemas físicos y que consiste en que los altos estados Rydberg de átomos, moléculas y sus complejos de van der Waals (o de los iones) tienen tiempos de vida de centenas de μ s. En resumen, el experimento y la espectroscopía ZEKE consiste en excitar un átomo, molécula o cluster sucesivamente a dos estados excitados selectivos de manera que el final sea un estado Rydberg. A continuación se aplica un campo eléctrico variable que lo ioniza y después de un cierto retraso se aplica un campo eléctrico de extracción, tanto para el electrón como para el ión. El espectro de los iones, es un espectro ZEKE. Hay varias alternativas para hacer este último proceso. El estudio de la espectroscopía y propiedades de iones y sus clusters requiere el conocimiento detallado de la espectroscopía de la molécula neutra, los estados Rydberg, de los confórmeros y sus complejos. Todo ello implica el haber estudiado los sistemas por LIF, REMPI y doble resonancia (hole burning IR-UV, UV-UV). Además solo es posible interpretar los resultados y obtener la información contenida en los espectros con ayuda de cálculos cuánticos ab initio. Hasta el momento hemos aplicado tanto el ZEKE como el conjunto de técnicas mencionadas anteriormente, a varias molécula de interés químico general como anilina y sus derivados, así como sus complejos con agua y amoniaco. Sin embargo, el método es muy versátil y puede aplicarse a iones de átomos, iones múltiples, moléculas sencillas y sus clusters así como a sus semi-reacciones. Como ejemplo de uno de estos espectros PFI-ZEKE se presenta aquí el caso del amonibenzonitrilo, ABN y solamente en su estado fundamental. En la conferencia se presentarán espectros ZEKE del ABN y moléculas similares en estados vibracionales intermedios (islas de estabilidad), así como la determinación de potenciales de ionización precisos, energías de enlace de compuestos del ión con varios disolventes y otras propiedades de interés, discutiendo sus resultados.

  15. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos, actividades, evaluación, entre otros. Estos planteamientos definen la unidad curricular que se propone en el cuatro capítulo.

  16. Toluene 3-Monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 Is a para-Hydroxylating Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Ayelet; Tao, Ying; Wood, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Oxygenases are promising biocatalysts for performing selective hydroxylations not accessible by chemical methods. Whereas toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 hydroxylates monosubstituted benzenes at the para position and toluene ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) of Burkholderia cepacia G4 hydroxylates at the ortho position, toluene 3-monooxygenase (T3MO) of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 was reported previously to hydroxylate toluene at the meta position, producing primarily m-cresol (R. H. Olsen, J. J. Kukor, and B. Kaphammer, J. Bacteriol. 176:3749-3756, 1994). Using gas chromatography, we have discovered that T3MO hydroxylates monosubstituted benzenes predominantly at the para position. TG1/pBS(Kan)T3MO cells expressing T3MO oxidized toluene at a maximal rate of 11.5 0.33 nmol/min/mg of protein with an apparent Km value of 250 ?M and produced 90% p-cresol and 10% m-cresol. This product mixture was successively transformed to 4-methylcatechol. T4MO, in comparison, produces 97% p-cresol and 3% m-cresol. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 harboring pRO1966 (the original T3MO-bearing plasmid) also exhibited the same product distribution as that of TG1/pBS(Kan)T3MO. TG1/pBS(Kan)T3MO produced 66% p-nitrophenol and 34% m-nitrophenol from nitrobenzene and 100% p-methoxyphenol from methoxybenzene, as well as 62% 1-naphthol and 38% 2-naphthol from naphthalene; similar results were found with TG1/pBS(Kan)T4MO. Sequencing of the tbu locus from pBS(Kan)T3MO and pRO1966 revealed complete identity between the two, thus eliminating any possible cloning errors. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis confirmed the structural identity of p-cresol in samples containing the product of hydroxylation of toluene by pBS(Kan)T3MO. PMID:15126473

  17. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  18. Community Preferences for the Allocation &Donation of Organs - The PAraDOx Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transplantation is the treatment of choice for people with severe organ failure. However, demand substantially exceeds supply of suitable organs; consequently many people wait months, or years to receive an organ. Reasons for the chronic shortage of deceased organ donations are unclear; there appears to be no lack of 'in principle' public support for organ donation. Methods/Design The PAraDOx Study examines community preferences for organ donation policy in Australia. The aims are to 1) determine which factors influence decisions by individuals to offer their organs for donation and 2) determine the criteria by which the community deems the allocation of donor organs to be fair and equitable. Qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. Focus group participants from the general community, aged between 18-80, will be purposively sampled to ensure a variety of cultural backgrounds and views on organ donation. Each focus group will include a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique. Focus groups of organ recipients, their families, and individuals on a transplant waiting list will also be conducted. Using the qualitative work, a discrete choice study will be designed to quantitatively assess community preferences. Discrete choice methods are based on the premise that goods and services can be described in terms of a number of separate attributes. Respondents are presented with a series of choices where levels of attributes are varied, and a mathematical function is estimated to describe numerically the value respondents attach to different options. Two community surveys will be conducted in approximately 1000 respondents each to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. A mixed logit model will be used; model results will be expressed as parameter estimates (?) and the odds of choosing one option over an alternative. Trade-offs between attributes will also be calculated. Discussion By providing a better understanding of current community preferences in relation to organ donation and allocation, the PAraDOx study will highlight options for firstly, increasing the rate of organ donation and secondly, allow for more transparent and equitable policies in relation to organ allocation. PMID:21612584

  19. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  20. A Conceptual Model for Supporting Para-Teacher Learning in an Indian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these teachers is critical for NGO effectiveness, yet

  1. Contribuições para o projeto da câmara infravermelha Spartan do telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, R.; Jablonski, F.; Loh, E.

    2003-08-01

    Como parte de uma colaboração entre a Divisão de Astrofísica do INPE, IAG-USP, Instituto do Milênio MEGALIT e a Michigan State University, trabalhamos durante um ano junto ao grupo do Dr. Edwin Loh (MSU) no projeto e detalhamento de diversos subsistemas para a câmara infravermelho Spartan do telescópio SOAR. Trata-se de um imageador para as bandas J, H e K que explora todo o potencial, em termos de qualidade de imagem e campo de visada, fornecido pelo sistema de óptica adaptativa de primeira ordem do telescópio SOAR. Projetamos soluções detalhadas para os subsistemas de rodas de filtros/grismas/máscaras de Lyot; subsistema de compactação do mosaico de detectores em duas versões distintas; subsistema de alimentação de Nitrogênio líquido. Mantivemos sempre uma supervisão geral sobre todas as partes restantes e os respectivos envelopes volumétricos produzindo soluções para a integração de todos os componentes. Neste trabalho, ilustramos as principais contribuições e fornecemos um resumo do estado atual do instrumento.

  2. A Conceptual Model for Supporting Para-Teacher Learning in an Indian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these teachers is critical for NGO effectiveness, yet…

  3. Leyendo con tu hijo: Consejos practicos para los padres... (Reading with Your Child: Practical Advice for Parents...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This brochure (in Spanish) offers some practical tips for Spanish-speaking parents who wish to read to their young children. The brochure first provides general tips, such as "Lea a su hijo en voz alto por lo menos unos 15 minutos todos los dias" (Read to your child aloud for at least 15 minutes daily), and "Estabeleza una rotina y un lugar para

  4. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  5. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  6. TOXICOKINETICS AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF NINE PARA-SUBSTITUTED PHENOLS IN RAT EMBRYOS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of embryo uptake following exposure to a variety of related chemicals in rodent embryo culture. he uptake of nine radiolabeled para-substituted phenols by day 10 (9-13 somite stage) rat embryos in vitro was determined ...

  7. 75 FR 34943 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... the Federal Register on December 18, 2008 (73 FR 76970). The comment period closed on February 17... Accordingly, the interim rule amending 48 CFR parts 225 and 252, which was published at 73 FR 76970 on... Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a Qualifying Country AGENCY:...

  8. ParaStream: A parallel streaming Delaunay triangulation algorithm for LiDAR points on multicore architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huayi; Guan, Xuefeng; Gong, Jianya

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a robust parallel Delaunay triangulation algorithm called ParaStream for processing billions of points from nonoverlapped block LiDAR files. The algorithm targets ubiquitous multicore architectures. ParaStream integrates streaming computation with a traditional divide-and-conquer scheme, in which additional erase steps are implemented to reduce the runtime memory footprint. Furthermore, a kd-tree-based dynamic schedule strategy is also proposed to distribute triangulation and merging work onto the processor cores for improved load balance. ParaStream exploits most of the computing power of multicore platforms through parallel computing, demonstrating qualities of high data throughput as well as a low memory footprint. Experiments on a 2-Way-Quad-Core Intel Xeon platform show that ParaStream can triangulate approximately one billion LiDAR points (16.4 GB) in about 16 min with only 600 MB physical memory. The total speedup (including I/O time) is about 6.62 with 8 concurrent threads.

  9. Enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  10. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cncer: funciones y desafos (PDQ)Versin para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones tpicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones tiles para esas personas.

  11. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  12. Cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del NCI para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  13. Cáncer de vesícula biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vesícula biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  14. ParaCalc--a novel tool to evaluate the economic importance of worm infections on the dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Van der Voort, Mariska; Hogeveen, Henk; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-03-23

    Subclinical infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke are important causes of production losses in grazing cattle. Although there is an extensive compilation of literature describing the effect of these infections on animal performance, only a few attempts have been made to convert these production losses to an economic cost. Here, we propose a novel tool (ParaCalc()), available as a web-application, to provide herd-specific estimates of the costs of these infections on dairy farms. ParaCalc() is a deterministic spread-sheet model where results from diagnostic methods to monitor the helminth infection status on a herd and anthelmintic usage are used as input parameters. Default values are provided to describe the effects of the infections on production and the cost of these production losses, but the latter can be adapted to improve the herd-specificity of the cost estimate. After development, ParaCalc() was applied on input parameters that were available for 93 Belgian dairy herds. In addition, the tool was provided to 6 veterinarians and their user experiences were evaluated. The estimated median [25th-75th percentile] cost per year per cow was 46 [29-58] and 6 [0-19] for gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infection, respectively. For both infections, the major components in the total costs were those associated with milk production losses in the adult cows. The veterinarians evaluated ParaCalc() as a useful tool to raise the farmers' awareness on the costs of worm infections, providing added value for their services. However, the score given for user-friendliness was diverse among users. Although the model behind ParaCalc() is a strong simplification of the real herd processes inducing economic losses, the tool may be used in the future to support economic decisions on helminth control. PMID:21978741

  15. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Squamous Cell Anal Cancer With Para-aortic Nodal Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Das, Prajnan; Eng, Cathy; Reish, Andrew G.; Beddar, A. Sam; Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the rates of toxicity, locoregional control, distant control, and survival in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement, treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 6 patients with squamous cell anal cancer and para-aortic nodal involvement were treated with IMRT and concurrent infusional 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The primary tumor was treated with a median dose of 57.5 Gy (range, 54-60 Gy), involved para-aortic, pelvic, and inguinal lymph nodes were treated with a median dose of 55 Gy (range, 50.5-55 Gy), and noninvolved nodal regions were treated with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 43.5-45 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 25 months, none of the patients had a recurrence at the primary tumor, pelvic/inguinal nodes, or para-aortic nodes, whereas 2 patients developed distant metastases to the liver. Four of the 6 patients are alive. The 3-year actuarial locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival rates were 100%, 56%, and 63%, respectively. Four of the 6 patients developed Grade 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity during chemoradiation. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy could potentially serve as definitive therapy in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be indicated in these patients, as demonstrated by the distant failure rates. These patients need to be followed carefully because of the potential for treatment-related toxicities.

  16. Mini-mastoidectoma para anastomosis hipogloso-facial con seccin parcial del nervio hipogloso

    PubMed Central

    Campero, lvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Carolina; Rhoton, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introduccin: La anastomosis hipogloso-facial es la tcnica de eleccin para la reparacin de la parlisis facial cuando no se dispone de un cabo proximal sano del nervio facial. La tcnica de anastomosis mediante fresado mastoideo y seccin parcial del hipogloso minimiza la atrofia lingual sin sacrificar resultados a nivel facial. Mtodo: La porcin mastoidea del nervio facial transcurre por la pared anterior de la AM, a un promedio de 18+/-3 mm de profundidad respecto de la pared lateral. Se debe reconocer la cresta supramastoidea, desde la cual se marca una lnea vertical paralela al eje mayor de la AM, 1 cm por detrs de la pared posterior del CAE El fresado se comienza desde la lnea medio mastoidea hasta la pared posterior del CAE. Una vez encontrado el nervio facial en el tercio medio del canal mastoideo, el mismo es seguido hacia proximal y distal. Resultados: El abordaje descripto permite acceder al nervio facial intratemporal en su porcin mastoidea, y efectuar un fresado seo sin poner en riesgo al nervio o a estructuras vasculares cercanas. Se trata de un procedimiento tcnicamente ms sencillo que los abordajes amplios habitualmente utilizados al hueso temporal; no obstante su uso debe ser restringido mayormente a la anastomosis hipogloso-facial. Conclusin: Esta es una tcnica relativamente sencilla, que puede ser reproducida por cirujanos sin mayor experiencia en el tema, luego de su paso por el laboratorio de anatoma. PMID:23596555

  17. Taxas de eventos para as fontes astrofsicas do detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Araujo, J. C. N.; Miranda, O. D.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ser sensvel a sinais que cheguem Terra com amplitude h~10-21 e dentro da faixa em frequncias que varia de 3,0 a 3,4 kHz. As principais fontes astrofsicas em condies de gerar um sinal detectvel pela antena Schenberg so: colapsos estelares que produzam eventos do tipo supernova; instabilidades hidrodinmicas em estrelas de nutrons; excitao dos modos fludo (modos f) de estrelas de nutrons; excitao dos primeiros modos quadrupolares de buracos negros com massa ~ 3,8 M; coalescncias de estrelas de nutrons e buracos negros em sistemas binrios e, ainda, espiralaes de mini-buracos negros. Neste trabalho ns determinamos as taxas de eventos para o Schenberg associadas a dois tipos de fontes: atravs da de-excitao dos modos f de estrelas de nutrons e atravs da coalescncia de mini-buracos negros de 0,5 M (que atualmente tm sido colocados como possveis candidatos a objetos massivos do halo Galctico). Ns mostramos que esses tipos de fontes podero produzir sinais em ondas gravitacionais com uma taxa em torno de um evento por ano dentro da banda do Schenberg.

  18. Para-cresyl sulfate acutely impairs vascular reactivity and induces vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gross, Priscilla; Massy, Ziad A; Henaut, Lucie; Boudot, Cédric; Cagnard, Joanna; March, Cécilia; Kamel, Saïd; Drueke, Tilman B; Six, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by vascular remodeling and the retention of uremic toxins, several of which are independently associated with the high cardiovascular mortality rate in CKD patients. Whether the association between these uremic toxins and cardiovascular mortality is due to induction of vascular dysfunction and resulting vascular remodeling remains to be determined. This study evaluates the effects of para-cresyl sulfate (PCS), a newly identified uremic toxin, on vascular function and remodeling. PCS acutely induced oxidative stress in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, with a maximal effect at 0.15 mM, corresponding to the mean "uremic" concentration found in dialysis patients. PCS significantly increased within 30 min phenylephrine-induced contraction of mouse thoracic aorta, through direct activation of rho-kinase, independently of oxidative stress induction, as demonstrated by the capacity of rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 to abolish this effect. After exposure of the aorta to PCS for 48 h, we observed inward eutrophic remodeling, a hallmark of uremic vasculopathy characterized by a reduction of the area of both lumen and media, with unchanged media/lumen ratio. In conclusion, elevated PCS concentrations such as those observed in CKD patients, by promoting both vascular dysfunction and vascular remodeling, may contribute to the development of hypertension and to cardiovascular mortality in CKD. PMID:25899466

  19. Defect-induced effects on carrier migration through one-dimensional poly(para-phenylenevinylene) chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppi, L.; Calzolari, A.; Ruini, A.; Ferretti, A.; Caldas, M. J.

    2008-10-01

    Defects in one-dimensional (1D) systems can be intrinsically distinct from its three-dimensional counterparts, and polymer films are good candidates for showing both extremes that are difficult to individuate in the experimental data. We study theoretically the impact of simple hydrogen and oxygen defects on the electron transport properties of one-dimensional poly(para-phenylenevinylene) chains through a multiscale technique, starting from classical structural simulations for crystalline films to extensive ab initio calculations within density functional theory for the defects in single crystalline-constrained chains. The most disruptive effect on carrier transport comes from conjugation breaking imposed by the overcoordination of a carbon atom in the vinyl group independently from the chemical nature of the defect. The particular case of the [C=O] (keto-defect) shows in addition unexpected electron-hole separation, suggesting that the experimentally detected photoluminescence bleaching and photoconductivity enhancement could be due to exciton dissociation caused by the 1D characteristics of the defect.

  20. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonyl PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.

  1. Agregacin de para-H2 en chorros supersnicos: del dmero al slido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mara Fernndez, Jos

    En este trabajo se mostrarn los estudios de expansiones supersnicas de para-H2 desde toberas criognicas, realizados en el laboratorio de Fluidodinmica Molecular del IEM. Hemos registrado los espectros Raman de dichas expansiones en el intervalo de frecuencias de 4145 a 4162 cm-1, prximo a la lnea Q(0) del monmero no rotante H2, a 4161.18 cm-1. En el espectro Raman, adems de la lnea Q(0) del monmero, se observan unos picos dbiles, que, por su comportamiento con la temperatura de la tobera y la distancia a la misma, asignamos a la transicin homloga en agregados de p-H2. Dependiendo de las condiciones, se observan agregados pequeos (de 2 a 13 molculas de p-H2), agregados medios y masivos, y se llega incluso al lquido y al slido. Las asignaciones se apoyan en un modelo sencillo, basado en la perturbacin, debida al potencial intermolecular, de los estados vibracionales v=0 y v=1 en los agregados de p-H2. Se mostrarn detalles de la instalacin experimental, ejemplos de los espectros obtenidos en diversas condiciones, y detalles de la interpretacin cuantitativa.

  2. Role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer: Current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bogani, Giorgio; Dowdy, Sean C.; Cliby, William A.; Ghezzi, Fabio; Rossetti, Diego; Mariani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current evidence on the role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer. In 1988, the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommended surgical staging for endometrial cancer patients. However, 25 years later, the role of lymph node dissection remains controversial. Although the findings of two large independent randomized trials suggested that pelvic lymphadenectomy provides only adjunctive morbidity with no clear influence on survival outcomes, the studies have many pitfalls that limit interpretation of the results. Theoretically, lymphadenectomy may help identify patients with metastatic dissemination, who may benefit from adjuvant therapy, thus reducing radiation-related morbidity. Also, lymphadenectomy may eradicate metastatic disease. Because lymphatic spread is relatively uncommon, our main effort should be directed at identifying patients who may potentially benefit from lymph node dissection, thus reducing the rate of unnecessary treatment and associated morbidity. This review will discuss the role of lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer, focusing on patient selection, extension of the surgical procedure, postoperative outcomes, quality of life and costs. The need for new surgical studies and efficacious systemic drugs is recommended. PMID:24472047

  3. Selective plasmon-driven catalysis for para-nitroaniline in aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Li, Yuanzuo; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    The plasmon-driven oxidation of amine (-NH2) groups and the reduction of nitro (-NO2) groups on a nanostructured metal surface in an aqueous environment have been reported experimentally and theoretically. The question of which process occurs first in the aqueous environment is an interesting question in the field of plasmon-related photochemistry. Para-nitroaniline (PNA), with both nitro (-NO2) and amine (-NH2) groups, is the best candidate for studying the priority of the plasmon-driven oxidation and the reduction reactions in an aqueous environment. Using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, our experimental results and theoretical simulations reveal that PNA is selectively catalyzed to 4,4'-diaminoazobenzene (DAAB) through the plasmon-assisted dimerization of the nitro (-NO2) group into an azo group in an aqueous environment. This indicates that the plasmon-driven reduction of the nitro (-NO2) group clearly occurs before the oxidation of the amine (-NH2) group in an aqueous environment. The plasmon-driven reduction of PNA to DAAB is a selective surface catalytic reduced reaction in aqueous environment. PMID:26857259

  4. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-28

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  5. Interface Properties of Organic para-Hexaphenyl/?-Sexithiophene Heterostructures Deposited on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It was recently reported, that heterostructures of para-hexaphenyl (p-6P) and ?-sexithiophene (6T) deposited on muscovite mica exhibit the intriguing possibility to prepare lasing nanofibers of tunable emission wavelength. For p-6P/6T heterostructures, two different types of 6T emission have been observed, namely, the well-known red emission of bulk 6T crystals and additionally a green emission connected to the interface between p-6P and 6T. In this study, the origin of the green fluorescence is investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). As a prerequisite, it is necessary to prepare structurally similar organic crystals on a conductive surface, which leads to the choice of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as a substrate. The similarity between p-6P/6T heterostructures on muscovite mica and on HOPG is evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning force microscopy (SFM), and optical spectroscopy. PES measurements show that the interface between p-6P and 6T crystals is sharp on a molecular level without any sign of interface dipole formation or chemical interaction between the molecules. We therefore conclude that the different emission colors of the two 6T phases are caused by different types of molecular aggregation. PMID:24156627

  6. Performance of three different anodes in electrochemical degradation of 4-para-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Murugaesan, Pramila; Aravind, Priyadharshini; Guruswamy Muniyandi, Neelavannan; Kandasamy, Subramanian

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, removal of pollutants from wastewater by electrochemical oxidation has become an attractive method. The present investigation deals with the degradation of 4-para-nitrophenol (4-PNP) by electrochemical oxidation using three different anodes, namely TiO2-RuO2-IrO2/Ti (titanium substrate insoluble anode - TSIA)), IrO2-PbO2/Ti and graphite. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-PNP was carried out employing sodium chloride as the supporting electrolyte, at pH 7 with a current density of 15?mA/cm(2). The degradation of 4-PNP by electro-oxidation was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography. The performance efficiency and current efficiency of the three anodic materials in this study were evaluated by chemical oxygen demand (COD). Comparisons of energy consumption for the three anodes employed were also calculated. Among electrodes investigated, the IrO2-PbO2/Ti electrode resulted in 98% of COD removal in 30?min comparatively at a less energy consumption of 1??10(-2)?kWh?m(-3), depicting its higher performance efficiency in 4-PNP degradation. PMID:25885262

  7. Serotypes associated with the development of pneumococcal para-pneumonic effusion in adults.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; Slack, Mary; Trotter, Caroline; George, Robert; Lim, Wei Shen

    2013-09-01

    Serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A are implicated in childhood pneumococcal para-pneumonic effusion (PPE). It is not known whether the same is true for adult PPE. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 2-year period. Consecutive adults admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were studied. Pneumococcal serotype was identified from urine samples using a multiplex immunoassay. Of 920 patients recruited, 366 had pneumococcal CAP; 100 of these had PPE and a serotype was determined in 73 patients. Factors associated with PPE were age, pneumonia severity index score and serotype. Serotypes most associated with PPE were 1 (18 (45%) out of 40), 19A (9 (45%) out of 20) and 3 (8 (40%) out of 20). Serotypes common in childhood PPE were independently associated with adult PPE (adjusted OR 2.3; p = 0.003). Serotypes not included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) were more likely to be associated with PPE (OR 2.1; p = 0.024) compared with those in the vaccine. Serotypes included in PCV-13 were as likely to be associated with PPE as those that are not (OR 0.8; p = 0.301). Serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A are independently associated with adult PPE, a similar finding to childhood PPE. Serotype replacement following pneumococcal vaccine implementation may influence the spectrum of clinical disease. PMID:23258784

  8. Para-toluenesulfonamide induces tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe; Liang, Chenyuan; Zhang, Zhuoyuan; Pan, Jian; Xia, Hui; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-01-01

    Para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS) has been implicated with anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PTS on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (Tca-8113) and explored the lysosomal and mitochondrial changes after PTS treatment in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography showed that PTS selectively accumulated in Tca-8113 cells with a relatively low concentration in normal fibroblasts. Next, the effects of PTS on cell viability, invasion, and cell death were determined. PTS significantly inhibited Tca-8113 cells’ viability and invasive ability with increased cancer cell death. Flow cytometric analysis and the lactate dehydrogenase release assay showed that PTS induced cancer cell death by activating apoptosis and necrosis simultaneously. Morphological changes, such as cellular shrinkage, nuclear condensation as well as formation of apoptotic body and secondary lysosomes, were observed, indicating that PTS might induce cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability. Lysosomal integrity assay and western blot showed that PTS increased lysosomal membrane permeabilization associated with activation of lysosomal cathepsin B. Finally, PTS was shown to inhibit ATP biosynthesis and induce the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Therefore, our findings provide a novel insight into the use of PTS in cancer therapy. PMID:26302210

  9. Comparison of the photoconversion of para-chlorophenol under simulated sunlight and UV irradiation in ice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Jie; Kang, Chun-Li; Song, Yong-Hui; Guo, Ping; Lang, Xing-Hua; Peng, Fei

    2011-01-01

    The photochemistry of para-chlorophenol (4-CP) was studied under simulated sunlight (lambda > 300 nm) and UV irradiation by using a 125 W high-pressure mercury lamp with or without a hard glass as light source in an ice matrix. The experiments were carried out in a photochemical cold chamber reactor at -14 to -12 degrees C. The photoconversion rate, photoproducts and photoconversion mechanism of 4-CP were all inspected and compared. The results show that the 4-CP photoconversion obeys the first order kinetic model and its photoconversion rate is highly affected by the initial concentration of 4-CP, light intensity and water quality. It is found that the conversion rate of 4-CP under UV irradiation is higher than that under simulated sunlight irradiation. The intermediate products of 4-CP were characterized by GC-MS, HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC techniques and the possible photoconversion mechanism was proposed accordingly. It is concluded that the mechanism and photoproducts of 4-CP photolysis in ice are different from those in water, and the photoproducts and photoconversion pathways of 4-CP in ice varied with different light sources. PMID:22097069

  10. Coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with para-substituents in the molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverov, Vladimir S.; Komolkin, Andrei V.

    2012-03-01

    A new two-site coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with substituents in the para-position is proposed for use with multiscale simulations. The model uses a modified Lennard-Jones potential and introduces an additional shifting parameter to the description of the atom-atom interactions. Furthermore, the model separates sets of parameters of Van-der-Waals interactions into inter- and intramolecular. The shifting parameter is specified separately for each pair of atom types for both inter- and intramolecular interactions. The model itself consists of two superatoms. It allows for high speed calculations, "remembers" the benzene ring orientation in multiscale simulations, and can be used together with well-known sets of "united atoms" potentials. This model was tested on p-xylene, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, and 1-methyl-4-propylbenzene. Structural properties for all three substances in the full-atomic model, the "united atoms" model, and the suggested coarse-grained model are discussed. The results demonstrate that the local structure derived from the coarse-grained model is very similar to that derived from the "united atoms" model.

  11. Coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with para-substituents in the molecule.

    PubMed

    Neverov, Vladimir S; Komolkin, Andrei V

    2012-03-01

    A new two-site coarse-grain model of the benzene ring with substituents in the para-position is proposed for use with multiscale simulations. The model uses a modified Lennard-Jones potential and introduces an additional shifting parameter to the description of the atom-atom interactions. Furthermore, the model separates sets of parameters of Van-der-Waals interactions into inter- and intramolecular. The shifting parameter is specified separately for each pair of atom types for both inter- and intramolecular interactions. The model itself consists of two superatoms. It allows for high speed calculations, "remembers" the benzene ring orientation in multiscale simulations, and can be used together with well-known sets of "united atoms" potentials. This model was tested on p-xylene, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, and 1-methyl-4-propylbenzene. Structural properties for all three substances in the full-atomic model, the "united atoms" model, and the suggested coarse-grained model are discussed. The results demonstrate that the local structure derived from the coarse-grained model is very similar to that derived from the "united atoms" model. PMID:22401424

  12. Polycrystalline para-terphenyl scintillator adopted in a β- detecting probe for radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Voena, C.

    2015-06-01

    A radio-guided surgery technique exploiting β- emitters is under development. It aims at a higher target-to-background activity ratio implying both a smaller radiopharmaceutical activity and the possibility of extending the technique to cases with a large uptake of surrounding healthy organs. Such technique requires a dedicated intraoperative probe detecting β- radiation. A first prototype has been developed relying on the low density and high light yield of the diphenylbutadiene doped para-therphenyl organic scintillator. The scintillation light produced in a cylindrical crystal, 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, is guided to a photo-multiplier tube by optical fibres. The custom readout electronics is designed to optimize its usage in terms of feedback to the surgeon, portability and remote monitoring of the signal. Tests show that with a radiotracer activity comparable to those administered for diagnostic purposes the developed probe can detect a 0.1 ml cancerous residual of meningioma in a few seconds.

  13. High performance hybrid supercapacitors by using para-Benzoquinone ionic liquid redox electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-02-01

    A solution of 0.4M para-Benzoquinone (p-BQ) in the ionic liquid N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR14TFSI) was used as a redox electrolyte in hybrid supercapacitors. Two carbons with very different textural properties, Pica carbon and Vulcan carbon, were used as electrode material. Electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD). Unlike SCs with pure IL electrolyte, new battery-like features appeared in the CV curves and CD profiles. This electrochemical performance, associated with the faradaic contribution of the redox electrolyte, results in a significant improvement of the electrochemical performance of the hybrid system. For Vulcan carbon with low specific surface area (SBET = 240 m2 g-1), specific capacitance (Cs) and specific real energy (Ereal) values as high as 70 Fg-1 and 10.3 WhKg-1 were obtained at 5 mAcm-2 with hybrid SC operating at 3 V. This represents an increment of 300% in Cs and Ereal with respect to the SC based on pure PYR14TFSI. For high surface area carbon such as Pica (SBET = 2410 m2g-1), the addition of the redox quinone molecule resulted in a moderate enhancement reaching values of 156 Fg-1 and 30 WhKg-1 under the same experimental conditions (36% and 10% increment, respectively).

  14. Mass gathering preparedness: the experience of the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para-Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Vaitsi, Vasiliki; Kolonia, Virginia; Vasilogiannacopoulos, Antonios P; Kremastinou, Jeni

    2005-05-01

    Planning for environmental health management of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games included assessment of the capacity and deficiencies of relevant public health agencies in Athens and the other four Olympic cities with 17 detailed questionnaires. Different estimates of the expected number of visitors were made on the basis of experience from previous Olympic Games. Potential public health risks were identified and prioritized. A number of deficiencies in personnel, resources, training, and coordination were identified in most agencies. One hundred and ninety-six environmental health inspectors were expected to work during the Olympic period. Around 18,000 athletes and escorts from 201 countries were expected to participate in the Olympic Games and 7,000 to participate in the Para-Olympic Games. Three different scenarios regarding the number of expected visitors were explored; the most probable estimate being 1,950,000 visitors. Foodborne diseases, waterborne diseases, and heat-related illnesses were considered of high priority during the Olympic period, as were traffic accidents. The Olympic Games are a difficult assignment that demands extensive planning, appropriate resources, and timely reporting and coordination among the various public health agencies. PMID:15957323

  15. Dynamics and lithium binding energies of polyelectrolytes based on functionalized poly(para-phenylene terephthalamide).

    PubMed

    Grozema, F C; Best, A S; van Eijck, L; Stride, J; Kearley, G J; de Leeuw, S W; Picken, S J

    2005-04-28

    Polyelectrolyte materials are an interesting class of electrolytes for use in fuel cell and battery applications. Poly(para-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA, Kevlar) is a liquid crystalline polymer that, when sulfonated, is a polyelectrolyte that exhibits moderate ion conductivity at elevated temperatures. In this work, quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments were performed to gain insight into the effect of the presence of lithium counterions on the chain dynamics in the material. It was found that the addition of lithium ions decreases the dynamics of the chains. Additionally, the binding of lithium ions to the sulfonic acids groups was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It was found that the local surroundings of the sulfonic acid group have very little effect on the lithium-ion binding energy. Binding energies for a variety of different systems were all calculated to be around 150 kcal/mol. The DFT calculations also show the existence of a structure in which a single lithium ion interacts with two sulfonic acid moieties on different chains. The formation of such "electrostatic cross-links" is believed to be the source of the increased tendency to aggregate and the reduced dynamics in the presence of lithium ions. PMID:16851895

  16. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operao regular no INPE, em So Jos dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS dedicado s observaes de exploses solares decimtricas com alta resoluo temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenmenos associados com a liberao de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 exploses solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas caractersticas morfolgicas. Na anlise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de exploses solares deve-se considerar a variao do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em funo da freqncia e a variao temporal, alm da complexidade das exploses e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo varivel. Com o intuito de realizar tal anlise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, constitudo de vrias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e anlise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes filtragem do rudo de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de rudo foram testadas nos diversos grupos de exploses solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcanando um bom resultado na diminuio do rudo de fundo e obtendo, em conseqncia, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogneo ressaltando as reas onde existem exploses solares e tornando mais precisas as determinaes dos parmetros observacionais de cada exploso. Estes resultados sero apresentados e discutidos.

  17. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; BIRI, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, West Hollywood, California 90048 ; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-15

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  18. Determination of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in henna in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaidi, Ayesha; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2010-04-01

    Henna is very popular in the United Arab Emirates (UAE); it is part of the culture and traditions. Allergy to natural henna is not usual; however the addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) to the natural henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis. The objectives of the study were to identify the presence and concentration of PPD in henna available in UAE. Fifteen henna salons were selected randomly from three cities in UAE. Twenty five henna samples were acquired from these selected salons. The presence of PPD in henna samples was determined qualitatively and quantitatively using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The study showed that PPD was present in all of the black henna samples at concentrations ranging between 0.4% and 29.5% and higher than that recommended for hair dyes in most of the black henna samples. The presence of PPD in the black henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis among users of black henna and a number of cases have already been reported in UAE. PMID:20617053

  19. Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine after temporary henna painting.

    PubMed

    Nawaf, Al-Mutairi; Joshi, Arun; Nour-Eldin, Osama

    2003-11-01

    The use of temporary natural henna painting for body adornment and hair dyeing is very common in several countries of the Indian subcontinent, Middle East, and North Africa, and the fad is spreading in other parts of the world. Several cases of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) contaminated, temporary traditional/natural henna induced sensitization and acute allergic reaction have been reported, along with occasional serious long term and rare fatal consequences. We report here a 17-year-old girl with blisters over her hands of five-days duration that appeared within 72 hours of applying a temporary henna paint to her hands during a social occasion. Similar lesions were noted on her face. She had previously applied black henna only once, a year earlier without developing any lesions. Clinical diagnosis of acute allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) was made. After a short course of oral corticosteroids, topical mometasone furaote 1.0% cream, and oral antihistamines, the lesions healed completely over the next four weeks leaving post-inflammatory hypopigmentation. Patch testing done with standard European battery, PPD 1% in petrolatum, and commercially available natural henna powder revealed a 3+ reaction to PPD at 48 hours. No reaction was seen at the natural henna site. Awareness of the condition among physicians and the public and regulation regarding warnings of the risks of using such products is urgently warranted. PMID:14684936

  20. Selective plasmon-driven catalysis for para-nitroaniline in aqueous environments

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Li, Yuanzuo; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    The plasmon-driven oxidation of amine (?NH2) groups and the reduction of nitro (?NO2) groups on a nanostructured metal surface in an aqueous environment have been reported experimentally and theoretically. The question of which process occurs first in the aqueous environment is an interesting question in the field of plasmon-related photochemistry. Para-nitroaniline (PNA), with both nitro (?NO2) and amine (?NH2) groups, is the best candidate for studying the priority of the plasmon-driven oxidation and the reduction reactions in an aqueous environment. Using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, our experimental results and theoretical simulations reveal that PNA is selectively catalyzed to 4,4?-diaminoazobenzene (DAAB) through the plasmon-assisted dimerization of the nitro (?NO2) group into an azo group in an aqueous environment. This indicates that the plasmon-driven reduction of the nitro (?NO2) group clearly occurs before the oxidation of the amine (?NH2) group in an aqueous environment. The plasmon-driven reduction of PNA to DAAB is a selective surface catalytic reduced reaction in aqueous environment. PMID:26857259

  1. A method to obtain a well-defined fraction of respirable para-aramid fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Schins, R P; Gaudichet, A; Jaurand, M C

    1993-01-01

    We developed a preparation method to obtain respirable-sized fractions of para-aramid fibers. The procedure, based on floatability, consists of stirring and subsequent settling of p-aramid pulp in distilled water. Two distinct phases are obtained, with small fibers in the upper part of the suspension, which represents about 33% of the total volume. Optimal results were obtained when 2.0 g pulp was stirred for 15 hr in 800 ml distilled water containing 0.125% ethanol and settled for 5 hr. The mass yield ranged between 0.4 and 0.6%, more than 90% of the particles had an aspect ratio > or = 3:1. The mean fiber length was about 6 microns, and the mean fiber diameter was about 0.4 microns as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The number of fibers obtained was 4 x 10(6) fibers/micrograms under our standard conditions. Images p414-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8119251

  2. Protective role of sodium para-amino salicylic acid against manganese-induced hippocampal neurons damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Chan; Jiang, Yueming; Deng, Xiangfa; Lu, Jipei; Ou, Shiyan

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element of human. However, excessive Mn can cause manganism. Mn selectively accumulated in Mn-exposed workers' hippocampus which is crucial for higher brain functions such as learning, memory, and motivation during our postnatal life. Studies suggested sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) appeared to be therapeutic for manganism. We aimed to explore whether PAS could block Mn-induced neuronal injury in hippocampus in vitro. Hippocampal neurons were exposed to 50 ?M manganese chloride (MnCl(2)) for 24 h, following by 50, 500, or 5000 ?M PAS treatment for 24 h. Cell viability, apoptosis rate, mean fluorescence intensity of mitochondrial and DNA damage were respectively performed. MnCl(2) significantly decreased neurons' viability and fluorescence intensity of comet head of DNA, while increasing the apoptosis rate, mean fluorescence intensity of mitochondrial, percentage of tail DNA, and Olive tail moment of DNA. PAS reduced the percentage of tail DNA and Olive tail moment of Mn-exposed neurons. These data suggested that Mn caused hippocampal neurons' injury, and 50-5000 ?M PAS could inhibit Mn-induced DNA damage. PMID:24769799

  3. Selective plasmon-driven catalysis for para-nitroaniline in aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Li, Yuanzuo; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-02-01

    The plasmon-driven oxidation of amine (‑NH2) groups and the reduction of nitro (‑NO2) groups on a nanostructured metal surface in an aqueous environment have been reported experimentally and theoretically. The question of which process occurs first in the aqueous environment is an interesting question in the field of plasmon-related photochemistry. Para-nitroaniline (PNA), with both nitro (‑NO2) and amine (‑NH2) groups, is the best candidate for studying the priority of the plasmon-driven oxidation and the reduction reactions in an aqueous environment. Using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, our experimental results and theoretical simulations reveal that PNA is selectively catalyzed to 4,4‧-diaminoazobenzene (DAAB) through the plasmon-assisted dimerization of the nitro (‑NO2) group into an azo group in an aqueous environment. This indicates that the plasmon-driven reduction of the nitro (‑NO2) group clearly occurs before the oxidation of the amine (‑NH2) group in an aqueous environment. The plasmon-driven reduction of PNA to DAAB is a selective surface catalytic reduced reaction in aqueous environment.

  4. [La Junta para Ampliación de Estudios and the development of Spanish psychology].

    PubMed

    Carpintero, Helio; Herrero, Fania

    2007-01-01

    During the last decades of the XIXth century, there was an awakening of consciousness for the need of a Spanish cultural renovation, of which one of the aims was to create and develop a Spanish science, resembling the scientific models already established in more advanced countries. There was a desire of Europeanization. Since it was a global social objective, it was necessary to start from the educator's training. In this climate the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas, appeared. The role that the Junta played in Spanish research and in the innovation in the Psychopedagogical field through the first third of the XXth century was extremely important. The Junta's policy of scholarship was one of its most substantial achievements, for it made possible that the country reached in a few decades (1907-1936) the European scientific and psychological level. The relations among Spanish teachers and the Institute J.J. Rousseau is to highlighted, as "Geneva School" was to influence deeply the further development of psychology in Spain. PMID:19845072

  5. Crystal structures of supramolecular assemblies based on a para-dicyclohexanocucurbit[6]uil with metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiao; Chen, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Yun-Qian; Zhu, Qian-Jiang; Xue, Sai-Feng; Tao, Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Five crystals based on para-dicyclohexanocucurbit[6]uil (DCyHQ[6]) were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions. They are {Dioxane@DCyHQ[6]}18H 2O ( 1), {[Cu(HO)6]2DCyHQ[6]}2SO42-10HO ( 2), {[Zn(HO)6]2DCyHQ[6]}2SO42-10HO ( 3), {[Sr(HO)5]2DCyHQ[6]}5Cl(HO)+8HO ( 4), {[Na(HO)4]2DCyHQ[6]}4Br2(HO)+14HO ( 5). The compound 1 which is a dioxane @DCyHQ[6] inclusion host-guest complex; the other three crystal structures of the compounds 2, 3 and 4 show supramolecular assemblies comprising of DCyHQ[6] and metal ions or their aqueous complexes through hydrogen bonding; while the crystal structure of the compound 5 shows a one-dimensional supramolecular polymer through direct coordination of sodium cations to the portal carbonyl oxygen atoms of the DCyHQ[6].

  6. Para-iliac actinomycetoma presenting as sarcoma, a late complication of appendicitis: A case report?

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, Pierre; Cantin, Marie-Andre; Isler, Marc H.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Actinomycosis is known to mimic several types of neoplasms, leading to morbid surgical interventions. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the particular case of an extensive right para-iliac actinomycetoma presenting as a sarcoma, which to our knowledge has not yet been described in the literature, in a patient with previous ruptured appendicitis. Thanks to the collaborative work between the orthopedic and general surgeons, pathologist and microbiologist, the diagnosis of actinomycosis was made pre-operatively, saving this 15-year-old patient from a tumor resection protocol. DISCUSSION Actinomycetomas have often been reported to present in the same way as several abdominal and gynecological neoplasms, and on rare occasions been described as mimicking other soft-tissue sarcomas, leading to unnecessary morbid tumor resection protocols. The most common cause of abdominal actinomycosis is perforated appendicitis, and may present several years later. CONCLUSION While faced with a soft tissue mass transgressing tissue planes and possibly extending to the region of the right lower quadrant, especially with a history of previous perforated appendicitis, one should consider the possibility of an abscess caused by pathogens of intestinal origin, including the gram positive anaerobe Actinomycosis israelii. Failure to actively search for this pathogen, which is not detectable with routine staining techniques and may take up to 12 weeks to isolate, may lead to unnecessary morbid surgical procedures. PMID:24434727

  7. Contact allergy to para-phenylenediamine in a permanent eyelash dye.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marta; de Wachter, Liesbet; Ronsyn, Elke; Goossens, An

    2006-08-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old atopic lady with a known history of intolerance to several materials, including dark stockings, who developed a severe dermatitis on the eyelids and peri-orbital regions, as well as a conjunctivitis after having her eyelashes tinted by a beautician with a permanent black eyelash and eyebrow dye (Combinal, Dr Temt Laboratories, Austria). Patch tests revealed positive reactions to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), both diluted 0.01% and 1% in pet., to the eyelash dye (tested semiopen as is) and to some of the azo-dyes tested. The permanent eyelash dye did contain PPD, the use of which is illegal but seems to be a common practice. The patient had most probably been sensitized through nylon stockings containing azo-dyes, with PPD itself cross-reacting to them. With the growth in popularity of tattooing and permanent make-up, doctors should be aware of the new uses of this old allergen. Moreover, although many manufacturers have made great efforts to improve cosmetics concerning their safety, some of them remain uninformed about cosmetic legislation or do not respect it at all. Because many of these products are acquired via internet, lack of legislation about this shopping modality is also a serious problem. PMID:16930233

  8. Ortho-Para Transition in Muonic Hydrogen and the Proton's Induced Pseudoscalar Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, D. S.

    2004-05-01

    The induced weak pseudoscalar coupling form factor is a particularly poorly-known aspect of the axial structure of the nucleon, although its value is of significant interest as a test of chiral symmetry breaking. Muon capture experiments (Jonkmans et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(1996)4512, Bardin et al., Phys. Lett. 104B(1981)320) have been used to measure this form factor gp at modest Q^2. However, the interpretation of these muon capture experiments hinges on knowing the relative population of the atomic and molecular states occupied by muons in liquid hydrogen. In particular, ?_op, the transition rate between the ortho- and para- molecular states of the p ? p molecule, needs to be known with precision. The only previous measurement (Bardin et al., ibid.) of ? _op yielded a value of (4.1 1.4) 10^4 ; s-1, significantly different than the theoretically predicted value 7.1 10^4 ; s-1 (Bakalov et al., Nucl. Phys. A384(1982)302). A new measurement of ?_op using the time distribution of neutrons from muon capture in protium was performed at TRIUMF. The substantially larger value ?_op = (11 2) 10^4 s-1 was obtained. The uncertainty is dominated by the statistical precision of the fit and the background due to the deuterium contamination in the protium target. The implications of this result for gp are discussed.

  9. Ortho-Para Transition in Muonic Molecular Hydrogen and the Induced Pseudoscalar Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jessica H. D.

    2003-04-01

    A precise measurement of the induced weak pseudoscalar coupling constant of the proton, g_p, is of interest as a basic test of chiral symmetry breaking. This is the least well-known weak form factor of the nucleon. Muon capture experiments(Jonkmans et al. al)., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(1996)4512. have been used to measure g_p. However, the interpretation of these muon capture experiments requires knowledge of the relative population of the muonic atomic and molecular states for muons in liquid hydrogen. In particular, ? _op, the transition rate between the ortho- and para- molecular states of the p? p molecule, needs to be known with precision. The only previous measurement(Bardin et al. al)., Phys. Lett. 104B(1981)320. of ? _op yielded a value of (4.1 1.4) 10^4 ; s-1, significantly different than the theoretical prediction(Bakalov et al. al)., Nucl. Phys. A384(1982)302. of 7.1 10^4 ; s-1. A measurement of ?_op using the time distribution of neutrons from muon capture was performed at TRIUMF during June-July 1999 and November 1999. The ? _op measured in this experiment is (13.8 1.6) 10^4 s-1. The uncertainty is dominated by the statistical precision of the fit and the background due to the deuterium contamination in the protium target. The implications of this result for gp are discussed.

  10. Searching for auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    2005-03-01

    The present special issue of physica status solidi (b), guest-edited by Krzysztof W. Wojciechowski, Andrew Alderson, Arkadiusz Braka, and Kim L. Alderson, is dedicated to Auxetics and Related Systems - materials which exhibit negative Poisson's ratio behaviour. Most papers were presented at a workshop which was held in Pozna-Bdlewo, 27-30 June 2004.In our Editor's Choice [1] novel simulations with a parallel finite element program, ParaDyn, have been conducted to study the formation of auxetic materials. Structures composed of either brick elements (hexahedra) or shell elements are constructed in a regular array of panels. These structures are compressed and relaxed to form an initial state for an auxetic (foam-like) material. The foam structure shown is composed of 208896 shell elements arranged in four by four panels. Applying a uniaxial compression to this structure characterizes the material behaviour of the lateral surfaces as normal (expanding) or auxetic (compressing).The first author, William G. Hoover, has been working in areas such as statistical and applied mechanics, nonlinear and molecular dynamics and is now pursuing, as he states on his own webpage, an active retired research career as Professor Emeritus of UC Davis.

  11. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-09-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A “hybridized redox-asymmetry” method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)-6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N•+) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 12+-62+ by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of -0.137 Å-1. DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results.

  12. Force field of para- and metabenzyne diradicals: A multireference coupled-cluster study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangzhu; Paldus, Josef

    2010-03-01

    The reduced multireference (RMR) coupled-cluster (CC) method with singles and doubles (RMR CCSD) that exploits a modest size MR CISD wave function as an external source for a small subset of the most important (primary) triples and quadruples to account for quasidegeneracy due to a MR nature of the states considered, as well as its RMR CCSD(T) version corrected for the secondary triples, are employed to compute fundamental vibrational frequencies for the para- and metabenzene diradicals. A comparison is made with the available experimental data and with other methods, namely, the state selective or Mukherjee CCSD and completely renormalized, size-extensive version of CCSD(T), the so-called CR-CC(2,3), methods. Both the restricted Hartree-Fock and multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) molecular orbitals (MOs) are employed. The four-reference RMR CCSD using MCSCF MOs gives particularly satisfactory results. The breakdown of CCSD(T) and shortcomings of some other approaches are pointed out and the role of invariance with respect to MO rotation is analyzed. Correlation with triplet-singlet splittings is also pointed out.

  13. Development and Validation of the Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes (EAEE).

    PubMed

    Oliver, Amparo; Galiana, Laura

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years, entrepreneurship has gained an important role in many economic and social policies, with the consequent growth of entrepreneurial research in many social areas. However, in the Spanish psychometric context, there is not an updated scale including recent contributions to entrepreneurship attitudes literature. The aim of this study is to present and validate a new scale named Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes-EAEE, (Entrepreneurial Attitudes Scale for Students, EASS), in two samples of high school and university Spanish students. Data comes from a cross-sectional survey of 524 high school and undergraduate students, from Valencia (Spain). Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were estimated, together with reliability and validity evidence of the scale. Results offered evidence of the adequate psychometric properties of the EASS. The CFAs showed overall and analytical adequate fit indexes (? 2 (120) = 163.19 (p < .01), GFI = .906, CFI = .959, SRMR = .044, RMSEA = .040 [CI .022-.054]); reliability indices of the entrepreneurial attitudes were appropriate for most of the entrepreneurial attitudes (? were between .63 and .87 for the different dimensions); and external evidence relating entrepreneurial dimensions to personality traits was similar to in previous studies. The scale could be a useful instrument both for previous diagnosis and effectiveness assessment of programs on entrepreneurship promotion. PMID:26055696

  14. Foco Nasmyth para el telescopio 2,15mts. de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, A. R.

    En principio, este proyecto intenta lograr el mayor aprovechamiento posible del instrumental que se dispone, buscando la manera de optimizar y hacer ms eficiente el servicio que brinda el CASLEO a la comunidad astronmica. El mismo consiste en utilizar dispositivos ya existentes en el telescopio, y darle una utilidad. Tal es el caso del camino ptico destinado al foco Coude. Si tenemos en cuenta que disponemos de un tercer espejo Coude, con todos sus mecanismos automatizados, (actualmente sin uso), una distancia apropiada del plano focal, el espacio y el lugar fsico necesario para instalar un perifrico, es posible la habilitacin de un foco Nasmyth en el telescopio 2,15mts. El hecho de contar con este nuevo foco, redundar en importantes beneficios. En primer lugar, posibilitar la observacin, casi simultnea, con dos instrumentos. Otro aspecto a tener en cuenta, es que disminuir el frecuente cambio del instrumental perifrico, motivo este que degrada su ideal puesta a punto. Por ltimo, tambin de inters, es de destacar su escaso costo de ejecucin.

  15. From clusters to fibers: Parameters for discontinuous para-hexaphenylene thin film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kankate, Laxman; Balzer, Frank; Niehus, Horst; Rubahn, Horst-Guenter

    2008-02-28

    All relevant steps of discontinuous thin film growth of para-hexaphenylene on muscovite mica (0 0 1) from wetting layer over small and large clusters to nanofibers are observed and investigated in detail by a combined polarized fluorescence and atomic force microscopy study. From a variation of film thickness and surface temperature, we determine effective activation energies for cluster growth of 0.17 eV, for nanofiber length growth of 0.46 eV, for width growth of 0.19 eV, and for height growth of 0.07 eV. The corresponding exponential prefactors for the nanofiber growth are 1x10{sup 9}, 6x10{sup 4}, and 3x10{sup 2} nm. Polarized fluorescence studies reveal that nanofibers grow along the grooves of the mica surface and that they do not change direction if they cross an even number of mica surface steps, while they change direction by 120 deg. for an odd number of steps. These results are taken as an input for a model of the unidirectional growth process on mica. Absolute parameters allowing one to grow nanofibers of predetermined morphology via organic molecular beam epitaxy are also given.

  16. Cobalt-Schiff base complex catalyzed oxidation of para-substituted phenolics. Preparation of benzoquinones

    SciTech Connect

    Bozell, J.J.; Hames, B.R.; Dimmel, D.R.

    1995-04-21

    Para-substituted phenolics, serving as models for lignin (a renewable source of carbon), are oxidized to the corresponding benzoquinone with oxygen in the presence of catalytic amounts of Co-Schiff base complexes. The reaction products observed depend on the structure of the catalyst. The 5-coordinate catalysts (pyridine)[bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine]cobalt[(pyr)Co(salen)]and[bis(salicylideneamino)ethylamine]cobalt [Co(n-Me salpr)] convert syringyl alcohol (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol) to 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone in high yield. In contrast, syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) is unreactive toward these catalysts. However, the 4-coordinate Co(salen) converts syringaldehyde to 2,6-dimethoxybenzoiquinone in 72% isolated yield. Phenols bearing a single methoxy group on the ring are unreactive toward any catalyst in MeOH. However, vanillyl alcohol (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol) is converted to 2-methoxybenzo-quinone with Co(N-Me salpr) and oxygen in 43% yield in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and 58% yield in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} in the presence of 1% CuCl{sub 2}. The success of the oxidations appears to be related to the ease of removal of the phenolic hydrogen by the Co/O{sub 2} complex. Competitive deactivation of the catalyst occurs with substrates of lower reactivity. 84 tabs.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Folate Metabolism and the Mechanistic Basis for para-Aminosalicylic Acid Susceptibility and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Minato, Yusuke; Thiede, Joshua M.; Kordus, Shannon Lynn; McKlveen, Edward J.; Turman, Breanna J.

    2015-01-01

    para-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) entered clinical use in 1946 as the second exclusive drug for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). While PAS was initially a first-line TB drug, the introduction of more potent antitubercular agents relegated PAS to the second-line tier of agents used for the treatment of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Despite the long history of PAS usage, an understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms governing the susceptibility and resistance of M. tuberculosis to this drug has lagged behind that of most other TB drugs. Herein, we discuss previous studies that demonstrate PAS-mediated disruption of iron acquisition, as well as recent genetic, biochemical, and metabolomic studies that have revealed that PAS is a prodrug that ultimately corrupts one-carbon metabolism through inhibition of the formation of reduced folate species. We also discuss findings from laboratory and clinical isolates that link alterations in folate metabolism to PAS resistance. These advancements in our understanding of the basis of the susceptibility and resistance of M. tuberculosis to PAS will enable the development of novel strategies to revitalize this and other antimicrobial agents for use in the global effort to eradicate TB. PMID:26033719

  18. Para-dichlorobenzene toxicity – a review of potential neurotoxic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Sharma, Vibhash D.; Pass, Steven E.; Sawhney, Anshudha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Para-dichlorobenzene (PDCB) is an active ingredient of mothballs, deodorizers and fumigants. Due to the easy availability of this chemical, there is a considerable risk for accidental or intentional toxic exposure. Recently, multiple cases of PDCB toxicity due to mothball ingestion were reported. PDCB toxicity can affect multiple organ systems including liver, kidneys, skin, lung and the central nervous system (CNS). CNS toxicity often results in leukoencephalopathy and heterogeneous neurological manifestations. Objectives: The objective of this study was to illustrate the clinical presentation, imaging findings, diagnosis and management of PDCB toxicity. Methods: We carried out a literature review of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of PDCB. Conclusions: PDCB and other aromatic hydrocarbons are capable of CNS tissue damage and in promoting functional neurological decline. While very little is currently known about prevalence of PDCB addiction, it cannot be ruled out that its illicit use among young people is under-recognized. The number of cases of PDCB toxicity might also rise due to the increasing industrial and domestic use of this chemical. PMID:24790648

  19. Creation and evolution of net proton hyperpolarization arising from para-hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Reineri, Francesca; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Canet, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    When a hydrogenation reaction is carried out with gaseous hydrogen enriched in its para- isomer in the earth magnetic field (prior to adiabatic insertion of the sample in the NMR magnet), enhanced proton longitudinal order (represented by 2I(z)(A)I(z)(B)) is created but also difference of enhanced polarizations (I(z)(A)-I(z)(B)). In a first part, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that the longitudinal relaxation time of this polarization difference is roughly twice the ones of individual polarizations. The second part is devoted to a pulse sequence designed for transforming this difference into net hyperpolarization. The evolution of this global hyperpolarization is studied experimentally in a third part and it is observed that a fraction of hyperpolarization possesses an effective longitudinal relaxation time similar to the one of the initial polarization difference. Those experimental results are interpreted by numerical calculations based on Solomon-type equations including the longitudinal order and possibly dipolar-csa cross correlation rates. PMID:21402486

  20. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  1. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging. PMID:24784636

  2. A Neurostimulant para-Chloroamphetamine Inhibits the Arginylation Branch of the N-end Rule Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanxialei; Choi, Won Hoon; Lee, Jung Hoon; Han, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Chung, Young-Shin; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Min Jae

    2014-01-01

    In the arginylation branch of the N-end rule pathway, unacetylated N-terminal destabilizing residues function as essential determinants of protein degradation signals (N-degron). Here, we show that a neurostimulant, para-chloroamphetamine (PCA), specifically inhibits the Arg/N-end rule pathway, delaying the degradation of its artificial and physiological substrates, including regulators of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4), in vitro and in cultured cells. In silico computational analysis indicated that PCA strongly interacts with both UBR box and ClpS box, which bind to type 1 and type 2 N-degrons, respectively. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of PCA significantly stabilized endogenous RGS4 proteins in the whole mouse brain and, particularly, in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Consistent with the role of RGS4 in G protein signaling, treatment with PCA impaired the activations of GPCR downstream effectors in N2A cells, phenocopying ATE1-null mutants. In addition, levels of pathological C-terminal fragments of TDP43 bearing N-degrons (Arg208-TDP25) were significantly elevated in the presence of PCA. Thus, our study identifies PCA as a potential tool to understand and modulate various pathological processes regulated by the Arg/N-end rule pathway, including neurodegenerative processes in FTLD-U and ALS. PMID:25212999

  3. Quantification of para-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ik-Joon; Lee, Mu-Hyoung

    2006-07-01

    Henna (Lawsonia inermis, family Lythraceae) is a shrub cultivated in India, Sri Lanka and North Africa and contains the active dye lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). Henna dye is obtained from the dried leaves, which are powdered and mixed with oil or water and are used to prepare hair and body dyes. Temporary henna tattoos are readily available worldwide, last on the skin for several weeks and offer a self-limited, convenient alternative to a permanent tattoo. The addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD), which is widely recognised as a sensitizer, increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis from henna tattoo mixtures, and a number of cases have been reported. We examined 15 henna samples available in Korea for the presence of PPD and heavy metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, lead and mercury using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), mercury analyser and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. PPD, nickel and cobalt were detected in 3, 11 and 4 samples, respectively. PMID:16842550

  4. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A “hybridized redox-asymmetry” method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)–6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N•+) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 12+–62+ by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of −0.137 Å−1. DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results. PMID:26344929

  5. The Degree of Ergodicity of ortho- and para-Aminobenzonitrile in an Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Pittman, S M; Heller, E J

    2015-10-22

    We study the dynamics of the two molecules ortho-aminobenzonitrile (OABN) and para-aminobenzonitrile (PABN). They are structural isomers, with differing asymmetries and dipole moments. In this paper, we show that the dynamics of the system strongly depends on the region of phase space of the initial rotational state, the asymmetry of the molecule, and on the direction of the dipole. We also show that the ergodicity of the system varies gradually with energy, except where the rotational energy of the initial state is much less than the Stark interaction. In this regime, the projection of the dipole along the lab-frame z-axis varies linearly with increasing energy and follows the microcanonical ergodic estimate. Both molecules are far from full chaos for total angular momentum quanta J ? [0,45]. However, the initial rotational states in OABN access much more of the available phase space than in PABN. We show that this is a likely cause for the experimental discrepancies in molecular beam deflection experiments. PMID:26393275

  6. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  7. Uso de exámenes de detección como oportunidad para ayudar a fumadores a dejar el tabaco

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI ha publicado un anuncio de financiamiento para ayudar a estimular la investigación sobre métodos óptimos para dejar de fumar cigarrillos que se entreguen junto con los exámenes de detección.

  8. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an “all-out” strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times increased in the later stages of the race, demonstrating a positive pacing strategy. In the shorter women's 500-m TT, rank at the first split was more strongly correlated with final position than in the longer men's 1-km TT. In conclusion, a positive pacing strategy was adopted by the different para-cycling classes. PMID:26834643

  9. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rachel L

    2015-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an "all-out" strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times increased in the later stages of the race, demonstrating a positive pacing strategy. In the shorter women's 500-m TT, rank at the first split was more strongly correlated with final position than in the longer men's 1-km TT. In conclusion, a positive pacing strategy was adopted by the different para-cycling classes. PMID:26834643

  10. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  11. Adapting a Common Photographic Camera to Take Pictures of the Sky. (Spanish Title: Adaptando Una Camara Fotografica Comun Para Obtener Fotografias del Cielo.) Adaptando Uma Cmera Fotogrfica Manual Simples Para Fotografar o Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; Pereira, Ricardo Francisco

    2007-12-01

    In this paper will be introduced a method of astrophotography using a non-reflex photographic camera (a low-cost method). It will be revised some photographic processes commonly used nowadays for comparison with the aims of this paper. En este trabajo ser introducido un mtodo de astrofotografia que utiliza una cmara fotogrfica non-reflex (un mtodo de bajo costo). Sern revisados algunos procesos fotogrficos comnmente utilizados actualmente para comparacin con los objetivos de este trabajo. O presente artigo procura introduzir um mtodo de astrofotografia utilizando uma cmera fotogrfica no reflex, de baixo custo. feita uma reviso do processo fotogrfico comumente empregado para fins de comparao com os objetivos pretendidos no presente trabalho.

  12. Polymer electrophosphorescent devices utilizing a ladder-type poly(para-phenylene) host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. H.; Neher, D.; Scherf, U.; Bagnich, S. A.; Bässler, H.

    2003-04-01

    The properties of light-emitting diodes based on the electrophorescent platinum-porphyrin dye PtOEP blended into a ladder-type poly(para-phenylene) (LPPP) polymer host are presented. Due to the small difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of the guest and the host, the operating voltage of single layer devices is almost independent of the dopant concentration in clear contrast to what has been observed in the case of wide-band gap host polymers. However, the efficiency and the color purity of these single-layer devices is quite poor, which can be attributed to the weak trapping of carriers on the phosphorescent dye. Incorporating an electron-transporting/hole-blocking layer greatly increases the efficiency of the devices but at the same time emission from the host becomes more significant. Adding a hole-transporting/electron-blocking layer further increases the efficiency of the devices. Pure red emission is, however, only obtained if the HOMO of the hole-transporting layer is well above that of the LPPP host. This effect is interpreted in terms of a direct injection of holes from the hole-transporting layer into the HOMO level of the dopant. Further, prompt fluorescence and phosphorescence studies indicate that energy transfer from LPPP singlet excitons contributes to the emission from the dopant, but that the efficiency of singlet exciton transfer is too small to explain the almost complete absence of host emission in the electroluminescence spectra of single- and three-layer devices.

  13. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  14. Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

  15. Long-term health-enhancing physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis - the PARA 2010 study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer increased risk of disability andpremature mortality. Health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) could be one importantfactor to reduce this risk. Rising health care costs call for the development and evaluation ofnew modes of rehabilitation, including physical activity in settings outside the health caresystem. Methods/Design This cohort study targets 450 patients with RA that do not currently meet HEPA recommendations, recruited from six hospitals reporting to the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Registers (SRQ). We have developed a two-year real-life intervention program including a minimum of twice-weekly circuit training, moderately intense physical activity the remaining days of the week and group meetings to support behavior change every other week. Our hypothesis is that increased physical activity and exercise will improve perceived health, reduce pain and fatigue, increase muscle function and aerobic capacity, impact psychosocial factors and prevent future cardiovascular events. Research questions regard outcomes, retention rates, doseresponse matters and the exploration of responder characteristics. This protocol outlines recruitment procedure, design, assessment methods and the intervention program of the study. Discussion The PARA 2010 project is designed to expand the knowledge on HEPA in RA by a progressive approach regarding population, setting, intervention, time frames and outcome measures. To our knowledge this is the first long-term HEPA program based on Social Cognitive Theory, and performed in a real life environment to demonstrate if this new setting can promote increased and maintained physical activity in people with RA. Trial registration number ISRCTN25539102 PMID:22656861

  16. A review of inhalation toxicology studies with para-aramid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B

    1995-10-01

    The paper summarizes the results of inhalation toxicology studies associated with para-aramid (p-aramid) fibrils. The review is subdivided into two categories: the results of inhalation toxicity studies and mechanistic inhalation studies. Keratin-associated lesions were observed in the lungs of female rats following chronic exposure to high concentrations of p-aramid. These lesions were originally interpreted as cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (CKSCC). In recent years, this keratinizing lesion has been observed in the lungs of rats with greater regularity in numerous chronic inhalation studies following exposures to a variety of dusts. In an attempt to reach a consensus on an appropriate diagnosis for this lesion, an international panel of pathologists was convened to evaluate the morphological aspects of this lesion. The panel considered that the most appropriate diagnosis for this lesion was 'proliferative keratin cyst' (PKC), the biological potential of the PKC remains controversial, but it appears to be unique to the rat species and has little relevance for humans. Mechanistic studies with p-aramid have demonstrated that acute inhalation of high concentrations of fibrils produces a potent but transient pulmonary inflammatory and cell labelling response. The inhaled fibrils have low durability in the lungs of rats as evidenced by a progressive decrease in median fibre lengths with increasing residence time in the lung. In contrast, in a comparative study, size-separated chrysotile asbestos produced a sustained increase over controls in cellular proliferation responses of terminal airways, parenchyma, subpleural and mesothelial regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8526399

  17. Liquid chromatographic determination of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fillet tissues from three species of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schmidt, L.J.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chloramine-T (N-sodium-N-chloro-p-toluene-sulfonamide) is a candidate therapeutic drug for treating bacterial gill disease, a predominant disease of a variety of fish species. Research has been initiated to obtain the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T on a variety of fish species. An attribute of a therapeutic aquaculture drug that must be characterized before the FDA approves its use is depletion of the drug's marker residue (the drug's parent compound or metabolite of highest concentration in an edible tissue). Para-Toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) is the primary degradation product and marker residue for chloramine-T in rainbow trout. To conduct residue depletion studies for chloramine-T in fish, a robust analytical method sensitive and specific for p-TSA residues in edible fillet tissue from a variety of fish was required. Homogenized fillet tissues from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were fortified at nominal p-TSA concentrations of 17, 67, 200, 333, and 1000 ng/g. Samples were analyzed by isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection at 226 nm. Mean recoveries of p-TSA ranged from 77 to 93.17%; relative standard deviations ranged from 1.5 to 14%; method quantitation limits ranged from 13 to 18 ng/g; and method detection limits ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 ng/g. The LC parameters produced p-TSA peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds and excluded chromatographic interference from at least 20 chemicals and drugs of potential use in aquaculture.

  18. A structural and spectroscopic study on para-aminohippuric acid with experimental and theoretical approaches.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Cinar, Zeliha; Cinar, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the molecular conformation, vibrational and electronic analysis of para-aminohippuric acid (pAHA, C(9)H(10)N(2)O(3)) were presented for the ground state using experimental techniques (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the regions of 400-4000cm(-1) and 50-4000cm(-1), respectively. The UV absorption spectra of the compound that dissolved in ethanol and water solution were recorded in the range of 190-400nm. Potential energy curve was computed by means of scanning NCCO torsion angle. The geometry optimization and the energies associated possible four conformers (C1-C4) were computed. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of pAHA as the C1 form. Optimized structure of compound was interpreted and compared with the earlier reported experimental values. The complete assignments of fundamental vibrations were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. A study on the electronic properties, such as frontier molecular energies, absorption wavelengths and oscillator strengths, were predicted by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach, while taking solvent effects into account. To investigate non-linear optical properties: polarizability, anisotropy of polarizability and molecular first hyperpolarizability of molecule were computed. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated. PMID:22036005

  19. Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) Synthase Enhances Thermotolerance of Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang

    2014-01-01

    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushrooms innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins. PMID:24614118

  20. Chelation Therapy of Manganese Intoxication with para-Aminosalicylic Acid (PAS) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Yanshu; Jiang, Wendy; Wang, Xueqian; Cowan, Dallas M.

    2008-01-01

    Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), an FDA-approved anti-tuberculosis drug, has been used successfully in the treatment of severe manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism in humans (Jiang et al., JOEM 48:644, 2006). This study was conducted to explore the capability of PAS in reducing Mn concentrations in body fluids and tissues of Mn-exposed animals. Sprague-Dawley rats received daily intraperitoneally (i.p.) injections of 6 mg Mn/kg, 5 d/wk for 4 wks, followed by a daily subcutaneously (sc.) dose of PAS (100 and 200 mg/kg as the PAS-L and PAS-H group, respectively) for another 2, 3 or 6 wks. Mn exposure significantly increased the concentrations of Mn in plasma, red blood cells (RBC), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain and soft tissues. Following PAS-H treatment for 3 wks, Mn levels in liver, heart, spleen and pancreas were significantly reduced by 25 to 33%, while 3 wks of PAS-L treatment did not show any effect. Further therapy with PAS-H for 6 wk reduced Mn levels in striatum, thalamus, choroid plexus, hippocampus and frontal cortex by 16 to 29% (p<0.05). Mn exposure greatly increased iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) concentrations in CSF, brain and liver. Treatment with PAS-H restored Fe and Cu levels comparable with control. These data suggest that PAS likely acts as a chelating agent to mobilize and remove tissue Mn. A high-dose and prolonged PAS treatment appears necessary for its therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:19150464

  1. Low concentrations of Bisphenol A and para-Nonylphenol affect extravillous pathway of human trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Spagnoletti, Antonella; Paulesu, Luana; Mannelli, Chiara; Ermini, Leonardo; Romagnoli, Roberta; Cintorino, Marcella; Ietta, Francesca

    2015-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and para-Nonylphenol (p-NP) are chemicals of industrial origin which may influence human reproductive health. The effects of these substances in the prenatal life is an important topic that is receiving greater attention in the developed countries. In this study, human trophoblast cells HTR-8/SVneo were exposed to BPA and p-NP (1??10(-15), 1??10(-13), 1??10(-11), 1??10(-9) and 1??10(-7)?M) and incubated for 24, 48 and/or 72?h then, examined for the main physiological processes which characterize the extravillous trophoblast. Cell proliferation showed no changes while the processes of cell migration and invasion were both reduced by BPA and p-NP. For each chemical, the activity was higher at lower concentrations with a maximum activity between 1??10(-13) and 1??10(-11)?M (p?

  2. Excretion of para-aminohippurate in the isolated perfused rat kidney: net secretion and net reabsorption.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, M L; Wiegmann, T B

    1988-01-01

    1. The excretion of para-aminohippurate (PAH) in the isolated perfused rat kidney was examined over a wide range of perfusate PAH concentrations (15 microM to 6 mM). PAH excretion increased steadily over the range of perfusate concentrations, reaching a maximal excretion rate of 3.28 mumol/min at a free-PAH concentration of 6 mM. 2. Tubular transport of PAH was evaluated from the difference between ultrafiltered PAH and excreted PAH. Net PAH secretion was observed at low perfusate free PAH concentrations. Net PAH transport was zero at a perfusate free PAH concentration of 2.1 mM. Above this level there was progressive net reabsorption. 3. Probenecid (2.5 mM) decreased PAH secretion to 18% of the initial value at 129 microM-free PAH (P less than 0.05). Probenecid had no effect on net reabsorption of PAH at high perfusate levels of the anion. 4. Alanine (5 mM) decreased net PAH secretion by 50% at low free PAH concentrations (P less than 0.05) and decreased net PAH reabsorption by 50% at at a free PAH concentration of 6 mM (P less than 0.05). These effects could not be related to effects of PAH, probenecid or alanine on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), vascular resistance or electrolyte excretion. 5. The results confirm the existence and integrity of the proximal tubular organic anion secretory system in the isolated kidney. In addition, net PAH reabsorption occurs at high perfusate levels. PMID:3411514

  3. The transverse compression of poly(para-phenyleneterephthalamide) and other, highly oriented fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singletary, James Neal

    The transverse compression of poly (para-phenyleneterephthalamide) (PPTA) and other, highly-oriented fibers is characterized by mechanical testing and microscopic observation. A review of the literature on the transverse mechanical response of highly-oriented fibers is presented, with special attention to PPTA fibers. Experimental methods to directly measure transverse elastic and failure constants are reviewed. Analyses of these tests are rederived, and their predictions for PPTA compared. Other methods for characterizing the transverse mechanical response of highly-oriented fibers are discussed. Investigations of the structure of PPTA fibers are reviewed, with emphasis placed on what observations affect the transverse mechanical response. The literature supports two possible paradigms for the transverse compressive failure of PPTA fibers: microscopically homogeneous, plastic deformation, and fibrillation, a process of dense microcracking, with cracks predominantly parallel to the fiber axis. Experimental characterization is presented from the single fiber transverse compression test, using a novel test device. The effects of fiber diameter, processing continuous filaments into staple yarns, testing fibers at various aspect ratios, heat treatment, skin thickness, and the orientation of hydrogen bonding are investigated. Test results are simulated by finite element modeling. Hypothesis about the failure process of PPTA fibers in transverse compression are supported by reflected light, confocal and interference microscopy. This thesis concludes that PPTA fibers fail in transverse compression by fibrillation, in which the fiber cracks into several smaller fibrils, which move past each other to allow the fiber to comply with increasing transverse load. During fibrillation, a significant amount of work is I absorbed. The influence of several of the above parameters on the tendency to fibrillate is discussed.

  4. The total neutron cross-section of an ortho-para mixture of gaseous hydrogen at 75K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, G.; Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    2004-07-01

    From the data of a transmission experiment we have extracted the total neutron cross-section of a sample of gaseous hydrogen (T=75.03K, p=84.8bar, n=8.42nm-3) with a thermodynamic equilibrium ortho-para content (48% ortho, 52% para). The experiment was carried out on the PEARL instrument operating at the ISIS pulsed neutron source. After an accurate data reduction, the neutron spectra have been analyzed in the framework of the Modified Young and Koppel (MYK) theory, which is a successful extension to interacting fluids of the original Young and Koppel model valid for a dilute gas of hydrogen molecules. The total cross-section calculated with MYK theory, whose unique unknown parameter-the mean kinetic energy of the molecular centre of mass-was obtained through an independent path integral Monte Carlo simulation, shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Trends in electron-ion dissociative recombination of benzene analogs with functional group substitutions: Negative Hammett σpara values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, David; Lawson, Patrick Andrew; Adams, Nigel; Dotan, Itzhak

    2014-06-01

    An in-depth study of the effects of functional group substitution on benzene's electron-ion dissociative recombination (e-IDR) rate constant has been conducted. The e-IDR rate constants for benzene, biphenyl, toluene, ethylbenzene, anisole, phenol, and aniline have been measured using a Flowing Afterglow equipped with an electrostatic Langmuir probe (FALP). These measurements have been made over a series of temperatures from 300 to 550 K. A relationship between the Hammett σpara values for each compound and rate constant has indicated a trend in the e-IDR rate constants and possibly in their temperature dependence data. The Hammett σpara value is a method to describe the effect a functional group substituted to a benzene ring has upon the reaction rate constant.

  6. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of para-substituted benzoic acids chemisorbed to aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kreil, Justin; Ellingsworth, Edward; Szulczewski, Greg

    2013-11-15

    A series of para-substituted, halogenated (F, Cl, Br, and I) benzoic acid monolayers were prepared on the native oxide of aluminum surfaces by solution self-assembly and spin-coating techniques. The monolayers were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angles. Several general trends are apparent. First, the polarity of the solvent is critical to monolayer formation. Protic polar solvents produced low coverage monolayers; in contrast, nonpolar solvents produced higher coverage monolayers. Second, solution deposition yields a higher surface coverage than spin coating. Third, the thickness of the monolayers determined from XPS suggests the plane of the aromatic ring is perpendicular to the surface with the carboxylate functional group most likely binding in a bidentate chelating geometry. Fourth, the saturation coverage (?2.7 10{sup 14} molecules cm{sup ?2}) is independent of the para-substituent.

  7. Electronic and chelation effects on the unusual C2-methylation of N-(para-substituted)phenylaziridines with lithium organocuprates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongtaek; Yoo, Eunjung; Chang, Sukbok; Lee, Yoon Sup

    2011-07-15

    Density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP functional were performed for the title ring-opening reaction to understand the intrinsic activating and directing effects of the N-substituents, as well as the electron donating effect of the para-substituted (Y = Cl, H, Me) phenyl group at the more hindered benzylic C2 atom. The N-tosyl group (i.e., N-Tos) or the N-(2-pyridyl)sulfonyl group (i.e., N-Py) was introduced to activate the ring nitrogen atom (N1) and the para-substituted (Y = Cl, H, Me) phenyl group for the activation of the C2 atom. Conformational searches and geometry optimizations were performed for the N-(para-substituted)phenylaziridines (1?6). Calculations indicate that the aziridine 6 (i.e., Py/Me) has the most elongated C2-N1 bond intrinsically due to the electronic activating effects, implying the aziridine 6 to be the most potent candidate for the more-hindered C2 opening. Transition states (TSs) were investigated for the prospective ring-opening paths (I?IV), considering the types of intermolecular push-pull interactions between the N-activated phenylaziridines and the cuprate. The N-Py group provides an unique C2-favored TS along the path IV, which the N-Tos group cannot afford, due to the less charge transfer from the nucleophilic CH?3?- of the cuprate into the electrophilic C2 atom. Furthermore, the e-donating effect of the para-substituents (Y = Cl, H, Me) enhances the C2 opening for the path IV. This study enables us to understand the unusual ring-opening phenomena in terms of electronic and directing effects and hence may serve as a tool to design substrates for highly regioselective ring openings. PMID:21455961

  8. Significado de los cambios en el cuello uterino: Guía para la salud de la mujer

    Cancer.gov

    Explica qué es la infección por el VPH; los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, entre ellos la prueba de Pap, la prueba del VPH y la prueba conjunta de Pap y del VPH; las pautas para los exámenes de detección; los posibles resultados de la

  9. Luminescent properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with para- and ortho-ethoxybenzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyushkin, V. T.; Mutuzova, M. Kh.; Shamsutdinova, M. Kh.

    2016-02-01

    The luminescent properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with para- and ortho-ethoxybenzoic acids are studied. The excitation energies of the triplet states of ligands are determined, a hypothesis is made about the efficient luminescence of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes, the geometry of the coordination polyhedron of a europium complex is established, and the luminescence quantum yields of the complexes in solution are determined.

  10. The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Sandhya; MacDonald, Shannon; Roth, Jennifer; Caunt, Maresa; Akalu, Abebe; Morais, Danielle; Buckley, Michael T.; Liebes, Leonard; Formenti, Silvia C.; Brooks, Peter C. . E-mail: peter.brooks@med.nyu.edu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21{sup CIP1} and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21{sup CIP1}. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest.

  11. Astronoma para ciegos y amblopes. Proyecto de construccin de un planetario especial en la ciudad de Mar del Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musso, S.

    ?`Qu es la Astronoma para Ciegos?. El trabajo es una adaptacin en base a la escala de magnitudes de Hipparco que cambia el concepto de luz por una adaptacin sonora, donde las estrellas de magnitud 6 se escuchan en 10 dB, ms o menos lo que consideramos el umbral de la audicin humana. Quienes no escuchan muy bien no pueden escuchar las magnitudes 6, de la misma manera que muchos de nosotros, que no poseemos una visin perfecta, no podemos observar esas mismas estrellas en el cielo (ms all de la polucin). A los astros de magnitud 5 vamos a relacionarlos a un sonido en 20 dB. Y as sucesivamente. Tambin los colores estarn representados en una convencin de graves a agudos y lo mismo algunas caractersticas del cielo. Por ejemplo, la Va Lctea se mostrar como un ``ruido", como bien nos lo hicieron ver nuestros futuros destinatarios. En Mar del Plata nos encontramos ya trabajando en un proyecto que tiene como objetivo final la construccin del Primer Planetario Acstico del Mundo, una herramienta para la enseanza de la astronoma, un espacio para la lucha contra la discriminacin del discapacitado y una posibilidad de ``ver el cielo de un modo diferente".

  12. Transoral, retromolar, para-tonsillar approach to the styloid process in 6 patients with Eagles syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Alexander W.; Scheller, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Eagles syndrome is caused by an elongated or mineralised styloid process and characterised by facial and pharyngeal pain, odynophagia and dysphagia. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings. However radiologic imaging, like panoramic radiograph, helps to confirm the diagnosis. There are different treatments of the Eagles syndrome. Anti-inflammatory medication (carbamazepime, corticosteroids) and/or surgical interventions are established. The aim of the different surgical techniques is to resect the elongated styloid process near the skull base. Study Design: A transoral, retromolar, para-tonsillar approach was performed to expose and resect the elongated calcified styloid process in a consecutive series of six patients. The use of different angled ring curettes, generally used in hypophysis surgery, facilitated the preparation of the styloid process through the surrounding tissue to the skull base, without a compromise to the surrounding tissue. Clinical examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively (3 month and after 1 year after surgery) in all patients. Results: No intra- or postoperative complications were observed. The hypophysis ring curettes facilitated the preparation of the styloid process to the skull base. Conclusions: The transoral, retromolar, para-tonsillar approach is a secure and fast method to resect an elongated symptomatic styloid process. Side effects of the classical transoral trans-tonsillar approach did not occur. Key words:Retromolar, para-tonsillar approach, Eagle syndrome, clinical features. PMID:24121903

  13. Comparison of photoinduced reorientation of ortho-, meta-, and para-methyl red-doped nematic liquid crystals on rubbed polyimide.

    PubMed

    Statman, David; Statman, Ariel T; Wozniak, Kaitlin; Brennan, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We compare the photoinduced reorientation of the easy axis on rubbed polyimide surfaces for the nematic E7 doped with three isomers of methyl red; ortho, meta, and para. Using optical techniques, the angle and the pitch of the director at the polymer surface were measured before, during, and after photoexcitation of the dye. Optical absorbances were also measured before and after photoexcitation. Extrapolation lengths, hence anchoring energies, were determined with the on/off application of a magnetic field for meta- and para-methyl red-doped nematics. Because of an elastic reorientation of the easy axis in the presence of the magnetic field, we could not determine the extrapolation length of the ortho-methyl red-doped nematic. Our results confirm that photoinduced reorientation is facilitated by desorption of all dyes from the polymer surface. While there is little evidence of weak photoinduced adsorption of meta- and para-methyl red to the surface during photoexcitation, there is strong evidence of photoinduced adsorption of ortho-methyl red, which is long lasting. PMID:26382419

  14. Comparison of photoinduced reorientation of ortho-, meta-, and para-methyl red-doped nematic liquid crystals on rubbed polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, David; Statman, Ariel T.; Wozniak, Kaitlin; Brennan, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We compare the photoinduced reorientation of the easy axis on rubbed polyimide surfaces for the nematic E7 doped with three isomers of methyl red; ortho, meta, and para. Using optical techniques, the angle and the pitch of the director at the polymer surface were measured before, during, and after photoexcitation of the dye. Optical absorbances were also measured before and after photoexcitation. Extrapolation lengths, hence anchoring energies, were determined with the on/off application of a magnetic field for meta- and para-methyl red-doped nematics. Because of an elastic reorientation of the easy axis in the presence of the magnetic field, we could not determine the extrapolation length of the ortho-methyl red-doped nematic. Our results confirm that photoinduced reorientation is facilitated by desorption of all dyes from the polymer surface. While there is little evidence of weak photoinduced adsorption of meta- and para-methyl red to the surface during photoexcitation, there is strong evidence of photoinduced adsorption of ortho-methyl red, which is long lasting.

  15. Antibacterial activity of sulfamethoxazole transformation products (TPs): general relevance for sulfonamide TPs modified at the para position.

    PubMed

    Majewsky, Marius; Wagner, Danny; Delay, Markus; Bräse, Stefan; Yargeau, Viviane; Horn, Harald

    2014-10-20

    Sulfonamide antibiotics undergo transformation in the aquatic environment through biodegradation, photolysis, or hydrolysis. In this study, the residual antibacterial activity of 11 transformation products (TPs) of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated with regard to their in vitro growth and luminescence inhibition on Vibrio fischeri (30 min and 24 h exposure). Two transformation products, 4-hydroxy-SMX and N(4)-hydroxy-acetyl-SMX, were synthesized in-house and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results of individual compound experiments showed that TPs modified at the para amino group still exhibit clear antibacterial effects, whereas TPs resulting from breakdown of the SMX structure lost this mechanism of action. 4-NO2- and 4-OH-SMX were found to inhibit growth to a clearly greater extent than the parent compound, SMX. In contrast, the N(4)-acetyl- and N(4)-hydroxy-acetyl-derivatives retain less than 10 and 5% of the effect of SMX on growth and luminescence inhibition, respectively. The effect of a mixture of para-modified TPs was observed to be additive. Considering the homologous series of sulfa drugs widely prescribed and their common mechanism of action, the potential environmental impact must consider the total amount of sulfonamide antibiotics and their derivative TPs, which might end up in a water body. Extrapolating the results obtained here for the para TPs of SMX to other sulfa drugs and determining the persistence and occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment is required for improved risk assessment. PMID:25211553

  16. Yeast Coq9 controls deamination of coenzyme Q intermediates that derive from para-aminobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    He, Cuiwen H; Black, Dylan S; Nguyen, Theresa P T; Wang, Charles; Srinivasan, Chandra; Clarke, Catherine F

    2015-09-01

    Coq9 is a polypeptide subunit in a mitochondrial multi-subunit complex, termed the CoQ-synthome, required for biosynthesis of coenzyme Q (ubiquinone or Q). Deletion of COQ9 results in dissociation of the CoQ-synthome, but over-expression of Coq8 putative kinase stabilizes the CoQ-synthome in the coq9 null mutant and leads to the accumulation of two nitrogen-containing Q intermediates, imino-demethoxy-Q6 (IDMQ6) and 3-hexaprenyl-4-aminophenol (4-AP) when para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) is provided as a ring precursor. To investigate whether Coq9 is responsible for deamination steps in Q biosynthesis, we utilized the yeast coq5-5 point mutant. The yeast coq5-5 point mutant is defective in the C-methyltransferase step of Q biosynthesis but retains normal steady-state levels of the Coq5 polypeptide. Here, we show that when high amounts of 13C6-pABA are provided, the coq5-5 mutant accumulates both 13C6-imino-demethyl-demethoxy-Q6 (13C6-IDDMQ6) and 13C6-demethyl-demethoxy-Q6 (13C6-DDMQ6). Deletion of COQ9 in the yeast coq5-5 mutant along with Coq8 over-expression and 13C6- pABA labeling leads to the absence of 13C6-DDMQ6, and the nitrogen-containing intermediates 13C6-4-AP and 13C6-IDDMQ6 persist. We describe a coq9 temperature-sensitive mutant and show that at the non-permissive temperature, steady-state polypeptide levels of Coq9-ts19 increased, while Coq4, Coq5, Coq6, and Coq7 decreased. The coq9-ts19 mutant had decreased Q6 content and increased levels of nitrogen-containing intermediates. These findings identify Coq9 as a multi-functional protein that is required for the function of Coq6 and Coq7 hydroxylases, for removal of the nitrogen substituent from pABA-derived Q intermediates, and is an essential component of the CoQ synthome. PMID:26008578

  17. Deposition, clearance, and shortening of Kevlar para-aramid fibrils in acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D P; Merriman, E A; Kennedy, G L; Lee, K P

    1993-10-01

    The deposition and clearance of lung-deposited Kevlar para-aramid fibrils (subfibers) have been investigated as part of a subchronic and chronic inhalation toxicity testing program. Fibrils recovered from lung tissue in para-aramid-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats were microscopically counted and measured after exposures to airborne fibrils which were about 12 microns median length (ML) and < 0.3 micron median diameter. In each of three studies lung-recovered fibrils were progressively shorter with increasing residence time in the lungs. Twenty-eight days after a single 6-hr exposure at 400 respirable fibrils per cubic centimeter (f/cm3) the ML of recovered fibrils decreased to about 5 microns. Twenty-four months after a 3-week exposure to 25 or 400 f/cm3, fibrils reached about 2 microns ML. After 2 years of continuous exposure at 2.5, 25, or 100 f/cm3 or 1 year exposure plus 1 year recovery at 400 f/cm3, fibril ML approached 4 microns. In the 2-year study, the lung-fiber accumulation rate/exposure concentration was similar for the three highest concentrations and was about 3 x greater than that seen at 2.5 f/cm3, indicating that concentrations of about 25 f/cm3 or more may overwhelm clearance mechanisms. Time required for fibrils to be reduced to < 5 microns in the lung was markedly less at lower exposure concentration and shorter exposure time. The primary shortening mechanism is proposed to be long fibril cutting by enzymatic attack at fibril defects. However, length-selective fibril deposition and clearance may contribute to shortening in the first few days after exposure. The enzymatic cutting hypothesis is supported by measured increases in numbers of short fibers following cessation of exposures, continued shortening of the fibril length distribution up to 2 years following exposure, and in vitro fibril shortening after 3 months in a proteolytic enzyme preparation. The conclusion is that para-aramid fibrils are less durable in the lungs of rats than expected from the known chemical resistance of commercial yarn. These data suggest that at the low para-aramid fibril exposures found in the workplace, this fibril-shortening mechanism may limit the residence time of long fibers in the lungs of exposed workers. In addition, associated cascade impactor aerodynamic measurements indicate that due to their ribbon shape and curly nature, para-aramid fibrils behave aerodynamically larger than straight fibers. PMID:8258388

  18. Challenges in preparing, preserving and detecting para-water in bulk: overcoming proton exchange and other hurdles.

    PubMed

    Mammoli, Daniele; Salvi, Nicola; Milani, Jonas; Buratto, Roberto; Bornet, Aurlien; Sehgal, Akansha Ashvani; Canet, Estel; Pelupessy, Philippe; Carnevale, Diego; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2015-10-28

    Para-water is an analogue of para-hydrogen, where the two proton spins are in a quantum state that is antisymmetric under permutation, also known as singlet state. The populations of the nuclear spin states in para-water are believed to have long lifetimes just like other Long-Lived States (LLSs). This hypothesis can be verified by measuring the relaxation of an excess or a deficiency of para-water, also known as a "Triplet-Singlet Imbalance" (TSI), i.e., a difference between the average population of the three triplet states T (that are symmetric under permutation) and the population of the singlet state S. In analogy with our recent findings on ethanol and fumarate, we propose to adapt the procedure for Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (D-DNP) to prepare such a TSI in frozen water at very low temperatures in the vicinity of 1.2 K. After rapid heating and dissolution using an aprotic solvent, the TSI should be largely preserved. To assess this hypothesis, we studied the lifetime of water as a molecular entity when diluted in various solvents. In neat liquid H2O, proton exchange rates have been characterized by spin-echo experiments on oxygen-17 in natural abundance, with and without proton decoupling. One-dimensional exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) has been used to study proton exchange rates in H2O, HDO and D2O mixtures diluted in various aprotic solvents. In the case of 50 mM H2O in dioxane-d8, the proton exchange lifetime is about 20 s. After dissolving, one can observe this TSI by monitoring intensities in oxygen-17 spectra of H2O (if necessary using isotopically enriched samples) where the AX2 system comprising a "spy" oxygen A and two protons X2 gives rise to binomial multiplets only if the TSI vanishes. Alternatively, fast chemical addition to a suitable substrate (such as an activated aldehyde or ketone) can provide AX2 systems where a carbon-13 acts as a spy nucleus. Proton signals that relax to equilibrium with two distinct time constants can be considered as a hallmark of a TSI. We optimized several experimental procedures designed to preserve and reveal dilute para-water in bulk. PMID:26399171

  19. Energy Savers: Tips for Saving Energy and Money at Home; El Ahorro de Energa: Sugerencias para ahorrar energa y dinero en el hogar

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy of the United States of America works to guarantee provisions of safe energy, reliable and economically accessible to support to one developing economy and to protect the atmosphere. These suggestions and ideas to increase the energy efficiency in their house represent simple ways in which our citizens can contribute to preserve the atmosphere at world-wide level, to reduce the level of contamination of the air and to reserve our natural resources for future generations. [Spanish] El Departamento de Energa de los Estados Unidos de America trabaja para garantizar suministros de energa seguros, confiables y econmicamente accesibles para apoyar a una economa en desarrollo y proteger el medio ambiente. Estas sugerencias e ideas para aumentar la eficiencia energetica en su casa representan maneras sencillas en que nuestros ciudadanos pueden contribuir a preservar el medio ambiente a nivel mundial, a reducir el nivel de contaminacin del aire y a reservar nuestros recursos naturales para las generaciones futuras.

  20. [Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy and Subsequent Chemotherapy after Resection of the Primary Lesion for Poorly Differentiated Adenocarcinoma of the Sigmoid Colon - A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Kuribara, Tadao; Ichikawa, Tatsuo; Kaneko, Shiori; Osa, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Mamoru; Inoue, Takeshi; Asanuma, Kouzou; Sano, Takayuki; Kishimoto, Yutaka; Ishizu, Hideki; Iai, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The patient was a 68-year-old male who had bloody stools. A colonoscopy revealed a sigmoid colon stricture, and a histological examination confirmed the presence of a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.Computed tomography revealed the involvement of a para-aortic lymph nodes, without other metastatic lesions. The patient underwent a sigmoidectomy (with regional lymph node dissection) and a para-aortic lymph node biopsy to prove the histological conformation. Subsequently, he was provided with 6 courses of modified FOLFOX6(mFOLFOX6) chemotherapy, resulting in a marked decrease in para-aortic lymph node involvement. He subsequently underwent a para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The resected specimen was mostly composed of fibrous degenerative tissue; viable cancer cells were observed only in a 2-mm area. The patient was provided with 6 more courses of mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy, and has since been free of recurrence (for 6 years and 1 month after the second surgery). PMID:26602407